106 Matching Annotations
  1. Mar 2019
    1. The focus areas that were addressed in the methodology for this report were nutritional value, relative environmental impact, flavour, accessibility, acceptability and affordability

      This portion of the document explains every detail that went into picking each food. The process includes many different measures of sustainability and health. All of the science is current and accurate.

    2. REFERENCES

      This comprehensive list of varied references makes the document very reliable.

    3. n writing this report, Knorr, WWF and Adam Drewnowski are grateful for input and review from experts at Bioversity International, Crops For the Future, EAT Foundation, Edelman, Food and Land Use Coalition (FOLU), Food Reform for Sustainability and Health (FReSH), GAIN, Global Crop Diversity Trust, Gro Intelligence, Oxfam GB, SDG2 Advocacy Hub, Wageningen University and Yolélé Foods. This report ultimately reflects the views of Knorr, WWF and Adam Drewnowski.

      I believe that this makes Knorr Unilever seem reliable as a source as well as making the content seem reliable, and the author objective and understanding. This is because the 3 authors of the document collaborated with so many different sources to write the paper. It would seem that have a well-rounded grasp of the topic.

    1. r. Adam Drewnowski is a world-renowned leader in the study of obesity and social disparities in diets and health. He is Professor of Epidemiology and the Director of the Center for Public Health Nutrition at the School of Public Health. He is also the Director of the University of Washington Center for Obesity Research, which addresses the environmental, social and economic aspects of the obesity epidemic. Dr. Drewnowski is a Joint Member of the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle.

      Adam Drewnowski is the main author. He not only has a degree in disease studies, he is the director of a public health center, director of UW obesity research, and a cancer research institute. These qualifications and experiences with a variety of educational and research institutions shows us that he throughly understands his topic.

    1. what really struck me is that, in the end, the outcomes of any story are conditioned by nature. And losing a piece of nature has an effect on each of us. As a photographer, the more I tell people and their problems, the more I realize I'm photographing nature "
    2. But you know, good projects are a bit like cherries, one leads to another. Thus the Lavazza Calendar 2019 (available online at lavazza.it) launches a photographic call to action to personally participate in the "Good to Earth" mission.
    1. The artistic interventions, seen through the lens of the famous American photojournalist Ami Vitale , support important messages to defend the planet, celebrating the places in the world where human intervention is bringing good news for the Earth. The care for our future, the fight against climate change and the protection of biodiversity thus become poetic images and at the same time a call to action for all of us.
    1. And it is also the reason why a "photo call to action" was launched, which invites people to take photos that document good practices with respect to environmental protection, which will then be posted on social networks with the hashtag #GoodtoEarth .
    2. In his long career, Vitale has told the most pristine corners of the world, with the aim, above all, of communicating how much the safeguard of the planet is fundamental for human life itself.
    1. instead, appears the portrait of a woman, perhaps a warrior, perhaps the last exponent of a primitive tribe threatened by deforestation , portrayed on plexiglass plates, a peculiar technique that allows her body to appear and disappear among the vegetation , as if it were actually there. Hidden and waiting to find out what will be of his future.
    2. a symbol not only of Lavazza , but also of the fact that our future belongs to us and it is up to us to defend the earth, even with small daily gestures.
    1. The launch marks the introduction of E.ON’s new global brand position which reflects its desire to deliver innovative customer solutions that help create a better tomorrow. E.ON has worked closely with global marketing services network, Engine, on digital content for the campaign which will transform E.ON’s social platform and website with dedicated content seeded across channels
    2. The film paves the way for unveiling of the ‘E.ON Kong Solar Studio’, a concept based on the band’s original Kong Studios, which offers a solar and battery storage powered creative space for music projects. Using the power generated by E.ON solar PV panels, Gorillaz’ Kong Studios 2.0 will come to life at night and provide aspiring music artists the opportunity to create new tracks which will appear on eon.com/gorillaz.
    1. In a notoriously low-interest sector, the aim of the event was to raise awareness of the new E.ON brand since its decision to sell off its power generation business and focus instead on sustainable energy options.
    2. To achieve this, E.ON and its agency WCRS partnered with the band Gorillaz, which was picked because of its technical innovation, creativity and collaborative style. To allow people to get close to the technology and physically experience it, the brand created Kong Solar Studios, a replica of Gorillaz’s original Kong Studios that was by day a fan experience and at night a solar-powered studio where up and coming talent could create music.
    1. The studio will further travel with Gorillaz on their world tour from this month until November, acting as the driving force behind the campaign aiming to show E.ON as a purpose-led brand
    1. project represents not only quality coffee but peace and redemption for the local community.
    1. The Lavazza Calendar “Good to Earth” tells the story of the good example set by people who are committed to protecting the planet, in the form of photographs by Ami Vitale and six works of art set in the natural environment. Because, despite everything, there is goodness on Earth.
    1. That is why the positive art of Good to Earth works against the one-way narrative of the Earth as a sick patient and chooses instead to tell stories of virtuous behaviour and environmental requalification, which, it is hoped, will have an influence on people, and young people in particular, inspiring them to make their own commitment to protect the planet.
    1. The commercial tells the story of the journey that Lavazza’s new bio-organic coffee takes from its place of origin to us, through a series of videos that alternate between man and his environment in a natural and surprising way. The screens where different images chase each other and merge are the very hands themselves: different every time, belonging to men, women and children, they talk about life lived, dedication and experience.
    1. This is a description of the form of backward design referred to as Understanding by Design. In its simplest form, this is a three step process in which instructional designers first specify desired outcomes and acceptable evidence before specifying learning activities. This presentation may be a little boring to read as it is text-heavy and black and white, but those same attributes make it printer friendly. rating 3/5

  2. Feb 2019
    1. A primary goal of this research is to understand the relationships between two key domains: (a) teacher thought processes and knowledge and (b) teachers’ actions and their observable effects. The current work on the TPACK framework seeks to extend this tradition of research and scholarship by bringing technology integration into the kinds of knowledge that teachers need to consider when teaching

      How can teachers instruct using what they know about teaching, their content knowledge about a subject, and their knowledge about technology tools that will help them to gain full student understanding?

    1. What we concluded is that people needed the map to be more approachable, accessible, and applicable for learning and teaching web literacy skills.

      Making the information more understandable and relatable will help to spread knowledge about safe internet usage.

  3. Nov 2018
    1. Local Explanation Methods for Deep Neural Networks Lack Sensitivity to Parameter Values

      如果不是看到大神 Goodfellow 是作者之一,我就还以为这是一片水文呢~ 结论说DNN的随机初始化下,不管从可视化还是量化的角度上看都和训练好后的很像。猜测可能这些“解释”都是与低层的表示相关联导致,影射了模型本身存在很强的先验。

    2. Local Explanation Methods for Deep Neural Networks Lack Sensitivity to Parameter Values

      This paper shows that local explanations for DNNs with random-initialized weights are qualitatively and quantitatively similar to explanations produced by DNNs with learned weights.

      • Pros:

      The paper is clear, the problem is well stated and the method is sound.

      • Cons:

      The impact of the findings in this paper is unclear. Perhaps the most important point made in the paper is the importance of the architecture over fine-tuning of the weights for explanation tasks (and more in general).

      其实 goodfellow 这文章篇幅很短,可视化图像的效果是很棒的!

    1. Having initial medical discussions without the family and information filtering are common for LEP patients; filtering may be associated with poorer diagnosis comprehension. Experience with a hospitalized child is associated with increased comprehension among LEP parents.
  4. Jul 2018
    1. Understanding cannot simply be told; the learner has to actively construct meaning (or misconceptions and forget-fulness will ensue)

      Teachers must teach for understanding and this can only by done through giving students a chance to analyze and relate/transfer the information in a way that they understand.

  5. Mar 2018
    1. small beginnings help instructors focus on what DH they can teach effectively. To be frank, I was not prepared to teach all of the DH in that “Intro to Digital Humanities” course I proposed.

      I appreciate the author's recognition of his limitations. I do not think teachers ought to assume they are able to "do it all". My teacher did a great job this term understanding her personal limitations by bringing in outside sources to assist her in teaching digital tools. It not only made class interesting by switching up the instructor, but it also provided us with another informed resource to reference.

  6. Nov 2017
  7. Sep 2017
    1. viewed as as a totality ratherthan individually;

      Metadata looks at the whole, not just the individual.

  8. Jul 2017
    1. Teaching for understanding requires that students be given numerous opportunities to draw inferences and make generaliza-tions for themselves (with teacher sup-port).

      It teaches student to be thinkers and not just obtain facts/information.

    2. Teachers are coaches of understanding, not mere purveyors of content knowl-edge, skill, or activity. They focus on ensuring that learning happens, not just teaching (and assuming that what was taught was learned); they always aim and check for successful meaning making and transfer by the learner.
  9. Jun 2017
    1. I use backwards de-sign to develop our lesson plans: What do we want our students to write, and why? What skills are required, and how do students acquire those skills (Wiggins and McTighe 34)?

      McTighe's UbD advice to "think big, start small, and go for an early win" is helpful here (and whenever trying new approaches to teaching): https://youtu.be/d8F1SnWaIfE?t=3m40s

  10. Mar 2017
    1. project-based learning (PBL), game-based learning (GBL), Understanding by Design (UbD), or authentic literacy, find an effective model to institute in your classroom

      Project based learning Game based learning Understanding by design

  11. Dec 2016
    1. Video games need to discover what’s special and different about their own medium to break out of their cultural ghetto.
  12. Oct 2016
    1. He passed the stages of his age and youth Entering the whirlpool.

      The brain/human trying to make sense of his life before it's too late. This is the time when people decide to take stock of their lives and really take account of themselves. Death is a great motivator!

  13. Jun 2016
    1. Afurtherbarriertotheuseofformativefeedbackmaybethatsomestudentsincreasinglyfailtounderstandthetaken-for-grantedacademicdiscourseswhichunderpinassessmentcriteriaandthelanguageoffeedback(Hounsell,1987).AccordingtoEntwistle(1984,p.1),‘effectivecommunicationdependsonsharedassumptions,denitions,andunderstanding’.ButastudyatLancasterUniversityfoundthat50%ofthethird-yearstudentsinoneacademicdepartmentwereunclearwhattheassessmentcriteriawere(Baldwin,1993,citedinBrown&Knight,1994).Asoneofourstudentsnoted:‘Ihaven’tgotacluewhatI’massessedon’

      The extent to which students do not understand what they are being assessed on, even in higher years.

  14. Nov 2015
    1. In this case, Holly played the role of running commentator, seem-ingly in hopes that some of her narration would prove useful to Brandon, but she showedlittle distress or frustration when he failed to follow her suggestions. The reciprocal impas-sivity that we observed across them in this arrangement was interesting; it may have beendue to the fact that Brandon was the better player and both knew that he was assessing thevalue of her suggestions and deciding on the basis of the in-game situation whether it wassensible to act upon or disregard his sister’s help.

      It is interesting here to see when Brandon followed and did not follow the suggestions given to him by Holly. He intently participated to her comments when he wanted to and ignored when he wanted to. Interesting dynamic here.

    2. He then reenters the codeshowing Maddy what parts she has entered wrong, passes the game back to Maddy, and continuesplaying the game on the TV with Johnny.

      Mikey helps, but he doesn't just do it for Maddy. He explains what she did wrong, so that hopefully she'll learn from it and not make the same mistake next time.

    3. that Maddy is playing an active rather than a simply passive rolein the apprenticeship

      She makes decisions for herself. She is in control of her level of participation, rather than having a "teacher" or "expert" dictate how she must participate.

    1. at our research would help Whyville become a bett

      (highlighting was being weird) So here it seems that the researchers do become pseudo-members of the community. Like there is almost a special category of member formed for them. Instead of being new-comer-moving-toward-old-timer, they are something else entirely.

    2. All thesepartsarecreatedbyotherWhyvillianswhorentdesigntoolsandthenposttheircreationsat the mall or exchange them at the trading post to cover their costs and to generateadditional income.

      One thing I really like about Whyville is that while this space of course was originally produced by adults (I'm assuming anyway) the kids who use it are able to take control of it and make it their own. This is a lot different than Nespor's take on public spaces. Unlike with filed tirps or other visits to public spaces, the kids aat Whyville have much more fredom to intrepret the space as they please. It seems there are still rules, but the users themselves have much more control here.

    1. The following case study provides an example of how learning pathways can be shaped by aspects of place, positions, and the actions those positions afford.

      So definitely what individuals are exposed to. This is confined when thinking of where the child lives, goes to school etc. Things the child has no control over.

    2. n this way, the institutional constraints of places [Drei-er, 2009] have the power to invite or prohibit opportunities for action [Lefebvre, 1991], and therefore the power to position actors within places as having certain rights and duties.

      This is a really loaded sentence for me. First of all, it connects to the earliest discussed ideas of "schools as a lousy place to learn" by Becker and issues of access (ex. butchers) by L&W. Second, institutional could mean the physical place, or the less physical but more important power/control relationships (probably both). Next, "inviting or prohibiting opportunities" points at he impact these institutions (not just individuals like teachers or master butchers) have on who gets to be a part of a community. Finally, this sentence in the midst of the author's description of situated events as a constellation is really reminding me of the multisited paper in that there is overlap between systems (or communities of practice) for a person and that often what happens in one is not only connected to the happenings in another, but might literally overflow into and impact the other.

  15. Oct 2015
    1. In addition to talk, we also must consider the waysvisitors use their bodies through actions such as posing. It is in the interaction between gesturesand talk that unique meanings arise

      explanation of meaning making as it occurs through posing

    2. serve as a part of museum visitors’ interpretive process, helping them articulate a description,response, interpretation, or experience of a particular piece of art.
    3. Merleau-Ponty’s (1945/1974) notion that the body is central to all interactions andknowing in the world aligns with this article’s exploration of the body in museum experiences.In treating acts of perception as physiological as well as psychological (1945/1974; Joy & Sherry,2003), Merleau-Ponty also establishes a starting point for approaching acts of posing in relationto visitors’ aesthetic experiences
    4. Posing occurs when a visitorattempts to mimic or re-create a figure from a piece of art with their body.
    5. It is through this cycle of pose, comparison, focus, adjustment that meaning emerges. Posing isalso related to talk, and visitors are talking and posing as they interact with art and each other. Thatis, we may understand meaning making as the progression of this posing cycle in coordinationwith dialogical processes.

      Clearly stated argument about the "posing cycle" and how it outlines the meaning making progression.

    6. In contrast with models of individual interpretive processes, this study is grounded in a socio-cultural perspective on meaning making. An individual’s meaning making processes are situatedin overlapping personal, physical, and sociocultural contexts

      Thus, the framework considers meaning making as occurring through and across interactions between people and context and material and time rather than it being something one does on their own.

    1. I have increasingly come to view Math Moves! as a practice of desettling tacit mind-body dualist assumptions that narrowly delimit mathematical sense-making

      I see Kelton's argument about bodies and learning to be two fold, first that embodied learning is a valid and important activity for the math classroom - and tied to that is that examples of embodied learning push on what she considers out of date and incorrect ideas about mathematics being something without culture and "bodiless"

    1. resourcesarebeingpositionedtotapintothefundsofknowledge

      I know we talked about this over chat in Slack as well, but I want to pull that conversation over here and also expand on it. I asked you: Are you interested in how the resources are positioned so that people can tap into FoK or the actual resources can? Or are you considering the resources as participants in interactions that have agency like humans? - you replied that you were interested in how the resources tap in in order to leverage the Foks of the diverse heterogenous users.

      After thinking on it more (and rereading Moll), understand your interest to be something along the lines of: You want to look at the computers and how they support/constrain library visitors tapping into the FoK and how they mediate learning in the social environment?

    1. the focus of joint parent-child attention and thus they serve the function of providing children an online structure for parsing, storing, and making in-ferences about evidence as it is encountered.

      Is this not heavily influenced by the type of attachment the child has with their caretaker? I would think that An ambivalent or disorganized attachment would not lead to this type of functioning with parent-child.

    1. Specifically, a lens oflines of practicesuggests that,given certainconditions of practice,people will weave all sorts ofpreferencesintoongoing and long-term activities of interest, thus sometimes deviating from theintended curriculum and its topical core, often in dramatic ways

      This point, being heavily influenced by the use of the resources for each individual. If everyone used the resources the same way, there would be know weaving of preferences.

    1. many communities especially emphasize keen observation in supportof participation in ongoing mature activities.

      that these communities expect observation to come with some sort of intent to participate in mature activities seems crucial to knowledge acquisition and skills development and is not necessarily something that happens in every classroom setting, although as Rogoff has pointed out, it can happen.

    2. The teacher encourages the children to solve problems together andreflect on the process.

      Yes, in Japanese schools students take on roles that would never be allowed in the US--for example, there are no custodians at Japanese schools because the students do all the cleaning. A good example of how more responsibility is a mark of intent participation.

    3. In U.S. classrooms children’s learning is often assumed to occur primarily bymeans of the teacher’s provision of information, in what has been called a factorymodel

      Computer just deleted everything I typed. GRR. Is this still the style of instruction in most schools? When I was in undergrad, my school's method of preparing new teachers was a student-centered model.Either way, this helped me understand how intent participation. (I think) So it seems like intent participation is more likely present in a student-centered classroom, while a traditional classroom utilizes the teach-centered method of instruction.

    4. In teaching/learning tasks, Mazahua (indigenous Mexican) parents used a par-ticipation structure in which children were treated as responsible contributors toa shared endeavor, coordinating with their parents and sometimes leading the ef-fort

      I think this is really important - to treat young people or new learning as responsible, capable, valued contributors who are expected (but not forced) to participate and lead efforts. Rogoff et al discuss this throughout the article and I really appreciate the emphasis

    5. What we call “listening-in” has been referred to by other authors as“eavesdropping,” which suggests that the people listened to would object, or “over-hearing,” which suggests passive chancing to hear, rather than active listening.

      This emphasis on active listening helps me understand the nuances of accidental learning and other instances of passive learning by chance

    6. Words are an important aspect of communication in learning by intent participation,accompanying other forms of communication and joint action. However, wordshave different functions than in assembly-line instruction, where they are usedextensively to describe information out of the context of shared endeavors, andknown-answer questions are employed to quiz learners

      Here is another key difference in simply observing in traditional schooling, and observing in intent participation. Words, language is within coexisting forms of communication that drive towards a place for participation.

    7. There is also no separation of learning into anisolated assembly phase, with exercises for the immature, out of the context of theintended activity

      Here, Rogoff et al, are furthering their description of intent participation. It is not enough for the learner to perceive possible collaboration and participation during an observation process. This must be embedded within an active context which gives meaning to what is to be learned in a greater social context. It cannot be done within traditional understanding of a school.

    8. In intent participation, words team with information available from observingongoing processes, along with articulate nonverbal communication embedded inaccomplishing shared endeavors. Explanations are given in the context of theprocess being learned

      Another big contrast to schooling -- information is not presented as the thing to be observed, but rather given in context insofar as it is necessary to accomplish the current endeavor. The goal is not to accumulate some piece of knowledge, but to find it and apply it in the ongoing process of achieving some greater task

    9. In the intent participation tradition, children who participate in mature activitiessee their efforts contribute to the family’s food or cash supply.

      It seems that a crucial component for intent participation to exist is for the connection between participation and concrete, real, observable outcomes to be intimately connected.

      Some people have taken this to meaning giving monetary rewards to students (http://freakonomics.com/2012/06/26/bribing-kids-to-try-on-tests/), but I think that the fundamental lesson here is that the activity itself is designed such that it inherently creates that feedback. They are meaningful and legitimately engage students

    10. To doso, we contrast it withassembly-line instruction, which is based on transmissionof information from experts, outside the context of productive, purposive activ-ity

      The assembly-line comparison is very helpful. After all, assembly lines are especially designed for uniformity and to not require workers to have any agency in the manufacturing process, they simply follow instructions. Above, Rogoff mentions children observing with "intent concentration and initiative," which are clearly things that assembly-line models are not designed to promote.

    11. n the intent participation tradition, experienced people play a guiding role, facil-itating learners’ involvement and often participating alongside learners—indeed,often learning themselves. New learners in turn take initiative in learning andcontributing to shared endeavors, sometimes offering leadership in the process.In contrast, in assembly-line instruction, experienced people manage learners’behavior and communication. They subdivide the task, often directing but notactually participating in the activity at hand. They serve as experts, and the learners,in turn, are supposed to cooperate in receiving instruction and information andcarrying out assignments.

      Here Rogoff clearly defines the difference b/w IP and AI. Seems to invoke LW's theory of LPP of newcomers and old-timers, with the addition of "shared endeavors".

    12. In the intent participation tradition, experienced people play a guiding role, facil-itating learners’ involvement and often participating alongside learners—indeed,often learning themselves. New learners in turn take initiative in learning andcontributing to shared endeavors, sometimes offering leadership in the process.In contrast, in assembly-line instruction, experienced people manage learners’behavior and communication. They subdivide the task, often directing but notactually participating in the activity at hand. They serve as experts, and the learners,in turn, are supposed to cooperate in receiving instruction and information andcarrying out assignments.

      Here's another great example of intent participation versus school learning.

      I wonder how we might move from transmission to facilitation? I think that the classroom described in the Moll, et. al. that we read last week is actually a great example, but it would take a lot of effort to break out of the assembly line mode into a more collaborative, inquiry-based model.

    13. By 5–7 years of age, children in many communities have substantial responsi-bilities for child, animal, and household care, participating in most adult activities(Rogoff et al. 1975, Paradise 1987, Whiting & Edwards 1988). When young chil-dren are included in the social as well as the economic life of their community,they are participants in the adult world, not “in the way”

      This is a nice example to help define intent participation. Like in LPP, intent participation involves participating in activities that are integral to life - its not just an activity that's designed for children, its something (like chores) that is vital to the functioning of the household.

    14. The contrast is not whether or not words are used, but the embeddedness orisolation of the words from the endeavors being referred to. In intent participation,talk is usedin the serviceof engaging in the activity, augmenting and guiding expe-riential and observational learning; in an assembly-line lesson, talk issubstitutedfor involvement.

      Clear distinction of the actions/roles words play in IP and AL processes.

    15. Intent participation involves a collaborative, horizontal participation structure withflexible, complementary roles. This contrasts with assembly-line instruction’s hi-erarchical structure, organized with fixed roles in which someone manages others’participation, acting as a boss.

      Another key aspect of IP, but also a key to understanding why school forms such as taking notes from the board, listening to lectures, etc are not IP - they are inherently hierarchical which is in contrast to the participation structure of IP

    16. The processes of intent participation and assembly-line instruction are not nec-essarily tied to the type of activities or domain of knowledge (such as practicalversus theoretical endeavors or concrete versus abstract information). The distinc-tion is in the form of involvement, not in the subject.

      One key aspect of what differentiates IP from AL - the form of involvement matters more than the subject content

    17. We see the two traditions as descriptions ofprocesses, whereas the infor-mal/formal dichotomy is often applied toplaces.

      Important distinction between intent participation/assembly-line production as processes while formal/informal as places.

      Is Rogoff saying then, that either process can happen in either place? Do we think that one place is better suited for a particular kind of process or vice versa? What does it all depend on?

    18. Now,instead of routinely helping adults, children are often involved in specialized child-focused exercises to assemble skills for later entry in mature activities from whichthey are often excluded in childhood. These specialized child-focused situations—especially schooling, but also pre-school lessons and child-focused conversation infamilies—often employ instructional practices and a concept of learning that wereheavily influenced by the organization of factories, forming a cultural traditionthat contrasts with intent participation

      US shift that took children out of situations where they could "keenly" observe adult activity and set up "child-focused" learning about skills and practices of adulthood.

      Rogoff implicitly arguing there is a difference between intent participation and forms of school learning that involve participation (the latter is child focused rather than focused on observations of real things/activities)

    19. Observers’ attention is likely to be quite different if theyexpect to be involved than if they observe incidentally. We focus explicitly onobservation as an aspect of participation. Our term “intent participation” refersto keenly observing and listening in anticipation of or in the process of engagingin an endeavor.

      Already we might argue we can see Rogoff's argument forming in regards to this week's question being asked about the difference between intent participation and forms of school learning.

      Seems like a lot of what is in the latter category falls more in what Rogoff labels observing incidentally because students are required, maybe some will engage in intent observation, but not all, and not just by sitting there, copying off the board. Going to keep looking for examples from the author.

    20. Theyobserve and listen with intent concentration and initiative, and their collaborativeparticipation is expected when they are ready to help in shared endeavors. Thistradition, which we refer to asintent participation,

      Recalling LPP Chapter 4 conversation about Lainey, Heidi, and I were having about observation.

      Rogoff is already defining a specific kind of observation, one that is focused on what is going on, active in listening and watching, and that leads to participation at some point. To me this is in contrast to passive observing which might not lead to any kind of action/participation. I think LW would be using Rogoff's kind of observation in their discussion of its involvement with LPP

    21. In many communities that empha-size intent participation, adults expect children to watch and begin to take initiative

      Having the child know what the expectation is, and they work towards accomplishing that goal in their own way.

    22. Adult-child con-versation in many communities occurs primarily for the sake of sharing neededinformation in the context of ongoing activities, rather than serving as lessons toteach children about talk or to provide disconnected bits of knowledge

      Using language as a mediator to gaining more knowledge, not as a moderator

    23. Likewise, in-tent participation can occur in innovative schools

      This is why they do not view it as dichotomous.

    24. In a factory model the teacher strives for efficiency in the delivery of knowledgeand applies incentives (or punishments) to induce children to cooperate in the pro-duction process. The students cannot speak or help each other without permissionfrom the teacher. The teacher “delivers” the curriculum using specialized forms ofdiscourse, especially quizzing (in which the teacher asks questions to which sheknows the answer and evaluates the student’s response) to test the receipt of infor-mation.

      School learning in its most strict form. Comparing it to intent participation, you can see the lack of control students have in determining the knowledge they are learning

    25. Inuit men of ArcticQuebec reported that as boys they learned to hunt from just watching the menand learned vocabulary and many other things by listening to stories that were notintended for them, staying as inconspicuous as possible

      Clear example of intent learning. The men were observing how to hunt, and listening to the terms used, and were able to learn from their adults.

    26. Numerous studies in the behaviorist tradition have determined that observationcan be very effective for learning (Abravanel & Ferguson 1998). For example,children can learn complex concepts (such as conservation, rules of games, cate-gorization schemes, and rules of syntax) from modeled examples, without explana-tions (Zimmerman & Rosenthal 1974).

      Early developmental psychology is rooted in this idea that children learn through observation.

    27. observationand listening-in are important for all children

      listening and observing are important regardless of context, which I think is a good argument in focusing on intent participation.

    28. Learning through keen observation and listening, in anticipation ofparticipation, seems to be especially valued and emphasized in communities wherechildren have access to learning from informal community involvement.

      When reading this, I think of a more collectivist society. Learning through observations, and just being aware of your surroundings, a skill that is mostly taught in collectivists societies/contexts.

    1. Monique’s comments reflect a strong sense of identification with the work

      The move from student who organizes to organizer, as I spoke of in a comment above

    2. It emphasizes how adults help to structure children’s developmental tra-jectories and also the active participation by children in these processes.

      Thinking through this with a Holland et al lens, Kirshner might say: Those trajectories become embedded within a figured world which develops new identities.

    3. Similar to the apprenticeship approach, in joint work youth were exposed tomature strategies used by more experienced practitioners. In this case, the focuswas on planning and carrying out a conference.

      Overlapping things happening as a result of each type of guided participation. Supports Kirshner's warning at the beginning that the three categories should not be taken to be distinct and completely separate.

  16. Sep 2015
    1. This researchhighlights a tension that can arise between designing exhibits to support scientific contentversus scientific inquiry processes.

      I have found this to be a problem with proect based learning as well. If the teacher is not careful, the students become engaged in the project and not the learning.

    2. This suggests that, while recognizing the power of interactive experiences,we should be skeptical about sweeping claims that interactivity is essential to learning, oreven that it necessarily creates the most powerful, memorable, or attractive experiences inour museums

      Finally, finally one of my long-time expected caution signs!

    3. One was the theory of Multiple Intelligences

      This is so important in schools and I think a lot of teachers are taught to consider this in their lesson planning. This point also makes me think of differentiated instruction, which means changing the instruction based on the needs/skills of the student population. It's interesting to think that museums have been asked to consider this too.

    4. For example, Maxwell and Evans cite evidencethat both children and adults recall actions they themselves perform better than those theyobserve

      Why it's important to have student-centered activities in a classroom. If a student just listens to a lecture but isn't given the opportunity to perform the task in an authentic way, they might not remember how to do it

    1. the children, as well as the teacher,are active teachers and learners.

      I think this is really important, and goes back to a statement made earlier in this article, "Children are participants in the household activities, not merely bystanders" (p. 141). It's the interdependence across age and position, that every person is an active participant in a setting

    2. . These funds of knowledge are sociallyinherited and culturally reproduced and developed (or discarded),and their distribution is a constant and dynamic characteristic ofhousehold life

      This whole section on relationships and networks to build funds of knowledge, especially those that are intergenerational, is directly related to work in social justice efforts (especially in learning ally practices for people from privileged groups)

    3. From our perspective, both households and classrooms are con-ceptualized as culturally mediated systems of knowledge  systemsof living knowledge

      That are also socially constructed, and are different depending on what cultural context one lives in.

    4. Just as onthe first day, the children use the present to understand the past, andthe past to clarify the present:

      I think this description highlights an important act of FoK, they "stretch" across social environments and time (here years)

  17. newclasses.nyu.edu newclasses.nyu.edu
    1. Most of the hundreds of gender-marked terms the students used desig-nate problematic types of men and women-problematic in relation to the taken-for-granted progress orilliilvfemale relations posited by the cultural model.

      Defining who/what is a part of the FW developing ways to point out who/what is not.

    1. artffaets'assifiiieoolli'aif'Olivfousancfilecessaij material sub-stance is embedded in ifie figiired world of their use. By the.sami;token tlii:y are both Tnsiiirfrient aiicfcalleCtivereiriem:Tirance.

      Artifacts as having two significant and differing roles - physical and conceptual.

  18. Aug 2015
    1. In nature, everything evolves, adapts, grows, blooms, degrades, dies, gets absorbed, reused.
  19. Oct 2013
    1. capacity

      How might the speaker know the what extent the audience can understand his words? Is the information itself, after a certain point, impossible for some to understand, or is it the method of presentation?

    1. As birds are born to fly, horses to run, and wild beasts to show fierceness, so to us peculiarly belong activity and sagacity of understanding

      Uses metaphor to make it seem natural and inborn

    1. Four faults of prose style, with illustrative examples: (1) misuse of compound words; (2) employment of strange words; (3) long, unseasonable, or frequent epithets; (4) inappropriate metaphors.

      Rhetoric as a tool for communication - something that increases the understanding of the audience rather than confusing them until they agree.

  20. Sep 2013
    1. More than that, they do not attribute any of this power either to the practical experience or to the native ability of the student, but undertake to transmit the science of discourse as simply as they would teach the letters of the alphabet,

      Arguing for a deeper understanding of a subject, rather than merely memorizing it.