2,091 Matching Annotations
  1. Last 7 days
    1. Thus, although Atg40 was not found to be a UPR target, the UPR responded to the loss of ER-phagy.

      Lst1 and atg40 mutants have higher UPR response before and after DTT treatments, indicates that defeated in ER-phagy proteins will also induce the UPR.

    2. Lst1 interacts with Atg40, we performed binding studies with lysates prepared from untreated and rapamycin-treated cells expressing Atg40-3xFLAG. Atg40-3xFLAG from both lysates bound to purified, bacterially produced glutathione S-transferase (GST)–Lst1, but not to GST-Sec13, GST-Sec24 (Fig. 3A and fig. S10, A and C), or GST-Sec23 (fig. S10B)

      This experiment is an in vitro binding assay by purifying the GST fusion of target coat proteins of the COPII and incubated with Atg40 fusion protein with FLAG epitope tagged expressed in the yeast.

      Only GST-Lst1 purified protein is able to bind with the Atg40 but not other subunits of COP11 coat proteins.

    3. Selective autophagy receptors bind to the ubiquitin-like protein Atg8 at sites of autophagosome formation (9). Consistent with the proposal that Lst1 functions with Atg40 to target ER domains for degradation, rapamycin induced Atg8-Lst1 colocalization in wild-type (WT) but not atg40Δ cells

      Atg8 protein is a marker protein to observe autophagosome formation. When Atg8 protein engineered with the red florescence protein (RFP), RFP-Atg8, RFP-Atg8 protein will be conjugated to the lipids and enable the membrane fusion to form the autophagosome.

      Atg8 also plays an important role in cargo recognition for selective autophagy by interacting with the receptor protein. When Atg40 is mutant, Lst1 is failed to interact and colocalize with Atg40, indicating that Lst1 is acting together with Atg40 to form autophagosome. And Sec23 is partially required with Atg40 to form autophagosome.

    4. These findings implied that Lst1 and Atg40 function in the same pathway

      No additive effect was observed when double mutant of lst1atg40 is investigated. This finding drawn another summary which LST1 and ATG40 function in the same pathway.

    5. By contrast, Lst1 acted exclusively in ER-phagy

      A conclusion summarized by the authors based on experiments that have been done to distinguish the bulk autophagy and selective autophagy that happened in various organelles, and only ER-phagy is required by Lst1 coat protein.

      To draw a conclusion which exclusively functional in one particular experiment, the designs of various experiments are needed in order to rule out other possibilities.

    6. We found a defect in the degradation of the ER protein Sec61 in lst1Δ, but not in the sec24-3A iss1Δ and iss1Δ mutants

      Sec61 as ER translocon protein marker and FM4-64 as vacuolar membrane marker. From the Fig 1 A, the overlapping green and red signals in the vacuolar membrane were decreased in the mutants lst1 and atg40 compared to WT, sec24-3A iss1 mutant and iss1 mutant, which were quantified in Fig 1 B, indicated that the Lst1 and ATG40 are required for degradation of ER in the vacuole .

    1. I continued to use this analog method right up through my Ph.D. dissertation and first monograph. After a scare in the early stages of researching my second monograph, when I thought all of my index cards had been lost in a flood, I switched to an electronic version: a Word doc containing a table with four cells that I can type or paste information into (and easily back up).
    1. https://werd.io/2022/the-fediverse-and-the-indieweb

      The idea behind this is great, but the hurdles for supporting dozens of publishing specifications can be awfully daunting. Where do we draw the line?

    2. So instead of Publishing on my Own Site and Syndicating Elsewhere, I plan to just Publish and Participate.

      The easiest publishing (syndication) workflow of all.

    1. The modern understanding of the plasma membrane is referred to as the fluid mosaic model. The plasma membrane is composed of a bilayer of phospholipids, with their hydrophobic, fatty acid tails in contact with each other. The landscape of the membrane is studded with proteins, some of which span the membrane. Some of these proteins serve to transport materials into or out of the cell. Carbohydrates are attached to some of the proteins and lipids on the outward-facing surface of the membrane. These form complexes that function to identify the cell to other cells. The fluid nature of the membrane owes itself to the configuration of the fatty acid tails, the presence of cholesterol embedded in the membrane (in animal cells), and the mosaic nature of the proteins and protein-carbohydrate complexes, which are not firmly fixed in place. Plasma membranes enclose the borders of cells, but rather than being a static bag, they are dynamic and constantly in flux.
      • Provides edge to the cell
      • Controls the entry and exit of material.
      • Fluid-mosaic model explains the structure and function of the membrane.
      • High control of intracellular conditions.
    1. But. I somehow changed-ish laptop, and you know the problem where you change laptop and suddenly you lose access to a few things? Yes. That's one of my problems. This site was using nini to statically generate pages and interconnect them with backlinks, and it's great. But I figured I'll keep it to simple html pages that don't need any compilation for now, so that when I change this laptop, I'll still be able to publish without having to install anything.
    1. Weaver distinguishes ‘three levels of communication problems’, beginning with the technical problem (A), which is concerned with the f idelity of symbol transmission and thus the level where Shannon’s mathematical def inition and measure of information are situated. But Weaver then also postulates a semantic problem (B) that refers to the transmission of meaning and an ef fectiveness problem (C) that asks

      Three levels of communication problems: technical problem, semantic problem, and effectiveness problem. (Shannon and Weaver. 1964. A Mathematical Theory of Communication)

  2. Nov 2022
    1. Trope, trope, trope, strung into a Gish Gallop.

      One of the issues we see in the Sunday morning news analysis shows (Meet the Press, Face the Nation, et al.) is that there is usually a large amount of context collapse mixed with lack of general knowledge about the topics at hand compounded with large doses of Gish Gallop and F.U.D. (fear, uncertainty, and doubt).

    1. Discussion, revision and decision


      Decision

      Verified with reservations: The content is scientifically sound, but has shortcomings that could be improved by further studies and/or minor revisions.

      Dr. Bañuelos: Verified manuscript

      Dr. Morris: Verified with reservations


      Revision

      Response to Reviewer 1 (Dr. Bañuelos)

      1. Most importantly, I would like to see an introduction that explains the authors’ general arguments about grading changes – including the trajectory of these changes at Dalhousie and why this arc contributes to our knowledge of the history of higher education more broadly. Then, the authors might continually remind us of the arc they present at the outset of their paper – especially when they are highlighting a piece of evidence that illustrates their central argument. To me, the quotes from students and faculty responding to grading changes are among the most interesting parts of the paper and placing these in additional context should make them shine even more brightly!

      Our Response: Thank you so much for your thoughtful review. We have added a larger new introduction section of the paper (paragraphs 1-5 in the latest draft are new) that outlines the general importance of the topic, the Canadian context, details on Dalhousie University, and our overall thesis statement (i.e., most decisions were to improve the external communication value of grades). Moreover, we have added three new student quotes form the Dalhousie Gazette to build a stronger picture for student reactions, and to build a better case for our overall thesis statement (i.e., that changes in grading were often to increase the external communication value of grades). Moreover, throughout we have added some details on the overall funding trajectory for institutions in Canada that created some pressure to standardize grading. We think that these changes have improved the manuscript.

      1. I’d like to read a little more about Dalhousie itself – why it is either a remarkable or unremarkable place to study changes in grading policies. Is it representative of most Canadian universities and thus, a good example of how grading changes work in this national context? Is it unlike any other institution of higher education and thus, tells us something important about grades that we could not learn from other case studies? I don’t think this kind of description needs to be particularly long, but it should be a little more involved than the brief sentences the authors currently include (p.3, paragraph 1) and should explain the choice of this case.

      Our Response: This comment revealed that two additional pieces of context were needed for the introduction: (a) some national context for higher education policy in Canada and (b) some extended description of Dalhousie University when compared to other universities in Canada. To this end, two new paragraphs have been added to the paper (paragraphs 2 & 3 in the current draft).

      Notably, Jones (2014) notes that “Canada may have the most decentralized approach to higher education than any other developed country on the planet” (pg 20). With this in mind, any historical review of education policy is by necessity specific to province and institution – that is, the information can be placed in its context, but resists wide generalization to the country as a whole. In the newest draft, we tried to describe the national, provincial, and institutional context in some more detail in paragraphs 2 & 3.

      1. I’d also like to know more about the archival materials the authors used. The authors mention that they drew from “Senate minutes, university calendars, and student newspapers” (p. 3), but what kinds of conversations about grades did these materials include? At various points, the authors engage in “speculation” (e.g. p.4) about why a particular change occurred. This is just fine and, in fact, it’s good of the authors to remind us that they are not really sure why some of these shifts happened. But, they might go one step further and tell us why they have to speculate. Were explicit discussions of grading changes – including in inter- and intradepartmental letters and memo, reports, and other documents – not available in these archives? Why are these important discussions absent from the historical record?

      Our Response: We have added a new paragraph (paragraph 4) to the paper discussing the sources in some more detail. It is true that the verbatim discussions are frequently absent from the record, especially earlier in history – or if they exist, we have not found them! Instead, we frequently are reviewing meeting minutes or committee reports, which are summaries of discussions. As we now note in the paper, “Thus, the sources used showed what policy changes were implemented, when they were implemented, and a general sense of whether there was opposition to changes; however, there were notable gaps in faculty and student reactions to grade policy changes, as these reactions were frequently not written down and archived.”

      This gap was most apparent in the Senate minutes around the 1940s, where I (the first author) could not find any direct discussions of why changes were implemented. Under the 1937-1947 heading, we more clearly indicate that the rationale for the changes was absent from the Senate minutes during this period. I add some further speculation on why these records might be absent, based on summaries from Waite (1998b); specifically, the university president of the time often made unilateral decisions, circumventing Senate, which might account for why the changes are absent from the records.

      This will hopefully make the limitations of what can be learned from this approach more apparent.

      1. At various points, the authors make references to the outside world – for example, WWII (p. 5), the Veteran’s Rehabilitation Act (pp. 6-7), and British versus American grading schemas (p. 6). But, these references are brief and seem almost off-handed. I know space is limited, but putting these grading changes in their broader context might help make the case for why this study is interesting and important. Are the changes in the 1940s, for example, related to the ascendance of one national graduate education model over another (e.g. American versus British)? Are there any data on how many Canadian undergraduates enrolled in British versus American graduate programs over time? If so, I would share any information you might have on these broader trends.

      Our Response: To our knowledge, there isn’t any comparable report to what we’ve written here documenting the transition from British “divisions” to American “letter grades” in Canadian Universities, making our report novel in this regard. It might well be that a similar historical arc exists in many of the 223 public and private universities in Canada, but we don’t believe such data exists in any readily accessible way – excepting perhaps undergoing a similar deep dive into historical documents at each respective institution! So, we do not have the answer to your question: “Are there any data on how many Canadian undergraduates enrolled in British versus American graduate programs over time?” However, we did add one reference which provided a snapshot point of comparison in 1960, noting in the paper “Baldwin (1960) notes that the criteria for “High First Class” grades in the humanities was around 75-80% at Universities of Toronto, Alberta, and British Columbia in 1960, suggesting that Dalhousie’s system was similar to other research-intensive universities around this time.” That said, there are a few major national events related to the funding of universities in Canada that we have elaborated on in the text to address the spirit of your recommendation for describing the national context:

      a) In the “Late 1940s” section of the paper, we added: “Though Dalhousie had an unusually high proportion of veterans enrolled relative to other maritime universities during this period (Turner, 2011), the Veteran’s Rehabilitation Act was a turning point for large increases in enrollment and government funding Canada-wide, at least until the economic recession of the 1970s (Jones, 2014).”

      b) In the 1990s, there were major government cuts to funding, creating challenging financial times for the university. We discuss the funding pressures that likely contributed to standardization of grading during this time by saying the following in the 1980s-2000s section: “Starting in in the 1980s-1990s there were major government cuts to university funding nation-wide, with the cuts becoming more severe in the 1990s (Jones, 2014; Higher Education Strategy Associates, 2021). Because of the nature of the funding formulas, cuts in Nova Scotia were especially deep. Beyond tuition increases, university administrators knew that obtaining external research grants, Canada Research Chairs, and scholarship funding was one of the few other ways for a university to balance budgets, so there was extra pressure to be competitive in these pools. […] The increased standardization was likely related to increased financial pressures at this time – standardization is an oft-employed tool to deal with ever-increasing class sizes with no additional resources.”

      c) In the 2010s section of the paper, we added context to how universities in country-wide have become increasingly dependent on tuition fees for funding: “Following the 2008 recession, federal funding decreased again (Jones, 2014; Higher Education Strategy Associates, 2021); however, this time universities tended to balance budgets by increasing tuition and international student fees. This trend towards increased reliance on tuition for income is especially pronounced in Nova Scotia, which has the highest tuition rates in the country (Higher Education Strategy Associates, 2021). Thus, the university moved closer to a “consumer” model of education, so it makes sense that a driving force for standardization was student complaints.”

      1. This is a very nitpicky concern that doesn’t fit well elsewhere, so please take it with a grain of salt. I was surprised at the length of the reference list – it seemed quite short for a historical piece! I wonder, again, if more description of the archival material - including why you looked at these sources, in particular, and what was missing from the record – would help explain this and further convince the reader that you have all your bases covered.

      Our Response: In the introduction section, paragraph 4, we describe our sources in more detail including what is likely missing from the record and why we used them. Regarding the length of the reference list, we did add ~12 new references to the list in the course of making various revisions, which partially addresses your concern. Beyond this though, it’s worth noting that some of the sources more extensive than they seem, even though they don’t take up much space in the reference list (e.g., there is one entry for course calendars, but this covers ~100 documents reviewed!). Moreover, there were many dead-ends in the archives that are not cited (e.g., reviewing 10 years of Senate minutes in the 1940s produced little of relevance), so the reference list is curated to only those sources where relevant materials were found.

      Reviewer response to revisions

      The new introduction to the piece addresses many of my previous questions about the authors’ general arguments, the Dalhousie context, and the source material. Thank you for addressing these! Reading this version, it is much clearer that the key argument is that standardized, centralized grading practices were “to improve the external communication value of the grades, rather than for pedagogical reasons” (p. 6). I also really enjoyed the added quotes from students in the Dalhousie Gazette.

      The authors’ response to Reviewer 2 really gave me a better sense of why they wrote this piece and also helped me to more clearly put my finger on what was troubling me in the first round. It still reads a little like a report for an internal audience – which is just fine and, in fact, can be extremely useful for historians of the future. But, as Reviewer 2 notes, this means it does not really seem like a piece of historical scholarship. I do worry that shaping it into this form would take an extensive revision and might not be in the spirit of what the authors intended to do.

      A different version of this article might start with this idea that grades were standardized for external audiences and in response to financial pressures. It would then develop a richer story behind the sudden importance of these external audiences and the nature (i.e. source, type) of financial pressures Dalhousie was facing. It would highlight the impact such changes had on students and their future careers/graduate experiences. It could then connect these trends to other similar changes for external audiences and the increasing interconnectedness of American, Canadian, and British systems through graduate education. It might even turn to sociological theories of organizational change and adaptation and make an argument for when (historically) similar forms of decoupling were likely to occur in the Canadian higher education system. Finally, it might connect these grading changes to current trends – including accusations of grade inflation and accepted best practices for measuring learning outcomes.

      But, it doesn’t seem that the authors necessarily want to do this, which I can understand and respect. I think there is enormous value in a piece of scholarship like this existing – both for internal audiences and for future historians. Indeed, imagine if every university had a detailed history of its grading policies like this available somewhere online! Comparing such practices across institutions would certainly tell us a lot about why grading currently looks the way it does.

      Decision changed

      Verified manuscript: The content is scientifically sound, only minor amendments (if any) are suggested.


      Response to Reviewer 2 (Dr. Morris)

      The authors dove headfirst into Dalhousie’s archives, unpacking the subtle shifts in grading policy. Their work seems to be comparable to archaeologists, digging deep beneath mountains of primary sources to find nuggets of clues into Dalhousie’s grading evolution. I particularly liked when the authors were able to link these changes to student voices, as seen in moments when they referenced student publications.

      Ultimately, I kept coming back to one main comment that I wrote in the margins: “So what?” I would humbly suggest that the authors reflect on why this history matters to them. Granted, they do this in the conclusion, where they touch on Schneider & Hutt’s argument that grades evolved to increasingly be a form of external communication with audiences beyond school communities. Sure. But I want more. I wanted to see a new insight that this microhistory of Dalhousie significant to the history of Canada or the history of education more generally.

      If the authors are so inclined, there might be several approaches to transform this manuscript. I would suggest the following. First, instead of tracing the entire history of grading at the institution, choose one moment of change that you think is the most important. Perhaps in the 1920s and the lack of transparency in grading, or the post-war shift toward American grading. Second, show me – don’t tell me – what Dalhousie was like at this moment. Paint a picture of the institution with details about student demographics, curriculum, educational goals, the broader town, etc. Make the community come alive. Show me what makes Dalhousie unique from other institutions of higher ed. Once you establish that picture, perhaps you could link the change in grading practices to subtle changes at the university community, thereby establishing a before and after snapshot. This will require considerable amounts of work, and the skills of a historian. You will have to find primary and secondary sources that go far beyond what you’ve relied on thus far.

      In the end, I found myself wanting the authors to humanize this manuscript, meaning I wanted them to show me that changes in grading practices have tangible effects on real-life human beings. A humanization of their research would mean going narrower and deeper; or, in other words, eliminating much of what they have documented.

      However, if that is too tall of an order, I would ask that the authors clarify for themselves who this manuscript is for. Is this a chronicling of facts for an internal audience at Dalhousie’s faculty, alumni, and students? Fine. But my guess is that even members of the Dalhousie community want to read something relatable.

      I am suggesting revisions, although not because of objective errors. History is more of an art, in my opinion. With that in mind, I would suggest that the authors paint a more vivid picture (metaphorically) of Dalhousie, showing me how changes one moment of change in grading practices impacted the lives of human beings.

      Our Response: Thank you very much for taking the time to read our paper and provide your thoughts and recommendations. It may be helpful to begin by describing why I (the first author) decided to write this paper. Ultimately, I wrote this paper to satisfy my own personal curiosity and to connect with other people at my own place of employment by exploring our shared history. At present day, Dalhousie has a letter grading scheme with a standardized percentage conversion scheme that all instructors used. I wanted to know why this particular scheme was used, but I quickly realized that nobody at Dalhousie really knew how we ended up grading this way! There was an institutional memory gap, and a puzzle that was irresistible to me. So, I wrote this paper for the most basic of all academic reasons: Pure curiosity. I do very much recognize that the subject matter is very niche, perhaps too niche for a traditional journal outlet. Thus, my publishing plan is to self-publish a manuscript to the Education Resources Information Center (ERIC) database and a preprint server as a way of sharing my work with others who might be interested in what I found. Nonetheless, I believe in the importance and value of peer review, especially since I am writing in a field different than most of my scholarly work. That is why I chose PeerRef as a place to submit, so that I could undergo rigorous peer review to improve the work while still maintaining the niche subject matter and focus that drives my passion and curiosity for the project. Of course, if you feel the whole endeavor is so flawed that it precludes publication anywhere, then we can consider this a “rejection” and I will not make any further edits through PeerRef.<br /> The core of your critique suggested that I should write a fundamentally different paper on different subject matter. While I don’t necessarily disagree that the kind of paper you describe might have broader appeal, it would no longer answer the core research question I wanted an answer to: How has Dalhousie’s grading changed over time? So, I must decline to rewrite the paper to focus on a single timeframe as recommended. All this said, I did try my best to address the spirit of your various concerns to improve the quality of the manuscript. Below, I will outline the various major changes to the manuscript that we made to improve the manuscript along the lines you described, while maintaining our original vision for the structure and focus of the paper. The specific changes are outline below:

      a) Two new paragraphs (now paragraphs 1-2 of the revised manuscript) were added to explain the “so what” part of the question. Specifically, we describe why we think the subject matter might be of interest to others and summarize the general dearth of historical information on grading practices in Canada as a whole.

      b) Consistent with recommendations from the other reviewer, we now state a core argument (i.e., that most major grading changes were implemented to improve the external communication value of the grades) earlier in the introduction in paragraph 5 and describe how various pieces of evidence throughout the manuscript tie back to that core theme.

      c) In an attempt to “humanize” the manuscript more, we added more student quotes from the Dalhousie Gazette throughout the paper so that readers can get a better sense of how students thought about grading practices at various times throughout history. Specifically, three new quotes were added in the following sections: 1901-1936, late 1940s, 1950s-1970s. We also added this short note about the physical location where grades used to be posted: “Naturally, this physical location was dreaded by students, and was colloquially referred to as “The Morgue” (Anonymous Dalhousie Gazette Author, 1937).”

      d) Early in the paper, we describe why we chose Dalhousie and the potential audience of interest: “As employees of Dalhousie, we naturally chose this institution as a case study due to accessibility of records and because it has local, community-level interest. The audience was intended to be members of the Dalhousie community; however, it may also be a useful point of comparison for other institutions, should similar histories be written.”

      e) We have described some of the limitations of our sources in paragraph 4, which may explain why the manuscript takes the form it does – it has conformed to the information that is available!

      f) We have linked events at Dalhousie to the national context in some more detail, by detailing some national events related to the funding of universities in Canada. See our response to Reviewer 1, #4 above for more details on the specific changes.

      g) Consistent with your stylistic recommendations, we have changed various spots throughout the paper from the present tense (e.g., “is”) to the past tense (e.g., “was”), and were careful in our new additions to maintain the past tense, when appropriate. If there are any spots that we missed, let us know the page number / section, and we will make further changes, as necessary.

      h) We retained the first person in our writing – this may be discipline-specific, but in Psychology (the first author’s home discipline), first person is acceptable in academic writing. If you feel strongly about this, we can go through the manuscript and remove all instances of the first person, but we would prefer to keep it, if at all possible.

      Hopefully this helps address the spirit of your concerns, and I look forward to hearing your thoughts in the second round of reviews.

      Decision changed

      Verified with reservations: The content is scientifically sound, but has shortcomings that could be improved by further studies and/or minor revisions.

    1. In v3, svelte-preprocess was able to type-check Svelte components. However, giving the specifics of the structure of a Svelte component and how the script and markup contents are related, type-checking was sub-optimal. In v4, your TypeScript code will only be transpiled into JavaScript, with no type-checking whatsoever. We're moving the responsibility of type-checking to tools better fit to handle it, such as svelte-check, for CLI and CI usage, and the VS Code extension, for type-checking while developing.
    1. The Console now supports redeclaration of const variables across separate REPL scripts (such as when you run a statement in the Console), in addition to the existing let and class redeclarations. This support allows you to experiment with different declarations for const variables without refreshing the page. Previously, DevTools threw a syntax error if you redeclared a const binding.

      Edge version of this matching release note from the matching Chrome feature:

      https://hyp.is/d9XEKGfOEe2a27vFWUjjSA/developer.chrome.com/blog/new-in-devtools-92/

      Interesting, they're copying some content, but not all of it verbatim.

    1. Any MSU Libraries public service desk

      Should this be more specific, now that the main library really only has one public service desk?

    1. Continuous remote monitoring of COPD patients—justificationand explanation of the requirements and a surveyof the available technologies

      Continuous remote monitoring of COPD patients—justification and explanation of the requirements and a survey of the available technologies

    Tags

    Annotators

    1. This includes candidates whose experience has been in a different industry, andwho may not use the appropriate terminology when describing their own skills or even be awarethat they would qualify for jobs in a separate industry even though they have all the skills required

      Helping earners appropriately articulate their own skills is an equity issue.

    1. Author response


      To: Reviewer: Heikki Vapaatalo, MD, PhD, Emeritus professor of Pharmacolog

      Dear reviewer Thank you very much for the insightful suggestions, the manuscript improved a lot with the changes performed. Please find the point-by-point answer to the raised questions. In the main text, all changes are highlighted in yellow. I hope that with the changes made the new version is suitable for publication.

      Best regards Valquiria Bueno

      General assessment

      The study is interesting and the title promises for me more than the MS finally contains.

      Answer: The manuscript is part of a project aiming to study ACE1 and ACE2 expression in cells from the immune system of aging and young adults. These initial results suggest that ACE1 (and probably ACE2) plays somehow a role in the process of aging.

      The background, question and the aim are relevant as explained in the introduction.

      Answer: We included a piece of information in the “Introduction” trying to link ACE1 expression in tissue cells and age-related diseases, as it follows:

      ACE1 has been suggested to influence age-related diseases (i.e. Alzheimer’s, sarcopenia, cancer) but the associated mechanisms are still under investigation. ACE1 polymorphisms were correlated with susceptibility to Alzheimer’s disease (AD). [15, 16] In addition, it was shown recently that in normal aging ACE1 expression is increased in brain homogenates and this expression is unchanged in early stages of AD. [17] Regarding sarcopenia, Yoshihara et al. [18] found a weak correlation between ACE polymorphism and physical function. In cancer (gastric or colorectal), patients presented higher expression of ECA1 in tumor when compared with healthy tissues. [19, 20]

      The major criticism concerns the small size of the material (subjects, n=6), the small age difference (64-67 years) and the lack of younger controls.

      Answer: We agree that the small number of studied subjects is a limitation of this study. In spite of the interesting results suggesting that ACE1 expression could be linked to the health status, it was not possible to perform correlation analysis due to the small sample size. Even though there is a small chronological difference between the subjects, the biological aging is very different among them and reflects the genetics, lifestyle, nutrition and comorbidities. Another limitation is the lack of younger controls to compare with the subjects studied. Our next steps are to include younger controls, to increase the number of studied subjects, and if possible to get samples from older subjects (i.e. 70-80, 80 and more years old)

      Minor notes:

      1)Title: Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) expression in leukocytes of older adults

      Answer: We evaluated only ACE1 expression, and thus, title, abstract, and main text were changed to ACE1 instead of ACE. We decided to change to title for: Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) 1 expression in leukocytes of adults from 64 to 67 years old

      2)Introduction: The last chapter, the Author should explain in more detail, how references 11-14 suggest that “ACE play an important role in the aging process”. Does this mean, that ACE is somehow regulating the aging process or in increasing age ACE -levels are changed?

      Answer: References 11-14 shows that age-related diseases occurring in older adults are associated with changes in the immune system. To complete the text we added:

      ACE1 has been suggested to influence age-related diseases (i.e. Alzheimer’s, sarcopenia, cancer) but the associated mechanisms are still under investigation. ACE1 polymorphisms were correlated with susceptibility to Alzheimer’s disease (AD). [15, 16] In addition, it was shown recently that in normal aging ACE1 expression is increased in brain homogenates and this expression is unchanged in early stages of AD. [17] Regarding sarcopenia, Yoshihara et al. [18] found a weak correlation between ACE polymorphism and physical function. In cancer (gastric or colorectal), patients presented higher expression of ECA1 in tumor when compared with healthy tissues. [19, 20]

      Material and Methods:

      The N-value of the subjects should be mentioned here, as well the relation of females/males.

      Answer: Text was correct as suggested Blood was collected from adults (n=6, four females and two males) aged 64-67 years old in 2015.

      Do the Authors really regard 64-67 “older age” nowadays?

      Answer: Nowadays the most common term used for individuals older than 65 years is “older adults”.

      Why first many years later the assays have been done in comparison to the collection of the blood? Are the samples still useable, not destroyed?

      Answer: Samples are part of UNIFESP Biobank and have been kept in adequate conditions. We wanted to test cells from a period anterior to COVID-19 and those samples were the only ones that attended our purpose. We compared samples used in this study with fresh blood samples (cell viability and percentage of CD4+, CD8+ and CD19+) and the results showed good preservation of the cells.

      Did the subjects have some diseases and/or drugs because the possibly were from hospital sample bank?

      Answer: Samples are part of UNIFESP Biobank, but unfortunately we do not have information about diseases and medicaments.

      Express the company details similarly than Amersham, cities and countries.

      Answer: Changes were done as required ACE CD143 FITC (R&D Systems, Inc, Minneapolis, USA)

      Results:

      “Table 1 shows that older adults…..” The comparison between the present data and historical studies belongs to the Discussion.

      Answer: Changes were done as required

      Give also individual ages and gender of the subjects in the table 1.

      Answer: The manuscript version sent to medrxiv@medrxiv.org had age and gender on tables, but due to their request, any possible variable that could identify the studied individual had to be removed. That is why in the present version these variables are not shown.

      What means p-values here? Compared with which or interindividual differences in the particular variable? Should be explained

      Answer: We used p-value for interindividual differences in each variable since individuals age differently (biological aging) and thus, physiological parameters could be affected by genetics, lifestyle, nutrition, and comorbidities. It is now explained in materials and methods

      The numbering of tables and the text seems to me confusing. Only three tables, but in the text mentioned four. Number 4 does not exist.

      Answer: For some reason table 2 is missing in the main text, please find the new version with Table 2 included

      It would be good to have a list of abbreviations used in the description of the cell types for an unfamiliar reader.

      Answer: In each figure and table we are now providing a description of cells evaluated.

      Discussion:

      A major part of the discussion deals with previous publications and not meaning or clinical significance of the present findings and comparison between the present and earlier studies.

      Answer: The discussion was changed as suggested:

      Our results show that for the studied population, chronological aging and biological aging don´t go at the same pace. Even individuals having a small chronological difference (64 to 67 years old), they are heterogeneous for physiological parameters such as glucose, urea, glycated hemoglobin (Hbglic), and C-reactive protein (CRP). Changes in the same functional parameters have been reported by Carlsson et al. [22] and Helmerson-Karlqvist [23] in healthy older adults. Carlsson’s study [22] found that CRP value was 2.6 with a coefficient variation of 1.4% whereas in our study, it was observed higher values of CRP in 5 out of 6 individuals. Increased CRP levels has been associated with inflammaging and our findings show that the studied population has changes in functional parameters which are likely associated with an inflammatory profile. [24] The link between RAS and inflammation has been suggested but its role is not completely clear under physiological and pathological conditions. [25, 26] In addition, the association between ACE1 altered expression in tissues (brain, muscle, heart and vessels) and the development and progression of age-related conditions such as Alzheimer’s, sarcopenia, and cardiovascular disease has been suggested but results are controversial. [17, 27, 28, 29, 30] There are few studies showing the association between ACE1 expression in cells from the immune system (monocytes, T cells) and the progression of kidney and cardiovascular disease. [9, 8, 31, 32]. Therefore, considering the lack of information on this issue, we questioned whether ACE1 (CD143) was highly expressed in cells from the immune system during the aging process. We found that ACE1 was expressed in almost 100% of T (CD4+, CD8+) and B lymphocytes and in all phenotypes of these cells. In non-lymphoid cells, ACE1 mean expression was 56,9%. In agreement with our findings, independent studies showed that T cells from healthy donors and monocytes from patients with congestive heart failure expressed ACE1, but there was no investigation on cell phenotype. [25, 26]. Our study is the first to show that either inexperienced (naive) or fully activated (memory) cells expresses ACE1. Our findings suggest a that the expression of ACE1 in lymphoid and non-lymphoid cells reflects the health status since our studied population presented changes in physiological parameters and high levels of ACE1 expression on immune cells. Previous independent studies showed that patients with unstable angina [32] or acute myocardial infarction [33] presented higher expression of ACE1 in T cells and dendritic cells than controls subjects. In addition, markers of the cell (lymphoid and non-lymphoid) functional status such as inflammatory or growth factors production could be modulated by ACE inhibitors (ACEi). Accordingly, mononuclear leukocytes from healthy subjects incubated with endotoxin exhibited high levels of tissue factor activity which was reduced in the presence of captopril in a dose-dependent pattern. This result could be related to the antithrombotic effect of ACEi. [34]. In patients with congestive heart failure, immune cells cultured with LPS secreted high levels of the pro-inflammatory TNF-alpha and these levels were significantly reduced in the presence of captopril. [35]

      In those previous studies, also ACE2 has been reported, why not studied here?

      Answer: Our next studies will be focused on ACE1 and ACE2 expression in cells from the immune system in both younger and older adults.

      In the limitations, the Authors fairly mention the real problem: The small sample size, and I would like to say lack of younger subjects.

      Answer: we agree with the limitations pointed and the text was changed as required:

      This study have limitations such as the small sample size and the lack of young adults for comparison. As an example, the subject with the highest CRP and albumin also exhibited a high percentage of ACE1 expression on T (CD4+, CD8+), B and non-lymphoid cells in addition to the lowest percentage of CD4+ naive cells, and the highest percentage of CD8+ terminally differentiated (EMRA) and DN B cells. However, due to the small sample size it was not possible to associate the high expression of ACE1 on immune cells with inflammaging and immunosenescence. It would bring important information to correlate physiological parameters/health status with ACE1 expression and to find out whether age and associated chronic diseases could lead to increased ACE1 expression.

      The COVID-19 point even tempting today, is too far from this study and unnecessary. Answer: Our point was to emphasize the negative impact of chronic diseases for the outcome of aging population during a viral infection and how ACE1/ACE2 expression could bring information to diagnosis and treatment. Therefore, we would like to maintain this piece of information.

      Linguistic checking would improve the MS. Answer: We checked for possible linguistic mistakes

      Reviewer, Heikki Vapaatalo:

      I read with pleasure the very detailed answers to my comments.

      I very warmly recommend acceptance of this MS for publications without any further notes.

      Decision changed:

      Verified manuscript: The content is scientifically sound, only minor amendments (if any) are suggested.


      To: Reviewer: Calogero Caruso

      Dear Prof.Caruso Thank you very much for the revision of this manuscript. It is a privilege to have a manuscript reviewed by a research with high expertise on the field of ageing. Please find the answers to your questions and in the main text the changes in bold.

      Sincerely yours,

      Valquiria Bueno

      The paper is essentially anecdotal because it studies the cells of 6 subjects without any comparison with other age groups. There is also a serious limitation because beyond the age and sex there is no information on the donors (how and why they were recruited, what drugs they took, etc.).

      It is really a limitation to have only 6 individuals for the study, but they were the only ones fitting in the proposal of the manuscript. The samples were from a central bank of cells at UNIFESP and participants were considered “healthy” but there was not further information in addition to what we displayed on the tables of the manuscript. They were not living on homecares or hospitalized.

      Our aim was to evaluate samples from individuals aged 60-69 years previously to COVID-19 and/or vaccination. In addition, there were no samples in the same conditions (PBMCs, -80oC) of young individuals and using fresh blood could bring a result that could not be compared mainly regarding to myeloid cells and B cells as is follows in the below reference. Braudeau C, Salabert-Le Guen N, Chevreuil J, Rimbert M, Martin JC, Josien R. An easy and reliable whole blood freezing method for flow cytometry immuno-phenotyping and functional analyses. Cytometry B Clin Cytom 2021;100(6):652-665. doi: 10.1002/cyto.b.21994.

      Our goal from now on is to expand this study with young and old adults samples since it is important to understand whether ageing is associated with an increase in ACE expression on immune cells.

      -To infer that chronological and biological ages do not match is inappropriate in the absence of the above information.

      This piece of information regarding chronological and biological age was required by another reviewer. I agree that the concept does not match without more information on the donors. However, the information is now referenced and should be considered when older adults are studied. Vasto S, Scapagnini G, Bulati M, Candore G, Castiglia L, Colonna-Romano G, Lio D, Nuzzo D, Pellicano M, Rizzo C, Ferrara N, Caruso C. Biomarkes of aging. Front Biosci (Schol Ed) 2010;2(2):392-402. doi: 10.2741/s72. PMID: 20036955.

      -However, the paper is of some interest because there are few studies on the topic.

      Thanks for this positive comment. Few studies on the topic was the reason why we decided to send the manuscript for publication even though there were some important information on the donors missing and limited number of individuals.

      Essential revisions that are required to verify the manuscript

      1) Although we do not have data on donors, placing an age and gender column in all tables adds a minimum of useful information for the reader.

      The first table submitted with age, but for requirement of MedRxiv, gender and age could no be linked to the metabolic results to preserve the anonymity of the donors.

      2) Inflamm-ageing means low grade of inflammation. The value of CRP 23.1 suggests acute inflammation (also because albumin has high values, while in chronic inflammation its values decrease). Therefore the Ly averages do not have to take this subject into account.

      Thank you for this comment. In a review of literature it was found an article (below) with CRP variation from 0.1 to 19.8 (Heumann Z, Youssim I, Kizony R, Friedlander Y, Shochat T, Weiss R, Hochner H, Agmon M. The Relationships of Fibrinogen and C-Reactive Protein With Gait Performance: A 20-Year Longitudinal Study. Front Aging Neurosci 2022;14:761948. doi: 10.3389/fnagi.2022.761948). There is also an article from your group showing CRPs <5g/dL and >5g/dL (Cancemi P, Aiello A, Accardi G, Caldarella R, Candore G, Caruso C, Ciaccio M, Cristaldi L, Di Gaudio F, Siino V, Vasto S. The Role of Matrix Metalloproteinases (MMP-2 and MMP-9) in Ageing and Longevity: Focus on Sicilian Long-Living Individuals (LLIs). Mediators Inflamm 2020;2020:8635158. doi: 10.1155/2020/8635158) that will be used to discuss how ageing impacts CRP levels. Considering the already small number of donors, data were maintained and statistics (mean + SD) with and without 23.1 mg/dL are now shown.

      This will be the new version (discussion) about CRP Carlsson’s study [22] found that CRP value was 2.6 with a coefficient variation of 1.4% whereas in our study, it was observed higher values of CRP in 5 out of 6 individuals. In addition, it was shown by Cancemi et al. in an evaluation of individuals from 40 years to older than 95 years (long-living) that CRP increases in an age-dependent manner. Increased CRP levels has been associated with low grade of chronic inflammation (inflammaging) and our findings show that the studied population has changes in functional parameters which are likely associated with an inflammatory profile. [24] However, an individual presented CPR 23.1 mg/dL suggesting acute inflammation instead, but as all donors were not hospitalized or living on homecares, this sample was considered as part of the study. Another study evaluating gait speed found CRPs varying from 0.1 to 19.8mg/dL (Front Aging Neurosci 2022;14:761948.). Our study has an important limitation that is the lack of data on donors such as the use of continuous medicaments or sarcopenia, hypertension, cognition, among others, and thus it was not possible to correlate CRP with age-related conditions.

      Table 1. Updated

      Other suggestions to improve the manuscript The authors write that their findings suggest that ACE1 could play a role in several processes linked to aging including the generation and activation of autoimmune cells, due to the experimental evidence that inhibitors of ACE suppress the autoimmune process in a number of autoimmune diseases such as EAE, arthritis, autoimmune myocarditis. [49] They do not appear to have these findings in their paper. So, it needs to change the sentence.

      Sentence changed to: According to experimental evidence, ACE inhibitors suppress the autoimmune process in a number of autoimmune diseases such as EAE, arthritis, autoimmune myocarditis. [49] Extrapolating these findings to our results, it is possible to suggest that ACE1 play a role in several processes linked to aging including the generation and activation of autoimmune cells.

      Rviewer: Calogero Caruso

      Decision changed:

      Verified manuscript: The content is scientifically sound, only minor amendments (if any) are suggested.

    1. BAX has been shown to translocate to lysosomes where it is suggested to trigger LMP and cell death under different pathophysiological conditions, including Parkinson’s disease, oxidative stress, and autophagic cell death (35–37). To assess BAX translocation to the lysosomal membrane and its colocalization with RECS1, we detected active BAX using the 6A7 conformational antibody. Analysis of RECS1 (using the Flag antibody) and the distribution of the lysosomal protein LAMP-2 in MEFs indicated that under basal conditions (no RECS1), BAX remained mainly cytosolic (fig. S4H). However, BAX colocalized with RECS1 in LAMP-2–positive vesicles following RECS1 induction (Fig. 3, E to G). After CQ treatment, BAX was redistributed into large LAMP-2–positive vesicles, an effect that was dependent on RECS1 expression (Fig. 3E). Active BAX was present preferentially in Flag-RECS1–positive lysosomes in cells treated with CQ (Fig. 3, F and G). Together, these results suggest that RECS1 induces cell death through LMP in response to lysosomal stress, correlating with the translocation of BAX to lysosomes

      Overexpression of RECS1 in CQ-stressed cells causes LMP and translocation of BAX to the lysosome, which induces cell death. BAX is a proapoptotic protein.

    1. "If the Reagans' home in Palisades (Calif.) were burning," Brinkley says, "this would be one of the things Reagan would immediately drag out of the house. He carried them with him all over like a carpenter brings their tools. These were the tools for his trade."

      Another example of someone saying that if their house were to catch fire, they'd save their commonplace book (first or foremost).

    1. highly recommended that the resulting image be just one concern per container; predominantly this means just one process per container, so there is no need for a full init system

      container images: whether to use full init process: implied here: don't need to if only using for single process (which doesn't fork, etc.)

    2. It is also nice for advanced users to take advantage of entrypoint, so that they can docker run official-image --arg1 --arg2 without having to specify the binary to execute.
    1. Doing everything PID 1 needs to do and nothing else. Things like reading environment files, changing users, process supervision are out of scope for Tini (there are other, better tools for those)
  3. Oct 2022
    1. I am not much like Turner ; but I believe that I am like him in that Iam aware that in history you cannot prove an inference. You cannotprove causation, much as you crave to do it. You may present sequencesof events, whose relationship suggests a link-up of cause and consequence ;

      you may carry on the inquiry for a lifetime without discovering other events inconsistent with the hypothesis which has caught your eye. But you can never get beyond a circumstantial case. . . .<br /> "A Footnote to the Safety-Valve," August 15, 1940, Paxson Papers (University of California Library, Berkeley)

    2. the writer of "scissors and paste history" ;

      One cannot excerpt their way into knowledge, simply cutting and pasting one's way through life is useless. Your notes may temporarily serve you, but unless you apply judgement and reason to them to create something new, they will remain a scrapheap for future generations who will gain no wisdom or use from your efforts.

      relate to: notes about notes being only useful to their creator

    3. He took it toWashington when he went into war service in 1917-1918;

      Frederic Paxson took his note file from Wisconsin to Washington D.C. when he went into war service from 1917-1918, which Earl Pomeroy notes as an indicator of how little burden it was, but he doesn't make any notation about worries about loss or damage during travel, which may have potentially occurred to Paxson, given his practice and the value to him of the collection.

      May be worth looking deeper into to see if he had such worries.

    1. Although we and other biologists will often only consider one direction of a reaction, keep in mind that catalysts do not determine the direction of a reaction- they simply allow the reaction to occur in whichever direction is energetically favorable

      Do Catalysts control the direction of a reaction?

    2. It means that the cell can control metabolic flux by controlling the availability of catalysts.

      Why is it actually favorable for a cell to not be constantly energetically favorable to create a chemical reaction? Why does catalysts help control metabolic flux?

    1. Today, the people in politics who most often invoke the name of Jesus for their political causes tend to be the most merciless and judgmental, the most consumed by rage and fear and vengeance. They hate their enemies, and they seem to want to make more of them. They claim allegiance to the truth and yet they have embraced, even unwittingly, lies. They have inverted biblical ethics in the name of biblical ethics.
    1. Filing is a tedious activity and bundles of unsorted notes accumulate. Some of them get loose and blow around the house, turning up months later under a carpet or a cushion. A few of my most valued envelopes have disappeared altogether. I strongly suspect that they fell into the large basket at the side of my desk full of the waste paper with which they are only too easily confused.

      Relying on cut up slips of paper rather than the standard cards of equal size, Keith Thomas has relayed that his slips often "get loose and blow around the house, turning up months later under a carpet or cushion."

      He also suspects that some of his notes have accidentally been thrown away by falling off his desk and into the nearby waste basket which camouflages his notes amongst similar looking trash.

    1. I am less worried about natural disaster than my own negligence. I take the cards with me too much. I am not stationary in my office and so to use the cards I am taking them. I am afraid they will lost or destroyed. I have started to scan into apple notes. I will see how that goes. It is easy and might be a great overall solution.

      episcopal-orthodox reply to: https://www.reddit.com/r/antinet/comments/y77414/comment/isyqc7b/

      As long as you're not using flimsy, standard paper for your slips like Luhmann (they deteriorate too rapidly with repeated use), you can frame your carrying them around more positively by thinking that use over time creates a lovely patina to your words and ideas. The value of this far outweighs the fear of loss, at least for me. And if you're still concerned, there's always the option that you could use ars memoria to memorize all of your cards and meditate on them combinatorially using Llullan wheels the way Raymond Llull originally did. 🛞🗃️🚀🤩

    2. Worried about paper cards being lost or destroyed .t3_y77414._2FCtq-QzlfuN-SwVMUZMM3 { --postTitle-VisitedLinkColor: #9b9b9b; --postTitleLink-VisitedLinkColor: #9b9b9b; --postBodyLink-VisitedLinkColor: #989898; } I am loving using paper index cards. I am, however, worried that something could happen to the cards and I could lose years of work. I did not have this work when my notes were all online. are there any apps that you are using to make a digital copy of the notes? Ideally, I would love to have a digital mirror, but I am not willing to do 2x the work.

      u/LBHO https://www.reddit.com/r/antinet/comments/y77414/worried_about_paper_cards_being_lost_or_destroyed/

      As a firm believer in the programming principle of DRY (Don't Repeat Yourself), I can appreciate the desire not to do the work twice.

      Note card loss and destruction is definitely a thing folks have worried about. The easiest thing may be to spend a minute or two every day and make quick photo back ups of your cards as you make them. Then if things are lost, you'll have a back up from which you can likely find OCR (optical character recognition) software to pull your notes from to recreate them if necessary. I've outlined some details I've used in the past. Incidentally, opening a photo in Google Docs will automatically do a pretty reasonable OCR on it.

      I know some have written about bringing old notes into their (new) zettelkasten practice, and the general advice here has been to only pull in new things as needed or as heavily interested to ease the cognitive load of thinking you need to do everything at once. If you did lose everything and had to restore from back up, I suspect this would probably be the best advice for proceeding as well.

      Historically many have worried about loss, but the only actual example of loss I've run across is that of Hans Blumenberg whose zettelkasten from the early 1940s was lost during the war, but he continued apace in another dating from 1947 accumulating over 30,000 cards at the rate of about 1.5 per day over 50 some odd years.

    1. Earlier this year, Police Commissioner James O'Neill admitted that a "theft of services" arrest (the legal code name for turnstile jumping) could in fact lead to an immigrant getting deported. And earlier this month, a series of bills the City Council passed last year encouraging the use of civil summonses instead of arrests for quality of life crimes like public drinking, public urination and littering went into effect.

      Excusing criminality in a matter of deference to foreign nationals who are unlawfully present in the United States is perverse. The immigration laws have many provisions by design to ensure that foreign nationals who violate the laws of the United States in certain ways are not allowed to remain and harm the safety of Americans.

    2. The change in how turnstile jumping will be prosecuted comes at a time when the city's reliance on Broken Windows policing is under fire because of its impact on New York's low-income non-white community

      Crime has a significant effect on the entire New York City community, but especially on the low income community. Many NYC officials prioritize minimizing the effect of the law on criminals over minimizing the effect of criminals on law-abiding citizens.

    3. Vance announced in a press release this morning that his office "will no longer prosecute the overwhelming majority of individuals charged with Theft of Services for subway-related offenses, unless there is a demonstrated public safety reason to do so," starting in September of this year.

      DA Vance ignoring the possibility that people who engage in theft of public services are more likely to present a risk to public safety than those who do not.

    1. Currently, most theft-of-service cases are handled with summonses and rarely reach prosecution, according to a spokesman for the Brooklyn District Attorney’s Office. Manhattan District Attorney Alvin Bragg does not prosecute fare beaters, according to a spokesman for his office.

      DA Alvin Bragg continuing Cyrus Vance's policy of declining to enforce theft of public services law.

    2. “We have seen over a 55% increase of assaults on officers this year,” NYPD Transit Chief Jason Wilcox said. “The majority of these assaults began as they were engaging persons who have committed fare evasion or other quality of life violations on the trains and stations.”

      Violent incidents wherein officers are attacked trying to issue summonses to criminals engaging in turnstile jumping.

    3. NYPD enforcement is also up. Police have issued 45, 667 summonses for fare beating this year, up from 36,669 in 2021, according to an NYPD spokesperson. Other transit crimes that have been a growing issue are grand larceny, robbery, and felony assault, according to Comp Stat figures.

      Increase in summonses for fare evasion in 2022 over 2021.

    1. Fortunately, there are other ways to protect the transit system’s revenue stream and promote orderly conduct without jeopardizing the personal liberty of riders. In Washington, D.C., the city council voted to decriminalize fare evasion, overriding the mayor’s veto.

      Unclear why Washington DC, which is one of the highest crime jurisdictions in the United States and has serious financial issues, is a model to follow.

    2. The crackdown should concern New Yorkers, because fare evasion enforcement is highly disproportionate. According to the most recent NYPD data, 92% of the 481 fare evasion arrests in the fourth quarter of 2019 were of non-white riders; 60% were black. Data like that led New York Attorney General Letitia James to announce a probe of racial disparities in fare evasion stops.

      There's an unexplained assumption that people NYC-wide crime statistics should mirror population statistics. This is not the case with many crimes where enforcement disparities would have no effect, homicides being one example.

    1. By the end of the day, Gov. Andrew M. Cuomo weighed in with a statement urging “all parties” to find “balance” — but declining to take a side.

      Former Governor Cuomo, who went on to sign the bail reform law, refusing to support Mayor de Blasio on the importance of policing fare evasion in 2018.

    2. “The New York miracle, if you will, began with fare evasion — fare evasion enforcement on the subway 25 years ago,” Mr. Bratton said in February 2014, when he was newly appointed by Mr. de Blasio as commissioner. “We’re still at it.”

      Former NYPD Commissioner Bill Bratton on the significance of policing fare evasion to New York City's revival in the 1990s.

    3. Mr. de Blasio, a champion of improving the lot of poor New Yorkers, has adamantly defended the police practice of using evasion of the $2.75 fare as a means for officers to check the names and warrants of those they stop, most of whom are black or Hispanic.He has been unpersuaded by critics on the left who believe the approach — pioneered in the 1990s by William J. Bratton, Mr. de Blasio’s first police commissioner — is a form of biased and overly aggressive policing akin to stop-and-frisk. And he does not think most are motivated by poverty.“A lot of people who commit fare evasion and the police encounter have a lot of money on them,” Mr. de Blasio said during a news conference at Police Headquarters on Tuesday. “I think I have a lot of validity on the question of income inequality and how we fight it, but you never heard me say, you know, open up the gates of the subway for free. That’s chaos.”

      Former Mayor de Blasio making a terrific point about the importance of policing fare evasion, an issue he understood despite not always acting in accordance with his correct statements.

    1. @1:10:20

      With HTML you have, broadly speaking, an experience and you have content and CSS and a browser and a server and it all comes together at a particular moment in time, and the end user sitting at a desktop or holding their phone they get to see something. That includes dynamic content, or an ad was served, or whatever it is—it's an experience. PDF on the otherhand is a record. It persists, and I can share it with you. I can deliver it to you [...]

      NB: I agree with the distinction being made here, but I disagree that the former description is inherent to HTML. It's not inherent to anything, really, so much as it is emergent—the result of people acting as if they're dealing in live systems when they shouldn't.

    1. "In the event of a fire, the black-bound excerpts are to be saved first," instructed the poet Jean Paul to his wife before setting off on a trip in 1812.

      Writer Jean Paul on the importance of his Zettelkasten.

    1. »Bei Feuer sind die schwarzeingebundnen Exzerpten zuerst zu retten«, wies der Dichter Jean Paul seine Frau vor Antritt einer Reise im Jahr 1812 an.

      "In the event of a fire, the black-bound excerpts are to be saved first," the poet Jean Paul instructed his wife before setting out on a journey in 1812.

      link to: https://hyp.is/BLL9TvZ9EeuSIrsiWKCB9w/ryanholiday.net/the-notecard-system-the-key-for-remembering-organizing-and-using-everything-you-read/

    1. https://www.reddit.com/r/antinet/comments/ur5xjv/handwritten_cards_to_a_digital_back_up_workflow/

      For those who keep a physical pen and paper system who either want to be a bit on the hybrid side, or just have a digital backup "just in case", I thought I'd share a workflow that I outlined back in December that works reasonably well. (Backups or emergency plans for one's notes are important as evidenced by poet Jean Paul's admonition to his wife before setting off on a trip in 1812: "In the event of a fire, the black-bound excerpts are to be saved first.") It's framed as posting to a website/digital garden, but it works just as well for many of the digital text platforms one might have or consider. For those on other platforms (like iOS) there are some useful suggestions in the comments section. Handwriting My Website (or Zettelkasten) with a Digital Amanuensis

    1. What if something happened to your box? My house recently got robbed and I was so fucking terrified that someone took it, you have no idea. Thankfully they didn’t. I am actually thinking of using TaskRabbit to have someone create a digital backup. In the meantime, these boxes are what I’m running back into a fire for to pull out (in fact, I sometimes keep them in a fireproof safe).

      His collection is incredibly important to him. He states this in a way that's highly reminiscent of Jean Paul.

      "In the event of a fire, the black-bound excerpts are to be saved first." —instructions from Jean Paul to his wife before setting off on a trip in 1812 #

    1. Blu-menberg’s first collection of note cards dates back to the early 1940s butwas lost during the war; the Marbach collection contains cards from 1947onwards. 18

      18 Von Bülow and Krusche, “Vorla ̈ ufiges,” 273.

      Hans Blumenberg's first zettelkasten dates to the early 1940s, but was lost during the war though he continued the practice afterwards. The collection of his notes housed at Marbach dates from 1947 onward.

    2. There is a box stored in the German Literature Archive in Marbach, thewooden box Hans Blumenberg kept in a fireproof steel cabinet, for it con-tained his collection of about thirty thousand typed and handwritten notecards.1

      Hans Blumenberg's zettelkasten of about thirty thousand typed and handwritten note cards is now kept at the German Literature Archive in Marbach. Blumenberg kept it in a wooden box which he kept in a fireproof steel cabinet.

    1. nd another population that both our mayor and governor have spoken passionately about protecting would stand to suffer greatly as a result of a new enforcement policy: immigrants. Immigrants who have even minor contact with the criminal justice system face far more drastic consequences. Under the Trump administration, an arrest for jumping a turnstile or even a criminal summons could result in deportation, family separation, and destroyed lives.

      If a foreign national who is in the United States without legal authorization does something stupid and is required to appear in Court as a result, he or she may be more likely to come to the attention of immigration authorities. As an initial matter, the solution is to not violate the immigration laws of the United States. However, if one chooses to violate the immigration laws, he or she ought to avoid doing things like jumping turnstyles. Many Americans likely avoid taking certain liberties that they do in the United States when they are traveling in foreign countries.

    2. Poor black and brown people should not take the fall for the sins of politicians who have allowed the MTA to become a laughing stock. Arrests won’t solve the MTA’s problems, but they could devastate New Yorkers.

      It is unclear to me how the MTA's own incompetence exonerates people from stealing public services. I am confident that fare beaters, black, brown, white, or anything else, are stealing public services because the MTA is a train-wreck. Both issues contribute to the current mess in the NYC Subway system, but they are not otherwise related.

    3. Years of grappling with the ripple effects of Broken Windows policing have shown us that arrests are not the way to deal with minor offenses, like riding your bike on the sidewalk, having an open container of alcohol, smoking marijuana, or jumping a turnstile. An uptick in enforcement would reverse the recent positive trend of fewer fare evasion arrests. Through October, police have made 5,236 arrests for fare evasion. That is still 5,236 arrests too many, but it represents a 66 percent drop compared to the same period last year.

      Not prosecuting crimes is a positive trend, apparently. This disregards how NYC transformed itself in the 90s and 00s under the leadership of Mayors Giuliani and Bloomberg, and how that success was maintained at least when former Mayor de Blasio wisely chose William Bratton as NYPD Commissioner.

    4. An analysis of New York Division of Criminal Justice Services data from the last four years by the Marshall Project shows that nearly 90 percent of people arrested for turnstile jumping were black or Hispanic. Given the NYPD’s history of targeting people of color for arrests and summonses for low-level offenses, let’s call the new proposal to crack down on fare evasion what it is: a plan that would funnel thousands more black and brown New Yorkers into the criminal justice system, and to scapegoat people of color for the decades of underfunding and mismanagement that are responsible for the MTA’s current problems.

      This must be it. There are no alternative explanations such as the possibility that certain crimes may be disproportionately committed by people who share one characteristic and not another (see NYC homicide statistics). Moreover, it is unclear to me why the writer is lumping "black and Hispanic" people together since, if this is purely a race-based claim against the NYPD, there may be different statistics for these two very broad groups.

    5. Police resources must be spent on working with the community and identifying the types of behaviors that cause the most harm—not physically harmless fare evasion.

      This disregards the fact that there is a high correlation between "behaviors that cause the most harm" and "fare evasion," lest the author would suggest that of people who commit crimes on transit, a meaningful number of them pay the fare.

    6. The MTA and NYPD pledged last week to crack down on fare evaders. The MTA’s plan is to send agency executives and NYPD officers to subway stations and bus stops across the city. The executives will stand at subway turnstiles and on busses to create body blockades to bar anyone trying to get in without a Metrocard. More armed police officers at subway stations make an already harrowing commute for New Yorkers even more intolerable, and for many, will serve to add unnecessary fear into the way they start or end their day.

      I will venture that most New Yorkers are more concerned about lawless behavior on subways than by the presence of uniformed police.

    1. “If we start saying it’s alright for you to jump the turnstile, we are creating an environment where any and everything goes,” the mayor warned. “It’s a crime. Now, you could defer prosecution, you could people in programs, you could do all sorts of things, but let’s not ignore it, and that’s what’s happening to our subway system.”

      Mayor Adams was correct to the extent that he noted that turnstyle jumping is a crime and should not be permitted - however, he has not used all of tools at his disposal to police the Subways against the opposition of the District Attorneys.

    1. At least fifty-six New Yorkers have been pushed onto subway tracks over the past two years. Subway crimes have more than doubled, so far, this year, compared with the same time last year. According to MTA board member Andrew Albert, another major issue is turnstile jumping. 99.99% of people that are committing crimes in the subways did not pay their fare. If we can stop that at the turnstiles, we've not only helped the MTA bottom line, but we've stopped crime in its tracks.

      This is a very important point. Policing fare evasion is not only a financial issue or a fairness question, it is a matter of public safety. It is true that not every person who engages in theft of public services is violent, but as Andrew Albert notes, violent felons are overwhelmingly likely to not pay MTA fares.

    1. Now, though, Vance’s office is voicing its displeasure with the fact that the NYPD has continued to arrest turnstile-jumpers. But how can Vance deter people from farebeating through diversion or dropped charges, and see if this approach yields better results for everyone—particularly the public—if police never arrest fare evaders in the first place?

      This is a very interesting passage. It highlights that the NYPD is free to enforce the law and make arrests notwithstanding the efforts of District Attorneys to rewrite the law through the refusal to prosecute laws that they do not like. Former DA Vance's "displeasure" highlights that the NYPD and Mayor are not helpless - and that they can put pressure on lawless District Attorneys by continuing to enforce the law. The refusal of the Mayor and the NYPD leadership to use the tools in their toolbox has been a driving force in the increase in fare-beating.

    2. Deterring people from stealing from the MTA keeps mass transit safe and improves the lives of everyone who rides.

      Well said.

    3. The DA’s reasoning is that this misdemeanor charge—called theft of services for transit—can carry a punishment of up to a year in jail. The misdemeanor conviction, so the argument goes, victimizes otherwise law-abiding people too poor to afford the subway fare, burdening them with a criminal record as they seek employment or housing.

      Theft of public services, like other kinds of theft, does have the potential to "burden" offenders with a criminal record.

    1. Angular vs React: A Complete Comparison Guide for 2023

      Want to know the difference between React and Angular? Is yes then check out this blog to know the actual difference of both technologies. Both are incredibly strong, advancing web programming by enhancing, facilitating, and accelerating development. https://bit.ly/3rSRHtl

  4. pointersgonewild.files.wordpress.com pointersgonewild.files.wordpress.com
    1. IMO: one of the biggest problems in modern softwaredevelopment• Code breaks constantly, even if it doesn’t change• Huge cause of reliability issues and time wasted• This is somehow accepted as normal

      ⬑ "The Code Rot Problem"

    1. We next made two attempts to buildeach system. This often required edit-ing makefiles and finding and in-stalling specific operating system andcompiler versions, and external librar-ies.
    2. Several hurdles must becleared to replicate computer systemsresearch. Correct versions of sourcecode, input data, operating systems,compilers, and libraries must be avail-able, and the code itself must build
    1. there's a second kind of cognitive illusion this first cognitive illusion as i've suggested is thematized both in buddhist philosophy and in western philosophy but the second 00:07:06 kind of illusion i find not thematized so much in the west though in some quarters it is some but not all but very much stabilized in in buddhist philosophy and that is the superimposition of subject object 00:07:19 duality um and when we do that um we take the nature of our experience to be primordially structured as subject standing outside of the world viewing an 00:07:31 object now we always know we know that on the slightest bit of reflection that that's crazy that we are biological organisms embedded in a physical world and that 00:07:43 all of our experience is the result of that embodied embedded and embedded experience in the world it's still however almost irresistible to have that kind of image of ourselves as wittgenstein put it as like the eye 00:07:56 to the visual field that we stand outside of the world as pure subject with everything else taken as object and that reflexive taking of experience that way is a very profound kind of cognitive 00:08:09 illusion one that is extremely hard to shake to overcome illusion though we first have to come to know that illusion better you need to know your enemy in 00:08:21 order to defeat your enemy and so i'm going to spend a lot of time trying to acquaint us with the nature of these illusions that is to say if we want to avoid a pointless trek through the desert uh for 00:08:34 water we'd better know that what we're seeing is a mirage and not an oasis when we become aware of that fact then we're able to redirect ourselves in the right uh in the right direction

      Jay talks about the depth of the second cognitive illusion, thematized in Buddhism but not so much in Western philosophy - the illusion of a self with respect to other.

      4E (Embedded, Embodied, Enactive, Extended) Cognition is based on an intuitive idea that we know from very simple experience - you and I are part of the world. We have bodies that are embedded in reality.

      We have a reflexive and profoundly entrenched embrace of dualism - that we are NOT of this world, but stand apart from it. This cognitive illusion is EXTREMELY hard to penetrate.

    1. A personal file is thesocial organization of the individual's memory; it in-creases the continuity between life and work, and it per-mits a continuity in the work itself, and the planning of thework; it is a crossroads of life experience, professionalactivities, and way of work. In this file the intellectualcraftsman tries to integrate what he is doing intellectuallyand what he is experiencing as a person.

      Again he uses the idea of a "file" which I read and understand as similar to the concepts of zettelkasten or commonplace book. Unlike others writing about these concepts though, he seems to be taking a more holistic and integrative (life) approach to having and maintaining such system.

      Perhaps a more extreme statement of this might be written as "zettelkasten is life" or the even more extreme "life is zettelkasten"?

      Is his grounding in sociology responsible for framing it as a "social organization" of one's memory?


      It's not explicit, but this statement could be used as underpinning or informing the idea of using a card index as autobiography.

      How does this compare to other examples of this as a function?

  5. Sep 2022
    1. It's wild that you have to set up Docker to contribute to 600 characters of JavaScript.

      Current revision of README: https://github.com/t-mart/kill-sticky/blob/124a31434fba1d083c9bede8977643b90ad6e75b/README.md

      We're creating a bookmarklet, so our code needs to be minified and URL encoded.

      Run the following the project root directory:

      $ docker build . -t kill-sticky && docker run --rm -it -v $(pwd):/kill-sticky kill-sticky
      
    1. It could also have been a center of some religious cult, where rites of passage or rituals connected to the time of year were performed.”

      There's an irony here in that this "cult" may have actually been a cult of teachers and students. Should the broader thesis bear out, we're going to have lots of references to these cults of teachers lingering in the literature....

    1. You go from zero you hero in data analysis and data science and will become data fluent and learn major skills that you can use in your academic and business career.

      This course is designed for absolute beginners who have a fundamental understanding of R and statistics. No worries, you will get it from the coursework if you do not have any prior knowledge. It starts with a basic understanding of data sets and processes and continues till advanced steps.

    1. The underlying theme tyingthese myths together is that poverty is often perceived to be an issue of“them” rather than an issue of “us”—that those who experience povertyare viewed as strangers to mainstream America, falling outside accept-able behavior, and as such, are to be scorned and stigmatized.

      One of the underlying commonalities about the various myths of poverty is that we tend to "other" those that it effects. The "them" we stigmatize with the ills of poverty really look more like "us", and in fact, they are.

      Rather than victim shame and blame those in poverty, we ought to spend more of our time fixing the underlying disease instead of spending the time, effort, energy, and money on attempting to remedy the symptoms (eg. excessive policing, et al.) Not only is it more beneficial, but cheaper in the long run.


      Related:<br /> Gladwell, Malcolm. “Million-Dollar Murray.” The New Yorker, February 5, 2006. https://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2006/02/13/million-dollar-murray (.pdf copy available at https://housingmatterssc.org/million-dollar-murray/)

    1. Crippled

      IS IT BECAUSE IT CHANGES WHERE WE PUT EMPHASIS

      So... line breaks change the emphasis and myster of poetry of each line (ie state of heightened anxiety) but also how we literally pronounce them out loud (what pitch we use)

    1. On September 23rd, 1871, Nast drew Boss Tweed and his three Tammany Ring' associates - New York Mayor Oakey Hall, Peter Sweeny and Richard Connolly - as a group of vultures on a stormy mountain ledge squatting on a body marked 'New York'. They were shown picking over bones with labels such as 'Rent Payer', 'Liberty', 'Law', 'Tax Payer', 'Justice' and 'Suffrage' and above their heads could be seen a lightning bolt about to start a landslide that would sweep them away.

      Tweed would overprice projects he promised to finish for poor immigrant taxpayers, just so he could pocket the money and gain power and control over the immigrants' votes and politics.

    2. A staunch Republican himself (and a Protestant), Nast - together with Harper's Weekly - campaigned vociferously against William Marcy Tweed, the corrupt leader or 'boss' of Tammany Hall (named after its headquarters on East 14th Street), the political machine which ran New York City's Democratic Party. A former New York State Senator, Tweed and his Irish Catholic associates had by January 1869 taken control of the city, and were looting millions of dollars of taxpayers' money by 'invoice padding', bribes, kickbacks, intimidation and other means. It was said that construction of the Brooklyn Bridge could not proceed until Tweed had got a seat on the construction company's board, and a particular scandal was the massive overspending on the construction of the New York County Courthouse (begun in 1861), which finally cost more than the USA's purchase of Alaska in 1867.

      Nast, being Republican during this time, supported the freedom and equality of former slaves. Nast was also probably concerned with the failing economy and banks around the country, which would explain why he abhorred Tweed and his practices. Tweed was a Democrat seeking power; he did not agree with the equality of former slaves and white men, and because of urbanization and industrialization, he was most likely attaining power and money, profiting from the two.

    1. Can copyright vest in an AI? The primary objective of intellectual property law is to protect the rights of the creators of intellectual property.10 Copyright laws specifically aim to: (i) promote creativity and encourage authors, composers, artists and designers to create original works by affording them the exclusive right to exploit such work for monetary gain for a limited period; and (ii) protect the creators of the original works from unauthorised reproduction or exploitation of those works.

      Can copyright vest in an AI?

      The primary objective of intellectual property law is to protect the rights of the creators of intellectual property.10 Copyright laws specifically aim to: (i) promote creativity and encourage authors, composers, artists and designers to create original works by affording them the exclusive right to exploit such work for monetary gain for a limited period; and (ii) protect the creators of the original works from unauthorised reproduction or exploitation of those works.

    1. To my knowledge, conferring copyright in works generated by artificial intelligence has never been specifically prohibited. However, there are indications that the laws of many countries are not amenable to non-human copyright. In the United States, for example, the Copyright Office has declared that it will “register an original work of authorship, provided that the work was created by a human being.” This stance flows from case law (e.g. Feist Publications v Rural Telephone Service Company, Inc. 499 U.S. 340 (1991)) which specifies that copyright law only protects “the fruits of intellectual labor” that “are founded in the creative powers of the mind.” Similarly, in a recent Australian case (Acohs Pty Ltd v Ucorp Pty Ltd), a court declared that a work generated with the intervention of a computer could not be protected by copyright because it was not produced by a human.

      To my knowledge, conferring copyright in works generated by artificial intelligence has never been specifically prohibited. However, there are indications that the laws of many countries are not amenable to non-human copyright. In the United States, for example, the Copyright Office has declared that it will “register an original work of authorship, provided that the work was created by a human being.” This stance flows from case law (e.g. Feist Publications v Rural Telephone Service Company, Inc. 499 U.S. 340 (1991)) which specifies that copyright law only protects “the fruits of intellectual labor” that “are founded in the creative powers of the mind.” Similarly, in a recent Australian case (Acohs Pty Ltd v Ucorp Pty Ltd), a court declared that a work generated with the intervention of a computer could not be protected by copyright because it was not produced by a human.

    1. With the advent of AI software, computers — not monkeys — will potentially create millions of original works that may then be protected by copyright, under current law, for more than 100 years.

      With the advent of AI software, computers — not monkeys — will potentially create millions of original works that may then be protected by copyright, under current law, for more than 100 years.

    1. This one is for students. Did you know you can annotate articles on Snapchat? Yes, it’s true!All you need to do is take a screenshot of the article you want to annotate.Then, open up the image editor and paste the article. Once you've done th

      What a watermeleon- I just made that up to say.

      Why did I not know this before... So I used to literally call out my students for Snap-chatting in class.

      If I knew about this educational use of Snap,, I would have used it already.

    1. I took along my son, who had never had any fresh water up his nose and who had seen lily pads only from train windows. On the journey over to the lake I began to wonder what it would be like. I wondered how time would have marred this unique, this holy spot--the coves and streams, the hills that the sun set behind, the camps and the paths behind the camps. I was sure that the tarred road would have found it out and I wondered in what other ways it would be desolated. It is strange how much you can remember about places like that once you allow your mind to return into the grooves which lead back. You remember one thing, and that suddenly reminds you of another thing. I guess I remembered clearest of all the early mornings, when the lake was cool and motionless, remembered how the bedroom smelled of the lumber it was made of and of the wet woods whose scent entered through the screen. The partitions in the camp were thin and did not extend clear to the top of the rooms, and as I was always the first up I would dress softly so as not to wake the others, and sneak out into the sweet outdoors and start out in the canoe, keeping close along the shore in the long shadows of the pines. I remembered being very careful never to rub my paddle against the gunwale for fear of disturbing the stillness of the cathedral.

    1. (I feel like I tweeted about this and/or saw it somewhere, but can't find the link)

      visible-web-page looks to have been published and/or written on 2022 June 26.

      I emailed Omar a few weeks earlier (on 2022 June 7) with with a link to plain.txt.htm, i.e., an assembler (for Wirth's RISC machine/.rsc object format) written as a text file that happens to also allow you to run it if you're viewing the text file in your browser.

      (The context of the email was that I'd read an @rsnous tweet(?) that "stuff for humans should be the default context, and the highly constrained stuff parsed by the computer should be an exceptional mod within that", and I recognized this as the same principle that Raskin had espoused across two pieces in ACM Queue: The Woes of IDEs and Comments Are More Important Than Code. Spurred by Omar's comments on Twitter, I sent him a link to the latter article and plain.txt.htm, and then (the next day) the former article, since I'd forgotten to include it in the original email.)

    1. The need for students to participate in the larger conversations around subject mattershelps writers creating more intellectual prose, but this becomes difficult in a “culture

      prone to naming winners and losers, rights and wrongs. You are in or out, hot or not, on the bus or off it. But academics seldom write in an all-or- nothing mode” (p. 26).

      Our culture is overly based on the framing of winners or losers and we don't leave any room for things which aren't a zero sum game. (See: Donald J. Trump's framing of his presidency.) We shouldn't approach academic writing or even schooling or pedagogy in general as a zero sum game. We need more space and variety for neurodiversity as teaching to the middle or even to the higher end is going to destroy the entire enterprise.


      Politics is not a zero sum game. Even the losers have human rights and deserve the ability to live their lives.

    1. what you're where you're sketching as per your presentation is working models and you're kind of exploring them there with 00:37:49 the audience and there are evidence-based models meaning that conversations today tend to become a string of anecdotes like oh I heard that and then you say well I will trust him because he's an authority figure or he 00:38:02 looks trustworthy or someone else said he was just worthy and there's this complex notion of trust which is hopefully going to be obsolete if I am up here building my models and you can 00:38:14 see the model I'm building you don't have to take my word for it you can see the model you can see the facts in knowledge I'm bringing it to support the not model you can see where those are coming from you can kind of see the provenance of everything I'm using to 00:38:25 support my argument and you teak the model you can like check the facts yourself and you make all that visible it leads to a very different notion of trust and integrity and this is I think 00:38:38 a really important part of the the empowering aspect is that trusting authority is disempowering giving people the ability to be independent is empowering

      !- in other words : show, instead of tell

    1. Fossil fuel combustion and growth in industrial and military power have gone hand with colonial conquest and control.In the 1990s, the idea of ‘contraction and convergence’, developed by the UK-based Global Commons Institute, gained a lot of traction in climate negotiations: ‘the Contraction and Convergence strategy consists of reducing overall emissions of greenhouse gases to a safe level (contraction), resulting from every country bringing its emissions per capita to a level which is equal for all countries (convergence)’.https://lnkd.in/eKq4vKep

      !- for : futures - very appropriate description of what appears to be the most sensible futures for civilization

    1. Many research projects are publicly available but rarely useddue to the difficulty of building and installing them
    1. tions will not always fit without inconvenience intotheir proper place ; and the scheme of classification,once adopted, is rigid, and can only be modifiedwith difficulty. Many librarians used to draw uptheir catalogues on this plan, which is now uni-versally condemned.

      Others, well understanding the advantages of systematic classification, have proposed to fit their materials, as fast as collected, into their appropriate places in a prearranged scheme. For this purpose they use notebooks of which every page has first been provided with a heading. Thus all the entries of the same kind are close to one another. This system leaves something to be desired; for addi

      The use of a commonplace method for historical research is marked as a poor choice because:<br /> The topics with similar headings may be close together, but ideas may not ultimately fit into their pre-allotted spaces.<br /> The classification system may be too rigid as ideas change and get modified over time.

      They mention that librarians used to catalog books in this method, but that they realized that their system would be out of date almost immediately. (I've got some notes on this particular idea to which this could be directly linked as evidence.)

    1. https://lu.ma/w6c1b9cd

      [[Anne-Laure Le Cunff & Nick Milo - How can we do Combinational Creativity]]

      Details

      Date: [[2022-09-06]]<br /> Time: 9:00 - 10:00 AM<br /> Host: [[Nick Milo]]<br /> Location / Platform: #Zoom<br /> URL: https://lu.ma/w6c1b9cd<br /> Calendar: link <br /> Parent event: [[LYT Conference 2]]<br /> Subject(s): [[combinational creativity]]

      To Do / Follow up

      • [ ] Clean up notes
      • [ ] Post video link when available (@2022-09-11)

      Video

      TK

      Attendees

      Notes

      generational effect

      Silent muses which resulted in drugs, alcohol as chemical muses.

      All creativity is combinational in nature. - A-L L C

      mash-ups are a tacit form of combinatorial creativity

      Methods: - chaining<br /> - clustering (what do things have in common? eg: Cities and living organisms have in common?)<br /> - c...

      Peter Wohlleben is the author of “hidden life of trees”

      CMAPT tools https://cmap.ihmc.us/

      mind mapping

      Metaphor theory is apparently a "thing" follow up on this to see what the work/research looks like

      I put the following into the chat/Q&A:

      The phrase combinatorial creativity seems to stem from this 2014 article: https://fs.blog/networked-knowledge-and-combinatorial-creativity/, the ideas go back much further obviously, often with different names across cultures. Matt Ridley describes it as "ideas have sex" https://www.ted.com/talks/matt_ridley_when_ideas_have_sex; Raymond Llull - Llullan combinatorial arts; Niklas Luhmann - linked zettels; Marshall Kirkpatrick - "triangle thinking" - Dan Pink - "symphonic thinking" are some others.

      For those who really want to blow their minds on how not new some of these ideas are, try out Margo Neale and Lynne Kelly's book Songlines: The Power and Promise which describes songlines which were indigenous methods for memory (note taking for oral cultures) and created "combinatorial creativity" for peoples in modern day Australia going back 65,000 years.

      Side benefit of this work:

      "You'll be a lot more fun at dinner parties." -Anne-Laure

      Improv's "yes and" concept is a means of forcing creativity.

      Originality is undetected plagiarism - Gish? English writer 9:41 AM quote; source?

      Me: "Play off of [that]" is a command to encourage combintorial creativity. In music one might say "riff off"...

      Chat log

      none available

  6. news.ycombinator.com news.ycombinator.com