242 Matching Annotations
  1. Last 7 days
  2. Oct 2020
    1. Mr. Jennings, do you happen to be acquainted with Robinson Crusoe?

      Hahahaha this is Betteredge's missionary moment. Earlier I thought Robinson Crusoe was a good metaphor for the difference between personal religion and organized religion, with Clack and her tracts representing the hypocrisy of that, but now Betteredge is attempting his own little conversion to steer Ezra down the right path. At least it seems less like Betteredge thinks he's better than Ezra and more that he is worried about what Ezra wants to do.

    2. Speaking as a servant, I am deeply indebted to you. Speaking as a man, I consider you to be a person whose head is full of maggots, and I take up my testimony against your experiment as a delusion and a snare

      Hahahahahahahha. Loyalty to the Verinder family really is Betteredge's primary motivation at all times, even when he completely disagrees with what he's being asked to do. It also makes me wonder that like, Ezra based this experiment off of his personal experience with opium as well as a medical book right? Why is everyone taking it as some kind of superstitious magic? Like Betteredge himself here says something along the lines of he can't approve of this as he's a good Christian.

    3. ‘I stood like one Thunderstruck, or as if I had seen an Apparition.’ If that isn’t as much as to say: ‘Expect the sudden appearance of Mr. Franklin Blake’–there’s no meaning in the English language!” said Betteredge, closing the book with a bang, and getting one of his hands free at last to take the hand which I offered him.

      This is hysterical. I love how Betteredge takes obtuse passages of Crusoe as gospel--full of premonitions, and spiritual wisdom. Betteredge's Christianess may be questionable, but certainly not his Crusoeness. I love Collins use of pop culture in critiquing popular modes of religious thinking.

    4. She affectionately reminds Mr. Franklin Blake that she is a Christian, and that it is, therefore, quite impossible for him to offend her

      Is that what it means to be a Christian? Because girl, you've been offended by stuff nonstop lol

    1. Two of Elemental’s biggest early clients were the Mormon church, which used the technology to beam sermons to congregations around the world, and the adult film industry, which did not.

      Seems like the writer slid this sentence in very carefully. Ha!

    1. Critics, including Sarah Posner and Joe Conason, maintain that prosperity teachers cultivate authoritarian organizations. They argue that leaders attempt to control the lives of adherents by claiming divinely-bestowed authority.[63] Jenkins contends that prosperity theology is used as a tool to justify the high salaries of pastors.

      This would seem to play out in current American culture which seems to be welcoming of an authoritarian president.

    1. I n 1808, New York physician John Augustine Smith, a disciple of Charles White, r ebuked Samuel Stanhope Smith as a minister dabbling in sci-ence. “ I hold it my duty to lay before you all t he facts which are rele-vant,” J ohn Augustine Smith announced in his circulated lecture. The principal f act was t hat t he “ anatomical s tructure” of t he European was “superior” t o that of t he other races. As different species, Blacks and Whites had been “placed at t he opposite extremes of t he scale.” The polygenesis l ecture l aunched Smith’s academic career: he became edi-tor of t he Medical and Physiological Journal, t enth president of t he Col-lege of William & Mary, and president of t he New York College of Physicians and Surgeons.

      Another example of a scion in academia using racial ideas to launch his career to prominence.

      This also provides a schism for a break between science and religion which we're still heavily dealing with in American culture.

    2. The American Bible Society, t he American Sunday School Union, and the American Tract Society were all established in this period, and they each used the printing press to besiege the nation with Bibles, t racts, pictures, and picture cards t hat would help to create a strong, unified, J esus-centered national i dentity. A good tract “should be entertaining,” announced the American Tract Society in 1824. “ There must be something to allure the listless to read.”

      This is also the same sort of cultural movement to happen to journalism with Hard Copy in the early 1980's.

    1. The result is that the readers of major news outlets are presented with an unrealistically benign picture of a darkly authoritarian, cult-like branch of Protestantism. That’s one reason I’m writing this essay.
    2. If any of you has a dispute with another, do you dare to take it before the ungodly for judgment instead of before the Lord’s people? 2 Or do you not know that the Lord’s people will judge the world? And if you are to judge the world, are you not competent to judge trivial cases? 3 Do you not know that we will judge angels? How much more the things of this life! 4 Therefore, if you have disputes about such matters, do you ask for a ruling from those whose way of life is scorned in the church? 5 I say this to shame you. Is it possible that there is nobody among you wise enough to judge a dispute between believers? 6 But instead, one brother takes another to court—and this in front of unbelievers!

      Interesting that this is interpreted in modern times in the same way as it was in ancient. A lot of this writing had to have been specific to it's political context at a time when keeping things in house was both to the benefit of the individuals as well as the Church which was a minority within a broader Roman protectorate.

      Why can't Christians manage to see any historical context for a 2000 year old document that is far from a living one?

    3. De facto, reputation and appearances become more important than people’s wellbeing, because authoritarian Christians are desperately afraid of the sense that any of their rigid, divinely prescribed rules do not actually work. Spoiler alert: they do not actually work.
    4. If you want to understand the Christian extremism that represents the single greatest threat to democracy and human rights in America today, it’s important to understand how authoritarian Christians read the Bible.

      Very likely true.

    1. If Henrich’s history of Christianity and the West feels rushed and at times derivative—he acknowledges his debt to Max Weber—that’s because he’s in a hurry to explain Western psychology.

      This adds more to my prior comment with the addition to Max Weber here. Cross reference some of my reading this past week on his influence on the prosperity gospel.

    2. By the time Protestantism came along, people had already internalized an individualist worldview. Henrich calls Protestantism “the WEIRDest religion,” and says it gave a “booster shot” to the process set in motion by the Catholic Church. Integral to the Reformation was the idea that faith entailed personal struggle rather than adherence to dogma. Vernacular translations of the Bible allowed people to interpret scripture more idiosyncratically. The mandate to read the Bible democratized literacy and education. After that came the inquiry into God-given natural (individual) rights and constitutional democracies. The effort to uncover the laws of political organization spurred interest in the laws of nature—in other words, science. The scientific method codified epistemic norms that broke the world down into categories and valorized abstract principles. All of these psychosocial changes fueled unprecedented innovation, the Industrial Revolution, and economic growth.

      Reading this makes me think about the political break in the United States along political and religious boundaries. Some of Trumps' core base practices a more personal religion and are generally in areas that don't display the level of individualism, but focus more on larger paternalistic families. This could be an interesting space for further exploration as it seems to be moving the "progress"(?) described by WEIRD countries backward.

    1. "Protestant" life of wealth and risk over the "Catholic" path of poverty and security.[8]

      Is this simply a restatement of the idea that most of "the interesting things" happen at the border or edge of chaos? The Catholic ethic is firmly inside the stable arena while that of the Protestant ethic is pushing the boundaries.

  3. Sep 2020
    1. “Oh, what heathen advice!” I thought to myself. “In this Christian country, what heathen advice!”

      This made me chuckle a bit. Collins challenges the tension between religion and science here. It's worth noting how it is during the Victorian period that England's Christianity was put to the test the most because of famous science figures of its time like Darwin.

    2. Sorrow and sympathy! Oh, what Pagan emotions to expect from a Christian Englishwoman anchored firmly on her faith

      What does it say about Clack's view of Christianity is sorrow and sympathy are pagan...

    3. But, oh, don’t let us judge! My Christian friends, don’t let us judge!

      You have been judging since you started speaking!

    4. When I had dropped another tract through the area railings, I felt relieved, in some small degree, of a heavy responsibility towards others

      Love how she did basically nothing, and then is like "I felt like I had done my duty towards others" Like all she did was stuff a track in the mailbox and walk away like she had converted her. We've seen some surely hypocritical Christian behavior from both Betteredge and Clack, and I wonder if this is meant as an inditement of those who think of themselves as good Christians, or if this is just meant to show that Betteredge and Clack aren't saints.

    5. The deity breathed the breath of his divinity on the Diamond in the forehead of the god

      The deep connection between the stone and the Indian god of the moon creates a sense of otherness and the supernatural for the readers, this whole "legend of the diamond" also reminds me a bit of Judeo-Christian traditions. Vishnu breathed life into the Diamond like God breathing life into Adam, the three Brahmin like the three Magi. I'd be interested to see as the story continues if these sorts of inter-religious elements reappear, and what they have to say.

    6. Christian

      In a mystery that I presume will highlight a person as the main detective, I find it kind of convenient that the moon-god (a god) has to be taken care of, transported, and worshipped in order to survive. To me that might show how the novel of the mystery is used to highlight humans’ intellect in place of a more traditional, humble stance relative to gods/religion/deities. This is also supported by the activity of all the people of different religion, but not the gods themselves (except in places where they are moved).

    1. Throughout the twentieth century, proponents of this particularly American blend of theology envisaged God as a kind of banker, dispensing money to the deserving, with Jesus as a model business executive. Both of these characterizations were, at times, literal: In 1936, New Thought mystic and founder of the Unity Church Charles Fillmore rewrote Psalm 23 to read, “The Lord is my banker/my credit is good”; in 1925, advertising executive Bruce Bowler wrote The Man Nobody Knows to argue that Jesus was the first great capitalist. The literal money quote reads, “Some day ... someone will write a book about Jesus. Every businessman will read it and send it to his partners and his salesmen. For it will tell the story of the founder of modern business.”

      Note the strong restructuring of god in line with capitalism

    2. These three strands collided throughout the twentieth century, as the prosperity gospel came into being. It started — like the “work ethic” Max Weber described — as a way to justify why, during the Gilded Age, some people were rich and others poor. (One early prosperity gospel proponent, Baptist preacher Russell H. Conwell, told his mostly-destitute congregation in 1915: “I say you ought to be rich; you have no right to be poor.”) Instead of blaming structural inequality, Conwell and those like him blamed the perceived failures of the individual.

      This philosophy also overlaps some of the resurgence of white nationalism and structural racism in the early 1900's which also tended to disadvantage people of color. ie, we can blame the coloreds because it's not structural inequality, but the failure of the individual (and the race.)

    3. A final strand of the development of the prosperity gospel was the development of charismatic Pentecostal churches in America. An umbrella term for a decentralized group of churches — comprising over 700 denominations — Pentecostal churches are characterized by an emphasis on what is known as “spiritual gifts” (or charisms, from which the term “charismatic” is drawn). A worshipful Christian might experience, for example, the gift of healing, or might suddenly start speaking “in tongues.” This tradition of worship meant that, for a believer, the idea that God would manifest Himself to the faithful in concrete, miraculous ways in the here and now was more prevalent than it would be in, say, a mainline Episcopalian church. In addition, the decentralized nature of these churches also meant that individual leaders, many of whom practiced faith healing or similar practices, had a particularly strong effect on their congregations and could build up individual personal followings.

      Take a look at the potential relationship with these ideas and those described by Colin Woodard in American Nations and the overlap with Kevin Phillips' viewpoints.

    4. Thus, New Thought thinker Ralph Waldo Trine (not to be confused with Ralph Waldo Emerson) could exhort his readers to “See yourself in a prosperous condition. Affirm that you will before long be in a prosperous condition.”

      This also sounds a bit like the general philosophy behind Napoleon Hill's Think and Grow Rich.

    5. As Laura Turner notes in an excellent piece for BuzzFeed, no theological tradition is as rife for accusations of hypocrisy as the “prosperity gospel,” a distinctively American theological tradition. While it’s popular among many evangelical Protestants, it’s been condemned by many others. But to many of its critics, especially since the election of Donald Trump, this tradition has come to represent the worst of the conflation of American-style capitalism, religion, and Republican party politics.
  4. Aug 2020
  5. Jul 2020
  6. Jun 2020
    1. Protestant organizations started mass-producing, mass-marketing, and mass-distributing i mages of J esus, who was always depicted as White. Protestants saw all t he aspirations of t he new American identity in the White Jesus—a racist idea that proved to be i n their cultural s elf-interest. As pictures of t his White J esus s tarted to appear, Blacks and Whites s tarted to make con-nections, c onsciously and unconsciously, between the White God the Father, his White son Jesus, and the power and perfection of White people.
    2. Second Great Awakening
  7. May 2020
  8. Apr 2020
    1. He that, in obedience to this command of God, subdued,tilled, and sowed any part of it, thereby annexed to it something thatwas his property, which another had no title to, nor could without injurytake from him

      In the video lecture that accompanied this source, it seemed to be that religion was extremely intertwined with the government and politics. Throughout the source the mention of God's will and what he gave man shows how strong religion played a role in creating Locke's view of philosophy and therefore his political views.

  9. Feb 2020
    1. Declaration of Independence

      We have the right to petition the government for redress of grievances

      That seems impractical these days with our government so big.

      We don't even write to our representatives in Congress. Why not? Maybe most of us don't think it would do any good.

      But if we don't stand up for our rights, they will gradually be taken away.

      Where is our militant faith? We're afraid of it being called hate speech.

      "Bigotry disguised as religious liberty is still bigotry"

      Republicanism is a country without a king. Protestantism is a church without a Pope.

      Pope Francis


      Protestantism is [religious] racism Well, I don't want to be a racist. I better not speak up. Affects free speech.

      Sunday sacredness is the mark of Catholic church's authority.

      "Ecumenism is not optional"

      The persecution from Catholic Church will return again renewed

  10. Dec 2019
    1. St. Petersburgh

      One of the northernmost cities in Russia, St. Petersburgh, along with the city Archangel mentioned below, has a name that suggests a journey with theological overtones as Robert Walton moves ever closer on his expedition to his aim of discovering the principle of life, magnetism, and thus symbolically the seat of God.

    2. I try in vain to be persuaded that the pole is the seat of frost and desolation; it ever presents itself to my imagination as the region of beauty and delight. There, Margaret, the sun is for ever visible; its broad disk just skirting the horizon, and diffusing a perpetual splendour.

      Robert imagines the cold North Pole as a sunny garden, suggesting a kind of Paradise as the destination toward which his scientific quest is moving. This is one of many affinities to Victor, whose fall into the profane knowledge of modern science also links him to Adam's expulsion from the Garden of Eden.

    3. he father of Safie had been the cause of their ruin. He was a Turkish merchant

      Mary Shelley seems to confuse "Turk" with "Arab" here, and more generally her picture of Safie's father as both suffering Christian religious prejudices (against Muslims) and acting as a wily, untrustworthy figure.

    4. Mahometan

      This word is an archaic term for Muslim, derived from Mahomet, a version of "Muhummad."

    5. claim the gratitude of his child so completely

      Rather than entertain the negative consequences of his creation, Victor imagines creating a race that will worship him.

    6. Christian Arab,

      There were a number of different denominations of Orthodox Christianity prevailing in Turkey at the time, which was predominantly Muslim under the Ottoman Empire.

    7. a Paradise of my own creation

      Walton's imagined "paradise" of his own making suggests the power of imagination, yet also the possibility of creating a Hell of one's own. It is also one of the novel's many allusions to John Milton's Paradise Lost.

    8. A new species would bless me as its creator and source

      The religious connotations of the passage connect Victor to the human project of playing God, much as Adam was said to be formed of clay. Historically, Jewish rabbis were also thought to have created golems from clay to seek revenge on enemies. However, following orders literally, the golems inevitably became destructive. Cautionary tales about technology and hubris were not only frequent in Shelley's time but have proliferated. In Karel Čapek's R.U.R (1920), for example, robots confound expectations by violently rebelling against their creators. Cadavers for anatomical training in this period were scarce, and thus a medical education meant to study and extend life also fostered serial killers who committed murders for the sake of selling fresh corpses. Such killing sprees were ended by the Anatomical Act of 1832 in England, which made corpses legally available for medical research.

    9. Paradise Lost.

      By citing Adam's question to God in John Milton's Paradise Lost, Mary Shelley makes Milton's epic the most important intertext of Frankenstein. In Book II, the Creature hears the poem read aloud, and begins to think of himself as either Adam or Satan.

    10. eternal light

      Compare John 8:12: "Then spake Jesus again unto them, saying, I am the light of the world: he that followeth me shall not walk in darkness, but shall have the light of life" (KJV).

      The concept of "eternal light" also resonates with the myth of Prometheus and the principles of Enlightenment as the simultaneous literal and figurative 'enlightening' brought by education, adventure, and discovery.

    11. Paracelsus and Albertus Magnus

      Paracelsus (1200-1280) was a medieval Swiss theologian and physician interested in alchemy and astrology, and a pioneer in the medical revolution of the German Renaissance. Albertus Magnus (1193-1280) was a German Catholic Dominican friar and bishop. Known as Albert the Great or later Saint Albert, Magnus also wrote on alchemy and was the first to comment on the writings of Aristotle and the teachings of Muslim academics, notably Avicenna and Averroes.

    12. Dante

      Victor refers to Italian Dante Alighieri's (1265-1321) Divine Comedy in which the poet journeys through the nine circles of Hell.

    1. the chivalrous train who shed their blood to redeem the holy sepulchre from the hands of the infidels

      The 1818 edition cites popular romance heroes admired by the young Henry Clerval, but the 1831 text replaces these with a religious reference to the holy wars of the Crusades, which took place in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries. The "chivalrous train" refers to the Christian knights of Europe who sought to regain control over the Holy Lands of the Levant. This passage is one of many places where Mary's 1831 revision becomes more explicitly religious than was the novel's original text.

    1. j’acceptais mon « incarnation » mais je ne voulais pas renoncer à l’universel

      Dualité entre particulier (Beauvoir accepte son « incarnation particulière », voire singulière – c'est un euphémisme!) et universel.

    2. Mais le fait est que je gardais une idée quasi religieuse de ce que j’appelais « ma destinée ».

      Toujours ce vocabulaire pénétré de religion, auquel Beauvoir mêle fluidement la question de sa vocation (« sa destinée »).

    3. en fait j’en restais barbouillée ; les tabous sexuels survivaient

      Beauvoir prétend se sortir du catholicisme, et pourtant des traces bien vivantes de la religion continues de la hanter (comme les tabous sexuels)

  11. Nov 2019
    1. En vérité, le mal dont je souffrais, [Page 299]c’était d’avoir été chassée du paradis de l’enfance

      conséquence d'avoir goûté au fruit défendu ?

    2. Quel silence ! La terre roulait dans un espace que nul regard ne transperçait, et perdue sur sa surface immense, au milieu de l’éther aveugle, j’étais seule.
    3. Le scepticisme paternel m’avait ouvert la voie ; je ne m’engageais pas en solitaire dans une aventure hasardeuse.
    4. au contraire, je m’aperçus qu’il n’intervenait plus dans ma vie et j’en conclus qu’il avait cessé d’exister pour moi.Je devais fatalement en arriver à cette liquidation. J’étais trop extrémiste pour vivre sous l’œil de Dieu en disant au siècle à la fois oui et non. D’autre part, j’aurais répugné à sauter avec mauvaise foi du profane au sacré et à affirmer Dieu tout en vivant sans lui. Je ne concevais pas d’accommodements avec le ciel. Si peu qu’on lui refusât, c’était trop si Dieu existait ; si peu qu’on lui accordât, c’était trop s’il n’existait pas.
    5. Mon père ne croyait pas ; les plus grands écrivains, les meilleurs penseurs partageaient son scepticisme ; dans l’ensemble, c’était surtout les femmes qui allaient à l’église ; je commençais à trouver paradoxal et troublant que la vérité fût leur privilège alors que les hommes, sans discussion possible, leur étaient supérieurs.
    6. Quel réconfort de le savoir là ! On m’avait dit qu’il chérissait chacune de ses créatures comme si elle avait été unique ; pas un instant son regard ne m’abandonnait, et tous les autres étaient exclus de notre tête-à-tête ; je les effaçais, il n’y avait au monde que Lui et moi, et je me sentais nécessaire à sa gloire : mon existence avait un prix infini. Il n’en laissait rien échapper : plus définitivement que sur les registres de ces demoiselles, mes actes, mes pensées, mes mérites s’inscrivaient en lui pour l’éternité ; mes défaillances aussi, évidemment, mais si bien lavées par mon repentir et par sa bonté qu’elles brillaient autant que mes vertus.

      Religion a grande importance pour son existence.

    7. Le soir, à la maison, ma mère respectait mon silencieux recueillement. Je notais sur [Page 99]un carnet les effusions de mon âme et des résolutions de sainteté. Je souhaitais ardemment me rapprocher de Dieu,

      écrit pour se rapprocher de Dieu

    8. la théorie du « coup de foudre sacramentel » : à la minute où les fiancés échangent devant le prêtre le oui qui les unit, la grâce descend sur eux, et ils s’aiment

      Amour et religion se mêlent inextricablement dans cet imaginaire social.

    9. dogmatisme

      Le dogmatisme peut être associé à la religion, ou à Kant, son principal représentant en philosophie.

    10. Je m’abîmai dans la lecture comme autrefois dans la prière. La littérature prit dans mon existence la place qu’y avait occupée la religion : elle l’envahit tout entière, et la transfigura. Les livres que j’aimais devinrent une Bible où je puisais des conseils et des secours ; j’en copiai de longs extraits ; j’appris par cœur de nouveaux cantiques et de nouvelles litanies, des psaumes, des proverbes, des prophéties et je sanctifiai toutes les circonstances de ma vie en me récitant ces textes sacrés. Mes émotions, mes larmes, mes espoirs n’en étaient pas moins sincères ; les mots et les cadences, les vers, les versets ne me servaient pas à feindre : mais ils sauvaient du silence toutes ces intimes aventures dont je ne pouvais parler à personne ; entre moi et les âmes sœurs qui existaient quelque part, hors d’atteinte, ils créaient une sorte de communion ; au lieu de vivre ma petite histoire particulière, je participais à une grande épopée spirituelle. Pendant des mois je me nourris de littérature : mais c’était alors la seule réalité à laquelle il me fût possible d’accéder.

      Dans ce passage, c'est la lecture et la littérature qui sauvent Beauvoir.

      Le rôle « spirituel » et « total » de la religion est remplacé par la littérature.

      La métaphore religieuse est employée partout pour rendre compte d'une correspondance entre littérature et religion.

      « Réalité » : la littérature est une forme du « réel » pour Beauvoir; elle comporte une forme d'accès au réel, voire d’accès à la connaissance (fonction épistémologique).

    11. Cependant la religion, l’histoire, les mythologies me suggéraient un autre rôle.

      La religion parle d'une vocation.

    1. when approaching indigenous artifacts from the lense of “how was this actually practical, how did it help them survive?” you can come up with a lot more compelling (and interesting) answers than assuming it’s all kooky religious nonsense!

      indigenous peoples, religion,

  12. Oct 2019
    1. The call for people to soberly “acknowledge” their White Privilege as a self-standing, totemic act is based on the same justification as acknowledging one’s fundamental sinfulness is as a Christian.

      Analogy Antiracism to Christianity

  13. newclasses.nyu.edu newclasses.nyu.edu
    1. changetheirmodeoflifewouldbevirtuallytochangetheirreligion.T

      that is literally what it is

    2. uringthenightIhadsucharavishingviewofthegloryofGodinChristthatIcouldnotsleep.Icouldonlylookupthroughtheholeatthetopofmybutandsin

      Sproat is extremely religious

    1. Je retrouverais le secret des grandes communications et des grandes combustions. Je dirais orage. Je dirais fleuve. Je dirais tornade. Je dirais feuille. Je dirais arbre. Je serais mouillé de toutes les pluies, humecté de toutes les rosées. Je roulerais comme du sang frénétique sur le courant lent de l’oeil des mots en chevaux fous en enfants frais en caillots en couvre-feu en vestiges de temple en pierres précieuses assez loin pour décourageur les mineurs. Qui ne me comprendrait pas ne comprendrait pas davantage le rugissement du tigre.

      Il désire s’identifier avec tous les opprimés de son pays et établir des liens avec eux avec le « secret des grandes communications. » Encore une fois, d’une manière biblique, Césaire se compare à Dieu. Tout comme dans l’Ancien Testament, Césaire contemple toutes les choses qu’il dirait comme « fleuve, […] tornade, […] feuille » et elles apparaîtront, comme s’il était Dieu. Avec ce pouvoir, il désire relâcher une terreur de catastrophes naturelles sur son pays pour qu’il puisse recommencer a nouveau. D’une certaine façon, Césaire ridiculise le catholicisme. C’est la religion des colonisateurs, ses oppresseurs, qu’ils ont imposée à son peuple. À mon avis, Césaire a une sorte de complexe de dieu tout au long de son poème. Pourtant, il se moque aussi du catholicisme en quelque sorte.

  14. Aug 2019
    1. Theirerrorsaremoreformidabletothemissionarythantheheathenismit

      The Catholic influence in the area is deemed as worse than the Native religious influences

    1. esicknccnwhichprevailedamongtheIndian038lastsummerwasinconaequcnoeofourcomingintothecountryandthothehissionaricewouldbringsick—noesupontheIndianaaloe"

      Natives believe missionaries bring sickness

    2. tappearstothemlikearenunciationofhhoirreligiOn(astheycallit)tozubnittoinstructionorzuuffartheirchildrento.ItitnotatallsurprisingthattheyshOuldfeelthuo..Theyarealmostallgrosslylyncrsntofovoxythlng‘connectod‘withdivinetruthbut'afewofthemeye:havingbeen:wheretheyhadnnopportuni:yofhaarinzof

      Ayers says that moving onto a Mission feels like giving up their Native religion

    3. heywouldretaintheircustoms&habitsIftheGreatSpirithaddeaignadtheyshouldbeinstructedtheywouldhavehadhiawordcommunicatedtothanbefore.."TheGreatSpiritdesignedtheyahouldhaveadifforentreligion&quotnmofromnhoWhites

      This is how Ayers describes the decision of the Ojibwe band to not listen to Christian teachings

    4. eathensuperstitions,towhichtheyarestronglyattached,andwhihhisagreathindrancetotheirreceivingthegosp

      The religion of the Natives gets in the way of the Christianizing process

    5. eetingthechild-renandotherswhoweredisposedtoco

      on Sabbaths when there was no interpreter, the children and anyone else free was collected to read scripture to

    6. eligiousexerciseontheSabbathfortheIndians

      Sabbath exercise for the Natives at La Pointe

    1. ReedseveralInd.Hymns,thiehIsungtothem.Aftersingingonetheseconddrthirdtimeoneortwoyoungmenjoined&tomysurprise,sungitquitewell.Theyaredelighted&surprisedtohearhymnssungintheirownlanguag

      Boutwell sings hymns in the Ojibwe language, which surprises the Natives

    2. hebeat’01"theIndra;dnmi;if:t'‘.h.‘.~.-''“S:‘.ig.‘at":‘J2‘3.H,i1‘3”‘3‘”“1017915'15850.her?-.-“FM?oiéiéha115111.61ofj”t1i§:¥a&;259§£liv.:nghe‘1éWatt

      Boutwell calls the Natives savages and essentially without religion

    3. hisbandisfarremovedfromallpresentcatholicinflu

      while this particular Ojibwe band shows signs of civilization, they are "far removed from all... catholic influence"

    4. nquirywasputtotheprincipalmen,theChiefbeingabsentEAgouldyouliketohaveahiseionarycome&livewithyou,instructyourchildren&tellyouaboutGod”?

      Boutwell (author) finally asks the question of the principal man (chief is gone) - if they would like a missionary to come and live with them, to instruct their children and teach them all about god? Principal man says only the chief can answer it

    5. 3Ihadnot[enjinterpreu'.bar,(ImaunabletocommunicatemuchmorethantoredsuchortioneofScrip.ghymns3.3werefamiliarton

      Does this mean that he has memorized some parts of scripture in the Native language of the people?

    6. hesoldiershavebeenemployeethegreaterpartofthedayincomingupwiththeirbaggage&canoestoourencampmen

      From this statement it appears that only the men of power truly practice the Sabbath, implying that the true practice of the Sabbath by the Natives is not as important as a conditioning toward the Christian "values"

    7. tone.momentourmenweresingingsomeInd.hymn-thenextaeongordancingtune-thenextmomentanInd.vauldbegintothumphiedrun&oing,thathemightmakehispartofthenoise,&rendertheSceneofconfusionmoreperf

      a combination of Christian Sabbath and Native participation (with their own traditions)

    8. AnoldInd.incompanywithus,passingalargestonerisinoutofthemiddleoftheriverlefthisofferingoftobaccotothe(Henito)spirit.

      Native offers tobacco to Menito spirit on the river

    9. twothirdsofthesettlementisunder'Epis.influ.ence.Healsogivesitashiso>inion,thattheprinciplemenoftheH.BayDepartment,wouldfavour&aidinMissionaryoperation

      2/3 of Red River Settlement is under Episcopal influence, and David Aitkins believes the Hudson Bay Dept would favor and help to establish a mission

    10. 35fluanceofE:A.thevialhasbeen1n4daside&cardsareintroduced9init”Lno.Sub.Juno3%.Tri;€77.thqunxun.LzuplaceintkagrLtdxhvtoIuoidk3.5"&dancing.ln:rcisnomaxi.ngJxlncaofSab.améqétnaée’cathoioFrenchman,bnanamongthelads.themselves.

      the author compares the lack of respect for the Sabbath of the french to how the Natives treat the Christian practice

  15. Jun 2019
    1. heInds.have:ehbampon.thisIsland,froasuperatitiouaideatheyentertain‘tksitsbaingtharesidenceofthebadSpir

      expedition sees Spirit Island, which is uninhabited by Natives because of belief of a bad spirit there

    2. PlacedbytheGovernmentasanAgenttothispeople,theiradvancementinthescaleofmoral&accountablebeings,istome,anobjectofhighimportance.AndIknownotwhatcouldhavesodirectaninnuenceinraisingthemtothedignityoflife,astheintroductionofChristianity[sic].Iamquitesatisnedthattheirpolitical,mustresultfromtheirmoralmelioration.Andthatallourattemptsinthewayofagriculture,schooling&themechanicarts,areliabletomiscarry&producenopermanentgood,unlesstheIndianmindcanbepurinedbygospeltruth,andcleansedfromthebesettingsinofabeliefinmagic,&fromidolatry&spirit-worship

      the only way to improve all aspects of Native life (agriculture and politics mentioned) is to Christianize them calls their current practices "the besetting sin of the belief in magic" and "idolatry & spirit-worship"

    3. benentstheywouldderivefromhavingschoolsandinreceivingthegospel,andtoldthemtheadvantagesoftheircultivatingtheirland.TheysaidthatwhatIhadtoldthemwasalltrue,andverygood.

      objectives: schools, gospel, land cultivation

  16. Apr 2019
    1. Akhenaton placed much emphasis on the worship of the Egyptian sun which can be seen from many artistic depictions of a connection between the Pharoh and his family.[28] Some debate has focused on the extent to which Akhenaten forced his religious reforms on his people.[29] Certainly, as time drew on, he revised the names of the Aten, and other religious language, to increasingly exclude references to other gods; at some point, also, he embarked on the wide-scale erasure of traditional gods' names, especially those of Amun.
    1. Then another email. “Thank you very much, just one more question, for technical reasons, would it suffice if we credit D. A. Kaplan or Kaplan ink?” I wrote back and said no, photo credit should be Deborah Abrams Kaplan. And then I asked what the technical reason was for the requested change. I wondered to myself if my name was too long. And then I wondered if it was because I am a woman. But I dismissed that thought as ridiculous, because they’re not using a photo of a woman, but rather a photo of matzah. For those who aren’t familiar with aspects of orthodox Jewish practice, some require keeping a strict separation between men and women, so as not to tempt the men.

      An orthodox Jewish publication wants to keep the full names of women hidden so badly, that it prefers to pay a lot money rather than address women as full human beings.

  17. Mar 2019
    1. Sometimes, they also hope to bestow good luck on deceased family members.

      Apparently laypeople will often give their deceased family member's favourite food in these cases — often a sweet treat!

  18. Feb 2019
    1. A commitment to conditionality lives at the intersection of economics and theology. It’s where lectures about the law of the marketplace meet sermons about what we must do to earn our way into heaven. Here, almost every human interaction, even among family members, is regarded as a kind of transaction.” “(Kids) shouldn’t be spared struggle and sacrifice”: underlying idea that others (blacks, women…) are getting “something for nothing”; “the undeserving” must go conspicuously unrewarded. “Without competition we would all be paid the same and people would get lazy.” – explicit link to inequality



    1. to serve God whatever their circumstances and lo support themselves through teaching if that hecame necessary.

      Oooo this is a very clever way to educate women so that they can support themselves. To serve God -- duh. Of course.

    2. too individualistic, devoid of the community feeling that should bind Chris� thms together.

      It's funny how today this view of how Christians should behave with/in society would probably be labeled as socialist (or, at least, not conservative).

    3. Especially helpful to Astell were the arguments of Descartes that extensive classical learning, from which women had been largely excluded. was not necessary to a vibrant intellectual life: All people were innately capable of reason. the key men· tal activity

      Aaaaaand here is where de Pizan would probably give her a high-five.

      More seriously, Christine de Pizan did something very similar to what I think Astell has done. They both seem to take the philosophical arguments made by famous male philosophers that were used against them/their sex/gender and instead make those philosophical arguments work with and for them/their sex/gender. Astell also seems to do this with religion.

    4. Madonella.

      Meaning "little Madonna" or "small Madonna." What is fascinating about this reference is the history behind the Madonnelle street shrines (little Madonnas) in Rome/other Italian cities. These little Madonnas were seen as the protectors of the communities in which they looked over (literally believed to be protecting them from evil). Also, lamps in front of the shrines were lit at night to guide passer-bys through the darkness, and, unlike other Madonna icons, these little Madonnas gazed directly at the viewer, establishing "a personal connection between the two." Maybe not such a ridicuous bluestocking figure to compare Mary Astell to afterall?

  19. Jan 2019
    1. ve hermeneu-tic
    2. isanyone who asks a lot of questions, refuses to accept simplistic dead-endanswers, is willing to bend rules to attain knowledge, and has a real senseof adventur

      Me, at every Sunday school before I realized that was not where I'd find any answers and stopped going....

    1. This is the meaning of the “Day of Resurrection,” spoken of in all the scriptures, and announced unto all people. Reflect, can a more precious, a mightier, and more glorious day than this be conceived, so that man should willingly forego its grace, and deprive himself of its bounties, which like unto vernal showers are raining from the heaven of mercy upon all mankind?

      I think this meaning is that "Resurrection" is the return of a Manifestation in another human frame. And this is stated to be clearly more glorious than the literal interpretations of past scripture.

      Why is it clearly more glorious?

      1. Everyone has access. And it leads to empowerment.
      2. It allows us to keep science, which is pretty awesome.
      3. It doesn't allow us to just wait for the rapture - see point 1 about empowerment.
      4. It allows us to see all religions as united in spirit.
      5. Related to point 3 and 4, it allows us to unite with non-religious people.
      6. All of this without "doing violence to the facts".
    1. The Victorian periodical The Westminster Review wrote that the introduction of gas lamps would do more to eliminate immorality and criminality on the streets than any number of church sermons.
  20. Oct 2018
  21. Sep 2018
    1. Huxley suggests that one source for a definition of what it means to be a human being is religion. In Brave New World, religion has been abolished and Christianity is a distant memory

      In his story, religion is completely abolished and along with this, is a sense of morality, what is good and what is bad. To a degree, it may not even be religion that is the basis of being human, rather it is just spiritual and moral values overall that holds the foundation for emotion and growth to take place.

    1. Many times in a morning, the generality of them would eat up all they had, and yet have some further supply against they wanted.

      This is a fascinating statement because Rowlandson is having the realization that God is behind the abundant provision that the Indigenous people. God holds no bias against who may receive His provision, so long as they seek to receive it. Let us consider Luke 12:24

      "Consider the ravens: They do not sow or reap, they have no storeroom or barn; yet God feeds them. And how much more valuable you are than birds!"

      In this moment within the book of Luke, Jesus is assuring His disciples that God will always provide for them, but also for all the living beings on earth.

    1. Isaiah 55.8: “For my thoughts are not your thoughts, neither are your ways my ways, saith the Lord.” And also that [in] Psalm 37.5: “Commit thy way unto the Lord; trust also in him; and he shall bring it to pass.”

      Focusing on the specific word "way", Jesus Christ states in the book of John "Jesus answered, “I am the way and the truth and the life. No one comes to the Father except through me." John 14:6. It seems to me that Mary is finding comfort or "revival" within these specific verses because they have to do with submission of one's human will to that of God's will.

    1. Mine eyes have seen

      "Mine eyes have seen" is a phrase that comes up numerous times throughout scripture (Luke 3:20) and it is also in the popular hymn, The Battle Hymn of the Republic, "Mine eyes have seen the glory of the coming of the Lord" A song which evokes a lot of faith and patriotism for many Americans

    2. Down I sat, with my heart as full as it could hold, and yet so hungry that I could not sit neither; but going out to see what I could find, and walking among the trees, I found six acorns, and two chestnuts, which were some refreshment to me.

      Again, hunger comes up. Mary speaks of both the need for nourishment both physically and spiritually.

    1. An obvious metaphysical question to raise here is the compatibility or otherwise of religion and transhumanism. In my 1990 essay that first set forth modern transhumanism as a distinct philosophy under that name, I explained how transhumanism (like humanism) can act as a philosophy of life that fulfills some of the same functions as a religion without any appeal to a higher power, a supernatural entity, to faith, and without the other core features of religions (More 1990). The central place accorded to rationalism suggests a tension between transhumanism and religion. But are they actually incompatible? Since rationalism is an approach to acquiring knowledge and says nothing about the content of knowledge, it is possible in principle for a transhumanist to hold some religious beliefs. And some do. The content of some religious beliefs is easier to reconcile with transhumanism than the content of others. Christian transhumanists, while not completely unknown, are very rare (and I know of none who are fundamentalists, and such a combination would surely indicate deep confusion). There are more Mormon transhumanists (although some of these are cultural rather than religious Mormons), perhaps because that religion allows for humans to ascend to a higher, more godlike level, rather than sharply dividing God from man. Several transhumanists describe themselves as Buddhists (presumably of the secular, philosophical type), and there seem to be few obstacles to combining transhumanism with liberal Judaism. However, the vast majority of transhumanists do not identify with any religion. A pilot study published in 2005 found that religious attitudes were negatively correlated with acceptance of transhumanist ideas. Those with strong religious views tended to regard transhumanism as competing with their beliefs (Bainbridge 2005).

      Having a strong belief system is naturally integral for humans. Religion is by far the most common, profound form of human belief systems, so it is relevant to propose the question of transhumanism and religion being incompatible. While it is possible that the basis of each religion can contribute to an individual's probability of simultaneously believing in transhumanism, having a belief system that consists of both beliefs would presumably be rather conflicting for any individual to concurrently believe in.

    2. From here comes the emphasis on progress (its possibility and desirability, not its inevitability), on taking personal charge of creating better futures rather than hoping or praying for them to be brought about by supernatural forces, on reason, technology, scientific method, and human creativity rather than faith.

      The author further increases the gap between transhumanism and religion by stating that transhumanism goes against relying on faith which is the core value of most religions. furthermore we can come to a conclusion that the concept of transhumanism requires absolute dedication of individual people to progress.

  22. Aug 2018
    1. IF WE ADMIT for the moment that the fascist and communist challenges to liberalism are dead, are there any other ideological competitors left? Or put another way, are there contradictions in liberal society beyond that of class that are not resolvable? Two possibilities suggest themselves, those of religion and nationalism.
    1. In reading this I almost suspect that it may have been more valuable to have had a book-length version of this a la JD Vance's Hillbilly Elegy to have become popular before the 2016 election than to have had Hillbilly Elegy.

    2. In the New Testament, familial metaphors are frequently used to describe Christians and what came to be construed as the universal Church. Christians are “brothers” and “sisters” to one another. Weirdly, collectively they are also the body and the bride of Christ. Wives are commanded to submit to their husbands “as you do to the Lord. For the husband is the head of the wife as Christ is the head of the church, his body, of which he is the Savior” (Ephesians 5:22-23). This teaching of male headship is, of course, a source of much abuse of women in conservative Christian circles, and evangelical pastors have been known to abuse, to sweep abuse under the rug, and to counsel women that they must remain in abusive marriages since, after all, Jesus himself forbade divorce, and God can use suffering for good.

      And of course this also likely the source of American mores which have delivered us the power struggle that results in abuses which have boiled over into the MeToo scandals.

    3. I think it’s important for liberal Americans who do not come from a patriarchal religious background to hear our stories and to sit with that shock. Why? Because I remain convinced that if American civil society and the American press fail to come to grips with just how radically theocratic the Christian Right is, any kind of post-Trump soft landing scenario in which American democracy recovers a healthy degree of functionality is highly unlikely.

      I haven't directly experienced this patriarchal religious background to the extreme that the writer has, but I grew up in "Jesus Land" and know it exists. I suspect he's largely correct here.

  23. Jun 2018
    1. ...I remain convinced that if American civil society and the American press fail to come to grips with just how radically theocratic the Christian Right is, any kind of post-Trump soft landing scenario in which American democracy recovers a healthy degree of functionality is highly unlikely.


      readers of major news outlets are presented with an unrealistically benign picture of a darkly authoritarian, cult-like branch of Protestantism.

  24. Apr 2018
    1. Pascuas

      n. Easter

    2. Melchor

      n. Saint Melchior, or Melichior, was purportedly one of the Biblical Magi along with Caspar and Balthazar who visited the infant Jesus after he was born. Melchior was often referred to as the oldest member of the Magi. He was traditionally called the King of Persia and brought the gift of gold to Jesus.

    3. el Buey

      n. castrated male cow; one usually found on Christmas nativity scenes

    4. San Dionisio

      n. Denis of Paris;Saint Denis was a legendary 3rd-century Christian martyr and saint. According to his hagiographies, he was bishop of Paris in the third century and, together with his companions Rusticus and Eleutherius, was martyred for his faith by decapitation.

    5. el Asno

      n. donkey; one usually found on Christmas nativity scenes

    6. Reyes Magos

      n. the (Three) Wise Men or (Three) Kings, were, in the Gospel of Matthew and Christian tradition, a group of distinguished foreigners who visited Jesus after his birth, bearing gifts of gold, frankincense and myrrh.

    7. Vírgenes de manto azul celeste

      n. The typical virgin on a manger is usually one with a sky blue mantel. In Cuba, the Virgin most commonly associated with the Virgin of Charity.

    8. corderos pascuales

      n. Lamb that the Israelites were commanded to eat with peculiar rites as part of the Passover celebration. It has always been the constant belief in the Christian tradition that the Paschal Lamb prefigured symbolically Christ, "the Lamb of God," who redeemed the world through the shedding of his Blood, and particularly at the feast of the Eucharist, or new Easter.

  25. Feb 2018
  26. Nov 2017
    1. Negro. Master Christian/I give you a thousand hearty Thanks for this ac-count of your Religion & Philosophy, which no doubt is the best and noblest of all others: Therefore if these be your Christian Principles, I am already a Dis-ciple, but I beseech you be in good earnest, and tell me the truth.

      The title of Sambo here changes from Slave to Negro. The change happens directly after the master enlightens Sambo on the ways of Christianity. This indicates a newly found freedom. The knowledge of Christianity has, to some degree, made both Sambo and the Master equals.Master's title would imply that nothing has changed, but this can be attributed to a change in the meaning of master. Now master takes on the role of teacher and invokes the religious inflection of imparting wisdom.

    1. Fast days and Thanksgivings were emphatically religious occasions

      Another piece of evidence that states thanksgiving and fast days were religious occasions. very important and consistent theme within the argument

    2. religious occasions, intended to invoke God’s help to cope with hardships, or to offer God thanks for positive developments.

      thanksgiving was more of a religious experience; one where the relationship between God and the people was reflected upon and strengthened.

  27. Oct 2017
    1. superstitious ceremonies

      Its interesting that both translations use the word "superstitious" here. Something tells me the Spanish would have used "religious".

  28. Sep 2017
    1. ceremonies, and they attempted to destroy native symbolic objects, such as masks and kachina dolls. At the same time, the de-mands for forced labor from both the state and the church left almost no time for the natives to cultivate their own lands.

      I wonder what Bible did the Spanish carry with them. According to reformed.org the Geneva Bible was the most popular book of testimony in England during the 15th and 16th centuries. Perhaps the Spanish carried and studied the Geneva Bible as well. A verse from the book reads, 1 Corinthians 10:31-32 "Whether therefore ye eat, or drink, orwhatsoever ye do, do all to the glory of God. Give none offence, neither to the Jews, nor to the Gentiles, nor to the church of God:" This verse states that other religions should be tolerated. If so, why didn't the Spanish tolerate the spiritual beliefs of the natives?

      Another verse from the book reads, "17 For Christ sent me not to baptize, but to preach the Gospel, not with wisdom of words, lest the cross of Christ should be made of none effect." From my understanding, in this verse Peter, (Jesus's apostle) states that he was sent to preach but not to "baptize" or convert others. If the Spanish practiced the verses of this book then why did they harshly force Christianity to the natives?

    1. the benefits & blessings of which the legislature now propose to provide for the good

      The authors of the Rockfish Gap Report affirm that religious worship is not conducive to a truly liberal arts education, going so far as to propose "no professor of Divinity." Yet religious language is smatter throughout the document (such as "blessings," "faithfulness," and "religious worship.") In the Virginia Statue for Religious Freedom which Thomas Jefferson also drafted, it is written,"all men shall be free to profess, and by argument to maintain, their opinions in matters of religion, and that the same shall in no wise diminish, enlarge, or affect their civil capacities." In this way, the assertions of both texts are consistent, but the biases of the authors are apparent in their use of religious language. This demonstrates that a collective view of what a society should be is not necessarily reflected in individual beliefs.

    2. In conformity with the principles of our constitution, which places all sects of religion on an equal footing

      I wonder what the authors of the Rockfish Gap report meant by "all sects of religion?" Did they mean all different kinds of religion, such as Hinduism, Christianity, and Islam, or did they merely mean the various sects of Christianity? I do think that the authors meant all different kinds of religions. However, the authors' meaning of "religion" can be called into question just as Thomas Jefferson's meaning of "men" in the Declaration of Independence because of its broad nature as a word. Furthermore, I wonder if there really was equality of "all sects of religion" in practice at the University of Virginia because UVA, similar to the United States, often times did not practice what it claimed to practice in reality. It is worth noting that while the Rockfish Gap Report did not specify the religious practice of the University's founders and only covered the topic of religion briefly, the founding charter of Yale University specifies the faith of its founders as followers of the "Christian Protestant Religion." Did Yale place a greater emphasis on religion or even favor Christian Protestants, while UVA treated all religions equally? -- David Gazewood

    3. Hebrew

      I was surprised to see that Hebrew was on the course list. At this point in time, the American Jewish population was very, very small. I suspect this would have been taught in the context of history, relating to the bible, as the old testament was written in biblical/classical Hebrew. From what I know about Western education historically, many of the "humanities" type subjects were very interdisciplinary, so I could understand religion and history being incorporated into this course.

    4. and tho rather, as the proofs of the being of a god, the creator, preserver, & supreme ruler of the universe, the author of all the relations of morality, & of the laws & obligations these infer, will be within the province of the professor of ethics;

      It is noteworthy that the authors of the report choose to place these matters of religion under the jurisdiction of the department of ethics. It sets up an interesting relationship between religion and ethics. The document suggests that it is more responsible to think in terms of ethics than in terms of religion. This reminds me of Jefferson's personal Bible, in which he omitted anything miraculous or scientifically problematic. I think we see strong traces of his influence in this paragraph.

    5. in which may be rooms for religious worship under such impartial regulations as the visitors shall prescribe, for public examinations, for a Library, for the schools of music, drawing, and other associated purposes

      This follows with the vision that learning the central tenant of the University as opposed to religion like it was at others. While "rooms for religious worship" are mentioned, they are simply one entry on a laundry list.

    1. la gran victoria que Nuestro Señor me ha dado

      Analizando las palabras ¨la gran victoria" y "Nuestros Señor" formuladas por Cristóbal Colón en su primer reporte de viaje, se refleja la relación entre estado y religión. ¿Conoces algún otro contexto histórico donde el estado y la religión han trabajado juntos para exportar el sistema socioeconómico y cultural?

  29. May 2017
    1. Arise, O Lord, and judge your own cause. Remember your reproaches to those who are filled with foolishness all through the day. Listen to our prayers, for foxes have arisen seeking to destroy the vineyard whose winepress you alone have trod. When you were about to ascend to your Father, you committed the care, rule, and administration of the vineyard, an image of the triumphant church, to Peter, as the head and your vicar and his successors.

      Pope Leo starts the text with a direct criticism to the Martin Luther King's action where he calls him a foolish person who is abandoning the religion. He is referring Jesus who is full of care and he himself is like a voice of Jesus who is on the earth to give people his message about the religion. To me this is a direct attack on the actions of Martin Luther by calling him a traitor who has gone against the religion. Destroying the vineyard is like destroying the religious teaching that Jesus has provided people.

    2. Let all this holy Church of God, I say, arise, and with the blessed apostles intercede with almighty God to purge the errors of His sheep, to banish all heresies from the lands of the faithful, and be pleased to maintain the peace and unity of His holy Church.

      I beleive this is a religious statement. The Pope is pleading with God the sway the heresies back to the Roman Catholic religion.

    3. That heretics be burned is against the will of the Spirit.

      This could tie in with politic and religion but on the religion side heretics were being burned at the stake which against the Spirt is a sin to God. But, the church had control of the Bible and of they could transfer God's meaning which meant that men such as John Hus and John Wyclif were burned at the stake unable to call out the church and complete their mission.

    4. Christians must be taught to cherish excommunications rather than to fear them.

      This ties in with religion and also somewhat with politics due to the factor of excommunication. This passage communicates what Luther set out to accomplish standup to the church and their corrupt unjust ways. Luther stood by what he believed in and cherishing that excommunication which gave us Lutheranism.

    5. rising

      I agree with the points made by Ssamo1 The Pope is trying hard to tell people to stick to the traditional Catholic practices and shun the reformatory ideas of Martin Luther. He is being religiously appealing for people of that time because he knew that those who have believed in Roman Catholicism and have been loyal to the Pope, Peter and the Church will listen to him and consider Martin Luther and his reformation as prime evil. These words work powerfully from religious as well as from the political perspective.

    6. Finally, let the whole church of the saints and the rest of the universal church arise. Some, putting aside her true interpretation of Sacred Scripture, are blinded in mind by the father of lies. Wise in their own eyes, according to the ancient practice of heretics, they interpret these same Scriptures otherwise than the Holy Spirit demands, inspired only by their own sense of ambition, and for the sake of popular acclaim, as the Apostle declares. In fact, they twist and adulterate the Scriptures. As a result, according to Jerome, "It is no longer the Gospel of Christ, but a man's, or what is worse, the devil's." Let all this holy Church of God, I say, arise, and with the blessed apostles intercede with almighty God to purge the errors of His sheep, to banish all heresies from the lands of the faithful, and be pleased to maintain the peace and unity of His holy Church.

      Here, the Pope is reiterating the fact that the Roman Catholic church is the universal church of the land. He also argues that some are not true believers and accuses them of heresy, saying that they twist the scriptures to meet their own agenda. He is so strong in his faith that he felt the need to call others out when they were misusing God's word.

    7. Against the Roman Church, you warned, lying teachers are rising, introducing ruinous sects, and drawing upon themselves speedy doom. Their tongues are fire, a restless evil, full of deadly poison. They have bitter zeal, contention in their hearts, and boast and lie against the truth.

      In the bible, Peter was one of Jesus' first disciples, beliebed to be the firs pope, and was also the first apostle ordained by Jesus himself. Peter warned of false teachings and how the Devil will tempt us. In this excerpt, the Pope was is referencing Peter's words and is in a way asking for his help. This reference of the Bible shows that he values his religion and is using the words of the Bible when disagreeing with Luther.

    8. Germans, truly germane to the Catholic faith, have always been the bitterest opponents of heresies, as witnessed by those commendable constitutions of the German emperors in behalf of the Church's independence

      Here Pope Leo is accusing the Germans of being bitter toward the Catholic religion. His statement is showing that he condemns the Germans for not following the beliefs and in the interest of religion.

    1. Now that Italy is sucked dry, they come to Germany and begin very quietly; but if we look on quietly Germany will soon be brought into the same state as Italy.

      While many people can find salvation in religion, this passage speaks about how it brought Italy nothing but destruction and loss of money. Instead of having a positive impact on the country, it was negative. Once the cardinals had taken all of Italy's money they were forced to move on to Germany to accomplish their task of leaving it in the same state as they did Italy.

    2. He wears a triple crown, whereas the mightiest kings only wear one crown.

      Here, he is saying that the Pope is more powerful than even the mightiest of kings. He says that the while kings are powerful, their power does not compare to that of the Church and the Pope.

    3.  Now that Italy is sucked dry, they come to Germany and begin very quietly; but if we look on quietly Germany will soon be brought into the same state as Italy.

      Luther was discouraged by the Catholic Church and how they were looking for money in exchange for forgiveness of sins. His concern in this statement is how people are true to their religion and he doesn't feel as though Catholics have been and doesn't want that to happen in Germany.

  30. Apr 2017
    1. jesuitically

      The Society of Jesus, called the Jesuits, an order of Catholic priests, was established in 1540 by Ignatius of Loyola. The Jesuits were renowned for being teachers and scholars. They also had a reputation for being wily and able to twist words and rules to their own ends. Hence, calling something "jesuitical" means that the logic or reasoning behind it is suspect.

    1. in Adam all sinned

      The doctrine of original sin was originally developed by St. Augustine. As a part of Christian theology, it explains humanity's tendency towards sin as the direct result of Adam and Eve eating the forbidden fruit in the Garden of Eden. Adam and Eve, on the Sistine Chapel ceiling, by Michelangelo

    1. Mahomet like

      "Mahomet" refers to the Prophet Muhammad. Europeans in the eighteenth century had a very negative view of Islam. This may refer to Voltaire's 1742 play Mahomet, a direct attack on the character of Muhammad, in which Mahomet is depicted as using his power, religious fanaticism, and the pretense of divine right to act as an absolute ruler.

    1. Popish

      Popish is a (slightly derogatory) term for Catholics. Most Protestants believed that Catholicism was overly ritualistic to the point of idolatry and that the Pope was no better than a despot. To be under "Popish" rule was the worst fear of many Englishmen.

    1. "When I was a child my father had a slave who taught me to pray the Christian prayer in my own language, and told me many things about Lela Marien. The Christian died, and I know that she did not go to the fire, but to Allah, because since then I have seen her twice, and she told me to go to the land of the Christians to see Lela Marien, who had great love for me. I know not how to go. I have seen many Christians, but except thyself none has seemed to me to be a gentleman. I am young and beautiful, and have plenty of money to take with me. See if thou canst contrive how we may go, and if thou wilt thou shalt be my husband there, and if thou wilt not it will not distress me, for Lela Marien will find me some one to marry me. I myself have written this: have a care to whom thou givest it to read: trust no Moor, for they are all perfidious. I am greatly troubled on this account, for I would not have thee confide in anyone, because if my father knew it he would at once fling me down a well and cover me with stones. I will put a thread to the reed; tie the answer to it, and if thou hast no one to write for thee in Arabic, tell it to me by signs, for Lela Marien will make me understand thee. She and Allah and this cross, which I often kiss as the captive bade me, protect thee."

      Davary also mentions that Mary is very well revered in muslim society especially amongst women. This conflicts with the author's words that Zoraida was introduced to Mary through a christian slave of her fathers. Zoraida most likely was exposed to the Virgin her entire life, even before the slave that introduced to her christian prayer.

  31. jordanbpeterson.com