64 Matching Annotations
  1. May 2022
  2. Apr 2022
    1. Purchase SoilGarden soil is not uniform throughout the state. Theoptimum soil mix for raised beds is a 1:1:1 ratio of sand,compost and garden loam.The problem is that you may be introducing incredibleamounts of weed seeds and disease-causing organismsif the soil has not been treated to eliminate weeds anddisease organisms. Most garden centers sell a gardenblend of soilless soil or media that works well forvegetables.Soil should be dark and comprised of decomposedmaterials. Try to choose a soil that isn’t primarily largebark pieces. Too much bark ties up nutrients and drainstoo quickly.When buying soil or planting media, ask the seller for acopy of the soil analysis. Make sure the soil has a pH of 5.5to 7.0. This is the perfect range for most vegetable crops.
    2. Before You Build,Remove Grass and WeedsRemoving weeds before you build will makemaintaining the garden much easier in the future. Youcan remove weeds and grass in several manners.1. Use a nonselective herbicide to kill broadleaf andgrassy weeds. Allow the plants to completely dieand then remove all plant material from the areawhere you plan on placing your bed. This includesremoving roots.2. Use black plastic, cardboard or some other materialto smother weeds and grass from sunlight. Thisprocess will take at least a month for completekill. Again, remove all plant shoots ad roots beforebuilding the raised bed.3. Use a string trimmer to remove all grass and weedsin the area. Completely remove all green portionsof the grass and then dig at least 3 inches into theground with the trimmer to remove roots. Rake itout and then construct your raised bed.
    1. Once constructed, raised beds will need to be filled with soil. Before adding the new soil, kill or remove any unwanted grass or weeds present in the bottom. The herbicide glyphosate – the active ingredient in Killzall, Eraser, Roundup and other brands – may be used to do this. Till the soil in the bottom of the raised bed, add a few inches of organic matter and work that in before filling the bed with soil. The roots of the vegetables may grow down into the existing soil at the bottom of the bed, particularly if the raised bed is less than 12 inches deep. This creates a transition that helps the roots grow deeper. If tilling is impractical, you can simply put the soil mix in over the existing soil after the weeds are dead.
    1. Outline the bed. Use string or spray paint to outline where the bed will be in the yard. Rectangular beds are the most common, but you can also plan a square bed, circular garden or any shape you are interested in. Be sure you have enough materials to accommodate the shape, however. Remove the sod. Use a sharp spade to cut away the sod and remove it from the bed's area (sod scraps may be replanted in other parts of the yard if needed). You could till the soil under the sod to help kill weeds, or leave it undisturbed. Add weed barrier fabric. Lining the bed with weed barrier fabric or a layer of cardboard or newspapers will minimize weeds and make the garden easier to maintain. For thorough coverage, the barrier should be several inches larger than the bed so the sides are adequately overlapped.
    1. This April 19 image from the Mars helicopter Ingenuity shows the backshell of Perseverance’s landing capsule, its supersonic parachute and the related debris field.Credit...NASA/JPL-Caltech

    1. Schools and other public buildings in Italy will be forbidden from setting their air conditioning to any setting lower than 25C from next month, under a scheme intended to help the country dodge an energy crisis exacerbated by the war in Ukraine.

      Air conditioning limits.

    1. the archangel on his bicycle ayjay Uncategorized March 18, 2016December 26, 2019 Arcabas

      This is the archangel on his bicycle.

    2. This book is not an attempt to convince people that Jesus would prefer his followers not to use lethal force, even for a good cause. Instead, in many of the chapters that follow, I aim to give Christians a taste of what they’re buying when they affirm the legitimacy of even a little bit of lethal force, even in the most reasonable of cases. They want a Christ that allows them to kill, so I’m giving them especially that, especially when they think they’re affirming something else. 
    1. I suspect that a reasonable WordPress user could probably set up a free Hypothes.is account and use the RSS feed from it (something like https://hypothes.is/stream.atom?user=username) to create an IFTTT.com recipe to post it as a public/draft to their WordPress website.

      This is a note. With an linked video

    2. I created a video overview/walkthrough of how I take highlights and annotations on Hypothes.isHypothes.is and feed them through to my WordPress Website using RSS and IFTTT.com.
    3. What follows may tend toward the jargon-y end of programming, but I’ll endeavor to explain it all and go step-by-step to allow those with little or no programming experience to follow along and use the tools I’m describing in a very powerful way.  I’ll do my best to link the jargon to definitions and examples for those who haven’t run across them before. Hopefully with a bit of explanation, the ability to cut and paste some code, or even make some basic modifications, you’ll be able to do what I and others have done, but without having to puzzle it all out from scratch.

      This is a note.

    1. This book was written to help educators and instructional designers to design visually appealing courses (and curricular materials) that are also digitally accessible. I argue that applying graphic design principles reduces barriers, lowers cognitive load, and improves learning. I created the Graphic Design E-Learning Checklist to help instructional designers improve the look and feel of their courses while designing for inclusivity at the forefront
  3. Mar 2022
    1. Erving Goffman, you may recall, was a mid-twentieth century sociologist, who, in The Presentation of the Self in Everyday Life, developed a dramaturgical model of human identity and social interactions. The basic idea is that we can understand social interactions by analogy to stage performance. When we’re “on stage,” we’re involved in the work of “impression management.” Which is to say that we carefully manage how we are perceived by controlling the impressions we’re giving off. (Incidentally, media theorist Joshua Meyrowitz usefully put Goffman’s work in conversation with McLuhan’s in No Sense of Place: The Impact of Electronic Media on Social Behavior, an underrated work of media theory published in 1986.)3

      Sacasas also makes reference to an article he wrote in which he made use of Goffman's theory to make sense of online experience

    1. Audio Description (AD) is usually defined as a way to make TV, films, theater, and other art and media content accessible to blind and low vision audiences. In this standardized approach, AD is often reduced to an add-on that gets created only after artworks are finished. AD and the artwork, in other words, remain distinct. Hosted by the AIM Lab, artistic mentors to the exhibition, Cheryl Green and Thomas Reid, led a 3-part online workshop (September 2021) that challenged this separation. Instead of keeping AD apart from the artwork, they asked: why not consider AD as an art form in and of itself? Beginning from a place that centres the experiences of those who are Blind and recognizes the art in audio description, the workshop invited participants to reflect critically both on visual information and to view it as more than mere access. It encouraged creativity not only through describing an image or object but recognizing how description can generate new art. Participants began with a catalyst piece of art of media piece – audio described it, and then generated a whole new work using the audio description as the foundation. Instead of producing neutral or objective descriptions, participants were invited to experiment with approaches that highlighted the physical body, its situatedness, rich sensory experiences, and storytelling. The resulting series of works engage with AD in innovative and creative ways, exploring sound, text, movement, and their mixtures to build entire worlds. From an audio-logo to a binder that comes to life to sci-fi mediation to a lusty afternoon brewing mead to a video game adventure to artistic critiques of colonial pasts to glittering light that turn windowpanes into jellyfish, the collection of pieces in this online exhibit engages with the creative potentials of access.
  4. Feb 2022
    1. Research is needed to determine the situations in which the redundancy principle does not hold

      p. 144-145

      The authors describe limits to the research (circa 2016) as follows: 1. Kinds of learners, 2. kinds of material, and 3. kinds of presentation methods. Each of these situations present interesting possibilities for research related to the use of closed captions used by first-year law students while watching course-related videos.

      When considering how "kinds of learners" might be relevant, the authors ask how redundant on-screen text might hurt or help non-native speakers of a language or learners with very low prior knowledge. It is probably reasonable to consider first-year law students as having "very low prior knowledge". Is there any sense in which those same students could be understand as having overlapping characteristics with TBD

    2. Principle 2: Consider Adding On‐Screen Text to Narration in Special Situations

      p. 139-141

      Clark and Mayer describe a key exception to the first principle they describe. One of the special situations they describe consists of when a learner must "exert greater cognitive effort to comprehend spoken text rather than printed text" (p. 140). This could be when the verbal material is complex and challenging, such as when learners are learning another language or when terminology is challenging such as might be encountered in scientific, technical, or legal(?) domains (p. 141).

      [P]rinting unfamiliar technical terms on the screen may actually reduce cognitive processing because the learner does not need to grapple with decoding the spoken words.

      However, it may be necessary to ensure that video is slow-paced or learner-controlled under circumstances where both audio narration and on-screen text are provided. Mayer, Lee, and Peebles (2014) found that when video is fast-paced, redundant text can cause cognitive overload, even when learners are non-native speakers.

      Mayer, R. E., Lee, H., & Peebles, A. (2014). Multimedia Learning in a Second Language: A Cognitive Load Perspective. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 28(5), 653–660. https://doi.org/10.1002/acp.3050

    3. Another major problem with the learning styles view is that it is not sup-ported by the available research evidence.

      Daniel Willingham, a Professor of Psychology at University of Virginia, has written a concise FAQ on the topic of "learning styles" that I've annotated here. In addition to providing links to research about learning styles, he also makes some key distinctions between what might be meant by "style" vs. "ability" vs. "preference".

    4. Principle 1: Do Not Add On‐Screen Text to Narrated Graphics

      p. 133-134

      Clark and Mayer advise against providing redundant on-screen text at the same time that graphics (video) and narration are provided. They base their recommendation on both research and theory. And they provide two reasons before getting into the details: 1) learners reading on-screen text might not attend to graphics and 2) learners may try to reconcile on-screen text and audio narration and engage in extraneous processing defined below (p. 459)[emphasis added]:

      Irrelevant mental work during learning that results from ineffective instructional design of the lesson. For example, a graphic appears at the top of a scrolling screen and text explaining the graphic appears at the bottom so that contiguity is violated.

      But what if recognizing words and phrases accurately becomes a key component of comprehending a graphic or a video-recorded presentation? And what if the combination of audio narration and on-screen text can be used to support that that comprehension?

      There are some interesting studies in second language learning that seem to show similar benefits.

      Gass, S., Winke, P., Isbell, D. R., & Ahn, J. (2019). How captions help people learn languages: A working-memory, eye-tracking study. Language Learning & Technology, 23(2), 84–104. https://doi.org/10125/44684

      Mayer, R. E., Lee, H., & Peebles, A. (2014). Multimedia Learning in a Second Language: A Cognitive Load Perspective. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 28(5), 653–660. https://doi.org/10.1002/acp.3050

      Winke, P., Gass, S., & Sydorenko, T. (2010). The Effects of Captioning Videos Used for Foreign Language Listening Activities. Language Learning & Technology, 14(1), 65–86. http://dx.doi.org/10125/44203

    5. boundary conditions.

      p. 131-132

      Clark and Mayer provide a brief summary of the boundary conditions, the situations in which learners benefit from the use redundant on-screen text. These situations include adding printed text when 1) there are no graphics, 2) the presentation rate of the on-screen text is slow or learner-controlled, 3) the narration includes technical or unfamiliar words, and the 3) on-screen text is shorter than the audio narration.

      The first three conditions described bear some similarity to closed caption use by students in legal education watching class lecture videos, especially students in first-year courses. Typically, the students are viewing videos with very few detailed graphics, they have control over the speed, pause, review, and advance features of the video player, and the narration provides numerous legal terms.

      Although closed captions are intended for hard of hearing and deaf viewers, they may have some benefits for other learners if the boundary conditions described by the authors turn out to be true. Dello Stritto and Linder (2017) shared findings from a large survey of post-secondary students reporting that a range of students found closed captions to be helpful.

      Dello Stritto, M. E., & Linder, K. (2017). A Rising Tide: How Closed Captions Can Benefit All Students. Educause Review Online. https://er.educause.edu:443/articles/2017/8/a-rising-tide-how-closed-captions-can-benefit-all-students

    6. graphics using words in both on‐screen text and audio narration in which the audio repeats the text. We call this technique redundant on‐screen text because the printed text (on‐screen text) is redundant with the spoken text (narration or audio).

      Clark and Mayer provide a definition of redundant: Graphics accompanied by words in both on-screen text and audio narration in which that text is repeated. p. 131

      The authors go on to provide guidance about concurrent graphics, audio, and on-screen text. Based upon the research that they summarize in Chapter Seven, they advise instructors not to add printed text to an on screen graphic.

      p. 131

  5. Jan 2022
    1. Kristen: Well, what’s interesting, and you bring up such a great point. One of the top neuromyths out there is learning styles. And, so when you’re looking at learning styles, this is something that almost seems to permeate. It doesn’t matter when you started teaching, whether it’s K through 12, or higher education at some point if you’ve been involved in education, you’ve come across learning styles. Now there are learning preferences and there’s lots of wonderful research on that. But this concept of teaching to learning styles, I think, unfortunately… we talk about this in section seven of our report kind of got mixed in with multiple intelligences. And, that is not at all what multiple intelligence was about, but it was almost the timing of it and so, having been a K through 12 teacher, I remember going through a professional development where we learned about learning styles and how it was something to look at in terms of teaching to learning preferences. And, even to this day when I do presentations, and I know Michelle has run into this as well, especially when we co-teach some of the OLC workshops, somebody will inevitably raise their hand or type in the chat area “Are you kidding? Learning styles is a neuromyth? We just had somebody on our campus six months ago, who taught us how to do an assessment to teach to learning styles.” So, it’s still out there, even though there’s so much in the literature saying it’s a neuromyth. It’s still prevalent within education across all areas.
    1. You don’t have to believe in learning styles theories to appreciate differences among kids, to hold an egalitarian attitude in the midst of such differences, and to try to foster such attitudes in students.
    2. learning styles is not a theory of instruction. It is a theory of how the mind works. So when I say “there’s no evidence for learning styles” I am making a claim about the mind, not about instruction.

      Learning styles is a theory of how the mind works not a theory of instruction.

    3. (2) the fact that we haven’t definitively proven a theory wrong seems like a poor reason to advocate using the theory in classrooms. To the extent that teachers use scientific theories about the mind to inform their practice, doesn’t it make sense to use theories that scientists are pretty sure are right?
    4. (1) it’s absolutely true that we could find out tomorrow that there are learning styles after all. Someone could propose a new theory, or we might realize that there is a different, better way to test the old theories. Note this is always the case--you can't absolutely prove a theory untrue.
    5. there’s not much reason to think it’s because kids have different learning styles. Maybe it’s always good for kids to experience any idea in several different ways, even if all the experiences were in the same style. Maybe one of the experiences is especially well-suited to help kids understand the concept. Maybe the repetition is good. If it's a good idea to teach to all styles, great, but I'd like to figure out why kids are learning more that way, given that other predictions of styles theories aren't supported.

      This description of "teach[ing] to all the [learning] styles" seems similar to some descriptions of Universal Design for Learning that I have seen.

    6. You give people the opportunity to use their preferred style or you prevent them from using their preferred style. You should see some difference in the effectiveness of the learning of the two groups--their comprehension of whatever task you set, their memory, something. That’s the evidence that’s lacking. 

      What would evidence for learning styles look like?

    7. Ability is that you can do something. Style is how you do it.

      Ability vs. style

  6. Oct 2021
    1. But something I’m craving is is more precise language around saying what we mean, when we talk about technological or digital literacies. There are tons of really great frameworks for digital literacies out there, but they’re primarily used to talk about children are used a lot in K 12 contexts. I know there’s lots of conversations about digital literacies, and adult literacies, as well. But I think especially in this moment, we could continue to get really precise about what we’re talking about when we’re talking about our strengths, with using certain technologies or limitations with others.
  7. Jul 2021
    1. Many people don’t know that the Pyramids in Egypt were originally covered in white limestone. Over time the limestone was stripped and traded. They must have looked incredibly striking 4,600 years ago.
    1. Dose also matters: A vaccinated person exposed to a low dose of the coronavirus may never become infected, or not noticeably so. A vaccinated person exposed to extremely high viral loads of the Delta variant is more likely to find his or her immune defenses overwhelmed.
    2. Given the upwelling of virus across much of the country, some scientists say it is time for vaccinated people to consider wearing masks indoors and in crowded spaces like shopping malls or concert halls — a recommendation that goes beyond current guidelines from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, which recommends masking only for unvaccinated people.
    1. How to Cold Brew: Using a standard 8 Cup French Press Add 4 Oz of coarse ground coffee to the bottom of the French Press. Pour 3 cups of cold or room temp water over the grounds gently. Gently stir to get all of the grounds wet. Let sit for 14-16 hours at room temperature. Press and strain into covered jar or vessel for storing your cold brew in your refrigerator. You now have a cold brew concentrate:  Mix 1 part coffee with 1 part water when serving.
    1. The Recipe I came up with a basic recipe for one cup of cold brew, which is as follows: Ingredients: 20 grams of coffee to 250 grams of water Measure out 20 grams of coffee. Grind to a medium-to-coarse setting. I chose the 24 setting on my Baratza Encore. Put 20 grams of ground coffee into your container. I chose a so-called "chilly bottle." A flask, a mason jar, or a cold brew coffee bottle would work fine too. Pour 250 grams of water into your container. Agitate the bottle to make sure grounds are incorporated into the water. I did this by moving the bottle around a bit (although not shaking the bottle). Put your container in the fridge. Wait 13 hours. You can experiment with the timing but 14 hours worked well for me. Take your coffee out and serve over ice in a glass.
  8. Jun 2021
    1. How to write a first-class paper Six experts offer advice on producing a manuscript that will get published and pull in readers.
  9. Dec 2020
    1. I’ve written and presented a lot about this in the past. I think there is a need for all individuals to create and curate their digital identity. One component of this larger infrastructure is a domain of your own. This allows you to have one spot online where you actively collect and archive your thinking over time. This is important as we recognize that our digital identities are as (or possibly even more) important than our offline identities.

      Would be interesting to go back and review the writing and presentations on this topic given my own similar emphasis on creating websites with pre-service educators.

      UPDATE: See https://wiobyrne.com/building-a-domain-of-ones-own-for-preservice-educators/

  10. Sep 2020
    1. Earlier today I created a read post with some highlights and marginalia related to a post by Ian O’Bryne. In addition to posting it and the data for my own purposes, I’m also did it as a manual test of sorts, particularly since it seemed apropos in reply to Ian’s particular post. I thought I’d take a stab at continuing to refine my work at owning and controlling my own highlights, notes, and annotations on the web. I suspect that being able to better support this will also help to bring more self-publishing and its benefits to the halls of academe.

      Just a test

  11. Jun 2020
    1. Here are a few recommendations for designing a Faculty Learning Community centered around new technologies: Evolving Outcomes: Begin with clear outcomes for the community, and ask faculty to articulate their own project objectives in their applications for participation. However, keep in mind that there is an inherent openness to this process. Rework project outcomes as needed and provide progress updates at the beginning of each meeting. Multi-channel Communication: Include multiple types of interactions throughout the term to meet the many needs of participating faculty. Allow the participants to design the format of their face-to-face group meetings. Then supplement these scheduled sessions with one-on-one design meetings, online communications, self-help resources, and triage sessions. Campus Partners: Use the participant applications to imagine what types of support the faculty might need, and identify the people on campus best able to offer this support. Reach out to these campus partners in advance of the FLC, gauging their interest and availability to offer demonstrations, create online learning tools, purchase technologies, or meet with faculty one-on-one. Community Building: Remember that this is a community, and build it as such: work to develop a good rapport among participants; listen deeply to each participants’ goals; learn about disciplines outside of one’s own; require a certain level of participation; and bring drinks and food. Good learning environments tend to blend the formal and informal, supplementing expectations and plans with the free flowing nature of discussion and discovery.

      I am especially interested in the "Evolving Outcomes" mentioned. How do we go about articulating initial outcomes for an FLC at my organization?

    2. FLCs are extended gatherings (typically a semester or more) in which participants organize around a clear objective but in an informal structure. Perhaps most importantly, the FLC itself is a process that develops as the group proceeds. The community members work together to direct the shape of the experience. This design engenders ownership (Cox & Richlin, 2011; Moore & Hicks 2014) in the project without requiring the faculty to become technical experts—ownership that promotes sustainable success.

      Very brief definition of faculty learning community.

    3. Building Faculty Learning Communities: New Directions for Teaching and Learning, Number 97, edited by Milton D. Cox, and Laurie Richlin, John Wiley & Sons, Incorporated, 2011.

      Check LSU Libraries for this resource?

    1. We’re presently living through what feels like a remarkably turbulent time. In fact, we might be tempted to think that ours is a uniquely chaotic moment. Of course, most of us know that human beings have lived through more chaotic, violent, and calamitous times than ours. What is novel in our experience isn’t the depth of the health crisis or the scale of the protests, the economic volatility, or the political instability. What is novel is the information ecosystem in which all of this and more is unfolding. Most of us now have far greater access to information about the world, and we are—arguably, I grant—exposed to a far wider array of competing narratives attempting, without notable success, to make sense of it all. In short, it would appear that our basic sense-making technology, the narrative, is a bit glitchy, both failing to operate as we might expect and causing some issues of its own. You won’t be surprised to learn that I think Marshall McLuhan can be helpful here. While many have found McLuhan’s aphorism “the medium is the message” confounding, McLuhan actually offered a rather straightforward explanation. “The ‘message’ of any medium or technology,” McLuhan wrote, “is the change of scale or pace or pattern that it introduces into human affairs.” “The effects of technology do not occur at the level of opinions or concepts,” McLuhan added, “but alter sense ratios or patterns of perception steadily and without any resistance.”Digital media introduced a new scale, pace, and pattern to human communication, and, in this way, altered how the world is perceived. With regards to scale, we encounter an unprecedented amount of information about the world at large through digital media. With regards to pace, we encounter this information with previously unknown and unrelenting immediacy. And, with regards to pattern, we encounter it both in novel social contexts and in a form that bears greater resemblance to a database than a story.

      L. M. Sacasas providing a very brief summary of McLuhan's "medium is the message" quote applied to the Coronavirus pandemic in June 2020.

    1. Physical Barriers and GuidesInstall physical barriers, such as sneeze guards and partitions, particularly in areas where it is difficult for individuals to remain at least 6 feet apart (e.g., cash registers).Provide physical guides, such as tape on floors or sidewalks and signs on walls to ensure that individuals remain at least 6 feet apart in lines and at other times.

      It is possible to distance students more than six feet from podiums. But would this be adequate during an extended class meeting (>1Hr) in which the instructor is speaking loudly and projecting her voice?

    2. Shared ObjectsDiscourage sharing of items that are difficult to clean or disinfect.Ensure adequate supplies to minimize sharing of high-touch materials to the extent possible (e.g., assigning each student their ownart supplies, lab equipment, computers) or limit use of supplies and equipment by one group of students at a time and clean and disinfect between use.Avoid sharing electronic devices, books, pens, and other learning aids.

      Lavalier microphone bodypacks could be cleaned with alchohol/water mixtures, this would need to be done between each class use throughout the day. Could instructors be responsible for this cleaning?

      Microphone manufacturers have not provided useful information regarding the cleaning of lavalier microphone windscreens.

    3. Clean and disinfect frequently touched surfaces (e.g., door handles, sink handles, drinking fountains, grab bars, hand railings, bathroom stalls, dining hall tables) within IHE facilitiesat least daily or between use as much as possible. Use of shared objects (e.g., lab equipment, computer equipment, desks) should be limited when possible, or cleaned between use.

      Surfaces would include keypads, touch panels, keyboards, and podium surfaces.

  12. Jan 2020
    1. PLNs offer new spaces in which teachers may learn and grow as professionals with support from a diverse network ofpeople and resources. With recent advances in technology and widespread access to the Internet, teachers can expand theirweb of connections beyond their face-to-face networks, seek help and emotional support, and aggregate vast quantities ofprofessional knowledge at anytime and from anywhere (Hur&Brush, 2009;Trust, 2012; 2013). PLNs can also be differen-tiated from online communities, networks of practice (Brown&Duguid, 2000), and social media sites. Online communitiesare groups of people who connect for a shared purpose, while a network refers to a,“set of nodes and links with affordancesfor learning”(Wenger, Trayner,&de Laat, 2011, p. 9). Social media sites are digital tools that people can use to connect andcommunicate with others. Each of these terms refers to a single medium for connecting with others. PLNs are broader,multifaceted systems, that often incorporate multiple communities, networks of practice, and sites that support both on- andoff-line learning. Researchers have yet to explore PLNs as complex systems of people, resources, and digital tools.

      Helpful contrast of PLNs with online communities, networks of practice, and social media sites from Trust, T., Krutka, D. G., & Carpenter, J. P. (2016). “Together we are better”: Professional learning networks for teachers. Computers & Education, 102, 15–34. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2016.06.007

    2. Many researchers and educators have attempted to define and envision the purpose of PLNs for teachers (e.g.,Couros,2010; Flanigan, 2011; Powerful Learning Practice, 2012;Trust, 2012), but there is no agreed-upon definition. PLNs havebeen described as“reciprocal learning system[s]”(Powerful Learning Practice, 2012, p. 8),“vibrant, ever-changing group[s] ofconnections,”(Crowley, 2014; para. 4),“network[s] of fellow educators and resources”(Catapano, n. d.),“the sum of all socialcapital and connections”(Couros, 2010), and“online communities that allow the sharing of lesson plans, teaching strategies,and student work, as well as collaboration across grade levels and departments”(Flanigan, 2011). Various scholars, authors,and educators conceive of PLNs in unique, and somewhat disparate ways. Prior to this study, researchers had yet to examinehow teachers themselves defined and described their PLNs. Understanding how educators conceive of and utilize PLNs mayhelp bring more clarity to the construct.

      Helpful overview paragraph related to variety of PLN definitions from Trust, T., Krutka, D. G., & Carpenter, J. P. (2016). “Together we are better”: Professional learning networks for teachers. Computers & Education, 102, 15–34. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2016.06.007

    1. Over the past several years I’ve written a broad number of pieces about the IndieWeb. I find that many people are now actively searching for, reading, and implementing various versions of what I’ve done, particularly on the WordPress Platform.

      A reminder to review Chris Aldrich's collection of articles, tutorials, presentations and podcasts. I've modeled my Wordpress site after his to better appreciate how I can use Indieweb technologies.

    2. Create an IFTTT.com recipe to port your Hypothesis RSS feed into WordPress posts. Generally chose an “If RSS, then WordPress” setup and use the following data to build the recipe: Input feed: https://hypothes.is/stream.atom?user=username (change username to your user name) Optional title: 📑 {{EntryTitle}} Body: {{EntryContent}} from {{EntryUrl}} <br />{{EntryPublished}} Categories: Highlight (use whatever categories you prefer, but be aware they’ll apply to all your future posts from this feed) Tags: hypothes.is Post status (optional): I set mine to “Draft” so I have the option to keep it privately or to publish it publicly at a later date.

      This is my first attempt to get Hypothes.is highlights and annotations to display on my WordPress blog.