493 Matching Annotations
  1. Jan 2022
    1. Active reading to the extreme!

      What a clever innovation building on the ideas of the art of memory and Raymond Llull's combinatoric arts!

      Does this hit all of the areas of Bloom's Taxonomy? I suspect that it does.

      How could it be tied more directly into an active reading, annotating, and note taking practice?

    1. culture that taught to learn by rote and a culture that taught to forget instead

      Pedagogical cultrues:

      • cultures taught orally
      • cultures taught to remember
      • cultures taught to learn by rote
      • cultures taught to forget

      Is there a (linear) progression? How do they differ? How are they they same? Is there a 1-1 process that allows them to be equivalence classes?

  2. Dec 2021
  3. Nov 2021
    1. [Mingquan] Wang has compiled a list of resources to assist teachers with [Chinese] radicals, and hopes that the work of Li and Huang, along with other curriculum developers, teachers, and specialists will further map radicals so that specialized courses can become more widespread, and students can be inducted into the fascinating world of radicals earlier in their studies.

      <small><cite class='h-cite via'> <span class='p-author h-card'>Heather Clydesdale </span> in Radicals Reveal the Order of Chinese Characters | Asia Society (<time class='dt-published'>11/22/2021 08:37:23</time>)</cite></small>

      I'd love to have similar sources in Japanese.

    1. https://asiasociety.org/china-learning-initiatives/radicals-reveal-order-chinese-characters

      Article about the importance of radicals in Chinese (and by extension Japanese) with hopes that pedagogy will change to make the teaching and remembering of kanji easier.

    2. Mingquan Wang, senior lecturer and language coordinator of the Chinese program at Tufts University, insists that radicals should be a part of the curriculum for teaching Chinese as a foreign language. “The question is,” he says, “how that should be done.” In spring of 2013, Wang sent an online questionnaire to 60 institutions, including colleges and K–12 schools. Of the 42 that responded, 100 percent agreed that teachers of Chinese language should cover radicals, yet few use a separate book or dedicate a course to radicals, and most simply discuss radicals as they encounter them in textbooks.

      This has been roughly my experience with Japanese, but I've yet to see an incredibly good method for doing this in a structured way.

    1. You sure packed lot of good lessons and important concept explanations/illustrations into this little answer/tutorial. Well done.
    2. <!-- you can use the $ prefixed value directly in the template --> <!-- (so we actually don't need the reactive expression above, in this example)
    3. (And we've covered 75% of the store topic... They're efficient, to the point... And simple!)
  4. www.diva-portal.org www.diva-portal.org
    1. Researchers found that the inability to identify body language and gestures and the ability to see students’ reactions to questions caused teacher-student inter-actions to be hindered during online teaching. Online interaction differs from classroom interaction
    1. I know a number of my subs and viewers are in India and I've noticed on Twitter and on Abhijit Chavda's channel that there's quite a bit of controversy about the way Indian History is taught to Indian students. That interests me a lot, but what I'm PARTICULARLY interested in is, how World History surveys throughout the world cover world history. If part of this involves continuing the narratives introduced by colonizers, like the Aryan Invasion myth, that's relevant to my question.
    2. I also did a bit of web and JSTOR research, and started a new Zotero folder called World History Comparison. Research Rabbit found a bunch of similar titles, but it will be a while before I can get to many of them. I DID, however, ask some people and groups such as the OE Global community on Twitter, and I want to extend that request to anyone who watches this video. I know a number of my subs and viewers are in India and I've noticed on Twitter and on Abhijit Chavda's channel that there's quite a bit of controversy about the way Indian History is taught to Indian students.

      Methods for attacking a research problem about history used here:

      • Web research
      • Journal database research
      • Zotero reference manager stub
      • Research Rabbit (AI search)
      • Reach out on various social media channels

      Not mentioned, but perhaps useful:

      • Standard library search (WorldCat)
      • Internet Archive search (scanned historical textbooks)
      • Off-label and dark web services (Library Genesis, Pirate Bay, etc.)
      • Open access and OER sources (this will probably find newer perspectives and newer texts which sometimes have philosophical outlines of what they're trying to change for the future versus the pedagogies of the past)
      • Current curricula and recommended textbooks at major universities on particular books and potential comparisons to those of the past (perhaps via Internet Archive).
    1. Drexel emphasizesthe difficulty of image-based arts of memory and how short-lived are theirresults: “Great labor places so many images of things in this treasury ofmemory; but no amount of labor has managed to preserve them there forlong without excerpts” (A, p. 3). Instead, for Drexel excerpting is the onlysure way to retain material for the long term. Drexel insists too that, farfrom detracting from memory, note taking is the best aid to memory.

      Jeremias Drexel is certainly a writer who complains about the work of the ars memoria, particularly for long term memory and supplants it with writing/note taking.

    2. pedagogues in the humanist tradition, from Erasmus to Drexel,were routinely hostile to the arts of memory.

      On Erasmus’s preference for “study, order and care” over places and images, see Erasmus,De ratione studii(1512), quoted in Yates,The Art of Memory,p. 127

      What other pedagogues were hostile to memory?

      This is another point in the decline of memory traditions from the 1500s onward.

      What effect did cheaper books and paper have on this decline?

      Keep in mind that Erasmus had written a treatise on commonplacing which was also a point in the history of note taking though Blair doesn't acknowledge his contributions in her list here. Also Agricola and Melanchthon

    3. The early modern period offers yet another type of source for the firsttime: manuals of advice about how to take notes. More detailed than theprecepts of fifteenth-century humanist pedagogues like Guarino da Veronaare entire treatises on the subject produced in the Jesuit and the Germanacademic contexts of the seventeenth century.

      The first manuals of advice about how to take notes began in the early modern period during the fifteenth century.

    4. Fromthe sixteenth century we have printed school texts abundantly annotated inthe margins and on interleaved pages with commentary that was likely dic-tated in the classroom and copied over neatly after the fact in the printedbook (fig. 3).
  5. Sep 2021
    1. I love this outline/syllabus for creating a commonplace book (as a potential replacement for a term paper).

      I'd be curious to see those who are using Hypothes.is as a communal reading tool in coursework utilize this outline (or similar ones) in combination with their annotation practices.

      Curating one's annotations and placing them into a commonplace book or zettelkasten would be a fantastic rhetorical exercise to extend the value of one's notes and ideas.

    2. Please include only quotations, and a brief bibliographic reference. Do not add commentary explaining why you like or chose a particular quotation. (e.g. Hieronimo in The Spanish Tragedy 3.2.1-15, or Kyd, The Spanish Tragedy 3.2.1-15,or evenas simple asThe Spanish Tragedy 3.2.1-15).

      She's a bit over-prescriptive here in terms of the form a commonplace book should contain. In particular, she seems to be holding to the form up to the 17th Century. Personally in a classroom exercise, I wouldn't include this particular limitation.

    3. Each class session on the syllabus in whichwe discussQ1 Hamlet(WEEKS 2-3), please cometo each class with two index cards withquotations of yourchoosing, andwith possible headings for such a quotation. On certain class sessions, I may give you more of a prompt, such as: to choose a line or phrase that is part of our everyday speech that youencounteredin Hamlet; orto cite a line from the major avengersof the scenes we discuss that day; etc. I will also be writing lines on index cards;we will share these in class, I will collect the cards, and returnthem the following class session.

      An example of a teacher using index cards as a "low stakes" commonplace. The added benefit is that they can be passed around and shared as well.

    1. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rhgwIhB58PA

      Learning styles have been debunked.

      Learning styles: V.A.R.K. model originated by Neil Flemiing stands for:

      • visual
      • auditory
      • reading/writing
      • kinesthetic

      References:

      Pashler, H., McDaniel, M., Rohrer, D., & Bjork, R. (2008). Learning styles: Concepts and evidence. Psychological science in the public interest, 9(3), 105-119. — https://ve42.co/Pashler2008

      Willingham, D. T., Hughes, E. M., & Dobolyi, D. G. (2015). The scientific status of learning styles theories. Teaching of Psychology, 42(3), 266-271. — https://ve42.co/Willingham

      Massa, L. J., & Mayer, R. E. (2006). Testing the ATI hypothesis: Should multimedia instruction accommodate verbalizer-visualizer cognitive style?. Learning and Individual Differences, 16(4), 321-335. — https://ve42.co/Massa2006

      Riener, C., & Willingham, D. (2010). The myth of learning styles. Change: The magazine of higher learning, 42(5), 32-35.— https://ve42.co/Riener2010

      Husmann, P. R., & O'Loughlin, V. D. (2019). Another nail in the coffin for learning styles? Disparities among undergraduate anatomy students’ study strategies, class performance, and reported VARK learning styles. Anatomical sciences education, 12(1), 6-19. — https://ve42.co/Husmann2019

      Snider, V. E., & Roehl, R. (2007). Teachers’ beliefs about pedagogy and related issues. Psychology in the Schools, 44, 873–886. doi:10.1002/pits.20272 — https://ve42.co/Snider2007

      Fleming, N., & Baume, D. (2006). Learning Styles Again: VARKing up the right tree!. Educational developments, 7(4), 4. — https://ve42.co/Fleming2006

      Rogowsky, B. A., Calhoun, B. M., & Tallal, P. (2015). Matching learning style to instructional method: Effects on comprehension. Journal of educational psychology, 107(1), 64. — https://ve42.co/Rogowskyetal

      Coffield, Frank; Moseley, David; Hall, Elaine; Ecclestone, Kathryn (2004). — https://ve42.co/Coffield2004

      Furey, W. (2020). THE STUBBORN MYTH OF LEARNING STYLES. Education Next, 20(3), 8-13. — https://ve42.co/Furey2020

      Dunn, R., Beaudry, J. S., & Klavas, A. (2002). Survey of research on learning styles. California Journal of Science Education II (2). — https://ve42.co/Dunn2002

    1. A series of studies conducted by Frédéric Vallée-Tourangeau, a professor of psychology at Kingston University in Britain; Gaëlle Vallée-Tourangeau, a professor of behavioral science at Kingston; and their colleagues, has explored the benefits of such interactivity. In these studies, experimenters pose a problem; one group of problem solvers is permitted to interact physically with the properties of the problem, while a second group must only think through the problem. Interactivity “inevitably benefits performance,” they report.

      Physical interactivity with a problem may help improve results.

    2. Moving mental contents out of our heads and onto the space of a sketch pad or whiteboard allows us to inspect it with our senses, a cognitive bonus that the psychologist Daniel Reisberg calls “the detachment gain.”

      Moving ideas from our heads into the real world, whether written or potentially using other modalities, can provide a detachment gain, by which we're able to extend those ideas by drawing, sketching, or otherwise using them.

      How might we use the idea of detachment gain to better effect in our pedagogy? I've heard anecdotal evidence of the benefit of modality shifts in many spaces including creating sketchnotes.

      While some sketchnotes don't make sense to those who weren't present for the original talk, perhaps they're incredibly useful methods for those who are doing the modality shifts from hearing/seeing into writing/drawing.

    3. Some studies in the field of physics education found that students’ understanding of the subject is less accurate after an introductory college physics course.

      The idea of learning by doing may have even more profound effects based on the idea of grounding. Experience in the physical world may dramatically inform experiences with the theoretical world.

    1. Critical pedagogy, among other things, borrows its ‘critical lens’ from the critical theory. It views society as divided and hierarchical (i.e. based on power relations); and education as a tool used by dominant groups to legitimise the iniquitous arrangement. By enabling the oppressed to look at the oppressor’s ideologies critically, it believes, education can assist them in ridding themselves of their ‘false consciousness’ – an important step, as we will see later, in their struggle for liberation. As is apparent, contrary to traditional claims of the ‘neutrality’ of education, “critical pedagogy views all education theory as intimately linked to ideologies shaped by power, politics, history and culture.” (Darder 1991, p. 77) And the primary function of the critical pedagogue is thus “to empower the powerless and transform those conditions which perpetuate human injustice and inequity.” (McLaren, 1988) – a concern that it shares with critical theory.8

      Critical Pedagogy (CP):

      • Sees society as divided into a hierarchy based on power relations.
      • Education is used as a tool by the dominant to uphold the hierarchy.
      • Education can also be used by the oppressed to rid themselves of false consciousness.
      • CP does not think any education is neutral. All education is shaped by power, politics, history, and culture.
      • CP can empower the powerless to change the power structures.
    1. https://via.hypothes.is/https://finiteeyes.net/pedagogy/extending-the-mind/

      A well written review of Annie Murphy Paul's The Extended Mind. Matthew Cheney has distilled a lot out of the book from his notes with particular application to improving pedagogy.

      I definitely want to read this with relation to not only using it to improve teaching, but with respect to mnemotechniques and the methods oral and indigenous societies may have either had things right or wrong and what Western culture may have lost as a result. I'm also particularly interested in it for its applications to the use of commonplace books and zettelkasten as methods of extending the mind and tools for thought.

    2. We teachers can help our students with this. Let them know when the most difficult work is coming. Help them prepare for that work, then admit that the challenge is real and it is difficult.

      But let's also be aware of the all-too-prevalent math shaming that occurs when we say "math is difficult". That definitely isn't productive.

    3. Bigger is better.

      Research shows that high-resolution monitors make thinking easier. This also seems true of classrooms which use large posters and maps as teaching aids at lower grades.

      Why don't we use these methods as we grow older?

      When used in mnemonic traditions, one can use vast spaces to create memory palaces that become thinking vistas within the brain. How can we better leverage these effects while still maintaining the effectiveness of focused journeys?

    4. One of the less developed ideas in The Extended Mind concerns the things we prioritize in tech development. Too often, Paul says, we think speed is the height of achievement. Instead, we need technology that builds off of our innate, human capacities.

      Perhaps we need more songlines in our instructional design?

      This is also a plea for a more humanistic approach to technology in general.

    5. Schools don’t teach students how to restore their depleted attention with exposure to nature and the outdoors, or how to arrange their study spaces so that they extend intelligent thought.

      I'm reminded of Lynne Kelly's use of Indigenous Australian memory techniques which do both of these things at the same time: https://www.lynnekelly.com.au/?p=4794

    6. Valorize motion, not sitting still.

      I wonder how much of our genetic programming is based on centuries of evolution with humans moving around their landscapes and attaching their memories to them?

      Within Lynne Kelly's thesis about stone circles, henges, etc. most of the locations have roads and entryways into them which require movement much less the idea of dancing and singing attached to memory performance as well.

    7. Social learning does not mean learning without tension or argument. In “Thinking with Peers”, Paul shows that argument and conflict are useful ways to focus attention and strengthen ideas, so long as the arguing is done with a certain amount of openness to new ideas. She approvingly quotes Stanford Business School professor Robert Sutton’s formula for productive conflict: “People should fight as if they are right, and listen as if they are wrong.” The brain, it seems, likes conflict. Or, at least, conflict helps strengthen attention.

      I wonder how this may be leveraged with those who are using Hypothes.is for conversations in the margins in classrooms?

      cc: @remikalir, @jeremydean, @nateangell

      Could teachers specifically sow contention into their conversations? Cross reference the idea of a devil's advocate.

      I love the aphorism:

      “People should fight as if they are right, and listen as if they are wrong.” — Robert Sutton, Stanford Buisness School professor's formula for productive conflict

    8. Some studies Paul cites show that the other students don’t even necessarily need to exist: if we have a sense of an audience and can imagine teaching them, that imagined teaching itself has benefits for learning.

      Any relationship to the idea of rubberduck debugging?

    9. Paul breaks apprenticeship down into four pedagogies in a mostly linear sequence: 1. modeling, 2. scaffolding, 3. fading the teacher role, 4. coaching.
    10. Imitation, Paul says, allows us to think with other people’s brains. It is a key technique — globally and transhistorically — for learning, from babies imitating parents to apprentices imitating masters. And yet imitation is seen in contemporary US society, and schooling especially, as so debased that it is frequently punished. In fact, if Paul is correct (and I think she is, and have thought so for years when teaching writing), we should build imitation into many more of our lesson plans.

      On the importance of imitation...

      I'm reminded of Benjamin Franklin imitating what he thought were good writers to make his own writing more robust.

      See: https://via.hypothes.is/https://www.gutenberg.org/files/20203/20203-h/20203-h.htm

      Maybe the aphorism: "Imitation is the sincerest form of flattery," should really be "Imitation is the sincerest form of learning."

    11. We have piles of good research from the last few decades into how brains actually work. Or, if not how brains work (much remains mysterious!), what they like and don’t like.

      We're also dramatically missing thousands of years of indigenous experience as well.

    1. Recent studies found when teachers gave trainee pharmacists frequent low-stakes questions with feedback, students performed better on tests and were more satisfied with the course.  

      references for this?

    2. A recent review of the evidence finds that when students are cognitively overloaded, they disengage more often, perform badly and learn less. You can help students stay focused by making your presentations less cognitively overloaded. So, shorten slides, reduce text, use diagrams, remove irrelevant images, progressively reveal content and stick to one idea per slide. Take a careful look at the materials you use and ask yourself: “What’s my main message? What distracts from that? How can I remove distractions?”

      This feels related to some of the potential power of sketchnotes.

      I'd like the reference to this particular research though.

    3. Cognitive scientists have found also that when we answer a question in our own words, we integrate the information better into our long-term memory.

      Reference for this?

    4. Researchers found that students remembered passages of text better when the extracts began with a question, for example, “Is this evidenced?”

      Reference for this?

    5. Build commitment  After connecting, you need to build students’ commitment. Educationalist Daniel Willingham argues that students are driven by a mixture of curiosity and laziness: they want to find out new things and solve puzzles, but they don’t want to invest too much effort in the process. That means the best way to build commitment is start out with a task that piques their interest but doesn’t take much effort. Once they have completed this task, they are much more likely to commit to your next task. The trick then becomes slowly ratcheting up that commitment as the course progresses. 

      Students want to discover, learn new things, and solve puzzles, but they don't want to invest too much effort into the process.

      How does this fit into or relate to the idea of flow?

      What relationship does it have to addictive behaviors like scrolling social media which are low effort, but provide new discovery?

    6. Researchers of online courses in community colleges found that the level of interpersonal interaction was the best predictor of how well an online course did.

      Research shows that the level of interpersonal interaction is the best predictor for how well an online course does.

      Reference for this??

    1. https://fs.blog/2021/07/mathematicians-lament/

      What if we taught art and music the way we do mathematics? All theory and drudgery without any excitement or exploration?

      What textbooks out there take math from the perspective of exploration?

      • Inventional geometry does

      Certainly Gauss, Euler, and other "greats" explored mathematics this way? Why shouldn't we?

      This same problem of teaching math is also one we ignore when it comes to things like note taking, commonplacing, and even memory, but even there we don't even delve into the theory at all.

      How can we better reframe mathematics education?

      I can see creating an analogy that equates math with art and music. Perhaps something like Arthur Eddington's quote:

      Suppose that we were asked to arrange the following in two categories–

      distance, mass, electric force, entropy, beauty, melody.

      I think there are the strongest grounds for placing entropy alongside beauty and melody and not with the first three. —Sir Arthur Stanley Eddington, OM, FRS (1882-1944), a British astronomer, physicist, and mathematician in The Nature of the Physical World, 1927

    2. “We don’t need to bend over backwards to give mathematics relevance. It has relevance in the same way that any art does: that of being a meaningful human experience.”

      Paul Lockhart in Lockhart's Lament

    3. “What other subject is routinely taught without any mention of its history, philosophy, thematic development, aesthetic criteria, and current status? What other subject shuns its primary sources—beautiful works of art by some of the most creative minds in history—in favor of third-rate textbook bastardizations?”

      ---Paul Lockhart

    4. We don’t teach the process of creating math. We teach only the steps to repeat someone else’s creation, without exploring how they got there—or why.

      This is the primary problem with mathematics education!

  6. Aug 2021
    1. The De disciplina scholarum, a student guidebook from Paris, stipulated that wax tablets or tiny slips of parchment be taken into the classroom for note-taking. These notes were later added to the margins of students’ textbooks.
    1. I'd start with the basics of 0-9 of the Major System and then introduce the method of loci. Once they've got those two basics down reasonably I'd expand their Major system up to 99 at a minimum.

      The tougher part then is expanding your pedagogy to build these tools into the curriculum so that you're actively using them with your content.

      You might appreciate the experience from Lynne Kelly here: https://www.lynnekelly.com.au/?p=4794. Her excellent book Memory Craft also has some interesting examples and stories for children including the use of what she calls rapscallions for use in multiplication tables, languages, and other educational applications. Her book also has a wealth of other methods and potential applications depending on the subjects you're teaching.

      I'd love to hear your experiences as you progress with your class.

    1. The Attack on "Critical Race Theory": What's Going on?

      https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=P35YrabkpGk

      Lately, a lot of people have been very upset about “critical race theory.” Back in September 2020, the former president directed federal agencies to cut funding for training programs that refer to “white privilege” or “critical race theory, declaring such programs “un-American propaganda” and “a sickness that cannot be allowed to continue.” In the last few months, at least eight states have passed legislation banning the teaching of CRT in schools and some 20 more have similar bills in the pipeline or plans to introduce them. What’s going on?

      Join us for a conversation that situates the current battle about “critical race theory” in the context of a much longer war over the relationship between our racial present and racial past, and the role of culture, institutions, laws, policies and “systems” in shaping both. As members of families and communities, as adults in the lives of the children who will have to live with the consequences of these struggles, how do we understand what's at stake and how we can usefully weigh in?

      Hosts: Melissa Giraud & Andrew Grant-Thomas

      Guests: Shee Covarrubias, Kerry-Ann Escayg,

      Some core ideas of critical race theory:

      • racial realism
        • racism is normal
      • interest convergence
        • racial equity only occurs when white self interest is being considered (Brown v. Board of Education as an example to portray US in a better light with respect to the Cold War)
      • Whiteness as property
        • Cheryl Harris' work
        • White people have privilege in the law
        • myth of meritocracy
      • Intersectionality

      People would rather be spoon fed rather than do the work themselves. Sadly this is being encouraged in the media.

      Short summary of CRT: How laws have been written to institutionalize racism.

      Culturally Responsive Teaching (also has the initials CRT).

      KAE tries to use an anti-racist critical pedagogy in her teaching.

      SC: Story about a book Something Happened in Our Town (book).

      • Law enforcement got upset and the school district
      • Response video of threat, intimidation, emotional blackmail by local sheriff's department.
      • Intent versus impact - the superintendent may not have had a bad intent when providing an apology, but the impact was painful

      It's not really a battle about or against CRT, it's an attempt to further whitewash American history. (synopsis of SC)

      What are you afraid of?

    1. Site Preview HUD

      Howdy Max!!!

      A cool tool born of need after VWBPE 2013.

      Mary Anne Clark's Genome Island serves up a master class in virtual world pedagogy, along with the genetics course content.

  7. Jul 2021
    1. References

      I found myself wondering how the proposed argument visualization tool relates to the various tools that already exist for this (e.g., van Gelder, 2002) and to the various result of incorporating argument mapping into teaching/curricula (Bell, 2002; Cullen et al., 2018; Dwyer et al, 2012, 2013, 2015; Twardy, 2004) and other reasoning environments (e.g., Hogan et al., 2014).

      Bell, P. (2002). Using argument map representations to make thinking visible for individuals and groups. In T. Koschmann, R. P. Hall, & N. Miyake (Eds.), CSCL 2. Routledge.

      Cullen, S., Fan, J., Brugge, E. van der, & Elga, A. (2018). Improving analytical reasoning and argument understanding: A quasi-experimental field study of argument visualization. NPJ Science of Learning, 3(1), 21. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41539-018-0038-5

      Dwyer, C. P., Hogan, M. J., & Stewart, I. (2012). An evaluation of argument mapping as a method of enhancing critical thinking performance in e-learning environments. Metacognition and Learning, 7(3), 219–244. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11409-012-9092-1

      Dwyer, C. P., Hogan, M. J., & Stewart, I. (2013). An examination of the effects of argument mapping on students’ memory and comprehension performance. Thinking Skills and Creativity, 8, 11–24. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tsc.2012.12.002

      Dwyer, C. P., Hogan, M. J., & Stewart, I. (2015). The effects of argument mapping-infused critical thinking instruction on reflective judgement performance. Thinking Skills and Creativity, 16, 11–26. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tsc.2014.12.002

      Hogan, M., Harney, O., & Broome, B. (2014). Integrating Argument Mapping with Systems Thinking Tools: Advancing Applied Systems Science. In A. Okada, S. J. B. Shum, & T. Sherborne (Eds.), Knowledge Cartography (pp. 401–421). Springer London. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4471-6470-8_18

      Twardy, C. (2004). Argument Maps Improve Critical Thinking. Teaching Philosophy, 27(2), 95–116. https://doi.org/10.5840/teachphil200427213

      van Gelder, T. (2002). Argument Mapping with Reason! Able. American Philosophical Association Newsletter on Philosophy and Computers. https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/633e/5f052ac2d4e1a39cda10b2dcf48ba90d4997.pdf

    1. The Activity and Art of Reading 15 If you ask a living teacher a question, he will probably answer you. If you are puzzled by what he says, you can save yourself the trouble of thinking by asking him what he means. If, however, you ask a book a question, you must answer it yourself.

      What effect might this have on the learning process of purely oral cultures?

    2. To be informed is to know simply that something is the case. To be enlightened is to know, in addition, what it is all about: why it is the case, what its connections are with other facts, in what respects it is the same, in what respects it is different, and so forth.

      The distinctions between being informed and enlightened.

      Learning might be defined as the pathway from being informed as a preliminary base on the way to full enlightenment. Pedagogy is the teacher's plan for how to take this path.

      How would these definitions and distinctions fit into Bloom's taxonomy?

      Note that properly annotating and taking notes into a commonplace book can be a serious (necessary?) step one might take on the way towards enlightenment.

    1. This is one of the more-satisfying ruby expressions I've seen in a long time. I can't say that it also has prosaic transparency, but I think seeing it teaches important things.
  8. Jun 2021
    1. This article was mentioned/recommended by @RemiKalir earlier today at a session at [[I Annotate 2021]].

    2. your goal cannot be to follow orders in order to get a higher grade, instead you are free to listen, consider things, ignore ideas, or ask more honest questions of your readers. You are now free to make your own decisions on your writing. 

      Labor-based grading in writing allows students to listen and adjust to comments which gives them greater freedom and autonomy in both their learning process as well as their writing.

      Ideally, in a system like this, a shorter feedback loop of commentary and readjustment may also help to more carefully hone their skills versus potentially hitting a plateau after which it's more difficult to improve.

    3. Writing is a verb, a practice. It is labor. A paper is at least one step removed from that labor and learning. It is a product of your labor, not your labor itself. So our grading system should align with what this course is mostly about, which is your acts of learning, your labors of writing. 

      I'm reminded here of a portion of Benjamin Franklin's passage in his Autobiography where he describes his writing process and work to improve:

      About this time I met with an odd volume of the Spectator.[18] It was the third. I had never before seen any of them. I bought it, read it over and over, and was much delighted with it. I thought the writing excellent, and wished, if possible, to imitate it. With this view I took some of the papers, and, making short hints of the sentiment in each sentence, laid them by a few days, and then, without looking at the book, try'd to compleat the papers again, by expressing each hinted sentiment at length, and as fully as it had been expressed before, in any suitable words that should come to hand. Then I compared my Spectator with the original, discovered some of my faults, and corrected them. But I found I wanted a stock of words, or a readiness in recollecting and using them, which I thought I should have acquired before that time if I had gone on making verses; since the continual occasion for words of the same import, but of different length, to suit the measure, or of different sound for the rhyme, would have laid me under a constant necessity of searching for variety, and also have tended to fix that variety in my mind, and make me master of it. Therefore I took some of the tales and turned them into verse; and, after a time, when I had pretty well forgotten the prose, turned them back again. I also sometimes jumbled my collections of hints into confusion, and after some weeks endeavored to reduce them into the best order, before I began to form the full sentences and compleat the paper. This was to teach me method in the arrangement of thoughts. By comparing my work afterwards with the original, I discovered many faults and amended them; but I sometimes had the pleasure of fancying that, in certain particulars of small import, I had been lucky enough to improve the method of the language, and this encouraged me to think I might possibly in time come to be a tolerable English writer, of which I was extremely ambitious. My time for these exercises and for reading was at night, after work or before it began in the morning, or on Sundays, when I contrived to be in the printing-house alone, evading as much as I could the common attendance on public worship which my father used to exact of me when I was under his care, and which indeed I still thought a duty, thought I could not, as it seemed to me, afford time to practise it.

    4. a labor-based grading system produces your final course grade by focusing on how much labor, or effort, you do in this course. The more labor you do, the higher your final course grade will be, regardless of what anyone thinks of the products of that labor.

      Definition of a labor-based grading system. It's pretty much what one might suspect.

      The underlying supposition is that doing some work at improvement will help one learn and improve.

      The missing assumptions may include which sorts of work are best? Do they work for some students and not others? What sorts of work for specific tasks might improve performance and output(s)?

    1. reflecting on the year after george floyd for me is that the different responses that we all have right are valid and true and authentic and they create

      reflecting on the year after george floyd for me is that the different responses that we all have right are valid and true and authentic and they create possibilities when they're read in you know its full context um but some of what is happening or some of what the role of the the classroom or the the person is to do is to try to say this is the range of the acceptable response and i feel like as a teacher our role is to kind of say you get to choose how you want to show up but base it in something that's real that's authentic that's not just about you this but it's about the collective so how do we cultivate that connection to collectivity how do we cultivate that ethical uh commitment and conviction to one another but at the end of the day how do we allow young people and everyone really the agency um to decide how they want to like show up—Christopher R. Rogers (autogenerated transcript)

      This is a powerful teaching philosophy. Return to reflect on this.

    1. The basic thing I do with col-34 THE NEW 'I'ORKEI\, APRIL 29. 2013 lege students is pretend that fm their editor and their copy editor.

      Teaching writing...

    Tags

    Annotators

    1. Seth Long takes a closer look at the number of memory treatises from 1550-1650 to come up with a more concrete reason for the disappearance of mnemonic imagery (and the method of loci) in English rhetoric and pedagogic traditions. Some writers have attributed it to the rise of more writing and publishing. Long extends Frances Yates' idea of its decline to the rise of Ramism by presenting some general data about the number and quality of memory treatises published during the time period in question. Comparison of this data with European continental publications helps to draw some more concrete conclusions.

      In particular, he highlights an example of a Ramist sympathizer re-writing a previous treatise and specifically removing the rhetorical imagery from the piece.

    2. Butler then moves on toquote—not Cicero, as Wilson does—but Quintilian, who among classical authorities is the mostskeptical about the art of memory’s efficacy (see endnote 4). Echoing Quintilian’s complaint, Butlersays that it is probably more difficult to construct a memory palace than simply to remember thingsby rote (54–55).

      Construction is definitely work. The question about how much it may be should be addressed on a continuum of knowing or understanding particular concepts as well.

      Creating palaces for raw data de-novo, as in a memory championship, takes a lot of practice for speed and the lack of relationships. However in a learning setting, it may be better to read, grasp, and understand material and then create a palace to contain the simple raw facts which might then also bring back other bits of the knowledge and understanding.

      This might be a useful idea to explore further, gather some data, and experiment with.

  9. May 2021
    1. Lynne Kelly describes her experiences with some elementary school students using her rapscallions, songlines, and a woodhenge to memorize their math and social studies classwork and present it to their peers.

    1. The qualitative data collected in this project clearly indicate that this learning approach is pleasurable and productive in itself, and may well have a role in decreasing the ‘drudgery’ often associated with modern higher education.

      This idea has been known historically for centuries. It's only with education "reforms" in the 1500's that things have become markedly worse in Western education.

    2. A fourth theme to emerge from the analysis of the data, is the highly relevant ‘cultural’ aspect to this memorization technique which students greatly appreciated. As one student notes: “I like the idea of connecting Indigenous culture with science learning…”. The theme of culture overlays learning and demonstrates the importance of conceptualising Australian Aboriginal ways of knowing or learning with or from rather than about Australian Aboriginal people and their knowledge systems. As Yunkaporta [2, p. 15] states, it is important not to examine Australian Aboriginal knowledge systems, but to explore the external systems “from an Indigenous knowledge perspective”.

      This is so heartwarming to me.

    3. Further, while the notion of ‘steps’ is often used in education as a way to scaffold knowledge, in the case of the Australian Aboriginal memory technique, there is also literal use of the term ‘steps’ as the following quote highlights: “[w]alking around and looking at the trees was a good visual tool to relate to corresponding steps in the cycle”. Kelly [1, p. 20] concurs and refers to the way Indigenous cultures use geography and landscape to create “memory spaces” and even “narrative landscapes”.

      Steps, diagrams, and other structures have been almost all that is left of potential mnemotechniques following educational reform in the late 1500s.

      Is there any research on these sorts of knowledge scaffolds in modern education?

      A classic example in Western culture can be seen in Eusebius' breaking the Bible down into smaller pieces using verses, though I don't think it was made canonical until during the Renaissance.

    4. Incoming medical students overwhelmingly felt that training on specific memory techniques would be helpful, with 93% indicating ‘strongly agree’ (51/72; 71%) or ‘somewhat agree’ (17/72; 23%) in response to the question: “Specific memory training as a component of medical education would be worth my while”.

      How can something like this that so many people find worthwhile be so neglected by any school, much less a medical school?

      Our educational system is really failing our students.

      Damn you Peter Ramus!

    5. Bloom’s taxonomy is a framework that suggests learners move from lower order thinking such as remembering and understanding, through to higher order thinking skills that include synthesising, evaluating and creating [26].

      This looks somewhat intriguing:

      Krathwohl DR. A Revision of Bloom’s Taxonomy: An Overview. Theory Into Practice. 2002;41(4):212–8. _2. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15430421tip4104 | Google Scholar

    1. As someone who knows both methods and has likely practiced them in reasonable depth, I'm curious what Dr. @LynneKelly thinks. I'd love to see this same study done to include song, dance, painting, etc. to expand the potential effects.

      If nothing else, it's good to see some positive research on the methods which will hopefully draw more attention to the pedagogy and classroom use.

      Dr. Reser said the Monash School of Rural Health is considering incorporating these memory tools into the medical curriculum once teaching returns to a post-COVID normal. “This year we hope to offer this to students as a way to not only facilitate their learning but to reduce the stress associated with a course that requires a lot of rote learning,” he said. —https://scitechdaily.com/ancient-australian-aboriginal-memory-tool-superior-to-memory-palace-learning-technique/

    1. Orbis Pictus, or Orbis Sensualium Pictus (Visible World in Pictures), is a textbook for children written by Czech educator John Amos Comenius and published in 1658. It was the first widely used children's textbook with pictures, published first in Latin and German and later republished in many European languages.

      This would seem to be the sort of ancestor of the bestiary that might be used as a mnemonic tool, but given it's 1658 publication date, it's likely the case that this would have been too late for it to have served this purpose for most (without prior knowledge).

      Apparently the Encyclopaedia Britannica labeled it as “the first children’s picture book.”

  10. Apr 2021
    1. But syllabi, as long as I’ve known them, are too often defensive documents aimed at controlling students through absurd levels of bureaucracy.

      This is certainly an apt definition of syllabi

    1. 7:09 - Discussion of a custom template for use cases; this sounds a bit like some customization similar to Open Scholar on Drupal

      Here's a link to Alan Levine's work here: https://cogdogblog.com/category/twu-portfolios/

      What has support for WPMU looked like within the pandemic?

      Laurie Miles, UNC Asheville

      • Uptick with faculty looking for tools to be online. They've gone from 6 or 7 in past years to 17
      • Sharing resources with colleagues within the department or at other institutions

      Shannon Hauser, University of Mary Washington

      • They've seen a disconnect between their LMS (Canvas) and Domains with the LMS winning out

      Colin Madland, Trinity Western University

      • Didn't have a culture of online teaching
      • Fine arts department started tinkering and others within the department are using that template. They spent some time and thought in the Summer and that made it easier for them in the fall.

      Jim Groom talked about a "motherblog" (a planet made via RSS). How can we center the idea of a webmention hub to do this?

      There was a lot of reversion to what was comfortable in the move to all online pedagogy. Professors were comfortable with lectures, so they stuck with that. There wasn't an emphasis on actual learning.

      I should note Glenn Zucman's art work to Colin to pass along to their art department. There could be a community of use cases that might help each other experiment and expand on their ideas.

    1. @7:40:

      We're aware that some students might actually revel in the gymnastics of a sophiscated writing and retrieval system like this. Now, we don't want to subordinate the material to the system, nor is the system merely being used to provide an alternative to a classroom experience. What we are striving for is to make a flexible system with lots of interesting material so that we may serve the needs of a genuinely contemporary student.

    1. Academy Games has always prided itself in the quality of its rules. Most of our rules are taught in stages, allowing you to start playing as soon as possible without needing to read everything. We are very careful about the order we teach rules and rely heavily on graphics and pictures to facilitate understanding. We also include a large number of detailed picture examples, often with 3D renders, that help you understand the context of the rules.
  11. Mar 2021
    1. A great little outline for how to do class retrospectives. While there's a lot of subtlety and a huge gradient between individual learners many of the methods and pro/con lists help to show the differences between them. I'd be curious to see one try all (or as many as possibly) to cover as many of the eventualities as possible.

      Too often teachers don't bother with these, but they can be incredibly useful, particularly for helping to attempt to improve future incarnations, as well as to guard against the curse of knowledge.

      I like that hyperlink.academy is doing some of the necessary work to expose their teachers to this sort of material. Too often it is only done in the academy in perfunctory ways which aren't designed to improve anything. Additionally the academy provides little, if any, training in the areas of pedagogy. Hyperlink.academy is making strides to provide some of this material and doing a reasonable job of exposing their teachers to it.

    1. This curse of knowledge also explains the danger behind thinking about student learning based on what appears best to faculty members, as opposed to what has been verified with students.

      Are there other axes or criteria that might be used other than these two? One seems better than the other, but what appears best to teachers is potentially better than nothing. (Though in cases it could be so bad that nothing may be preferable to a teacher's viewpoint.)

    1. Tatiana Mac talks about some broad web accessibility tips, but from the perspective of adding them for potential learners who may appreciate the alternate modalities to improve their learning and comprehension.

    2. Visualise written content into a more dynamic way. Many people, some neurodivergent folks especially, benefit from information being distilled into diagrams, comics, or less word-dense formats. Visuals can also benefit people who might not read/understand the language you wrote it in. They can also be an effective lead-in to your long-form from visually-driven avenues like Pinterest or Instagram.

      This is also a great exercise for readers and learners. If the book doesn't do this for you already, spend some time to annotate it or do it yourself.

    3. I've broken down each base medium with some of its benefits, tips, and opportunities to make your content more accessible.

      Accessibility is definitely a great goal, but how can one also make it more memorable/rememberable or more sticky?

      What methods are there outside of [[Made to Stick]]?

    4. Unfortunately, so many of our tutorials (and media in general) only comes in one form. When our teachings are only provided in one media, in one language, in one form, it is inherently inaccessible to some subset of our students.
    5. No matter how engaging, funny, well-produced the video is, I will not be able to retain it unless I cannot read along.

      I'm wondering how people of various stripes like this and other versions may or may not relate to the variety of mnemotechniques out there.

    1. A summary/paraphrase of specific parts of the article you found interesting Definitions of terms used in the article (with links)References to people/places/things mentioned in the article (with links or images/videos)Opinions (respectfully, with evidence)Questions Links to related materials or further evidence on the same subject 

      This is a great list of some common types of annotations for students just starting out, but it misses one key annotation that I think is the goal of all annotations:

      New ideas from the reader that have been sparked by the writing.

      Incidentally, this is also one of the more difficult types to create and it's also harder to model to students.

      In some sense, many of these annotation types fall relatively neatly into Bloom's taxonomy with my addendum falling under the top level of the pyramid usually labeled "create".

    1. Particularly striking in 1971 was his call for advanced technology to support "learning webs": The operation of a peer-matching network would be simple. The user would identify himself by name and address and describe the activity for which he sought a peer. A computer would send him back the names and addresses of all those who had inserted the same description. It is amazing that such a simple utility has never been used on a broad scale for publicly valued activity.
    1. I've also invited (that is assigned) students to participate in knowledge creation in the graph by adding content to fill "blank nodes" I've made as I've been inserting my content. They can choose which keywords or subtopics they want to learn a little more about, do a bit of research, write a summary that will be useful to their fellow students, and cite their sources.

      This exercise also makes it more apparent to students that their work and research can go on to make improvements to the field in general. Writing papers in college is a dreadful exercise for students who often don't see the point. While this may be like learning bowling with the gutter rails raised, it certainly helps bridge the gap many students may have.

      The added benefit is that they might see their work live on in a textbook they may have used and in which they now have a credit.

    2. I returned to another OER Learning Circle and wrote an ebook version of a Modern World History textbook. As I wrote this, I tested it out on my students. I taught them to use the annotation app, Hypothesis, and assigned them to highlight and comment on the chapters each week in preparation for class discussions. This had the dual benefits of engaging them with the content, and also indicating to me which parts of the text were working well and which needed improvement. Since I wasn't telling them what they had to highlight and respond to, I was able to see what elements caught students attention and interest. And possibly more important, I was able to "mind the gaps', and rework parts that were too confusing or too boring to get the attention I thought they deserved.

      This is an intriguing off-label use case for Hypothes.is which is within the realm of peer-review use cases.

      Dan is essentially using the idea of annotation as engagement within a textbook as a means of proactively improving it. He's mentioned it before in Hypothes.is Social (and Private) Annotation.

      Because one can actively see the gaps without readers necessarily being aware of their "review", this may be a far better method than asking for active reviews of materials.

      Reviewers are probably not as likely to actively mark sections they don't find engaging. Has anyone done research on this space for better improving texts? Certainly annotation provides a means for helping to do this.

    3. I hadn't really thought that much about the pedagogical aspects (they don't really teach PhD historians pedagogy where I went to school, or I missed it somehow, so I've been trying to educate myself since then).

      Don't feel bad, I don't think many (any?!) programs do this. It's a terrible disservice to academia.

      Examples of programs that do this would be fantastic to have. Or even an Open Education based course that covers some of this would be an awesome thing to see.

    1. Because annotating a syllabus conveys a message–from day one–that course documents are not static artifacts, that something authored by an instructor is not unwelcoming of feedback, and that student voice is both appreciated and necessary for a shared endeavor.

      This helps to turn the class into a community.

      It also establishes the class as an ongoing conversation of learning with all the participants.

      It sets up the teacher not simply as the unquestionable "sage-on-the-stage" but as a guide through the material.

      If we didn't question our teachers, their ideas, their writings, and learn new things, we could have stopped at Aristotle and everyone would still think the Earth was the center of the universe and that feathers fall as fast as bowling balls.

  12. Feb 2021
    1. les objectifs à atteindre ne sont pas codés au départ

      Ouverture des objectifs, en renversement direct de la conception inversée si chère à l'ingénierie pédagogique. Les résultats d'apprentissage ne sont pas dans une relation de causalité linéaire avec les objectifs d'apprentissages.

    1. Spent some time browsing through the wealth of resources here. What a great site. Greg McVerry will appreciate it and many of the curated resources which he may be able to remix and reuse.

    1. This seems like the sort of thing Greg McVerry would appreciate.

    2. The final missing piece was Post-It notes, a strategy I borrowed from Deb Verhoeven. (Thanks, Deb!) Every student starts with a green Post-It note on her laptop. That means everything’s OK. Run into a problem that they need me for? Swap it out for red. Finished? Swap it out for white.

      This is a clever tip and is reminiscent of Churrascaria restaurants which often have wooden blocks or figures on the table painted red on one end and green on the other and diners flip it to indicate: stop bringing food for a while or bring more food respectively.

      I've also seen another version in the now-defunct Souplantation restaurants which had laminate cards to indicate you were off at the buffet and please don't clear the table yet as you're still dining.

  13. Jan 2021
    1. But we would need to intentionally center care and well-being as a primary condition of learning and be willing to set our obsession with achievement -- gently, even if momentarily -- aside.

      post-pandemic pedagogy

  14. Dec 2020
    1. It’s no coincidence that we walk when we need to think: evidence shows that movement enhances thinking and learning, and both are activated in the same centre of motor control in the brain. In the influential subfield of cognitive science concerned with ‘embodied’ cognition, one prominent claim is that actions themselves are constitutive of cognitive processes. That is, activities such as playing a musical instrument, writing, speaking or dancing don’t start in the brain and then emanate out to the body as actions; rather, they entail the mind and body working in concert as a creative, integrated whole, unfolding and influencing each other in turn. It’s therefore a significant problem that many of us are trapped in work and study environments that don’t allow us to activate these intuitive cognitive muscles, and indeed often even encourage us to avoid them.

      I'm curious if Lynne Kelly or others have looked into these areas of research with their Memory work? She's definitely posited that singing and dancing as well as creating art helps indigenous cultures in their memory work.

  15. Oct 2020
    1. proctored, multiple-choice tests are necessary to prepare students to take other multiple-choice assessments they may encounter in the course of their education

      Important point. We design not only courses, but programs, and they relate to experiences after the program.

    2. And though flags from this software don’t automatically mean students will be penalized—instructors can review the software’s suspicions and decide for themselves how to proceed—it leaves open the possibility that instructors’ own biases will determine whether to bring academic dishonesty charges against students. Even just an accusation could negatively affect a student’s academic record, or at the very least how their instructor perceives them and their subsequent work.

      The companies are hiding behind this as a feature - that the algorithms are not supposed to be implemented without human review. I wonder how this "feature" will interact with implicit (and explicit) biases, or with the power dynamics between adjuncts, students, and departmental administration.

      The companies are caught between a rock and a hard place in the decision whether students should be informed that their attempt was flagged for review, or not. We see that, if the student is informed, it causes stress and pain and damage to the teacher-student relationship. But if they're not informed, all these issues of bias and power become invisible.

    1. Unfortunately, saying, "Build a relationship" is too vague and leaves too much up to the teacher's instincts.

      Not just in regards to students processing trauma, unfortunately...

    1. TECHNOLOGY ADOPTION IN HIGHER EDUCATION: OVERCOMING ANXIETY THROUGH FACULTY BOOTCAMP

      This article uses educational theory to examine why educators feel anxiety in association with learning and using new technologies and how best to teach new technologies without triggering anxiety. 7/10, good discussion of theories and methods along with reasoning.

  16. ecomentor.itee.radom.pl ecomentor.itee.radom.pl
    1. Farewell to Pedagogy

      The Article often compares Andragogy to Pedagogy and how they are different and should not be confused. The Article goes in depth into core assumptions of Andragogy.

      8/10

    1. Adult learning theories: Implications for learning and teaching

      Article provides an in depth discussion of learning theories as applied to adult learners. Diagrams are particularly helpful. Clear discussion of Knowles, i.e., how adult and child learning differs. Rating 8/10

    1. it encourages a “growth” mindset: the belief that your abilities can improve with your efforts.

      I'll be this also helps with their feeling of "flow" too.

    2. “Many thought, okay to get from A to B there are these three steps, but it turns out there are really five or six,”

      Sounds a lot like the mathematicians who came after Perelman to show that his proof of Poincare was correct--they needed help in getting from A to B too.

    1. As I'm reading this page I can't help but think about how it potentially predates and underlies the idea of the wiki which came just a few years after this piece of software.

    1. Pearson, the publisher whose Texas textbook raises questions about the quality of Harlem Renaissance literature, said such language “adds more depth and nuance.”

      If they wanted to add more "depth and nuance" wouldn't they actually go into greater depth on the topic by adding pages instead of subtly painting it such a discouraging light?

      But Texas students will read that some critics “dismissed the quality of literature produced.”

    2. “The textbook companies are not gearing their textbooks toward teachers; they’re gearing their textbooks toward states,” she said.

      And even at this they should be gearing them honestly and truthfully toward the students.

    1. Therefore it is a great valuefor fixing a memory-image that when we read books, we strive to impress onour memory through the power of forming our mental images not only thenumber and order of verses or ideas, but at the same time the color, shape,position, and placement of the letters, where we have seen this or that writ-ten, in what part, in what location (at the top, the middle, or the bottom)we saw it positioned, in what color we observed the trace of the letter or theornamented surface of the parchment

      I've always been able to generally remember how far into a book and on what part of the page (left/right; top/middle/bottom) the thing was. This obviously is not a new phenomenon, though obviously the printing of texts in the modern age helps standardize this for students in comparison with this particular example which discusses different versions of the same text.

    1. She said that her institution, which has inclusive-access agreements with more than 25 publishers, had saved students more than $2 million this semester alone.

      $ 2million compared to what? To everyone having purchased the textbooks at going rates before? This is a false comparison because not everyone bought new in the first place. Many bought used, and many more still probably either pirated, borrowed from a friend, from the library, or simply went without.

    2. The "inclusive" aspect of the model means that every student has the same materials on the first day of class, with the charge included as part of their tuition.

      It almost sounds to me like they know they're not getting a cut of the money from poorer students who are finding the material for free online anyway, so they're trying to up the stakes of the piece of pie that they're getting from a different angle.

      This other model of subscription at the level of the college or university is also one that they're well aware of based on involvement with subscription fees for journal access.

    1. Equipping, however, is about agency. It’s about providing access and opportunities for public participation and production. Equipping is about teaching and interconnected learning. It’s about exchanging skills and resource. It’s a redistribution of power between institutions and individuals.And it scares the hell out of people in power.I’ll offer a bit more definition here on what equipping is not. Equipping is not the same as empowerment because, much like the phrase “giving voice to the voiceless” assumes that people are voiceless, empowerment often assumes that people are powerless.

      This is also a useful concept for teaching as well.