469 Matching Annotations
  1. Last 7 days
    1. Emerging Theories of Learning and the Role of Technology

      This article discusses the social changes introduced by new technologies and how educational environments are trying to prepare students to enter a technologically advanced workforce through integration of technology with curriculum. The author challenges traditional theories of learning by discussing how cognition is situated in the digital, 21st-century learner, and that technology integration should focus on the importance of community within learning environments. Although the article challenges the traditional ideas of technology integration, it fails to provide actionable ways in which educators could infuse technology into their own curriculum. Rating: 6/10

    1. Theories and Frameworks for Online Education: Seeking an Integrated Model

      This article, written by Anthony G. Picciano of City University of New York Graduate Center and Hunter College, seeks to create a theoretical framework by which to posit online education according to learning theories and their specific application. Beginning with a brief outline of the primary learning theories, the author then tries to position each theory within the online learning environment and the practical implications that follow before suggesting an integrated model that combines features of each theory. One of the primary benefits of this article is the way in which the authors show how the theories of learning might be mutated for individual, educational environmental needs. Rating: 7/10

    1. Research in Educational Technology

      This textbook, published by the Oklahoma State University Library ePress, contains a chapter which summarizes the main views of knowledge in educational technology research, including postpositivism, constructivism, advocacy, and pragmatism, as well as each view's research traditions. The chapter suggests an approach to evaluating research articles through the lenses of a consistent learning theory coupled, methodologies that support that learning theory, and the conclusions that are drawn by the researchers supported through their methodologies. This chapter would help educators evaluate how and why they might include technology into their course curriculum. Rating: 7/10

  2. Mar 2020
    1. The equality of all sorts of human labour is expressed objectively by their products all being equally values; the measure of the expenditure of labour power by the duration of that expenditure, takes the form of the quantity of value of the products of labour; and finally the mutual relations of the producers, within which the social character of their labour affirms itself, take the form of a social relation between the products.

      Every form of particular, useful labor, that which directs physiological energy towards specific outcomes, is grouped under the category of "abstract labor" under capitalism. The magnitude and duration of "abstract labor" is expressed as exchange value in commodities, which brings products into reducible, quantifiable relation to each other. It is because commodities are all equal to each other insofar as they are bearers of quantifiable exchange value that so many forms of human labor are equated as different magnitudes and durations of "abstract labor" (many value-form theorists and value critics have argued that "labor" as such is not a transhistorical category, but only a category under capitalism by virtue of its being the source of exchange value). The distribution of value amongst commodities indexes and organizes the division and distribution of labor, and this is what Marx means when he writes that "the mutual relations of the producers, [...] take the form of a social relation between the products." That "social relation" is the relation between producers, which is determined by the relations of value between commodities produced for the market.

  3. Feb 2020
    1. A Theory of Justice

      A Theory of Justice is a 1971 work of political philosophy and ethics by the philosopher John Rawls, in which the author addresses the problem of distributive justice (the socially just distribution of goods in a society). The theory uses an updated form of Kantian philosophy and a variant form of conventional social contract theory. Rawls's theory of justice is fully a political theory of justice as opposed to other forms of justice discussed in other disciplines and contexts.

      The resultant theory was challenged and refined several times in the decades following its original publication in 1971. A significant reappraisal was published in the 1985 essay "Justice as Fairness", and a subsequent book under the same title, within which Rawls further developed his two central principles for his discussion of justice. Together, they dictate that society should be structured so that the greatest possible amount of liberty is given to its members, limited only by the notion that the liberty of any one member shall not infringe upon that of any other member. Secondly, inequalities – either social or economic – are only to be allowed if the worst off will be better off than they might be under an equal distribution. Finally, if there is such a beneficial inequality, this inequality should not make it harder for those without resources to occupy positions of power – for instance, public office.[1]

      First published in 1971, A Theory of Justice was revised in 1975, while translated editions were being released in the 1990s it was further revised in 1999. In 2001, Rawls published a follow-up study titled Justice as Fairness: A Restatement.

      https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/A_Theory_of_Justice

    1. There are at least six elements in Marx’s works that are of key relevance for understanding communications today (Fuchs, 2016b; Fuchs and Mosco, 2016a, 2016b):(1) Praxis communication: Marx was not just a critical political economist but also a critical journalist and polemicist, whose writing style can inspire critical thought today.(2) Global communication: Marx stressed the connection of communication technol-ogy and globalization. In an age, where there are lots of talk about both the Internet and globalization, we should remind ourselves that technology-mediated globalization has had a longer history.(3) Dialectical philosophy: Marx elaborated a critical theory of technology that is based on dialectical logic. Dialectical philosophy can help us to avoid one-sided analyses of the media (Fuchs, 2014c).(4) Class analysis: Marx stressed the relevance of the connection of labour, value, commodities and capital. He analysed modern society as a class society. Focusing on class today can counter the positivism of analyses of society as information society, net-work society, knowledge-based society, post-industrial society and so on.(5) Crisis and social struggles: Marx described class struggle and crisis as factors in the historical dynamics of class societies. Class structures and struggles are in complex ways reflected on and entangled into mediated communication.(6) Alternatives: Marx envisioned alternatives to capitalism and domination. Given capitalist crisis and monopoly control of social media today, it is important to envision alternatives to capitalism and capitalist social media.
    1. TABLE 1. Practices to maximize student learning from educational videos

      Table 1. resource for planning/making effective videos

    2. Finally, the utility of video lessons can be maximized by matching modality to content. By using both the audio/verbal channel and the visual/pictorial channel to convey new infor-mation, and by fitting the particular type of information to the most appropriate channel, instructors can enhance the germane cognitive load of a learning experience.

      matching modality to content. So if you want to talk about history, or a book, or just some reflection, it makes less sense to do it over video, but if you want to talk about art history maybe you want to have a video component or be primarily video

    3. Weeding, or the elimination of interesting but extraneous information that does not contribute to the learning goal, can provide further benefits. For example, music, complex back-grounds, or extra features within an animation require the learner to judge whether he or she should be paying attention to them, which increases extraneous load and can reduce learn-ing.

      Weeding + definition, removing flash and bells and whistles that might cause the student to be distracted

    4. The benefits of signaling are complemented by segmenting, or the chunking of information in a video lesson. Segmenting allows learners to engage with small pieces of new information and gives them control over the flow of new information.

      Segmenting or chunking

    5. Signaling, which is also known as cueing (deKoning et al., 2009), is the use of on-screen text or symbols to highlight important information. For example, signaling may be provided by the appearance of two or three key words (Mayer and John-son, 2008; Ibrahim et al., 2012), a change in color or contrast (deKoning et al., 2009), or a symbol that draws attention to a region of a screen (e.g., an arrow; deKoning et al., 2009).

      Signaling definition + examples

    6. The third component of a learning experience is extraneous load, which is cognitive effort that does not help the learner toward the desired learning outcome.

      extraneous load, the fiddling with technology, the finding new content to read, the poorly connected information, etc.

    7. The first of these is intrinsic load, which is inherent to the subject under study and is determined in part by the degrees of connec-tivity within the subject

      how difficult is a concept to understand, word pairing is less difficult than grammar rules.

    8. he second component of any learning experience is germane load, which is the level of cognitive activity necessary to reach the desired learning outcome—for example, to make the comparisons, do the analysis, and elucidate the steps necessary to master the lesson.

      the level of cognitive activity needed to learn the learning outcome (memorize a few words), define terms, recall a history event, draw something.

    9. This processing is a prerequisite for encoding into long-term memory, which has virtually unlimited capacity. Because working memory is very limited, the learner must be selective about what information from sensory mem-ory to pay attention to during the learning process, an observa-tion that has important implications for creating educational materials
    10. Cognitive load theory, initially articulated by Sweller (1988, 1989, 1994), suggests that memory has several components. Sensory memory is tran-sient, collecting information from the environment. Information from sensory memory may be selected for temporary storage and processing in working memory,

      Cognitive load theory

    1. Exchange value

      Exchange value appears as the property of a commodity that is exchangeable for other commodities. It also presupposes societies who produce commodities and exchange them. While all societies have things with use values, exchange value is relative to a specific time and place.

      Additionally, exchanging commodities must also presupposes a way to determine proportionality between different commodities, so that they can be exchanged in the first place.

      Exchange therefore requires some other measure that stands above the two commodities meant to be exchanged. If there were no ways in which iron and corn were found similar to a society, for example, then we would not exchange them and they would have no exchange value.

      Marx will contend that what each commodity must contain crystalized within it is value (formally) and that the substance of value is labor (viz. the common factor of both iron and corn is labor). Marx will call this kind of labor abstract labor.

  4. Jan 2020
    1. M2 Theory & Scholarship

      theory

      • records in the literature of a field
      • summaries that become authoritative
      • a map to show what is known and can be further explored
      • where new research is needed
      • shared perspective and common vocabulary
      • theory is one of the keys to good practice.
    1. no difference

      The nature of the wants that commodities satisfy makes no difference. This is perhaps somewhat surprising to readers, given the extent to which everyday critiques of capitalist society often center around the role that consumerism plays and the subjective effects that this produces, namely, the way that consumer society creates all sorts of desires (as well as the obverse--many will defend capitalism on the grounds that it is able to satisfy our inordinate appetite for novelty by producing an enormous proliferation of desirable commodities). Yet, for Marx, the nature of these desires "makes no difference."

      It is worth pointing out that the critique of the appetites that consumer society spawns is by no means new (a rather early moment in the history of consumer society). We find it already on display in Book II of Plato's Republic. In looking to shift the terrain of the analysis of justice from the individualistic, social contractualist theory of justice elaborated by Glaucon, Socrates founds a 'city' based on the idea that no one is self-sufficient, that human beings have much need of one another, and that the various crafts--farming, weaving cloth, etc.--fare best when each person specializes in that craft to which they are most suited by nature. After sketching out a kind of idyllic, pastoral community based on the principle of working together to satisfy our natural appetites, Socrates aristocratic companion Glaucon objects, describing this city as a 'city fit for pigs'. At this point, Socrates conjures what he calls the 'luxurious city', at which point a whole host of social ills are unleashed in order to satisfy Glaucon's desire for the luxuries to which he is accustomed. Currency and trade are introduced, along with a more complex division of labor (and wage labor!), and quite quickly, war. On the basis of the principle of 'one person, one craft', Socrates argues that making war is itself a craft that requires specialization (and thus a professional army).

      For Plato, this represents the beginning of class society, as the profession military becomes a class distinct from the class of producers and merchants.

      Plato thus anticipates a version of a view that becomes one of the key theses of the Marxist theory of the state, namely, the idea that the state exists only in societies that have become "entangled in an insoluble contradiction within itself" and which are "cleft into irreconcilable antagonisms which it is powerless to dispel," (Engels, The Origin of the Family, Private Property, and the State). The state emerges as "a power apparently standing above society...whose purpose is to moderate the conflict and keep it within the bounds of 'order'" Engels writes, "this power arising out of society, but placing itself above it, and increasingly separating itself from it, is the state." Lenin cites this passage in the first pages of State and Revolution in order to critique the 'bourgeois' view that the state exists in order to reconcile class interests. In Lenin's reading of Marx, the state exists as "an organ of classs domination, an organ of oppression of one class by another," a view articulated in The Communist Manifesto, (cf. V.I. Lenin, State and Revolution in V.I.Lenin: Collected Works, Vol. 25, pp. 385-497).

      Marx cites this same passage from Republic in a long footnote to his discussion of the Division of Labor and Manufacture on pp. 487-488, which also happens to be the sole place in Capital where Marx cites Plato.

      The fact that Marx here expresses indifference to the particular appetites that commodities satisfy is thus intriguing and ambiguous. Given that this question both clearly animates Plato's discussion of the origin of class society in Republic and, additionally serves as an alternative to the social contractarian view of justice that descends from Glaucon through Hobbes and the 18th century 'Robinsonades', this seemingly technical point also touches upon questions concerning Marx's engagement with both classical and modern political theory.

      If for Plato, the unruly appetites represent the seed of which class-divided society is the fruit, Marx's dismissal of the question of the nature of the appetites that are satisfied by commodities points to exchange-value and the social forms that it unleashes as being key dimensions of the particular form that class-antagonism takes in capitalist society.

    2. prevails

      In the original German, 'prevails' is rendered "herrscht." Herrscht shares a common root with the ordinary German word Herr (Mister, or, more evocatively, Master). 'Lordship' (as, in the chapter of Hegel's Phenomenology of Spirit, on 'Lordship and Bondage' is rendered Herrschaft.)

      My own reading of Capital tends to center upon the question of domination in capitalist societies, and throughout chapter 1 (in particular, in The Fetishism of Commodities and the Secret Thereof) Marx is especially attuned to the distinguishing how the forms of domination that are prevalent in capitalist societies are distinct from the relations of "personal dependence" that characterize pre-capitalist modes of production.

      It seems prudent, therefore, to take note of the way that the seemingly innocuous notion of 'prevalence' is, for Marx, in his original formulation, already evocative of the language of mastery, domination, perhaps even something like 'hegemony'.

      Furthermore, the capitalist mode of production prevails--it predominates. Yet, as Louis Althusser observes in his discussion of the concept of the 'mode of production' in On the Reproduction of Capitalism, every concrete social formation can be classified according to the mode of production that is dominant (that prevails--herrscht). In order to dominate, something must implicitly be dominated, or subordinate. "In every social formation," Althusser writes, "there exists more than one mode of production: at least two and often many more." Althusser cites Lenin, who in his analysis of the late 19th c. Russian social formation, observes that four modes of production can be distinguished (Louis Althusser, On the Reproduction of Capitalism, Verso 2014, p. 19.)

      In our analysis of social formations, the concrete specificity of each can be articulated by carefully examining the multiplicity of modes of production that coincide within it, and examine the way in which capitalism tends to dominate a multiplicity of subordinate modes of production that, on the one hand, survive from past modes of production but which may also, on the other, be emerging in the present (i.e. communism). Thus even if capitalism tends towards the formation of a contiguous world-system dominated by its particular imperatives, this does not mean that this process is homogenous or unfolds in the same way in each instance.

      For some commentators, capitalism is defined by the prevalence of wage labor and the specific dynamics that obtain therefrom. Yet this has often led to confusion over, whether, in analyzing the North American social formation prior to 1865, in which slavery coexists with wage-labor, the mode of production based on slave-labor is pre-capitalist. Yet as we find here in ch. 1, what determines the commodity as a commodity is not that it is the product of wage labor, rather that it is produced for exchange. As Marx writes on p. 131, "He who satisfies his own need with the product of his own labor admittedly creates use-values, but not commodities. Insofar as the slave-system in North America produced commodities (cotton, tobacco, etc.) for exchange on the world market, the fact that these commodities were produced under direct conditions of domination does not have any bearing on whether or not we identify this system of production as 'capitalist'. Wage-labor is therefore not likely the determinative factor; the determinative factor is the production of commodities for exchange. It is only insofar as commodities confront one another as exchange-values that the various modes of useful labor appear as expressions of a homogenous common substance, labor in the abstract

      It is in this sense that we can observe one of the ways that the capitalist mode of production prevails over other modes of production, as it subordinates these modes of production to production for exchange, and thus the law of value, regardless of whether wage-labor represents the dominant form of this relation. Moreover, it provides a clue to how we can examine, for example, the persistence of unwaged work within the family, which has important consequences for Social Reproduction Theory.

      Nonetheless, we can say that insofar as commodities confront each other on the market in a scene of exchange that they implicitly contain some 'third thing' which enables us to compare them as bearers of a magnitude of value. This 'third thing', as Marx's demonstration shows, is 'socially necessary labour time', which anticipates the way that wage-labor will become a dominant feature of capitalist society.

    1. Selection and integration of communications media

      Selection and integration of communication media

    2. Thus, the greater the transactional distance, the more such -autonomy the learner willexercise

      Greater transactional distance more autonomy; little transactional distance is more guidance and dialogue.

    3. When a programme is highly structured and teacher-learner dialogue is non-existent the transaction between learners and teachers is high.

      wouldn't the transaction between learners and teachers be low?

    4. PROGRAMME STRUCTUREThe second set of variables that determine transactional distance are the elements in the course design, or the ways inwhich the teaching programme is structured so that it can be delivered through the various communications media.Programmes are structured in different ways to take into account the need to produce, copy, deliver, and controlthese mediated messages. Structure expresses the rigidity or flexibility of the programme's educational objectives,teaching strategies, and evaluation methods.
    5. continuous rather than a discrete variable, a relative rather thanan absolute term

      try and understand this better. Ask about it in the synchronous meeting?

      ???

    6. It is obvious that the nature of each communications medium has a direct impact on the extent and quality ofdialogue between instructors and learners.

      Is this directly contradicting Clarke in that the medium does not matter?

    7. INSTRUCTIONAL DIALOGUEDialogue is developed by teachers and learners in the course of the interactions that occur when one gives instructionand the others respond. The concepts of dialogue and interaction are very similar, and indeed are sometimes usedsynonymously. However, an important distinction can be made. The term 'dialogue' is used to describe aninteraction or series of interactions having positive qualities that other interactions might not have.

      Instructional dialogue

    8. These clusters of variables are named Dialogue, Structure, andLearner Autonomy.

      Cluster of variable

      Dialogue, Structure, Learner Autonomy

    9. The transaction that we call distance education occurs between teachers and learners inan environmenthaving the special characteristic of separation of teachers from learners. This separation leads to special patterns oflearner and teacher behaviours. It is the separation of learners and teachers that profoundly affects both teachingand learning.

      each transaction will create a type of pattern that's observable and measureable? Is that where this is going?

    10. This universe of relationships can be ordered into a typology that is shaped around themost elementary constructs of the field - namely, the structure of instructional programmes, the interaction betweenlearners and teachers, and the nature and degree of self-directedness of the learner

      organization:

    11. What was stated in that first theory is that 'distance education is notsimply a geographic separation of learners and teachers, but, more importantly, is a pedagogical concept.

      definition

    1. game theory

      Game theory is the study of mathematical models of strategic interaction among rational decision-makers.[1] It has applications in all fields of social science, as well as in logic, systems science and computer science. Originally, it addressed zero-sum games, in which each participant's gains or losses are exactly balanced by those of the other participants. Today, game theory applies to a wide range of behavioral relations, and is now an umbrella term for the science of logical decision making in humans, animals, and computers.

      --Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Game_theory

    1. Perraton's (1988) theory of distance education is composed of ele-ments from existing theories of communication and diffusion as well asphilosophies of education.

      Perraton's theory 1988

    2. Holmberg, distance education ischaracterized by the following statements:

      Holmberg distance education is characterized by the following:

    3. Holmberg's (1989) theory of distance education, what he calls "guid-ed didactic conversation," falls into the general category ofcommunication theory. Holmberg noted that his theory had explanatoryvalue in relating teaching effectiveness to the impact of feelings ofbelonging and cooperation as well as to the actual exchange of ques-tions, answers, and arguments in mediated communication

      Holmberg proposed theory

    4. Theory of Interaction and Communication

      tag

    5. Based on economic and industrial theory,Peters proposed the following new categories (terminology) for the anal-ysis of distance education:

      Peter's theory/terminology/analysis

    6. Theory of Industrialization of Teaching

      another tag.

    7. He notes that in traditional school settings learners are very dependenton teachers for guidance and that in most programs, conventional anddistance, the teacher is active while the student is passive.

      traditional vs distance

    8. Moore classifies distance education programs as "autonomous"(learner-determined) or "non-autonomous" (teacher-determined)
    9. three questions

      moore questions can help define or plan out how the program functions

    10. 1. The student and teacher are separated.2. The normal processes of teaching and learning are carried out inwriting or through some other medium.3. Teaching is individualized.4. Learning takes place through the student's activity.5. Learning is made convenient for the student in the student's ownenvironment.6. The learner takes responsibility for the pace of learning, withfreedom to start and stop at any time.

      Wedemeyer space-time barriers

    11. 1. Be capable of operating any place where there are students—evenonly one student—whether or not there are teachers at the sameplace, at the same time;2. Place greater responsibility for learning on the student;3. Free faculty members from custodial-type duties so that moretime can be given to truly educational tasks;4. Offer students and adults wider choices (more opportunities) incourses, formats, and methodologies;5. Use, as appropriate, all the teaching media and methods proveneffective;6. Mix and combine media and methods so that each subject or unitwithin a subject is taught in the best way known;7. Cause the redesign and development of courses to fit into anarticulated media program;8. Preserve and enhance opportunities for adaptation to individualdifferences;9. Evaluate student achievement simply, not by raising barriersregarding the place, rate, method, or sequence of student study;and10. Permit students to start, stop, and learn at their own pace.

      10 components

    12. American Theory of Independent Study.

      1st theory

    1. My friend Marc again to the rescue. He suggested that since there was 10,000+ people RT'ing and following, I could just pick a random follower from my current total follower list (78,000 at this point), then go to their profile to check if they RT'd it and see. If they didn't, get another random follower and repeat, until you find someone. With 78,000 followers this should take about ~8 tries.

      Technically he said it would be random among those who retweeted, but he's chose a much smaller subset of people who are BOTH following him and who retweeted it. Oops!

    1. WP:SNOW

      Bureaucratic behaviours

    2. Wikipedia:Articles for deletion/Katie Bouman

      El caso de Katie Bouman en la categoría de Articles for Deletion y mi análisis de los comentarios bajo la categoría inicial de not relevant

    3. she does pass the notability criteria on her own

      Notability criteria

    4. This might be a good place for a speedy decision to be made,

      Decision

    5. wide variety of coverage in a variety of media

      Coverage Media

    6. article should be trimmed a bit, but deletion is unjustified

      Deletion

    7. Some undue weight, but that doesn't means she isn't notable

      Notable

    8. Jealous bros should not cry each time a woman is part of an achievement.

      Achievement

    9. the media did give her way too much unasked for credit for a discovery made by a large international team

      Media

    10. Recommend editing article to reflect disproportionate amount of press coverage received and reiterate that she is one of the many researchers behind the photograph of the black hole

      Press coverage

    11. Meets criteria under WP:NACADEMIC due to *extensive* press coverage (including multiple secondary sources) over the past 48 hours.

      Criteria Notable Press coverage

    12. it was held recently in the AfD discussion about Saikat Chakrabarti that coverage of other aspects of the person's like (which our article on her details a fair bit of) satisfied those concerns even if the coverage was in news stories otherwise about the "1E"

      Article for Deletion discussion Coverage Notable

    13. the subject meets WP:GNG

      Notable Significant coverage Reliable source

    14. There is an important nuance that you're missing (along with others)—WP:SUSTAINED press coverage is what establishes notability, not a sudden burst of coverage. WP:TOOSOON also applies.

      Press coverage Notable

    15. it isn't indicative of is significance, but that's a different thing

      Significance

    16. press coverage is exactly indicative of (and more or less synonymous with) notability, as defined by GNG

      Press coverage Notable

    17. not necessary indicative of notability if it is not WP:SUSTAINED

      Notable

    18. it will be more due to press/social media celebrity

      press/social media

    19. the sources like the NYT note that the press coverage she's received is of outsize significance to her actual role in the project.

      Sources Press coverage

    20. WP:1E is pretty clear;

      Notable

    21. I don't know that "her story needs to be told" is a justification for a WP article.

      Story

    22. the disproportionate level of coverage to her share of the project should be clarified.

      Coverage

    23. Bouman has received substantial focused coverage from many major news outlets

      Coverage

    24. it's an embarrassment to Wikipedia to have the AfD tag on top

      Article for Deletion

    25. WP:SNOW

      Borocratic behaviour

    26. is predicated on non-trivial coverage in reliable sources, and there is plenty of that here

      Coverage Reliable sources

    27. WP:BIO

      Wikipedia: Notability (person) Notable

    28. Her notability doesn't hinge on whether she was the principal person behind the the images

      Notable

    29. This article is much better than many others about non-notable academics!

      Non-notable academics

    30. this is good indication that the Bouman article is notable

      Notable

    31. Prominent coverage is primarily due to a facebook photo that went viral.

      Coverage

    32. per WP:1E

      Notable

    33. the press should not have covered her work is original research

      Press Covered Original research

    34. the subject meets criterion 7 under NACADEMIC due to the press coverage

      Criterion (policy) Notable Press coverage

    35. adjust her article to reflect the analysis—in reputable secondary sources—about how the media singled her out as the "hero".

      Secondary sources Media

    36. Her story *should* be on Wikipedia

      Story

    37. Bouman has probably been covered in the news in every country in the world

      Covered News

    38. She is obviously notable enough to have a profile on here

      Notable

    39. And the Washington Post story shifts gears from her role in the black hole image to online trolling focused around her,

      (Press) story Trolling

    40. There's now tons of in-depth coverage specifically about her

      Coverage

    41. WP:GNG or WP:NACADEMIC.

      Wikipedia: Notability Wikipedia: Notability (academics) Notable

    42. There is no evidence that she is a "key component"

      Evidence

    43. Easily notable

      Notable

    44. list of Academics and educators-related deletion discussions

      Academics and educators-related deletion discussions

    45. list of Women-related deletion discussions.

      Women-related deletion discussions

    46. list of Science-related deletion discussions.

      Science-related deletion discussions

    47. We cover what reliable sources cover.

      Cover Reliable source

    48. Something like that would almost be worth an article itself.

      Article

    49. I don't see the policy basis for keeping this page

      Policy

    50. doesn't satisfy WP:NACADEMIC

      Wikipedia: Notability (academics) Notable

    51. Where do the sources say that she is tenured?

      Sources

    52. her tenured position at CalTech was announced before the media frenzy this week

      Media

    53. I don't support deletion of the article, but the importance of the mediatic coverage and her implication in the M*87 black hole should be explicit as “member of a collaboration of 200 researchers”

      Coverage

    54. Don't you think that this position is a consequence of this mediatic coverage?

      Coverage

    55. She's been featured in almost all coverage

      Coverage

    56. There were at least 200 people with comparable roles and dozens of people with much more notable roles in this event.

      Notable

    57. WP:1E,

      Notable

    58. These are guidelines, not policy, and based on the amount of publicity she's receiving, I see no reason why Wikipedia shouldn't have a well-sourced article on her.

      Policy Publicity Well-sourced article

    59. she isn't actually credited with any notable accomplishments herself.

      Notable

    60. only in the context of WP:1E

      Notable

    61. there are many reliable sources providing significant coverage of her personally.

      Reliable sources

    62. Bouman's not right for Wikipedia because she "is certainly not notable as a scientist",

      Notable

    63. Any relevant material can be mentioned there

      Relevant

    64. of WP:1E

      Wikipedia: Notability (people). Notable

    65. Someone who isn't even an assistant professor is certainly not notable as a scientist.

      Notable as a scientist

    66. Wikipedia:Notability is not inherited.

      Notability

    67. The Event Horizon Telescope project is notable in itself, and has its own article, but anyone who are in some way (remotely) associated with it are not inherently notable.

      Notable

    1. The urticaria resolved upon treatment of the AITD. We also summarize the currently postulated pathophysiological links between the two diseases.

      Before reading the study, I'll state that my suspected mechanism is dry skin. Hyperthyroidism causes oily skin, while hypothyroidism causes dry skin. Thus, I'd expect hypothyroidism to have similar symptoms to using harsh detergents/soap and/or scrubbing too frequently or too hard.

    1. Interactions between Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) and human (players) are often included in the Mtb’s strategies to invade host responses, to replicate and persist within the host,

      Does the M.Tb have knowledge of the host responses or is it merely adapting bet hedging strategies (a mix of multiple strategies across population) and whatever survived is what we see.

      This will have major implications in treating the problem in a game theoretic fashion

  5. Dec 2019
    1. arborescence

      First sighting of word arborescence. I thought they were just doing that for fun, as a play on "tree", but I guess it's a real graph theory concept (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arborescence_(graph_theory)).

    1. branching

      I like this as a good alternative to the word arborescence. It seems to intuitively describe the concept using a more English-sounding word: it's talking about a specific branch/branching of the tree. Right?

    1. Langdon is of the opinion that these dreams are recounted to Enkidu by a woman with whom Enkidu cohabits for six days and seven nights and who weans Enkidu from association with animals. This, however, cannot be correct. The scene between Enkidu and the woman must have been recounted in detail in the first tablet, as in the Assyrian version,30 whereas here in the second tablet we have the continuation of the tale with Gilgamesh recounting his dreams directly to his mother. The story then continues with the description of the coming of Enkidu, conducted by the woman to the outskirts of Erech, where food is given him. The main feature of the incident is the conversion of Enkidu to civilized life. Enkidu, who hitherto had gone about naked, is clothed by the woman. Instead of sucking milk and drinking from a trough like an animal, food and strong drink are placed before him, and he is taught how to eat and drink in human fashion. In human fashion he also becomes drunk, and his “spree” is naïvely described: “His heart became

      This gives insight into Langdons logic and reasoning resonating in his translation.

    1. Many people luck out like me, accidentally. We recognize what particular path to mastery we’re on, long after we actually get on it.

      Far too many people luck out this way and we all perceive them as magically talented when in reality, they're no better than we, they just had better circumstances or were in the right place at the right time.

    1. Nash proved that if we allow mixed strategies, then every game with a finite number of players in which each player can choose from finitely many pure strategies has at least one Nash equilibrium.

      It always has at least one Nash equilibrium (but it may only be a NE in mixed strategies).

    1. How to sway the other side: Use their morals against them Willer’s work is based on moral foundations theory. It's the idea that people have stable, gut-level morals that influence their worldview. The liberal moral foundations include equality, fairness, and protection of the vulnerable. Conservative moral foundations are more stalwart: They favor in-group loyalty, moral purity, and respect for authority.
  6. Nov 2019
    1. Training and Development Policy Wiki

      This webpage, under the Office of Personnel Management (OPM) .gov site, provides an extensive list of technology resources that can be and have been implemented into a variety of employee deveolpment programs. These tools allow for more personalized learning, active participation, collaboration, and communication.In the first section of the site, examples of Web 2.0 tools are listed that can promote collaboration and constructive learning. You can also find technologies that are used in specific sectors, such as the Federal Government and the Private Sector. Clicking on the links redirects you to additional resources on the tech tools, including how to use them effectively and professionally for employee training. Rating 10/10

    1. 1Engaging Adults Learners with TechnologyThrough

      Instruction Librarians from the Twin Cities Campus Library created this instructional gudie as a workshop for implementing technology for adult learning. First, the authors describe key characteristics of adult learners as identified in the theory of andragogy. Examples of these characteristics include the need to know, learner responsibility, past experiences, and motivation to learn. The authors then suggest instructional practices and activities to meet the needs of adult learners, Finally, they provide examples of technology tools for effectively engaging adult learners. Rating 10/10

    1. This article, developed by faculty members at NAU, provides research behind and practices for technology-infused professional development (PD) programs. The authors first emphasize the importance of designing professional development for teachers around how they and their students learn best. Many approaches to PD have taken a one-size-fits-all approach in which learners take a more passive role in absorbing standardized information. The authors in this article suggest the need for a more effective model, one in which teachers play an active role in learning in ways that they find most effective for them and their students. Technology can support this PD through interactive and learner-centered instruction. Rating: 9/10

    1. Advantages of Online Professional Development

      This chapter, "Advantages of Online Professional Development" describes the benefits of online teacher professional development (OTPD), which implements technology to deliver training and learning in an online environment. OTPD allows teachers to participate in a flexible, self-directed, and collaborative learning community. They can interact with other teachers synchronously and asynchronously, or take professional development courses at their own schedule.

    1. E-Learning Theory (Mayer, Sweller, Moreno)

      This website outlines key principles of the E-Learning Theory developed by Mayer, Sweller, and Moreno. E-Learning Theory describes how the implementation of educational technology can be combined with key principles of how we learn for better outcomes. This site describes those principles as a guide of more effective instructional design. Users can also find other learning theories under the "Categories" link at the top of the page. Examples include Constructivist theories, Media & Technology theories, and Social Learning theories. Rating: 8/10

    1. Learning Domains

      This website provides several examples of domains adults may learn in or engage with. By clicking on each type, you are redirected to a detailed description of the domain. Descriptions include, but are not limited to, definitions, theories and research behind the topic, and real-world examples. You can also find references used in the description, which can be helpful for further exploration. This InstructionalDesign.org website also provides extensive lists of learning concepts (i.e. motivation, personalized learning, storyboard, etc.) and theories (i.e. Adult Learning Theory, Social Learning, Constructivism, etc.). Each learning theory link provides a theoretical definition, applications, examples, key principles, references, and related websites. Rating 10/10.

    1. Tech Literacy Resources

      This website is the "Resources" archive for the IgniteED Labs at Arizona State University's Mary Lou Fulton Teachers College. The IgniteED Labs allow students, staff, and faculty to explore innovative and emerging learning technology such as virtual reality (VR), artifical intelligence (AI), 3-D printing, and robotics. The left side of this site provides several resources on understanding and effectively using various technologies available in the IgniteED labs. Each resources directs you to external websites, such as product tutorials on Youtube, setup guides, and the products' websites. The right column, "Tech Literacy Resources," contains a variety of guides on how students can effectively and strategically use different technologies. Resources include "how-to" user guides, online academic integrity policies, and technology support services. Rating: 9/10

    1. How this phenomenon translates into absolute, rather than relative, risk, however, is a bit thorny. A large study published in 2018, for instance, found that among women who had children between 34 and 47, 2.2 percent developed breast cancer within three to seven years after they gave birth (among women who never had children, the rate was 1.9 percent). Over all, according to the American Cancer Society, women between 40 and 49 have a 1.5 percent chance of developing breast cancer.

      The rates here are so low as to be nearly negligible on their face. Why bother reporting it?

    1. figuring out the shape of physical features from even the highest points of observation on the surface of the earth is still barely adequate as a way to map it.

      This is why people used to think the earth was flat. If it weren't for technology we have today, we would have no idea that the earth is actually round!

    1. The most interesting examples have been the weird ones (cf. HI7), where the language model has been trained on narrower, more colorful sets of texts, and then sparked with creative prompts. Archaeologist Shawn Graham, who is working on a book I’d like to preorder right now, An Enchantment of Digital Archaeology: Raising the Dead with Agent Based Models, Archaeogaming, and Artificial Intelligence, fed GPT-2 the works of the English Egyptologist Flinders Petrie (1853-1942) and then resurrected him at the command line for a conversation about his work. Robin Sloan had similar good fun this summer with a focus on fantasy quests, and helpfully documented how he did it.

      Circle back around and read this when it comes out.

      Similarly, these other references should be an interesting read as well.

    1. The three major prominent learning theories are known as behaviourist, cognitivist and constructivist, though Siemens later developed the connectivism theory as a learning theory for the digital age.

      The e-learning learning websites is a collection of peer articles with from around the world. It is a collection of high quality articles, blogs, journals.

      Rating: 7/10

    1. The article, "Keys to success: Self-directed learning,' authors Fellows, Culver, and Beston discuss the components of Grow's self-directed learning (SDL) model. Learners and instructors fit into a matrix which can be used to determine optimal instructional strategies to meet the readiness of the learner. The authors discuss how SDL is implemented in multiple institutions for higher education. Instructional methods are shared to address foundational SDL skills as well as issues that arose when learners were having difficulty transitioning from one stage of readiness to another. Overall, holistic learner skills were enhanced with SDL. Rating: 9/10

    1. The text documents a year-long research project into experiential learning in teacher professional development. Teachers participated in experiential learning themselves to then begin to implement it into their own classrooms to serve their students. By and large, teachers were receptive, had misconceptions addressed, changed their practices with their colleagues and students to develop more engaging and active classrooms. Essentially, a shift from teacher-centered learning to student-centered learning was achieved in small increments by using experiential learning and reflection to facilitate teacher growth thereby creating new pathways for student learning. Given the nature of the traditional methods predominantly used, this study seems to reflect some elements of transformative learning in which teacher conventions and ideas were challenged and adjusted through heterogenous groups and personal reflection. Rating: 9/10

    1. The Northwest Center of Public Health Practice's toolkit title "Effective Adult Learning: A toolkit for teaching adults," is . a highly comprehensive resource for instructional design for adult learning instructors. Sections include course or training design, objectives of adult learning, various tools to help in the process of course design, and brief overviews of adult learning methods and theory. The embedded section review charts make it easier for quick references. Rating: 10/10

    1. Transformative learning theory and methods to support it are discussed in this text. Andragogy is initially reviewed in order for the reader to become acclimated to basic principles of adult learning. Transformative learning segments emphasize the methods and environments needed to achieve such deep and challenging learning. Due to the intensive personal nature of transformative learning, one must understand the readiness of the learner. The text notes that learners in transition are more apt to engage in transformative learning if given an opportunity to develop self-awareness, and a willingness to be in discomfort in open, non-hierarchical environments.

    1. In this text, instructional designers are given brief synopses of three adult learning theories including andragogy, transformational learning, and experiential learning in order to understand how adults best learn and apply learning. The structure of the text is brief paragraphs with numerated descriptors and/or bullet points for reader convenience. Suggestions for learning activities are also provided for the instructional designer to consider in their course design. In the segment for transformative learning, a link is provided to provide the instructional designer more specific methods to incorporate. At the end of the text, diagrams are provided to visual core aspects and flow of each learning theories process. Rating: 7/10

    1. As online learning matures, it is important for both theorists and practitioners to understand how to apply new and emerging educational practices and technologies that foster a sense of community and optimize the online learning environment.

      The article expresses the design theory elements (goals, values, methods) and how it can assist with defining new tools for online learning. Rating 5/5

  7. Oct 2019
    1. categorical formalism should provide a much needed high level language for theory of computation, flexible enough to allow abstracting away the low level implementation details when they are irrelevant, or taking them into account when they are genuinely needed. A salient feature of the approach through monoidal categories is the formal graphical language of string diagrams, which supports visual reasoning about programs and computations. In the present paper, we provide a coalgebraic characterization of monoidal computer. It turns out that the availability of interpreters and specializers, that make a monoidal category into a monoidal computer, is equivalent with the existence of a *universal state space*, that carries a weakly final state machine for any pair of input and output types. Being able to program state machines in monoidal computers allows us to represent Turing machines, to capture their execution, count their steps, as well as, e.g., the memory cells that they use. The coalgebraic view of monoidal computer thus provides a convenient diagrammatic language for studying computability and complexity.

      monoidal (category -> computer)

  8. Sep 2019
    1. NOTE: This annotation is a contemplation/criticism of a particular style of linking and is no way a reflection of my opinion about the author's work and ideas, which I respect greatly.

      I was contemplating why the use of links in this paper bothered me so much, and it led to some interesting questions/thoughts.

      (I know many others within the hypertext literature community have written about the many (multivariate) semantic functions of links, but I have admittedly yet to read that research, so I apologize if my extemporaneous thoughts on the subject are banal.)

      The destinations of most links in this paper (take the whole Abstract for example) are highly ambiguous. As the reader I experience curiosity, yes, but also a certain amount of anxiety about the constant choices I must make and the impossibility of dispelling the unknown. This is made considerably worse on mobile where there is no "hover" state to reveal the destination url. Even on desktop the urls are all routed through researchgate.net and thus require some additional cognitive effort to parse the final destination. Upon exploring some of these links, we find that the type of destination is also highly diverse/multivariate:

      • weaving meaning → presentation notes
      • Things → blog post
      • Personal Knowledge → blog post
      • augmenting their tacit awareness → annotation of conference session
      • Knowledge Augmentation → academic paper

      Thus even after following these links one is not able to derive any meaningful expectations about where the links might lead. There is a double confusion: the initial ambiguity and the { patternlessness / resistance to learning }. In my experience as the reader, and perhaps I am not the only one, I feel anxious, split, and ultimately mired in the heap of heterogeneous connections that I am being presented with. The nature/style of link usage in this paper works against its basic coherency. They land as distractions. Only through an application of will may I forge ahead to read the paper in its (short) entirety.

      Perhaps, you might suggest, I am doing it all wrong; I should read the paper through, and then go back to explore connections. Inline/embedded links still represent an improvement over traditional footnotes as I do not have to navigate back and forth between them. Yes, how am I as the reader to resist the tempting azure, the smooth and confident understroke, of the link? It is like going for a hike and suffering either blind adherence to an arbitrary path, haunted by the mystery of untaken side trails, or the aimlessness of tangential indulgence that leaves you a hundred meters from the trailhead.

      Context, it must be acknowledged, is important. If this were a piece of literary fiction, the reader may very well have the expectation that their journey will be filled with mysterious choices; all the better, as the choices were designed with one's reading pleasure in mind! There is nothing but the happy exploration of the branching narrative. Yet, this is an academic paper (at least presented as such), and so the reader expects to learning something, to acquire a deeper understanding of a subject, or at least to broaden one's sensemaking horizons. The constant branches might as well be rocks in the path that the reader is constantly tripping over, knowing the trail must offer some glimpses of natural beauty if only they could focus on the journey.

      It all begs the question: Who are the links really for? They represent the author's mental model, the author's priorities. It is like being invited to peruse someone's home: "Yes, yes, feel free to look around, as you will!" The reader will no doubt form their own mental model of the disparate data. Yet the stasis of the document resists the reader's creative impulses; it won't move for them. Text will not rearrange, links will not form. That power was granted to the author. Now, the reader clumsily explores the frozen statue of the author's creation.

      Let us not fall into the false choice between staid nonambiguity and scattershot freedom. As we turn our awareness inward, we see the richness of consciousness, of feeling, of the interpretative process, of apprehension as it miraculously unfolds. It is structured, it is emotional, and it is limited only by our imagination. Reaching into the depths of our phenomenology provides the basis for a principled and decidedly human topology of hypertext that points the way to truly augmenting human intelligence.

    1. He is now intending to collaborate with Bourne on a series of articles about the find. “Having these annotations might allow us to identify further books that have been annotated by Milton,” he said. “This is evidence of how digital technology and the opening up of libraries [could] transform our knowledge of this period.”
    2. “Not only does this hand look like Milton’s, but it behaves like Milton’s writing elsewhere does, doing exactly the things Milton does when he annotates books, and using exactly the same marks,” said Dr Will Poole at New College Oxford.

      The discussion of the information theoretic idea of "hand" is interesting here, particularly as it relates to the "hand" of annotation and how it was done in other settings by the same person.

    1. from falsehood you can derive everything ** false \leq truerestrict: don't talk about elements -> you have to talk about arrows (relations) .... interview the friends *product types: [pairs, tuples, records,...]

    1. Introduction

      Introduction is a bit longer summary of the entire paper. This is where researchers describe and justify their research questions and briefly discuss what is to come. Typically, introduction is about 500 -- 1000 words.

      Please identify and highlight a research question(s).

  9. Aug 2019
    1. But there is an alternative. It’s called denotational semantics and it’s based on math. In denotational semantics every programing construct is given its mathematical interpretation. With that, if you want to prove a property of a program, you just prove a mathematical theorem
    1. hierarchy of questions: "What about the relationships between the relationships between the relationships between the...?" This leads to infinity categories. [And a possible brain freeze.] For more, see here.)  As pie-in-the-sky as this may sound, these ideas---categories, functors, and natural transformations---lead to a treasure trove of theory that shows up almost everywhere.

      Turtles all the way up

    1. In characterizing the change-over from the manipulating and using and so forth which are circumspective in a ‘practical’ way, to ‘theoretical’ exploration, it would be easy to suggest that merely looking at entities is something which emerges when concern holds back from any kind of manipulation. What is decisive in the ‘emergence’ of the theoretical attitude would then lie in the disappearance of praxis. So if one posits ‘practical’ concern as the primary and predominant kind of Being which factical Dasein possesses, the ontological possibility of ‘theory’ will be due to the absence of praxis—that is, to a privation. But the discontinuance of a specific manipulation in our concernful dealings does not simply leave the guiding circumspection behind as a remainder. Rather, our concern then diverts itself specifically into a just-looking-around [ein Nur-sich-umsehen]. But this is by no means the way in which the ‘theoretical’ attitude of science is reached. On the contrary, the tarrying which is discontinued when one manipulates, can take on the character of a more precise kind of circumspection, such as ‘inspecting’, checking up on what has been attained, or looking over the ‘operations’ [“Betrieb”] which are now ‘at a standstill’. Holding back from the use of equipment is so far from sheer ‘theory’ that the kind of circumspection which tarries and ‘considers’, remains wholly in the grip of the ready-to-hand equipment with which one is concerned. ‘Practical’ dealings have their own ways of tarrying. And just as praxis has its own specific kind of sight (‘theory’), theoretical research is not without a praxis of its own. Reading off the measurements which result from an experiment often requires a complicated ‘technical’ set-up for the experimental design. Observation with a microscope is dependent upon the production of ‘preparations’. Archaeological excavation, which precedes any Interpretation of the ‘findings’, demands manipulations of the grossest kind. But even in the ‘most abstract’ way of working out problems and establishing what has been obtained, one manipulates equipment for writing, for example. However ‘uninteresting’ and ‘obvious’ such components of scientific research may be, they are by no means a matter of indifference ontologically. The explicit suggestion that scientific behaviour as a way of Being-in-the-world, is not just a ‘purely intellectual activity’, may seem petty and superfluous. If only it were not plain from this triviality that it is by no means patent where the ontological boundary between ‘theoretical’ and ‘atheoretical’ behaviour really runs!

      Heidegger: "just as praxis has its own specific kind of sight (‘theory’), theoretical research is not without a praxis of its own." ||

    1. There are important differences between social imaginaryand social theory. I adopt the term imaginary (i) because myfocus is on the way ordinary people ‘‘imagine’’ their socialsurroundings, and this is often not expressed in theoreticalterms, but is carried in images, stories, and legends. It is alsothe case that (ii) theory is often the possession of a small mi-nority, whereas what is interesting in the social imaginary isthat it is shared by large groups of people, if not the wholesociety.Which leads to a third difference: (iii) the social imagi-nary is that common understanding that makes possible com-mon practices and a widely shared sense of legitimacy.

      Theory is the formal abstraction of how a society works/social problem is caused. It is usually constructed by specialists such as sociologists on the basis of evidence and prior theoretical constructs (method and methodology). Social imaginary = how people in their everyday lives join the dots between themselves, others and the wider world. My questions: where do discourse, ideology and social institutions fit here?

  10. Jul 2019
    1. I first briefly lay out alternative media theory as it existed prior to the dominance of Facebook, Google, and Twitter.

      I've been thinking about it for a while but even if all social sites were interoperable, I suspect that a small handful of 2 or 3 would have the largest market share. This is as the result of some of the network theory and research found in Linked: How Everything Is Connected to Everything Else and What It Means for Business, Science, and Everyday Life by Alberto-Llaszlo Barabasi

    1. for lack of a better term

      I'm not really satisfied using the term "critical theory" either, given that it could include works that aren't really "PoMo" (eg, Marxism or historical materialism). I'd use "post-structuralism", but I don't think that many folks know what it means and it's not totally accurate either. So I decided to just leave it as "critical theory" as in the original rant.

    1. Such are great historical men—whose own particular aims involve those large issues which are the will of the World-Spirit.
  11. Jun 2019
  12. May 2019
    1. However, it is still often stated that the other orbital energies have no physical meaning, and that it is a pity that nothing like Koopmans' theorem to give meaning to the other occupied orbital energies exists. The truth could not be more different: it has been established22–25 that the KS orbital energies of the valence levels in molecules approximate the experimental ionization energies much more closely (typically at 0.1 eV level) than the Hartree–Fock orbital energies do (difference with IPs typically ∼1 eV).

      This is really one of the more spicy takes here. KS orbitals having no physical interpretation is often heard in the community, and here is a list of references and evidence that they do have physical significance.

  13. Apr 2019
    1. drei Dimensionen der Resonanzbeziehung

      Dinge Menschen Welt … Tiere Pflanzen Orte Landschaften Elemente … konzeptionelle Übersimplifizierung der Theorie? oder: treffende Beschreibung "moderne[r] Gesellschaften westlichen Typs" ?

    1. Digital sociology needs more big theory as well as testable theory.

      Here I might posit that Cesar Hidalgo's book Why Information Grows (MIT, 2015) has some interesting theses about links between people and companies which could be extrapolated up to "societies of linked companies". What could we predict about how those will interact based on the underlying pieces? Is it possible that we see other emergent complex behaviors?

    1. ConceptNet is a freely-available semantic network, designed to help computers understand the meanings of words that people use.

      this is super cool

  14. Mar 2019
    1. I hope that non-theorists, even if they don't understand everything, will at least find some amusement in the many exotic beasts that complexity theory has uncovered.