229 Matching Annotations
  1. Last 7 days
    1. "For example, human annotators rarely reached agreement when they were asked to label tweets that contained words from a lexicon of hate speech. Only 5% of the tweets were acknowledged by a majority as hate speech, while only 1.3% received unanimous verdicts."

      This seems shocking to me.

    2. Well, no. I oppose capital punishment, just as (in my view) any ethical person should oppose capital punishment. Not because innocent people might be executed (though that is an entirely foreseeable consequence) but because, if we allow for capital punishment, then what makes murder wrong isn't the fact that you killed someone, it's that you killed someone without the proper paperwork. And I refuse to accept that it's morally acceptable to kill someone just because you've been given permission to do so.

      Most murders are system 1-based and spur-of-the-moment.

      System 2-based murders are even more deplorable because in most ethical systems it means the person actively spent time and planning to carry the murder out. The second category includes pre-meditated murder, murder-for-hire as well as all forms of capital punishment.

  2. Jul 2021
    1. or Jonas, one of the questions we must face is this“What force shall represent the future in the present?”

      This is a pressing question which our governments pay far too little attention to.

    2. e book does not wholly succeed, but Jonas’s central idea ispowerful and has not been given the attention it deserves. !at ideaarises from one governing insight: Under technocratic modernity,“the altered nature of human action, with the magnitude andnovelty of its works and their impact on man’s global future, raisesmoral issues for which past ethics, geared to the dealings of manwith his fellow-men within narrow horizons of space and time, has

      left us unprepared.” Although Heidegger found it necessary, in his attempt to rethink metaphysics, to go back to the insights of the pre-Socratic philosophers, Jonas does not believe that any earlier thinkers hold the key to the ethical challenge posed by technocratic modernity, because no previous society possessed powers that could extend its reach so far in both space and time. A wholly new ethics is required, and is required simply because of the scope of our technologies.

      Hans Jonas, a student of Martin Heidegger, argues in The Imperative of Responsibility, that modern technology requires a new ethical framework because no previous societies possessed the technical powers to extend their reach so far in time and space as ours currently do.

  3. Jun 2021
    1. objective function that tries to describe your ethics

      We can't define ethics and human values in objective terms.

    2. many other systems that are already here or not far off will have to make all sorts of real ethical trade-offs

      And the problem is that, even human beings are not very sensitive to how this can be done well. Because there is such diversity in human cultures, preferences, and norms, deciding whose values to prioritise is problematic.

  4. May 2021
    1. O’Connor, D. B., Aggleton, J. P., Chakrabarti, B., Cooper, C. L., Creswell, C., Dunsmuir, S., Fiske, S. T., Gathercole, S., Gough, B., Ireland, J. L., Jones, M. V., Jowett, A., Kagan, C., Karanika‐Murray, M., Kaye, L. K., Kumari, V., Lewandowsky, S., Lightman, S., Malpass, D., … Armitage, C. J. (2020). Research priorities for the COVID‐19 pandemic and beyond: A call to action for psychological science. British Journal of Psychology. https://doi.org/10.1111/bjop.12468

  5. Apr 2021
    1. People can take the conversations with willing co-workers to Signal, Whatsapp, or even a personal Basecamp account, but it can't happen where the work happens anymore.

      Do note that two of the three systems that Fried use for examples are private. In other words, only people who you explicitly want to see what you're writing will see just that.

      This goes against his previous actions somewhat, e.g. https://twitter.com/jasonfried/status/1168986962704982016

    2. Sensitivities are at 11, and every discussion remotely related to politics, advocacy, or society at large quickly spins away from pleasant. You shouldn't have to wonder if staying out of it means you're complicit, or wading into it means you're a target.

      This is something that even pre-Socratic philosophers discussed. Not saying something is also saying something.

      Most of what is done by and in a capitalist company is supported by a certain rationale: to make as much money as possible for your shareholders.

      If you care about making money, you speak out against injustices; These injustices could be logical, moral, ethical, or a mixture.

      The phrase 'It's become too much' is a bit vague from Fried, who has written books that advocate speaking out, e.g. 'It Doesn't Have To Be Crazy At Work'.

    1. You do not need to use your real name or identity on any public-facing work that you do in this course.

      Thank you for this, it's great to see in a syllabus!

  6. Mar 2021
    1. the community is both endlessly creative and genuinely interested in solving big issues in meaningful ways. Whether it's their commitment to careful (and caring) community stewardship or their particular strain of techno-ethics, I have been consistently (and pleasantly) surprised at what I've seen during the last twelve months. I don't always see eye-to-eye with their decisions and I don't think that the community is perfect, but it's consistently (and deliberately) striving to be better, and that's a fairly rare thing, online or off.
    1. But anything that reduced engagement, even for reasons such as not exacerbating someone’s depression, led to a lot of hemming and hawing among leadership. With their performance reviews and salaries tied to the successful completion of projects, employees quickly learned to drop those that received pushback and continue working on those dictated from the top down.

      If the company can't help regulate itself using some sort of moral compass, it's imperative that government or other outside regulators should.

  7. Feb 2021
    1. What is the relationship between design, power, and social justice? “Design justice” is an approach to design that is led by marginalized communities and that aims explicitly to challenge, rather than reproduce, structural inequalities. It has emerged from a growing community of designers in various fields who work closely with social movements and community-based organizations around the world.

      Alles wat niet wordt gedisciplineerd en gestructureerd door natuurwetenschappelijke wetmatigheden hangt samen met de menselijke creativiteit en behoeften. Van de inrichting van steden tot de inrichting van de maatschappij hebben we te maken met het ontwerpactiviteiten. De relatie tussen die inrichting en het gedrag van gebruikers waarvoor die inrichting is bedoeld is een vrij complexe. Of zoals Churchill het eens (1943) verwoordde:

      “We shape our buildings, thereafter they shape us.”

      Niet veel later (1967) werd een vergelijkbare uitspraak (ten onrechte) toegeschreven aan McLuhan:

      "We shape our tools, and thereafter our tools shape us."

      Degene die deze uitspraak deed, John Culkin, illusteerde dit aan de hand van de intrede van de auto

      Once we have created a car, for example, our society evolves to make the car normal, and our behavior adapts to accommodate this new normal.

      De wederkerige invloed (performativiteit) van al hetgeen de mens creëert (uiteenlopend van gebouwen en apparaten tot 'simme steden' en algoritmes) is een belangrijk om te begrijpen dat een ontwerp meer is dan kenmerk dat het gebruik bevorderd. Ontwerpkenmerken hebben blijkbaar wederkerig effect op het menselijk gedrag. Ze zetten niet alleen aan tot gedrag dat is bedoeld en wordt getriggerd door de affordances van het ontwerp: unieke relatie tussen de kenmerken van een ‘ding’ in samenhang met een gebruiker die beïnvloedt hoe dat ding wordt gebruikt. Een relatie die verder gaat dan een eenzijdige perception-action coupling.

      Met betrekking tot sociale media kunnen we bijvoorbeeld spreken van 'transactional media effects':

      "... outcomes of media use also influence media use. Transactional media-effects models consider media use and media effects as parts of a reciprocal over-time influence process, in which the media effect is also the cause of its change (Früh & Schönbach, 1982)."

      Het gegeven dat ontwerpers vaak alleen de positieve ervaring van gebruikers voor ogen hebben is volgens Danah Abdulla niet constructief.

      "...optimism in design is not always constructive. In fact, it hinders the politicization of designers. If design is going to contribute to tools that can change the world positively, it must begin to embrace pessimism."

    1. Carl T. Bergstrom. (2020, December 5). I don’t have a background in medical ethics but this makes me uncomfortable unless it was very clearly explained to study participants at enrollment, and to some degree even then. H/t @RMCarpiano https://t.co/WUE1mXgjJG https://t.co/yLXkxIa5O8 [Tweet]. @CT_Bergstrom. https://twitter.com/CT_Bergstrom/status/1335152266840424449

    1. Most business writing lacks a meaningful engagement with the question of whether the strategies, tactics, and trends on offer are good, in a larger and longer term sense. It is negligent not to address these questions.

      Very few businesses consider the long term effects of their work...

    1. it might be killing three times the number of cyclists over a million rides than another model

      Fair enough. But then we should also make the counter-argument...how many motorists did the self-driving car save in the same period?

      I know that this is a tricky ethical scenario and I'm not trivialising it, but these arguments are overly simplistic and one-sided.

  8. Jan 2021
    1. The submitted manuscript is a privileged communication; reviewers must treat it as confidential. It should not be retained or copied. Also, reviewers must not share the manuscript with any colleagues without the explicit permission of the editor. Reviewers and editors must not make any personal or professional use of the data, arguments, or interpretations (other than those directly involved in its peer review) prior to publication unless they have the authors' specific permission or are writing an editorial or commentary to accompany the article.

      Etika untuk Mitra Bestari

    2. The reviewer should have identified and commented on major strengths and weaknesses of study design and methodology The reviewer should comment accurately and constructively upon the quality of the author's interpretation of the data, including acknowledgment of its limitations. The reviewer should comment on major strengths and weaknesses of the manuscript as a written communication, independent of the design, methodology, results, and interpretation of the study. The reviewer should comment on any ethical concerns raised by the study, or any possible evidence of low standards of scientific conduct. The reviewer should provide the author with useful suggestions for improvement of the manuscript. The reviewer's comments to the author should be constructive and professional The review should provide the editor the proper context and perspective to make a decision on acceptance (and/or revision) of the manuscript.

      Poin-poin yang mejadi tolok ukur mitra bestari dalam melakukan review

    3. to provide written assessment of the strengths and weaknesses of written research, with the aim of improving the reporting of research and identifying the most appropriate and highest quality material for the journal

      Tujuan dari peninjauan sejawat (peer-review) adalah mengetahui kekuatan dan kelemahan naskah sehingga dapat dilakukan peningkatan mutu.

    4. Authorship

      semua orang yang berkontribusi secara substansial terhadap proses perencanaan, pengumpulan data, interpretasi hasil maupun penulisan dan merevisi naskah secara kritis dan menyetujui manuskrip versi akhir dan setuju untuk bertanggung jawab atas semua aspek pekerjaan. Setiap orang yang memenuhi kriteria pertama harus diizinkan berpartisipasi dalam penyusunan dan persetujuan manuskrip versi final (ICMJE 2017). Penulis pertama haruslah seseorang yang berkontribusi paling banyak.

      https://www.ease.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2018/11/doi.10.20316.ESE_.2018.44.e1.in_.pdf

    5. Animal experiments should require full compliance with local, national, ethical, and regulatory principles, and local licensing arrangements

      Demikian juga dengan penggunaan hewan sebayak objek kajian, harus mengikuti standar etika yang berlaku (Helsinki).

    6. Journals should have explicit policies as to whether these review board approvals must be documented by the authors, or simply attested to in their cover letter, and how they should be described in the manuscript itself

      Seminimal mungkin, penulis harus menyampaikan keputusan etik dari komisi etik dan lebih ideal lagi jika menyertakan surat keputusan bebas etiknya.

    7. For those investigators who do not have access to formal ethics review committees, the principles outlined in the Declaration of Helsinki should be followed

      Jika tidak memungkinkan untuk diperoleh hasil review etik, penulis seharusnya secara explisit menjelaskan apakah pelaksanaan kajian sesuai dengan Deklarasi Helsinki atau mereka memiliki pandangan lain.

    8. Documented review and approval from a formally constituted review board (Institutional Review Board or Ethics committee) should be required for all studies involving people, medical records, and human tissues

      Penulis harus menyertakan keterangan bebas review yang diterbitkan oleh komisi etik penelitian kesehatan.

    9. Fabrication, falsification, concealment, deceptive reporting, or misrepresentation of data constitute scientific misconduct

      Untuk mencapai kualitas terbaik pada ilmu pengetahuan yang diterbitkan, kajian harus terbebas dari permasalahan etika tersebut

  9. Dec 2020
    1. The settlement of the res-titution claims made by the Italian government against the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York, the Getty Museum in Malibu, and the Cleveland Museum of Art and the return to Italy of looted antiquities raise ques-tions about the integrity of some museum directors and trustees – well-informed people whom one would expect to be the guardians and defenders of the past, not par-ticipants in the commercial processes which lead to its destruction.

      The museum directors definitely should know and have some subject area expertise here, but likely the trustees wouldn't have. While the museum directors should educate them, the financial position the trustees have will almost always tend to drown out the better angels of the museum directors who rely on those trustees' support.

      Part of the question is how to redesign the structural support underpinning the system to help ensure more ethical outcomes.

    2. Chairman Mao coined the slogan “Let the past serve the present,” but that was sometimes used as an excuse for the deliberate destruction of ancient things.

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  10. Nov 2020
    1. Because medicines have healing or minimizing the negative effects of an illness or an injury as their end, they are good for the human person even if they have deleterious side effects. Thus, chemotherapy to treat a cancer is justifiable by the principle of double effect even if it leads to the foreseen but unintended detrimental consequences of nausea, hair loss, and fatigue (Cataldo 1995). This essay does not address or evaluate the legitimacy of the medical use of marijuana. We note, however, that there are significant blurred boundaries between medical and recreational uses: multiple studies have found that those who used marijuana for purported medical reasons also used it for recreational reasons (Ware et al. 2005; O'Connell and Bou-Matar 2007; Reinarman et al. 2011; Bostwick 2012). Furthermore, patients without recreational experience of marijuana have trouble tolerating its psychoactive effects and often reject continued medical use

      This is an interested statement from both a medical and recreational side of the use of marijuana. Why is it that people who do not use marijuana for recreational have trouble coping with the effects vs. a person who uses it recreationally.

  11. Oct 2020
    1. Voluntariness is a legal requirement of valid consent. In Beausoleil v. Sisters of Charity[8] a young woman about to undergo spinal surgery repeatedly requested a general anesthetic and refused a spinal anesthetic. After the patient had been sedated, the anesthetist convinced her to have a spinal anesthetic. The patient was subsequently paralyzed as a result of the procedure and successfully sued the anesthetist. In testimony, a witness said that the patient "refused [the spinal anesthetic], but they continued to offer it to her; finally she became tired and said: 'You do as you wish' or something like that."[9] The judge stated that the patient's agreement to the spinal anesthetic was involuntary, because it rested on "words which denote defeat, exhaustion, and abandonment of the will power."

      Very interesting case in which the doctor wore out out the patient by repeatedly asking her to for permission for spinal anesthetic to the point where the lady 'gave permission'. This was found by the courts to be involuntary as it was permission gained from loss of willpower.

    1. Looking at a few isolated examples doesn’t really represent the enormity of the maintenance problem when you modify objects that you shouldn’t. To understand this point of view, it’s helpful to take a step back and look at moral philosophy (aka ethics).
    1. the entire supply chain putting food in our supermarkets has been whittled down to the sharpest edge of profitability by suit-wearing Midwesterners who pride themselves on exemplifying the American capitalist spirit. It’s more surprising that anybody put the Thai shrimp industry story on a newspaper front page, Lorr thinks, than it is that we’re eating the fruits of indentured labor.

      So your instinctive reaction is "fine, I'll stop buying slave labor shrimp imported from Thailand." Or "I'll stop eating shrimp, being a vegetarian is more ethical, right?" ...

    2. This kind of casting is true, Lorr explains, of nearly all supermarket employees, who would be automated away in a heartbeat if the data didn’t show that the average American consumer prefers a human touch.

      The "fishmonger" at Whole Foods as "window dressing." Oof, that's an image.

    3. Shrimp are perhaps the paradigmatic grocery store item. They used to be expensive, and now they’re not. They are born animals, and when they die they become meat, then cargo, then merchandise represented by a bar code—a product with a notably high profit yield on the grocery floor because it’s a dirt-cheap factory-farmed import.
  12. Sep 2020
  13. Aug 2020
    1. “the unexamined life is not worth living.

      We mus examine life to be able to choose. We are born taught things that sometimes we don't understand but we just know because it was passed down to us, but it is up to us to experience these things t be able to decide for ourselves.

    1. I devised and delivered the original Turing's sunflowers experiment with Jonathan Swinton for the museum and am co-author on the paper from the results. I also conceptualised Hookedonmusic with computational musicologists from Amsterdam for the same museum group. I describe in a book chapter a reflection on digital methods, and wider implications for communities and society in relation to ethics. Do have a look, in relation to ethics https://www.academia.edu/41439394/The_Dream_Life_of_Digital_in_search_of_lost_purpose

      Your paper mainly focuses on on a narrow form of what citizen science can be for museums - ie crowdsourcing, it could also consider the role of museums as a platform to engage audiences in thinking about topics of wider societal concern e.g. Turing's homosexuality and its relevance to museum visitors today.

  14. Jul 2020
    1. White supremacists marched with torches during a rally in Charlottesville, Va.Credit...Edu Bayer for The New York Times

      Fire has historically been used in battle, and as a fear tactic. Take the Great Fire of London in 1666, which destroyed thousands upon thousands of homes, churches, and businesses. While that fire may have been an accident, it's a testament to the destructive power of fire.

      There are many things, passive and active, that white supremacists could accomplish with such tiki torches, including burning people of color in direct combat. Considering the nature of white supremacy, I'm surprised I have not seen such accounts of violence on the news.

    2. SAN FRANCISCO — Riding a motorized pony and strumming a cigar box ukulele, Dana Cory led a singalong to the tune of “If you’re happy and you know it clap your hands.”“You’re a Nazi and you’re fired, it’s your fault,” she sang. “You were spotted in a mob, now you lost your freaking job. You’re a Nazi and you’re fired, it’s your fault.”“All together now!” Ms. Cory, 48, shouted to a cheering crowd in San Francisco’s Castro neighborhood on Saturday. They were protesting a rally planned by far-right organizers about a mile away.“Dox a Nazi all day, every day,” she said.

      Well, that's a heck of a way to start off an article.

      Honestly, there's a certain sort of camaraderie within protests. Not all of them are jovial, as what seems to be going on here, but by their nature, they're very passionate. At the BLM protest in Walnut Creek I attended, we were blowing out our lungs chanting in support of the fallen, and I ended up getting swept away on a wave of justified anger by the time we flooded onto the freeway. A large source of anger amongst the protestors is that the cops overseeing the protests, for the most part, covered their badge numbers and other identifying teachers, meaning that by the time tear gas and rubber bullets were on the table, there was no enemy more specific than the Walnut Creek Police Department. You can't exactly doxx a whole police department and expect it to have as severe of a consequence as if the individual police officers were prosecuted individually.

      P.S.: I note the bias in my annotation, but the difficulty in diffuse consequences stands.

    1. It was, after all, the digital equivalent of must-see TV. “Have not been this riveted since the final episode of Lost, and this *didn’t* piss me off! Amazing!” wrote one Twitter user in reply to Blair’s thread. “Please @TheEllenShow have a look on it! We need to know more about this happy end,” wrote another. Blair should be credited, if nothing else, with spinning the relatively unremarkable behavior of two strangers into such a simple but compelling story.

      This is a remarkable insight. While I can definitely empathize with the entertainment value of such a livestream type of entertainment, having watched people make fools of themselves online or play video games, the involuntary aspect of it is unsettling. Saying that these happenings didn't piss them off means that the Twitter user came in with an expectation that this unfolding story should be consumable and intriguing while not breaking off or taking a drastic turn for the worse, as many "first-date" type scenarios do. And I wouldn't even consider this a real first date! Then again, I'm not one to speak for the duo involved.

    2. This is the Faustian alchemy of social media: we are all given the opportunity to become celebrities in an instant, sometimes for nonsensical reasons, with or without our input. But we gain virtually none of the benefits of that fame, none of the glamor or the institutional support to help deal with the invasiveness of celebrity and how it can eat away at every boundary you ever took for granted.

      We don't get to control our own coverage online. Sure, with lawyers and copyright strikes, you can control the spread to the extent, but without an overruling power, such as in the Democratic Peoples' Republic of Korea (AKA: North Korea), people are free to access, interpret, and share information mostly at their own discretion. This is a great thing in the context of freedom, but this also can lead the the spread of misinformation, confusion, and untoward feelings.

  15. Jun 2020
  16. May 2020
    1. Unscrupulous providers are incentivized to use inefficient or malicious means to increase break/fix work and thus increase their revenue.
  17. Apr 2020
  18. Mar 2020
    1. he wants to focus on maximizing the health of conversations, and prioritizing people spending their time learning on the site

      Jack Dorsey on Twitter's future

    2. Dorsey doesn’t have all the answers. He’s more like a captain of a ship, wondering aloud how to avoid the many icebergs in his path while continuing ahead at full steam.
    1. le nuove tecnologie sono presenti nella vita di tutti, sia lavorativa sia quotidiana. Spesso non ci rendiamo neanche conto che interagiamo con sistemi automatici o che disseminiamo sulla rete dati che riguardano la nostra identità personale. Per cui si produce una grave asimmetria tra chi li estrae (per i propri interessi) e chi li fornisce (senza saperlo). Per ottenere certi servizi, alcuni siti chiedono a noi di precisare che non siamo un robot, ma in realtà la domanda andrebbe capovolta
    2. «È necessario che l’etica accompagni tutto il ciclo della elaborazione delle tecnologie: dalla scelta delle linee di ricerca fino alla progettazione, la produzione, la distribuzione e l’utente finale. In questo senso papa Francesco ha parlato di “algoretica”»
  19. Feb 2020
    1. Social media research ethics faces a contradiction between big data positivism and research ethics fundamentalism. Big data positivists tend to say, ‘Most social media data is public data. It is like data in a newspaper. I can therefore gather big data without limits. Those talking about privacy want to limit the progress of social science’. This position disregards any engagement with ethics and has a bias towards quantification. The ethical framework Social Media Research: A Guide to Ethics (Townsend and Wallace, 2016) that emerged from an ESRC-funded project tries to avoid both extremes and to take a critical-realist position: It recommends that social scientists neither ignore nor fetishize research ethics when studying digital media.Research ethics fundamentalists in contrast tend to say,You have to get informed consent for every piece of social media data you gather because we cannot assume automatic consent, users tend not to read platform’s privacy policies, they may assume some of their data is private and they may not agree to their data being used in research. Even if you anonymize the users you quote, many can still be identified in the networked online environment.
    2. Research ethics concerns issues, such as privacy, anonymity, informed consent and the sensitivity of data. Given that social media is part of society’s tendency to liquefy and blur the boundaries between the private and the public, labour/leisure, production/consumption (Fuchs, 2015a: Chapter 8), research ethics in social media research is par-ticularly complex.
  20. Jan 2020
    1. Similar to the technical architecture of classic colonialism, digital colonialism is rooted in the design of the tech ecosystem for the purposes of profit and plunder. If the railways and maritime trade routes were the "open veins" of the Global South back then, today, digital infrastructure takes on the same role: Big Tech corporations use proprietary software, corporate clouds, and centralised Internet services to spy on users, process their data, and spit back manufactured services to subjects of their data fiefdoms.

      Yikes

    1. The underlying guiding idea of a “trustworthy AI” is, first and foremost, conceptual nonsense. Machines are not trustworthy; only humans can be trustworthy (or untrustworthy). If, in the future, an untrustworthy corporation or government behaves unethically and possesses good, robust AI technology, this will enable more effective unethical behaviour.

      yikes

  21. Dec 2019
    1. loathsome in itself, but which had taken an irresistible hold of my imagination

      Victor recognizes that grave robbing and animal torture are "loathsome activities," but imagining the "great object" of their results overpowers his conscious. Here, Shelley seems to explore the relation between imagination, morality, and convention, and to what extent feelings express what ought to be done morally.

    2. I was surprised that among so many men of genius, who had directed their inquiries towards the same science, that I alone should be reserved to discover so astonishing a secret.

      Victor seems to regard himself as godlike in his research. Subsequently, he advances a personal ethics of creation about the specific "raw material" he uses for his experiments, and to the source of the raw material.

    3. Seneca

      Seneca the Younger (c. 4 BC – AD 65) was a Roman Stoic philosopher, moralist, and dramatist. He was forced to commit suicide by Nero after allegedly plotting the Emperor's death.

    4. the gentle ass

      In the fable by Aesop, a donkey becomes jealous of his farmer's lap-dog and tries to imitate it by jumping onto the farmer's lap, angering the farmer who punishes him. The moral is not to try to be something you are not. The Creature's situation inverts this lesson, however, since he is trying to be himself but is still rejected.

    1. For now, that will have to be my justification. I’m not ready to give up writing. I’m not ready to take up some high-paid job that I’d hate in order to reduce the world’s suffering. Maybe that will change. For now, call me Net-Positive Man.
  22. Nov 2019
    1. Disinformation in Contemporary U.S. ForeignPolicy: Impacts and Ethics in an Era of Fake News,Social Media, and Artificial Intelligence

      The authors examine the implications of fake news (aka disinformation campaigns). Before we start reading the article, I would like you to go out into the internet (preferably the reliable and credible sources on the net) and find more about American disinformation campaigns abroad. Please share the cases you found here.

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