38 Matching Annotations
  1. Jul 2019
    1. How and why did ethnic and national identities acquire their particular meanings? They were forged, I argue, through the struggles between contending social groups over who had access to the land and to the rights of citizenship.

      Here is a thesis for the book, the argument of the author. That the social construction of race in America is best understood in the competition between marginalized groups, especially in the context of the united states 'Western Frontier' and settler colonialism, especially with the nascent white nationalists using legal structures and extra-legal violence to oppress and suppress non-whites.

    2. Introduction "This Land Belongs to Me"

      A simple title, but there is a lot to unpackage here! Just from skimming, I can tell this is a very dense read, and it will take a lot of work and time to analyse this from a feminist, militarist, economic, ethnic, racial, religious, linguistic, and legal perspective.

  2. May 2019
  3. Apr 2019
    1. Marx’s research for Capital included careful study of Justus von Liebig’s work on agricultural chemistry, which he described as “more important for this matter than all the economists put together.”

      Marx was reading Liebig and conceived a "matabolic rift" between capitalist society and nature.

    1. It hardly needs to be added that these new conditions also established the foundation for new and more effective forms of colonial expansion and imperialism, as well as new needs for such expansion, in search of new markets and resources.

      Again, connection between emerging capitalism and imperialism.

    2. This pattern signifies more than is apparent at first glance. It testifies, among other things, to the transformation of social property relations in the heartland of agrarian capitalism, the south and southeast, and the dispossession of small producers, a displaced and migrant population whose destination would typically be London. The growth of London also represents the growing unification not only of the English state but of a national market. That huge city was the hub of English commerce—not only as a major transit point for national and international trade but as a huge consumer of English products, not least its agricultural produce. The growth of London, in other words, in all kinds of ways stands for England’s emerging capitalism, its integrated market—increasingly, a single, unified, and competitive market; its productive agriculture; and its dispossessed population.

      We see this repeated in 18th c. Scotland, but with the dual poles of Edinburgh for finance and Glasgow for trade.

    3. And market dependence was a cause, not a result, of mass proletarianization.

      Strong claim

    4. Unimproved land, land not rendered productive and profitable (such as the lands of indigenous peoples in the Americas), is “waste,” and it is the right, even the duty, of improvers to appropriate it.

      Again the tie in with colonialism / imperialism

    5. the productive and profitable utilization of property, its improvement.

      This also ties into the Georgic ethic. The good landlord is he who has his feet in the soil and is improving it.

    6. New conceptions of property were also being theorized more systematically, most famously in John Locke’s Second Treatise of Government. Chapter 5 of that work is the classic statement of a theory of property based on the principles of improvement.

      This ties into both Malthus and Kames.

    7. It meant, even more fundamentally, new forms and conceptions of property. “Improved” farming, for the enterprising landlord and his prosperous capitalist tenant, ideally required enlarged and concentrated landholdings. It also—and perhaps even more—demanded the elimination of old customs and practices that interfered with the most productive use of land.

      changes in tenancy

    8. Improvement was also a major preoccupation of the Royal Society, which brought together some of England’s most prominent scientists (Isaac Newton and Robert Boyle were both members of the Society) with some of the more forward-looking members of England’s ruling classes—like the philosopher John Locke and his mentor, the first Earl of Shaftesbury, both of whom were keenly interested in agricultural improvement.

      Science and agricultural improvement

    9. so that, for example, some radical thinkers in the nineteenth century might embrace “improvement” in the sense of scientific farming, without its connotation of commercial profit

      I wouldn't be so sure about this separation of science from profit motive.

    10. The word “improve” itself, in its original meaning, did not mean just “making better” in a general sense but literally (based on the old French for “into,” en, and “profit,” pros, or its oblique case, preu) doing something for monetary profit, and especially cultivating land for profit. By the seventeenth century, the word “improver” was firmly fixed in the language to refer to someone who rendered land productive and profitable, especially by enclosing or reclaiming waste. Agricultural “improvement” was by then a well established practice, and in the eighteenth century, in the golden age of agrarian capitalism, “improvement,” in word and deed, came truly into its own.

      Improving for profit

    11. The result was an agrarian sector more productive than any other in history. Landlords and tenants alike became preoccupied with what they called “improvement,” the enhancement of the land’s productivity for profit.

      Again, Scots in the 18th. century were explicitly adopting this language.

    12. This pattern would be reproduced in the colonies, and indeed in post-Independence America, where the independent small farmers who were supposed to be the backbone of a free republic faced, from the beginning, the stark choice of agrarian capitalism: at best, intense self-exploitation, and at worst, dispossession and displacement by larger, more productive enterprises.

      This goes to the question of the relationship between the rise of agrarian capitalism and imperialism.

    13. To meet economic rents in a situation where other potential tenants were competing for the same leases, tenants were compelled to produce cost-effectively, on penalty of dispossession.

      For 18th c. Scots, rather than simply being a member of the same clan and being able to rely on those bonds, tenants now had to be outbid even the members of other clans in order to maintain their access to the land.

    14. The effect of the system of property relations was that many agricultural producers (including prosperous “yeomen”) were market-dependent, not just in the sense that they were obliged to sell produce on the market but in the more fundamental sense that their access to land itself, to the means of production, was mediated by the market.
    15. Landlords had a strong incentive, then, to encourage—and, wherever possible, to compel—their tenants to find ways of increasing their output. In this respect, they were fundamentally different from rentier aristocrats who throughout history have depended for their wealth on squeezing surpluses out of peasants by means of simple coercion, enhancing their powers of surplus extraction not by increasing the productivity of the direct producers but rather by improving their own coercive powers—military, judicial, and political.

      I think we see the same thing in 18th c. Scotland. Landlords are trying to encourage their tenants to maximize yields in order to justify increasing rents. The landlords look to chemists and agriculturalists to help in this effort.

  4. Dec 2018
  5. Aug 2018
    1. The business and industrial-focused city will span 10,230 square miles. To put that size in perspective, 10,230 square miles is more than 33 times the land area of New York City.
  6. Jul 2018
    1. (If the map were to be a valid academic resource, he adds, it would also need a time slider to specify different time periods, separate existing and historical nations, and highlight the movement of nations across time. That would be a huge logistical challenge, Temprano says, requiring time, sources, and resources not currently available to him.)

      sounds like a digital humanities project

  7. Feb 2018
    1. Unlike The Waste Land, Moulin Rouge!’s allusions are only rarely critical; the closest it comes to social commentary is in the use of Nirvana’s dark hymn to the ennui of consumerism, ‘Smells Like Teen Spirit,’ as the Moulin Rouge’s rich male customers enter the club.

      What are the functions allusion besides layering? I think there is something important about the critical function that occurs in this use of allusion. Fitzgerald was a moralist describing the evils of capitalism and American society, so the use of Trimalchio as Gatsby is a critical allusion.

    2. lthough less obviously ‘difficult’ than The Waste Land, Moulin Rouge!makes effective use of the dense layering effect allusion allows.This complex layering is put into the service of a simple, melodramatic love story, rather than a meditation on the spiritual aridity of modern life. Moulin Rouge!’s innocent, sentimental celebration of love could, in fact, be read as Luhrmann’s response the kind of dislocation Eliot portrays in The Waste Land.

      I really find this argument fascinating. The "less obviously difficult" perspective as it relates to many works that have been in-part inspired by The Waste Land. I like the idea of nuanced allusion, you don't necessarily need to know all the allusion to understand the storyline. This manifests itself well in works with more plot-based writing. The novel or cinema might be better at achieving the "less obviously difficult" allusion because it has a strong narrative already. The allusion comes alongside of it, or in the case of Moulin Rouge, the allusions are a part of the pop culture the audience is already familiar with.

    3. Allusive works are also prey to allegations of plagiarism at worst, and lack of originality at best. Eliot commented that one justification for including the notes to The Waste Landwas to counter the accusations of plagiarism that had greeted his earlier, heavily allusive poems.45Such accusations show a basic misunderstanding of the nature ofallusion. Plagiarism, unlike allusion, seeks to be invisible and undiscovered, and furthermore, it does not attempt to create any tensions of meaning between the old and new usage of the plagiarized materials.

      William Carlos Williams criticism of The Waste Land-- "copyist tendencies," and "the traditions of plagiarism." from Spring and All. A common criticism.

    4. In this sense, allusion and other intertextual references ‘should be distinguished from the customary rhetorical situation in which texts are considered by artists and audience alike to be mimetic analogs or representations of real-life people, places, or things.’31By drawing attention to itself, intruding on the conventional narrative flow, systematically deployed allusion continually reminds audiences that they are dealing with an artificial construct.

      Naturalism and allusion don't coincide. The Great Gatsby may be an example of this missing reality-- a sort of artificial construct of Fitzgerald's imagination with dramatic, over-top descriptions of gatsby as Trimalchio in his mansion that looks like "the world's fair." https://www.enotes.com/homework-help/chapter-5-begins-with-nick-observing-gatsys-house-436789

    5. For allusion to operate at all, the author and the reader must have a shared pool ofpoetic memory on which to draw,25and the author assumes a (possibly nonexistent) knowledgeable reader when engaging in allusion.26Conte goes so far as to suggest that the author ‘establishes the competence of his (or her) own Model Reader, that is, the author constructs the addressee and motivates the text in order to do so,’27

      what if there is not a Model Reader? Can the audience not be aware of the allusion? In that case, the new works have to create new meanings. In connecting The Waste Land to modern audiences, are there ways to "establish competency" in a visual scene that the page would not be able to do?

  8. May 2017
    1. Labrador
      Newfoundland and Labrador is a province of Canada composed of the island of Newfoundland and Labrador to the northwest of Newfoundland. Newfoundland is the larger mainland sector of the province. It is the youngest province of the ten provinces making up the country of Canada. It joined the confederation in 1949. In 2001, its name was officially changed to Newfoundland and Labrador. Newfoundland was originally called “newfoundelande,” or New Found Land, by late 15th century explorers. The island of Newfoundland is separated from Labrador by the Strait of Belle Isle and from Novia Scotia by Cabot Strait. Due to its position as the most easterly land of North America, it has been important in defense, transportation, and communications. The economy, culture, and history of Newfoundland and Labrador has been shaped greatly by the fishing communities on the coastline which stretch along about 14,400 miles of the coast. The most plentiful mammals of Newfoundland are the moose, which were introduced to the area in the early 20th century. Labrador, however, has more caribou than moose. Other species that can be found in Newfoundland and Labrador are black bears, polar bears, arctic foxes, red foxes, beavers, lynx, harp seals, hooded seals, whales, and some small fur-bearing animals. The capital of Newfoundland and Labrador is St. John’s. The population in 2011 was approximately 514,536. The total area of Newfoundland and Labrador is 156,453 square miles, with Newfoundland being 42,031 square miles and Labrador being 113,641 square miles (Encyclopaedia Britannica, Inc. 2017). 
      

      References

      Encyclopaedia Britannica, Inc. . 2017. Newfoundland and Labrador. Accessed May 8, 2017. https://www.britannica.com/place/Newfoundland-and-Labrador.

    2. Yukon Territory

      The Yukon Territory is a small, western Canadian territory with a rich history, including records dating back to 10,000 years go. In the Yukon Territory, there are a variety of languages spoken including Vunut Gwitchin, Han, Tutchone, Northern Tutchone, Southern Tutchone, Upper Tanana, Kaska, Tagish, and Tlingit (Pinnacle Travel). Another small ethnic group that is French-speaking remains from those who migrated from the Gold Rush. In the late 1700s, the Yukon became a major trading area between Tlingit and other Yukon people (Government of Yukon). In 1852, Tlingit traders pushed the Hudson Bay Company out of the Yukon in 1852. In 1886, a trading post was established at the Stewart River and coarse gold was found at the Fortymile River and the Yukon Gold Rush began. In 1898, the Yukon Territory Act was passed to consider the Yukon as separate from the North-West Territories, with Dawson City as its capital. In 1972, Elijah Smith and some of the Yukon First Nations tribe went to Ottawa seeking land claims. The final agreement, The Umbrella Agreement, was signed in 1993 and was signed by the governments of Canada and Yukon and the Council of Yukon First Nations. The Yukon First Nations’ final land claim was complete in 1995. In 2003, the Devolution Transfer Agreement was passed, allowing the Yukon government more control over provincial programming and powers.

      References: "Government of Yukon." History - Government of Yukon- Government of Yukon. January 5, 2015. Accessed May 07, 2017. http://www.gov.yk.ca/aboutyukon/history.html.

      "Pinnacle Marketing Management Inc." Pinnacle Travel. Accessed May 07, 2017. https://www.pinnacle-travel.org/yukon-culture-history/.

  9. Mar 2017
    1. economic religion of our time
      When Berger refers to the "economic religion of our time" he is talking about the problem of consumption that we have. Most of the industrial revolution was driven on the back of the need for consumption. This incessant need for better and newer goods causes countless problems in today's world from  economic collapses to environmental destruction. It is this need for consumption and expansion that caused many of the issues in the Arctic. Oil and gas companies looking for new places to drill caused massive environmental destruction in the region. Not to say that the Inuit people do not enjoy the luxury of modern goods, but it has been seen, like in many indigenous people, that they do not have the same need for these items. In the Inuit culture they believe that living off the land and avoiding modern day luxuries is an important part of self-growth. They believe that "living off the land creates intelligent and moral persons. Individuals develop isuma (reason, capacity to think) through facing the elements of sea, snow, ice, and wind." This philosophy can be seen throughout many indigenous people all around the world. This Inuit in particular believe that excess consumption leads to people being soft and further removed from the historic Inuit culture. This is definitely a legitimate position for them because so many problems have been caused in their societies from the need for consumption of "white people".  The economic religion of our time is one with dramatic consequences and tremendous benefits as well. No one can deny that this need for consumption has driven our society to many great discoveries and inventions that have made life better. But it has definitely come at the cost of certain populations.  
      

      Edmund (Ned) Searles (2010): Placing Identity: Town, Land, and Authenticity in Nunavut, Canada, Acta Borealia, 27:2, 151-166

  10. Jan 2017
  11. Nov 2016
    1. Strictly speaking, this is true. No jurisdiction can be legally compelled to designate a Priority Development Area. The region’s 191 PDAs were all nominated by local jurisdictions. San Francisco’s PDAs were unanimously approved by the Board of Supervisors in 2007.

      And yet, earlier in this article, the process is criticized for being undemocratic. Which is it, dude?

  12. Sep 2016
  13. online.salempress.com.lacademy.idm.oclc.org online.salempress.com.lacademy.idm.oclc.org
    1. Land Area: 20,721 square kilometers (8,000 square miles)

      This is really small compared to the united states land area. The land area for the united states is 3.806 Million Square Miles

  14. Oct 2015
    1. a more insidious and cancerous progression took hold through municipal fiscal discipline, property speculation and the sorting of land-use according to the rate of return for its ‘highest and best use’.

      greed seems to be an apparent theme throughout the development of urbanized areas and "economic growth"... are we really improving if our economy is only getting "better" because we're borrowing the money to make it do that

  15. Aug 2015
  16. afghanag.ucdavis.edu afghanag.ucdavis.edu
    1. jerib

      A jerib or djerib is a unit of land measure. While some countries have standardized this to a hectare, in most countries this unit of measure varies locally. It can be a few acres or hundreds of meters square.