244 Matching Annotations
  1. Feb 2022
    1. In undergrad I had zero sleep before several major tests; also before quals in grad school. Basically wouldn’t sleep before things I really considered important (this included morning meetings I didn’t want to miss!). On such occasions I would feel: miserable, then absurd and in a good humor, weirdly elated, then Super PumpedTM, and really sharp when the test (or whatever) actually started.

      this exactly corresponds to my experience with all-nighters before exam - very frequent for me

    2. Convincing a million 20-year-olds to sleep an unnecessary hour a day is equivalent, in terms of their hours of wakefulness, to killing 62,500 of them.

      reducing sleep & dispelling sleep myths is an EA cause area

    3. But it has been reported that near total REM sleep deprivation for a period of 14 to 40 days by administration of the monoamine oxidase inhibitor phenelzine has no apparent effect on cognitive function in humans

      this is really surprising. I'd guess something went wrong here - not enough cognitive functions were measured, or for not long enough / well enough, or REM sleep wasn't sufficiently disrupted, etc

    4. It was shown that a quiet waking period or a meditative waking state in which the environment is being ignored, produces a gain in recall similar to that seen in sleep, relative to an active waking state or a sleep-deprived state

      this might be called "deep rest" - that's what Dr. Huberman calls it

    5. To summarize

      Definitely feel like all of the below could use expansion + references + addressing possible objections / evidence against this thesis

    6. exactly one pre-registered experiment of the impact of prolonged sleep deprivation on cognition. It was published by economists from Harvard and MIT in 2020 and its pre-registered analysis found null effects of sleep on all variables of interest, Bessone P, Rao G, Schilbach F, Schofield H, Toma M. The economic consequences of increasing sleep among the urban poor. The Quarterly Journal of Economics. 2021 Aug;136(3):1887-941. (the authors changed analysis post-hoc and fished out some significant effects, without mentioning the switch in the abstract 😑).

      pretty crazy / surprising finding

    7. Do they perform better or worse in the long-term on cognitive tests? Do they have more or less inflammation? Do they need less recovery sleep over time?

      this is a great question - reminder to self to do more research on this

    8. consensus seems to be that dizziness due to a lack of oxygen during the run, muscle pain and muscle damage, and decreased physical performance after the run, are not just not bad, but are in fact necessary for the organism to train to run longer distances by increasing the amount of muscle, muscle efficiency, and lung capacity.

      citation? evidence? possibility that long-distance intensive running actually is bad or involves serious damage to the body?

    9. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is associated with synapse growth. Sleep deprivation appears to increase BDNF [and therefore neurogenesis?].

      interesting suggestion

    10. Why does the lack of sleep promote manic states while long sleep promotes depression?

      Would appreciate more expansion on this question / review of these papers and the implications you drew from them!

      My (summarized/simplified) hypothesis based on what I've read: depression involves rigid, non-flexible brain states that correspond to rigid depressive world models. Depression also involves a non-updating of models or inability to draw new connections (brain is even literally slightly lighter in depressed patients). Sleep involves revising/simplifying world models based on connections learned during the day, involves pruning unneeded or irrelevant synaptic connections. Thus, excessive sleep + depression = even less world model updating, even more rigid brain, even fewer new connections. Sleep deprivation can resolve this problem at least temporarily by adding new connections and "forcing" a brain update (perhaps through neural annealing - see QRI article)

    11. DO NOT TRY THIS IF YOU ARE BIPOLAR, YOU MIGHT GET A MANIC EPISODE.

      Yes, but it depends on your current phase - I've used sleep deprivation to get out of depression, and I've been fine after all-nighters when I'm stable. It's only a severe mania risk when I'm already somewhat elevated/stressed/hypo

    12. Someone in r/BipolarReddit asked: How many do you sleep when stable vs (hypo)manic? Depressed?

      While this is interesting analysis, I wonder if it's close to the best data we have on this.

      Personally as a bipolar person, I can say this definitely correlates with my experience! You could maybe add my experience to the data: + Severe mania - 0-3 hours avg (often in involuntary naps) + Hypomania - 1-5 hours avg (w/ all-nighters) + Elevated/sub-hypomania - 5 hours avg + Stable - 6-8 hours avg + Depressive - 8-10 hours avg + Severe depression - 10-16 hours avg

    13. Think about sleep 10,000 ago.

      while this is a good list and a valuable thought experiment, it also misses the features that made sleep 10,000 years ago easier and more effective: + Far better diets on average than Western person + No blue light / constant digital stimulation + Extremely active lifestyles with lots of exercise, makes sleep easier + Natural attunement to circadian rhythms that comes with waking up & sleeping w/ dusk & dawn + Lower stress and lower levels of psychopathology on average? Better resilience to stress? + Other things

      This may explain why we "need" the hyper-comfortable modern sleep, more than we used to need it

    14. Modern sleep, in its infinite comfort, is an unnatural superstimulus that overwhelms our brains with pleasure

      This sounds a bit hyperbolic, unlikely a scientific paper would use this language. Also unclear what it means for brains to be "overwhelmed with pleasure," or what objective scientific criteria for what shows something is a "superstimulus" are.

    15. Most of us (including myself) eat a lot of junk food and candy if we don’t restrict ourselves. Does this mean that lots of junk food and candy is the “natural” or the “optimal” amount for health?

      great question: fallacy of using our natural / evolved / unrestricted tendencies as "optimal health practice"

    1. Moralistic political culture evolved out of New England and is characterized by an emphasis of community and civic virtue over individualism. Individualistic political culture arose from Dutch influence in the Mid-Atlantic region; it regards multiculturalism as a practicality and government as a utilitarian necessity. Traditionalistic political culture arose in the South, which elevates social order and family structure to a prominent role. It accepts a natural hierarchy in society and where necessary to protect society, authoritarian leadership in the political and religious realms

      main political cultures in the traditional early US

    1. In , power is the governing principle as rooted in of private ownership. Private ownership is wholly and only an act of institutionalized , and institutionalized exclusion is a matter of organized power

      capitalism as system of organized power

    1. Karl Marx considered the Single Tax platform as a regression from the transition to communism and referred to Georgism as "Capitalism’s last ditch".[99] Marx argued that, "The whole thing is ... simply an attempt, decked out with socialism, to save capitalist domination and indeed to establish it afresh on an even wider basis than its present one."[100] Marx also criticized the way land value tax theory emphasizes the value of land, arguing that, "His fundamental dogma is that everything would be all right if ground rent were paid to the state."[100] Georgists such as Fred Harrison (2003) replied to these Marxist objections.[101]

      this would likely be Marx's response to things like UBI

    1. Using roll call analysis of voting patterns in the House of Representatives, they found that issues of desegregation and race were less important than issues of economics and social class when it came to the transformation of partisanship in the South.

      economic concerns were actually more important than race - likely

    2. Goldwater took positions on such issues as privatizing the Tennessee Valley Authority, abolishing Social Security and ending farm price supports that outraged many white Southerners who strongly supported these programs.

      adding in economic concerns made Republican campaigns much more influential

    3. You start out in 1954 by saying, "Nigger, nigger, nigger." By 1968 you can't say "nigger"—that hurts you. Backfires. So you say stuff like forced busing, states' rights and all that stuff. You're getting so abstract now [that] you're talking about cutting taxes, and all these things you're talking about are totally economic things and a byproduct of them is [that] blacks get hurt worse than whites. And subconsciously maybe that is part of it. I'm not saying that. But I'm saying that if it is getting that abstract, and that coded, that we are doing away with the racial problem one way or the other. You follow me—because obviously sitting around saying, "We want to cut this," is much more abstract than even the busing thing, and a hell of a lot more abstract than "Nigger, nigger."

      explicit political quote that shows how Republicans took the racism underground

    4. ow [Reagan] doesn't have to do that. All you have to do to keep the South is for Reagan to run in place on the issues he's campaigned on since 1964 [...] and that's fiscal conservatism, balancing the budget, cut taxes, you know, the whole cluster.

      South was won with explicit racism, but it doesn't have to use racism explicitly to keep the south

    5. Nixon ran his 1968 campaign on states' rights and "law and order". Liberal Northern Democrats accused Nixon of pandering to Southern whites, especially with regard to his "states' rights" and "law and order" positions, which were widely understood by black leaders to symbolize Southern resistance to civil rights.[49] This tactic was described in 2007 by David Greenberg in Slate as "dog-whistle politics"

      not explicitly stating racism but inserting it into propagandistic content

    6. Journalists reporting about the demonstrations against the Vietnam War often featured young people engaging in violence or burning draft cards and American flags.[47] Conservatives were also dismayed about the many young adults engaged in the drug culture and "free love" (sexual promiscuity), in what was called the "hippie" counter-culture. These actions scandalized many Americans and created a concern about law and order.

      Journalism and propaganda associating the progressives with "violent" "chaotic" "anti-order", especially by depicting Black people and hippies in this way

    7. If you can convince the lowest white man he's better than the best colored man, he won't notice you're picking his pocket. Hell, give him somebody to look down on, and he'll empty his pockets for you.— Lyndon Johnson

      important quote during this time - this is literally what the republicans were doing in the South

    8. Democrat George Wallace was elected as Governor of Alabama, he emphasized the connection between states' rights and segregation, both in speeches and by creating crises to provoke federal intervention. He opposed integration at the University of Alabama and collaborated with the Ku Klux Klan in 1963 in disrupting court-ordered integration of public schools in Birmingham

      use of idea of "state's rights" to support explicit racism and working with the KKK

    9. The main plank of the States' Rights Democratic Party was maintaining segregation and Jim Crow in the South.

      southern strategy was not hidden - party literally ran on platform of racism

    10. Republicans regularly supported anti-lynching bills, but these were filibustered by Southern Democrats in the Senate.

      filibuster was literally used to protect lynching Black people

    11. Although the Fourteenth Amendment has a provision to reduce the Congressional representation of states that denied votes to their adult male citizens, this provision was never enforced

      even when the Constitution is against racism, it was not enforced to protect black voters

    12. In the 1880s, they began to pass legislation making election processes more complicated and in some cases requiring payment of poll taxes, which created a barrier for poor people of both races.

      the long history of voting exclusions and using election processes to cement party power in the US

    13. From now on, the Republicans are never going to get more than 10 to 20 percent of the Negro vote and they don't need any more than that... but Republicans would be shortsighted if they weakened enforcement of the Voting Rights Act. The more Negroes who register as Democrats in the South, the sooner the Negrophobe whites will quit the Democrats and become Republicans. That's where the votes are. Without that prodding from the blacks, the whites will backslide into their old comfortable arrangement with the local Democrats

      basically, he's saying republicans can get more white votes by promoting black voting rights, which will polarize whites to the right? what?

    1. Bell Labs, the legendary R&D lab that invented revolutionary new technologies like the transistor and the photovoltaic cell, was designed so that everyone would at some point bump into everyone else for this reason

      designed for serendipity

    1. Amie Thomasson (2021) contends that we should reject a widespread descriptivist picture of modality. According to descriptivism, the primary function of modal discourse is to track and describe modal facts and properties, which supposedly exist independently of our expressive capacities and make true our modal statements. Instead, according to Thomasson’s Modal Normativism (MN), modal discourse is distinctively normative, in that it serves the function of expressing, teaching, conveying, or (re-) negotiating semantic rules (or their consequences) in particularly advantageous ways. (2021: S2087)
    1. But revolutionary fictionalism suggests a complication: even if, in some sense, quantification over mathematical entities is indispensable to our best theory of the world, perhaps it is not literal quantification over mathematical entities that is thus indispensable.

      can just pretend - no need to posit their existence in any literal sense

    2. Thomasson (2013) is a recent extended discussion of the relation between fictionalism and her own preferred ontological view, which is argued for by what she calls “easy arguments”, a kind of ordinary language arguments. Thomasson’s ontological deflationism says, roughly, that all manners of philosophically controversial entities exist, and do so in some sense trivially
  2. plato.stanford.edu plato.stanford.edu
    1. Necessarily, for all x and all artifactual kinds K, x is a K only if x is the product of a largely successful intention that (Kx), where one intends (Kx) only if one has a substantive concept of the nature of Ks that largely matches that of some group of prior makers of Ks (if there are any) and intends to realize that concept by imposing K-relevant features on the object. (Thomasson 2003: 600)

      Artifact kinds are defined historically by clusters of human intentions

    1. How high are prices relative to traditional measures?Are prices discounting unsustainable conditions?How many new buyers (i.e., those who weren’t previously in the market) have entered the market?How broadly bullish is sentiment?Are purchases being financed by high leverage?Have buyers made exceptionally extended forward purchases (e.g., built inventory, contracted forward purchases, etc.) to speculate or protect themselves against future price gains?

      Dalio's measure of a bubble, applicable to lots of areas

    1. the US has entered an era of MP3 policy, which we expect to stay with us.

      what is MP3 policy? how is it different

    2. a massive transformation in both sides of the household balance sheet (record-high wealth and very low debt service), more widely shared prosperity, the tightest labor market in decades, higher inflation (even excluding base effects), and the easiest monetary and fiscal policy ever, let alone into a booming economy

      these all seem like good macro trends, right?

    1. Historically, the combination of 20% growth and similar margin expansion has occurred in fewer than 0.5% of companies.

      very unlikely these companies will achieve this kind of growth - bubbly unicorns

    1. Of particular importance is the fact that this increase in wealth has accumulated in the middle- and lower-income groups which were previously getting squeezed. Because MP3 policies directed money to the middle- and lower-income deciles through the fiscal pipe, these groups have received a lot of the printed money and have either paid down debt or accumulated cash in the bank.

      is this translating into real benefits for this class?

    2. We see a coming clash between what is about to transpire and what is now being discounted. The inevitability of this clash is due to the mechanical influence of MP3 policies on nominal incomes, spending, asset prices, and inflation

      important, discounted market inevitabilities

    1. A research programme can be scientific at one stage, less scientific (or non-scientific) at another (if it ceases to generate novel predictions and cannot digest its anomalies) but can subsequently stage a comeback, recovering its scientific status.

      more of a continuum and variations in degree of scientific-ness, less black and white

    2. Lakatos rejects the Hegelian thesis that there are contradictions in reality. “If science aims at truth, it must aim at consistency; if it resigns consistency, it resigns truth.”

      scientific hope that contradictions can be resolved must be maintained

    3. In which case there could not be a genuinely progressive programme which foretold the fate of capitalism

      history unpredictable, but not that unpredictable - can still have scientific theory of social dynamics

    4. What Lakatos seems to be suggesting in the passage quoted above, is that it is rationally permissible—perhaps even obligatory—to give up on Marxism even if it has no progressive rival, that is, if there is currently no alternative research programme with a set of hard core theses about the fundamental character of capitalism and its ultimate fate

      this may well be the case - marxism is bad, but it's the best scientific political economy we have

    5. So how does he distinguish between “a scientific or progressive programme” and a “pseudoscientific or degenerating one”? (S&P: 4–5.)

      this is also important for the question of the validity or value of folk psychology as a scientific theory (Churchland)

    6. Instead of an individual falsifiable theory which ought to be rejected as soon as it is refuted, we have a sequence of falsifiable theories characterized by shared a hard core of central theses that are deemed irrefutable—or, at least, refutation-resistant—by methodological fiat. This sequence of theories constitutes a research programme

      what matters is the meta-level direction of the research program, not the object-level theses of an individual theory

    1. we additionally make use of recursive task decomposition: we procedurally break up a difficult task into easier one

      what other complicated machine learning problems could be solved with this approach?

      • generative art - maybe. but art is mostly about big picture and not about small sub-problems
      • writing books?
    1. . With global liner cargo growing 10 percent annually during the 25-year period beginning in 1980, port infrastructure was on the edge of faltering, bailed out only by the economic constriction of the financial crisis

      we cannot sustain this level of growth in consumerism

    2. the top three ports—L.A., Long Beach, and New York/New Jersey—brought in nearly half of all containerized imports, and the top 11 brought in over 85 percent

      power law in infastructure

    1. Please, please keep reminding yourself who you are and what you’re fighting for. Or else you might grow at supernatural speed into a beautiful tree, and everyone will admire your flowers and your fruits, but you will know that in growing so quickly you have become ungrounded, have lost any real driving principle, have lost your roots.

      remember the core idea of my HS graduation speech

    2. How could I have come so close to harming myself in this way, to offloading my thinking to templates and playbooks? How could I have not allowed myself time to think? How did I get so close to executing other people’s algorithms without judgement, taste, or real pleasure?

      so inspiring the way she thinks

    3.       The skyscraper of justifications and counterarguments fall all at once, cleaving possible futures in its wake

      when your own conceptual system and built-up lies to yourself collapse

    4.  “Big sister, you don’t sound so well. I worked on this company with you because I wanted you to be free, in order to be well. That was the whole point. I love you. I trust you to do whatever you think is right.”

      you're not free! it doesn't matter how successful

    5. We have dinner somewhere in Tribeca, somewhere where the menu doesn’t have prices,

      this is beautiful. doesn't want her dad to know how much she is spending

    6. He speaks of airdropping teddy bears all over the African continent that carry essential nutrients inside their bellies and can simulate real human hugs.

      this is a crazy idea

    7.    I grew up telling stories, and I am in my element as I tell stories over and over again. Stories about myself and my upbringing. Stories about the company’s metrics, and stories about where the company is going. Past, present, and future layered on top of each other in a complex wheel, births and deaths and reincarnations and re-imaginings.

      need to be an excellent storyteller - and she is!

    8. If one must imagine Sisyphus happy, then one must imagine entrepreneurs happy, these glistening heroes of the American imaginary.

      hm...what is the point of this analogy?

    9. In Mandarin, we call them “happy nuts.” I crack open pistachios between calls, and shells of happiness pile up to the left of my webcam.

      this is great writing

    10. I leave my suitcases just inside the door to my Airbnb and find a $3 burrito a few minutes away. I scarf it down so quickly that I still feel the warmth of it in my throat when I fall asleep.

      I love this real, vivid description of stories - I can do this, I just don't do it much anymore!

    11. I have become unnecessarily paranoid about infosecurity, all too aware of how information is treated as currency in fundraising.

      what does this mean?

    12.    The email contains a PDF file with delicate letterhead that says the company I started three months ago was worth more than eighteen million dollars.

      woahh omg what company?

    1. Our analysis starts with power, both technological and political. First, we analyze technology in the context of the institutions and ideologies it shapes and is shaped b

      good! any historical or social analysis should be shaped by power first

    2. Upsolve became the largest bankruptcy nonprofit in the U.S. in three years, empowering millions of people who couldn’t afford lawyers to file for bankruptcy for free online

      this is really cool! democratizing access to fintech and financial tools and legal systems

    3. The government can play a major role in funding transformative technology research. The famed Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) is a federal agency granted wide latitude to fund moonshot-style R&D on defense-related technologies, an approach that has led to historic breakthroughs like the laser and the internet.

      how is this a good thing - that early technological development was funded by the US military?

    4. We can draw inspiration from Afrofuturism, the cultural movement that tells alternate histories and speculative futures by and for Black people

      what about critiques of afrofuturism, like wilderson's afropessimism - that this is ideal theory that forgets reality?

    5. technologists can use their skills to identify abuses of power and build defensive infrastructures in their place

      tech can democratize power based on technical ability and intelligence - makes asymmetric actions against huge power structures much easier. we should continue to build systems that are inherently and structurally designed to prevent power centralization, to allow for asymmetric action against the most powerful actors in the system, and to ensure that the rewards/resources of the system are distributed well

    6. While campaigns often react to particular ethical oversights, each builds workers’ collective capacity to assert decision-making power over their working conditions and the outputs they produce.

      yes but these are all sort of piecemeal, step-by-step, specific things that are more reactive than proactive, and are unlikely to lead to any significant transformation in the structures and systems of global capitalism.

      the forces of individual activism, electoral politics, and regulation are just not powerful enough to compete with corporate and class interests

    7. “utopian demand” as defined by feminist theorist Kathi Weeks. She describes it as “a political demand that takes the form not of a narrowly pragmatic reform but of a more substantial transformation of the present configuration of social relations; it is a demand that raises eyebrows, one for which we would probably not expect immediate success.”

      utopian demands are not utopian visions! they are clear, well-articulated, immanent critiques of a given system

    8. When prison abolitionist Mariame Kaba describes hope as a “discipline” and philosopher Ernst Bloch calls for “militant optimism,” both emphasize the centrality of ongoing, conscious effort in bringing about justice.

      effortful optimism - not ideal theory as ideology

    9. Many technologists seem to fear history, instead pursuing escapist visions — seasteading, charter cities, Mars colonization — that offer them blank slates to design from

      technologists are anti-Hegelian, anti-historicist

    10. By the time conversations about diversity, ethics, and access enter the conversation, large corporations will have already locked in their technological dominance and naturalized their harms.

      there isn't any ethics-in-the-loop in the development of technological systems - you just create them for market reasons (Thiel style blitzscaling)

  3. Jan 2022
    1. Nietzsche has no equivalent to Hegel’s concept of recognition, and it would seem he has no affirmative conception of intersubjectivity. For Nietzsche all community is herd community. How then can noble values or tragic experience be properly and authentically communicated or shared?

      is this true? yea probably, unfortunately

    2. the logical significance of reconciliation in Hegel’s Rechtsphilosophie. Dudley passes over it completely in his discussion of the concept of the will in Philosophy of Right §§5-7, and presents an apparently individualist account of the will. He ignores Hegel’s example of friendship as the will’s being at home with itself in its other.

      Hegel on friendship!

    1. The superabundant Nietzschean substitute for a non-existent truth was the will to imagine anything and everything that the human spirit needed to survive the dismal and chaotic nature of existence: ‘True falsehoods’ were required, and created

      nietzsche requires us to take two reductions that free up our capacity for thought: the moral reduction and the phenomenological reduction.

    2. Two aspects of Kantian philosophy made this later move possible and acted as its foundation. The first was the overwhelming emphasis on the subjective mind in creating the world as it is ‘for us’. The second was the way Kant lifted the restrictions on the subject’s activity in the imaginative sphere, as covered in his third critique.

      key groundwork for nietzsche - kant opened up the sphere of possibility w/ a focus on the subjective mind and the creative imagination

    3. follows Kant in dividing philosophical inquiry into three areas: rational understanding, moral evaluation and aesthetic appreciation

      do these correspond to the three faculties of the mind?

    4. Nietzsche expresses his dialectic in terms of the free creative imagination. In both cases, the world is unfinished. It has to be completed by the thinking subject, whose existence is heavy with the need for fulfilment.

      active power in nietzsche is the individual free creative imagination, not the state or society

    5. reading of Nietzsche which says that “we provide [the world] with the determinateness its fundamentally indeterminate or poly-determinate structure calls for.

      a great summary of apollonian and dionysian

    6. Hegel’s solution to Kant’s problem of the reality-isolated subject is false. There is no law in history which says that the growth of the subject and the growth of the world coalesce, and the world might have been spared a great deal of hopeful anguish if Hegel had not tried to make his speculations part of reality.

      something Nietzsche realized - genealogies are arbitrary and not necessarily historical progress

    7. The story of German Idealism’s metamorphosis from the critical philosophy of Kant, through Hegel’s phenomenology of spirit, to Nietzsche’s science of joy, is well-known to historians of ideas.

      did german idealism result in nietzsche? is this right?

    1. I put down his book a few years ago to work on something else, so I haven't gotten to this chapter yet, but he presents an interpretation of Nietzsche through Hegel in Nietzsche: Philosophy, Philologist, Antichrist on pages 236-24

      kaufmann interpretation of nietzsche through hegel

    2. "Let us remember that Wagner was young at the time Hegel and Schelling seduced men’s spirits; that he guessed, that he grasped with his very hands the only thing the Germans take seriously—“the idea,” which is to say, something that is obscure, uncertain, full of intimations; that among Germans clarity is an objection, logic a refutation. Harshly, Schopenhauer accused the epoch of Hegel and Schelling of dishonesty—harshly, also wrongly: he himself, the old pessimistic counterfeiter, was not a whit more “honest” than his more famous contemporaries. Let us keep morals out of this: Hegel is a taste.— And not merely a German but a European taste.—A taste Wagner comprehended—to which he felt equal—which he immortalized.—He merely applied it to music—he invented a style for himself charged with “infinite meaning”—he became the heir of Hegel—Music as “idea.”— And how Wagner was understood!—The same human type that raved about Hegel, today raves about Wagner; in his school they even write Hegelian.

      music should be an idea for Wagner, and Hegel is just a taste or a style of thought

    3. Unlike Hegel, Nietzsche thinks that we must do far more than simply locate the values to which our practices aspire, and assess their conformity to these values. We need to uncover a standard that can be used to ealuate the basic aspirations of these institutions. This marks a profound difference between the Hegelian and Nietzschean accounts of normative authority -- and it brings Nietzsche somewhat closer to the Kantian perspective.

      go beyond normativity relative to the time, uncovering implicit rationality. more individualist, seeking personal universal values

    1. Given Hegel's desire to show citizens the way to identify with the polity, gaining thereby freedom and reconciliation,

      susceptible to nationalism and racialism

    2. two schools of Hegelian philosophy faced each other: the right-Hegelians in the guise of the fascists, and the left-Hegelians in the guise of the Marxists and communists.

      few philosophers can say that they shaped the great politics of an entire century

    1. Lenin’s proposition on the difference between federal relations among the Soviet republics based on autonomy, and federal relations among independent republics. In a letter to Lenin, dated June 12, 1920, he declared that in reality “there is no difference between these two types of federal relations, or else it is so small as to be negligible”

      what is the difference exactly? why did Stalin want to say there wasn't one?

    2. if it proves impossible to reach economic agreement with the leading national groups, the latter will inevitably be suppressed by force and economically important regions will be compelled to join a union of European Republics.” Lenin decisively objected to this remark: “. . . it goes too far. It cannot be proved, and it is wrong to say that suppression by force is “inevitable”. That is radically wrong”

      Lenin was more of a pacifist, didn't want to force countries or peoples into the union

    3. The despicable betrayal of socialism by the majority of the official leaders of this proletariat in 1914-19, when “defence of country” was used as a social-chauvinist cloak to conceal the defence of the “right” of their “own” bourgeoisie to oppress colonies and fleece financially dependent countries

      there is animosity between proletariats of colonial and colonized nations, especially when the socialist parties in imperial countries like UK, France, Germany etc actually mobilized in favor of the WW1 war effort

    4. Communist International should support bourgeois-democratic national movements in colonial and backward countries only on condition that, in these countries, the elements of future proletarian parties, which will be communist not only in name, are brought together and trained to understand their special tasks, i.e., those of the struggle against the bourgeois-democratic movements within their own nations

      support democracy (even capitalist democracy) as a temporary transitional stage for independence from colonial overlords, eventually replaced by socialism and then communism

    5. The urgency of the struggle against this evil, against the most deep-rooted petty-bourgeois national prejudices, looms ever larger with the mounting exigency of the task of converting the dictatorship of the proletariat from a national dictatorship (i.e., existing in a single country and incapable of determining world politics) into an international one (i.e., a dictatorship of the proletariat involving at least several advanced countries, and capable of exercising a decisive influence upon world politics as a whole)

      Grand politics truly - a unified communist system working to change the world in a coordinated way

    6. that there is a tendency towards the creation of a single world economy, regulated by the proletariat of all nations as an integral whole and according to a common plan.

      How would this work? How could it be achieved? Is it meaningful to strive for this?

    7. Federation is a transitional form to the complete unity of the working people of different nations

      USSR and other federations were meant to be temporary, and not completely dominated by any given ethnic group

    8. policy must be pursued that will achieve the closest alliance, with Soviet Russia, of all the national and colonial liberation movements. The form of this alliance should be determined by the degree of development of the communist movement in the proletariat of each country

      Lenin said outright what his policy would be - to support communist movements in colonially oppressed countries worldwide.

    1. It makes sense: If you don't have a strong domain model, you have no map that guides your scan, so you have to read it all top to bottom … like a computer.

      the biggest advantages humans have are often our implied knowledge, implicit reasoning, experience, etc

    1. The infamous hallucinogen Salvia Divinorum appears to work through KOR agonism as its’ main mechanism

      Doing salvia is basically macrodosing dynorphin and just activating your suffering/punishment system!?!? why...

    1. If you spend 15+ years logging your expenses every night, checking your portfolio twenty times a day, and making decisions based on their fiscal impact, how plausible is it that you will stop thinking about money after you’ve reached your goalpost? If you’ve been treating money like the ultimate collectors’ item for decades, can you stop identifying with that collection once you’ve accumulated enough?

      This is an idea that far too few people understand, especially Dartmouth students. Adam Smith points it out in the Wealth of Nations passage on the wealthy young man

    2. The Nothingness of Money is only possible through deep reflection, and this is largely enabled by viscerally facing your mortality.

      But it doesn't have to be this way - you can reflect on your Being-towards-Depth far prior to the actual twilight of your life. Still, the owl of Minerva has her tendency to fly only at dusk. Wisdom often only comes when the end of life and history draws near.

  4. Dec 2021
    1. But why should we expect all people to use moral judgments like "Stealing is wrong" to express the same thing?

      cognitivism is then both true and false depending on usage?

    1. Albert and Barry are not arguing about facts, but about definitions:

      one of the best examples of a metalinguistic negotiation - it's about what concept we ought to use, not what corresponds to Truth

    1. If you have any substantive issue whatsoever at stake, do you really think dictionary editors have access to ultimate wisdom that settles the argument?

      one of the most infuriating argumentative habits in history is people pulling out a basic ass dictionary. unless the argument is about what the conventions are, what common usage is, or what a term means in a language, dictionaries do not fucking matter

    2. you asked the two soon-to-be arguers whether they thought a "sound" should be defined as "acoustic vibrations" or "auditory experiences", they'd probably tell you to flip a coin

      a great example of how philosophy and conceptual analysis can defuse dumb questions!

    3. You try to establish any sort of empirical proposition as being true "by definition". 

      what about the contingent a priori? transcendental deductions?

    1. most arguments are rapid-fire debate-club style

      this style of debate is very bad for rationality

    2. .

      connected thought - the reason why conceptual engineering is important to dissolve stereotypes, prejudices, ideological reactions, and reclaim slurs is that it forces us to engage rational means to try and figure out exactly what our concepts are saying. what does "kike" imply? when an antisemitic person sees a Jewish person and calls them a "kike" in response to something the Jewish person says, this is in effect an extreme instance of the non-central fallacy. it silences and decentralizes the Jewish person's words, because in order to even respond, they need to defuse the antisemitic association that was instantiated in the conversation by the slur. they need to ask the antisemite, why are you associating me (one token of the type 'Jew') with your racist archetypal notion of a Jew using the word "kike," what does this archetype involve, and why exactly does it mean my words should be ignored, my rights trampled upon, or my ideas rejected? disputing whether or not you are a "kike" implicitly accepts the antisemite's frame - it's a war of frame control.

    3. And does using genetic engineering to cure diseases kill millions of people, or ruin anyone's life?" "Well...not really." "Then what's wrong with it?" "It's eugenics!"

      the noncentral fallacy takes advantage of non-originary seeing and our habitual habits of thinking, our cached thoughts. we don't think carefully about what the words actually mean, what they are supposed to signify. instead we make quick associations.

    4. lost the argument

      the noncentral fallacy decentralizes arguments from their actual point

    5. But in this case calling Martin Luther King a criminal is the noncentral. The archetypal criminal is a mugger or bank robber.

      it's an ideological / propagandistic tool to use someone's implicit representation (stereotype) of some category to demonize something that appears to be a member of that category, but is not really in it upon deeper reflection. bypasses rational means with emotional, non-conscious, non-reflective judgements

    1. Therefore, every time that an animal suffers, what is actually happening is that some moments of experience get to have their whole existence in pain and suffering

      there are entire beings - moments of experience - whose whole lifetimes consists in suffering

    2. You need to define what the identity carrier is, and after doing so one can identify situations in which identity is not well-defined given that identity carrier

      all identity carriers are flawed

  5. Jul 2021
    1. if we can reverse-engineer these core principles and use what tools we have to validate these bottom-up models, we can both understand the internal logic of the brain’s algorithm

      neuroscience from first principles - bottom-up

  6. Jun 2021
    1. Those who prolong other people's lives should have more value placed on their time than others (b/c they increase the amount of time OTHER people have).

      this is a good point

    2. Being able to have a mental module for things one knows is important but doesn't have enough time to learn

      modularize knowledge - and be able to access the modules even if you don't know their content

    3. knows how to access information that they don't know

      the most important skill

    4. pareto-efficient improvements to kindness (total kindness may not be possible

      pareto-kindness

    1. phasic dopamine pause

      inverse of reward - a sort of punishment?

    2. thought-emitting" part of your brain (dorsolateral prefrontal cortex etc.), and there's a "thought-assessing" part of your brain (medial prefrontal cortex, hypothalamus, brainstem, etc

      Generative and evaluative cycles - is this real?

    3. e dynamic of depression and anxiety,

      Hyperfrontality? Opposite of creativity - hyper-evaluation

    4. Depression is what happens when every possible thought you can think and plan you can make is judged by the plan-assessing part of your brain as unacceptably terrible, and this dynamic remains true for an extended period.”

      How plausible is this

    5. advocates a version of exposure therapy for stressful thoughts!!

      How would this work?

    6. good that I feel that way, and I want to keep feeling that way, I just don’t want to feel that way quite so strongly and often

      Understand the contextual and adaptive value of your emotions - impulsivity, intensity, expressivity, creativity. You value you them, but not all the time at max

    7. She said 15% would be plenty of depression, so she recorded this as a goal in the second column of her Daily Mood Journal, as you can see. She also decided to dial her anxiety down from 80% to 20%, so on and so forth.

      Imagine yourself in total control of your valence, your energy; you have a dial that allows you to adjust it at will - where would you be right now? In general?

    8. negative thoughts and feelings might also be an expression of her most beautiful and awesome qualities

      Special person because of her suffering

    9. I suspected there might be some real advantages, or benefits, of thinking and feeling the way she did

      Affirm the disorder - it's a gift, it's important, it's adaptive

    10. imagine that we had a magic button and that if she pushed it, all of her negative thoughts and feelings would instantly disappear, with no effort at all, and she’d immediately feel joyous, even euphoric

      Imaginative method for healing - express your intention fully, knowing exactly what you would want

    11. If a miracle happened in today’s session, what miracle would she be hoping for?

      What miracle are you looking for!!

    12. He says that he can now reliably have his patients walk out of their very first extended (~2-hour) therapy sessions feeling dramatically happier, maybe even dancing-on-the-sidewalk happy,

      OMG this should be the goal of any successful therapy - true valence improvement within a few minutes

    1. reduction to body: the treatment of a person as identified with their body, or body parts; reduction to appearance: the treatment of a person primarily in terms of how they look, or how they appear to the senses; silencing: the treatment of a person as if they are silent, lacking the capacity to speak.

      Casual sex is far more likely to involve all of these

    2. Martha Nussbaum (1995, 257) has identified seven features that are involved in the idea of treating a person as an object: instrumentality: the treatment of a person as a tool for the objectifier’s purposes; denial of autonomy: the treatment of a person as lacking in autonomy and self-determination; inertness: the treatment of a person as lacking in agency, and perhaps also in activity; fungibility: the treatment of a person as interchangeable with other objects; violability: the treatment of a person as lacking in boundary-integrity; ownership: the treatment of a person as something that is owned by another (can be bought or sold); denial of subjectivity: the treatment of a person as something whose experiences and feelings (if any) need not be taken into account.

      Ethical rules for casual sex - ways to avoid objectifying. Where does the duty not to objectify originate?

    1. Consequently, every hook-up is an uphill battle against nature—a conscious attempt to detach ourselves from emotions like care, trust, affection, and love by doing the very act which amplifies them

      It's not possible to be casual - detach oneself from intimacy and empathy. Is there empirical evidence that hookups reduce empathy?

    1. “name of wife may seem more sacred or more binding, but sweeter for me will always be the word friend (amica), or, if you will permit me, that of concubine or whore

      wives are either functionally prostitutes or friends

    1. The price of women’s admission to this privileged class, however, is that they must train and live like men.

      is the male approach to governance better in any significant way

    1. But the production of sexual pleasure is not necessary because many acts do not produce such pleasure; and this criterion conceptually rules out non-pleasurable sex

      there are clearly a lot of kinds of sex that are non-pleasurable; can't rule them out

    2. necessary one (achieving orgasm during a phone-sex chat

      but this means that "imagining" oneself into sex is enough

      it's probably going to have to be a family resemblance concept of the sexual act

    3. This faces obvious counter-examples, such as same-sex sexual activities and heterosexual oral and anal sex

      This definition clearly fails imo

    4. Sexual pleasure is … a valuable thing in its own right, something to be cherished and promoted because it has intrinsic and not merely instrumental value

      the problem with a lot of the philosophy of sex is that it is too distinction-focused and dichotomizing: either pessimism or optimism. we need more nuance: optimism IF x, y, z, and c are satisfied.

    5. according to which in sexually desiring Y, X is attracted to the bodily, physical attributes of Y

      What are some potential arguments against this phenomenological pessimism about sex?

    6. “I make myself flesh in the presence of the Other in order to appropriate the Other’s flesh” (Sartre 1943 [1956: 506]

      but phenomenological description like this does not necessarily have moral implications

    7. The issue, then, between the pessimists and the optimists concerns not whether sexual desire can be morally problematic, but whether it is so by its nature (Soble, with Halwani 2017: 5–8)

      what if there are features of sexual desire - co-accompanying features that make it morally permissible? and what if it is even obligated?

    8. People’s intentions for nonsexual goals in a sex act cannot wave away the desire for pleasure; sexual desire has an independence that cannot be (metaphysically) wiped away by intentions or nonsexual motives

      kinda confused by this - does this mean the desire for pleasure is necessarily present in sexual desire? even if there are other intentions co-present? that makes sense, but there might be counterexamples...

    9. I look forward to enjoying the sensations of rubbing my clitoris with my favorite vibrator as I fantasize about having sex with my neighbor

      desire to pleasure does not make it a 'mere appetite' (although I'm not sure what mere appetite even means)

    10. dictating its aim (e.g., towards love), atop a descriptive one as an interpersonal attitude,

      but maybe definitions should be normative - concealing their descriptive aspects is dishonest; all definitions are normative / metalinguistic negotiation

    11. X desires Y, desires that Y desire X, desires to be aroused by Y’s desire of X, and so on

      ascending upwards - like love; love = the desire to be loved by another, and have the desire to have the other have the desire to be loved by you, etc

    12. sexual desire is no mere appetite but thoroughly infused with meaning

      what makes it meaningful/intentional? consciousness? reasoning? are the lines between intentionality and 'brute desires' really that real

    13. if X feels sexual desire, then X desires the touch of another person’s (Y) body and the sexual pleasure derived through that touch

      not necessarily - what about imaginative sexual desire; the desire to masturbate to an imaginary image of another person? having sexual desire does not entail actually desiring. but maybe you wouldn't call it desire unless it's an intention/desire to act

    14. whether it admits of perverted forms

      is there such thing as a perverted form of sexual desire?

    15. Men and women seem to exhibit, desire, and experience sex differently (e.g., men, much more than women, consume pornography, have sex with prostitutes, frequent strip clubs, and have fetishes

      real sex differences

  7. Feb 2020
  8. Jan 2020
    1. Thus we talk of being in a mood rather than a mood being in us,

      because the mood constitutes the world - we are IN the mood; contained by it. we do not create the mood - mood comes first.

  9. Dec 2019
    1. twelve of “the most influential conceptions of imagination”

      Check this out!

  10. Nov 2019
    1. Today our God is abstract, distant, formless, and silent — in other words, merely conceptual. This is what happens when a god becomes neurologically weak.

      This is what we mean by "GOD IS DEAD." We must create a new God based on our own new values

    2. If our whole culture comes to agree that software is a form of "art," for example, then you'll automatically start to conceptualize software differently, and perhaps change your relationship to it.

      And your children will find it difficult to change their relationship to software, always apprehending it as art. Art in a sense is not just an ethereal concept, but a very physical structure that we are actually physically brawling over, wresting territory from one another: art is the set of neurons that is used to conceptualize art.

    3. If a child hallucinated one of his voices with particular strength at the temple of Osiris, while bathing in the imagery, mythology, and personality of Osiris — well, it only makes sense for that voice to 'be' Osiris.

      We have so much ritual and symbolism so that we inevitably associate our sense of the "God" in the same way as others. It causes us to have an embodied They with a real voice which we can communicate with. This is what is meant by a personal relationship with god.

    4. As he grew up, he would internalize other voices, such as those of his bosses, priests, or political leaders.

      The literal voice of The They in Heidegger's vocab

    1. We don't need neuroscience to reason about these agents because we can 'feel' them, through introspection, pulling at our psyches

      There's a reason these systems are so frequently personalized and seen as "agents" - e.g. the temptation on the shoulder and guilt on the other shoulder

    2. higher-order brain systems don't need to create agency 'from scratch' out of mindless robotic slaves. They inherit agency pretty much for free.

      their components have agency, and therefore agency is not an emergent property of the brain

    3. Von Neumann computer architecture, whose parts never have to worry about where their energy is coming from.

      Inactive silicon components will keep existing and receiving energy, will inactive neurons will be discarded or repurposed

    4. Well, they're out of work. They're unemployed

      Your brain's unemployment rate determines the availability of labor in the brain - how much mental capacity you have

    5. of the "selfish" neuron

      individual neurons have motivations, desires, and behaviors?

  11. Jun 2019
    1. Nothing is easier to erase than a dialectical effect

      Because the next thesis will burn it to the ground

    2. if moral equality is an obstacle to human excellence, then so much the worse for moral equality

      Oof

  12. May 2019
    1. “I disappeared into books when I was very young, disappeared into them like someone running into the woods.”

      Sometimes I literally ran into the woods

    1. The first difficulty is that the robot’s utility function did not quite match our utility function. Our utility function is 1 if the cauldron is full, 0 if the cauldron is empty, −10 points to whatever the outcome was if the workshop has flooded, +0.2 points if it’s funny, −1,000 points (probably a bit more than that on this scale) if someone gets killed … and it just goes on and on and on.

      But it is very difficult to fully express these utility functions in code. The goal is to literally turn our ethics into code -- to translate them into coherent data structures, algorithms, and decision trees. We want to deduce our moral intuitions and more.

    1. Wherever Germany extends her sway, she ruins culture

      And Germany has certainly extended its sway into America. Deeply and irrevocably.

    2. the extent to which a spirit is sui generis, the limits of that which he can allow himself—in other words, the limits of that which is beneficial to him—become more and more confined

      If you are uniquely talented, there are only a few limited places where you can express your unique talent.

    3. without even a thought of what I was squandering and how its place might be filled.

      It's okay that I've squandered some of my strength, wasted some of my talent. Because it's been an essential reminder that I AM TALENTED and I do have a GREAT GIFT to offer the world without question.

    4. enough to discourage the strongest and most heroically disposed intestines.

      haha!

    1. Thanatos is the irrational urge to destroy the source of all sexual energy in the annihilation of the self

      Therefore there are really only two drives: (a) Thanatos - the drive to destroy oneself, which leads to all self-destructive behaviors and its logical maximum suicide, and (b) Eros - the desire to replicate oneself, which leads to all self-reproductive behaviors, sex, and more, has its logical maximum in reproduction. It's just an attempt to cause your information to continue to exist. You can make friends, you can preserve your thoughts via books, you can build something; they're all attempts to ensure that we continue to exist in some way.

    2. Eros (the life instinct), which covers all the self-preserving and erotic instincts, and Thanatos (the death instinct), which covers all the instincts towards aggression, self-destruction, and cruelty.

      This is why they called him Thanos - he is the death instinct! It is literally a war of complexity vs simplicity, life vs entropy.

    3. virtue of his possession of an immortal soul, he was now seen as being part of the natural order, different from non-human animals only in degree of structural complexity

      Therefore our ethics must be an ethics of increasing complexity.

    4. originated in the emotional crisis which he suffered on the death of his father and the series of dreams to which this gave rise.

      Dreams associated with traumatic events, used to process these traumatic events. What dreams did I have?

      1. Dream of the inky black void, running through it to smash glass walls after glass walls.
      2. Running away from a soldier and hiding in a cave
      3. Running down the street and then leaping into the air and swimming, swimming through the sky
    5. many neuroses (phobias, hysterical paralysis and pains, some forms of paranoia, and so forth) had their origins in deeply traumatic experiences which had occurred in the patient’s past but which were now forgotten–hidden from consciousness.

      This is so true. I have traumatic experiences and possibly complex PTSD associated with the past.

    6. semiotics

      The study of signs and symbols

    1. “Hiking through the Grand Canyon is the closest to hell that I expect to come before I get there when I die,” Fedarko told Outside in August, after pulling out of 105-degree weather to rest. He wrapped up the hike on November 18. “There’s no exaggeration. That’s not hyperbole. It’s absolutely the most physical challenge that Pete and I have endured in our lives.”

      Damn! I want an experience like this

  13. Apr 2019
    1. nt colonies teach us self-organization stems from an adaptation that compresses information about the environment. Our economy and political system are similar forms of information compression

      I really like the way information compression is being used as an analytical tool for creating models here. makes a lot of sense

    2. The problem is that political competition can also falter. When it does, politicians have less incentive to promise fair outcomes.

      Our economy suffers from extreme inequality due partly to inadequate competition. The problem is that our parking brake for inequality is politics, and our politics is also noncompetitive

    3. Preferential attachment is a type of positive feedback loop.

      Money begets money, followers beget followers, fame begets fame, etc, positive feedback loops.

    4. Most of us are unaware of how our actions lead to self-organizing behavior.

      This is what Adam Smith realized in a Wealth of Nations

    5. these producers need only a small set of information to figure out what to do: market prices.

      Our economic system arises from abstraction and information compression on a huge scale

  14. Feb 2019
    1. offers a whole new way of understanding the world.

      This is a new way of understanding the world. Not the only way or the way we must understand the world. It adds to scientific models, doesn't replace them.

    2. Venter can tell you almost nothing about the species he found.

      Clearly we haven't replaced the model with data - the data doesn't offer a complete view. We can't explain how these species survive, their environment, or how they function within the ecosystem.

    3. Petabytes allow us to say: "Correlation is enough."

      It has enough predictive power we don't need to worry about finding a model of causation.

    4. we don't know how to run the experiments that would falsify the hypotheses — the energies are too high, the accelerators too expensive, and so on.

      We essentially cannot collect enough data and have to resort to speculation. Is this true?

    5. With enough data, the numbers speak for themselves.

      It doesn't matter what underlying model the data might be approximating. It doesn't matter that the data science doesn't understand the theory. With enough data, it doesn't matter: we can make accurate predictions regardless.

    6. That's why Google can translate languages without actually "knowing" them

      Is this similar to Searle's chinese room problem? It seems like it.

    7. Kilobytes were stored on floppy disks. Megabytes were stored on hard disks. Terabytes were stored in disk arrays. Petabytes are stored in the cloud.

      Where will exabytes be stored? Interplanetary clouds? :)

  15. Jan 2019
    1. Wisdom isn’t correlated with knowledge, it’s correlated with being in touch with reality—it’s not how far to the right you are on the graph, it’s how close you are to the orange line

      And a good part of this progress is the attempt to grow closer to reality. The core component of wisdom is HONESTY.

  16. Nov 2018
    1. This is particularly plausible for moral judgments in favour of inclusionary moral commitments, which are typically beyond the scope of evolutionary explanations

      There's no reason natural selection would favor inclusion - not everyone shares enough genes with you for you to care about them

    2. The fact that on our planet this capacity has evolved only in one species suggests as much

      How the HELL do we know that other species don't have the capacity to make moral judgements? Isn't it the possibility that they feel moral intuitions and make moral judgements as well? Think bonobos, elephants, dolphins, and other highly social, intelligent animals

    3. Instead, we tend to regard fitness-enhancing judgments as true, because this tendency increased the reproductive success of our ancestors.

      It's not that are moral intuitions are true and we just so happened to get them through evolution. It's that we just so happened to get them through evolution, and we therefore view them as true.

    4. more constrained scope

      Evaluative realism is slightly broader than moral realism; he's only addressing moral realism here

    5. invoke historical considerations

      Historical events as well as the process of evolution explain our moral judgements

    6. serve the evolutionary debunker’s purposes just as well

      Das is saying that EDAs aren't necessarily about evolution. They just use any explanation for our moral judgements that doesn't assume our judgements are true. Then, they say based on this explanation, our moral judgements are not justified.

    7. scientifically informed historical explanations of our moral endorsements do not involve an appeal to mind-independent truths

      According to the scientific evidence, the best explanation for our moral beliefs is evolution, not the world of Forms (mind-independent truths)

    8. orthogonal to empirical issues.

      Many authors say that whether the evolution of moral judgements is true or false doesn't matter in deciding if an EDA succeeds or fails. He disagrees: if their empirical claims are wrong, the EDA fails.

  17. Apr 2017
    1. the pity of an enlightened person would be responsive to this fact.

      An enlightened person would have pity for someone's general unhappiness, their lack of vitality, their loss of dreams, their self-destruction. Not for just suffering.

  18. Oct 2016
    1. But wordless conditioning is crude and wholesale; cannot bring home the finer distinctions, cannot inculcate the more complex courses of behaviour. For that there must be words, but words without reason. In brief, hypnopædia.

      language is key to conditioning. however, it is key that the students do not use this language to question their own conditioning.

    2. "… all wear green," said a soft but very distinct voice, beginning in the middle of a sentence, "and Delta Children wear khaki. Oh no, I don't want to play with Delta children. And Epsilons are still worse. They're too stupid to be able to read or write. Besides they wear black, which is such a beastly colour. I'm so glad I'm a Beta."

      school also conditions people to associate with certain groups.