447 Matching Annotations
  1. Last 7 days
    1. Selection and integration of communications media

      Selection and integration of communication media

    2. Thus, the greater the transactional distance, the more such -autonomy the learner willexercise

      Greater transactional distance more autonomy; little transactional distance is more guidance and dialogue.

    3. When a programme is highly structured and teacher-learner dialogue is non-existent the transaction between learners and teachers is high.

      wouldn't the transaction between learners and teachers be low?

    4. PROGRAMME STRUCTUREThe second set of variables that determine transactional distance are the elements in the course design, or the ways inwhich the teaching programme is structured so that it can be delivered through the various communications media.Programmes are structured in different ways to take into account the need to produce, copy, deliver, and controlthese mediated messages. Structure expresses the rigidity or flexibility of the programme's educational objectives,teaching strategies, and evaluation methods.
    5. continuous rather than a discrete variable, a relative rather thanan absolute term

      try and understand this better. Ask about it in the synchronous meeting?

      ???

    6. It is obvious that the nature of each communications medium has a direct impact on the extent and quality ofdialogue between instructors and learners.

      Is this directly contradicting Clarke in that the medium does not matter?

    7. INSTRUCTIONAL DIALOGUEDialogue is developed by teachers and learners in the course of the interactions that occur when one gives instructionand the others respond. The concepts of dialogue and interaction are very similar, and indeed are sometimes usedsynonymously. However, an important distinction can be made. The term 'dialogue' is used to describe aninteraction or series of interactions having positive qualities that other interactions might not have.

      Instructional dialogue

    8. These clusters of variables are named Dialogue, Structure, andLearner Autonomy.

      Cluster of variable

      Dialogue, Structure, Learner Autonomy

    9. The transaction that we call distance education occurs between teachers and learners inan environmenthaving the special characteristic of separation of teachers from learners. This separation leads to special patterns oflearner and teacher behaviours. It is the separation of learners and teachers that profoundly affects both teachingand learning.

      each transaction will create a type of pattern that's observable and measureable? Is that where this is going?

    10. This universe of relationships can be ordered into a typology that is shaped around themost elementary constructs of the field - namely, the structure of instructional programmes, the interaction betweenlearners and teachers, and the nature and degree of self-directedness of the learner

      organization:

    11. What was stated in that first theory is that 'distance education is notsimply a geographic separation of learners and teachers, but, more importantly, is a pedagogical concept.

      definition

    1. game theory

      Game theory is the study of mathematical models of strategic interaction among rational decision-makers.[1] It has applications in all fields of social science, as well as in logic, systems science and computer science. Originally, it addressed zero-sum games, in which each participant's gains or losses are exactly balanced by those of the other participants. Today, game theory applies to a wide range of behavioral relations, and is now an umbrella term for the science of logical decision making in humans, animals, and computers.

      --Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Game_theory

  2. Jan 2020
    1. Perraton's (1988) theory of distance education is composed of ele-ments from existing theories of communication and diffusion as well asphilosophies of education.

      Perraton's theory 1988

    2. Holmberg, distance education ischaracterized by the following statements:

      Holmberg distance education is characterized by the following:

    3. Holmberg's (1989) theory of distance education, what he calls "guid-ed didactic conversation," falls into the general category ofcommunication theory. Holmberg noted that his theory had explanatoryvalue in relating teaching effectiveness to the impact of feelings ofbelonging and cooperation as well as to the actual exchange of ques-tions, answers, and arguments in mediated communication

      Holmberg proposed theory

    4. Theory of Interaction and Communication

      tag

    5. Based on economic and industrial theory,Peters proposed the following new categories (terminology) for the anal-ysis of distance education:

      Peter's theory/terminology/analysis

    6. Theory of Industrialization of Teaching

      another tag.

    7. He notes that in traditional school settings learners are very dependenton teachers for guidance and that in most programs, conventional anddistance, the teacher is active while the student is passive.

      traditional vs distance

    8. Moore classifies distance education programs as "autonomous"(learner-determined) or "non-autonomous" (teacher-determined)
    9. three questions

      moore questions can help define or plan out how the program functions

    10. 1. The student and teacher are separated.2. The normal processes of teaching and learning are carried out inwriting or through some other medium.3. Teaching is individualized.4. Learning takes place through the student's activity.5. Learning is made convenient for the student in the student's ownenvironment.6. The learner takes responsibility for the pace of learning, withfreedom to start and stop at any time.

      Wedemeyer space-time barriers

    11. 1. Be capable of operating any place where there are students—evenonly one student—whether or not there are teachers at the sameplace, at the same time;2. Place greater responsibility for learning on the student;3. Free faculty members from custodial-type duties so that moretime can be given to truly educational tasks;4. Offer students and adults wider choices (more opportunities) incourses, formats, and methodologies;5. Use, as appropriate, all the teaching media and methods proveneffective;6. Mix and combine media and methods so that each subject or unitwithin a subject is taught in the best way known;7. Cause the redesign and development of courses to fit into anarticulated media program;8. Preserve and enhance opportunities for adaptation to individualdifferences;9. Evaluate student achievement simply, not by raising barriersregarding the place, rate, method, or sequence of student study;and10. Permit students to start, stop, and learn at their own pace.

      10 components

    12. American Theory of Independent Study.

      1st theory

    1. My friend Marc again to the rescue. He suggested that since there was 10,000+ people RT'ing and following, I could just pick a random follower from my current total follower list (78,000 at this point), then go to their profile to check if they RT'd it and see. If they didn't, get another random follower and repeat, until you find someone. With 78,000 followers this should take about ~8 tries.

      Technically he said it would be random among those who retweeted, but he's chose a much smaller subset of people who are BOTH following him and who retweeted it. Oops!

    1. WP:SNOW

      Bureaucratic behaviours

    2. Wikipedia:Articles for deletion/Katie Bouman

      El caso de Katie Bouman en la categoría de Articles for Deletion y mi análisis de los comentarios bajo la categoría inicial de not relevant

    3. she does pass the notability criteria on her own

      Notability criteria

    4. This might be a good place for a speedy decision to be made,

      Decision

    5. wide variety of coverage in a variety of media

      Coverage Media

    6. article should be trimmed a bit, but deletion is unjustified

      Deletion

    7. Some undue weight, but that doesn't means she isn't notable

      Notable

    8. Jealous bros should not cry each time a woman is part of an achievement.

      Achievement

    9. the media did give her way too much unasked for credit for a discovery made by a large international team

      Media

    10. Recommend editing article to reflect disproportionate amount of press coverage received and reiterate that she is one of the many researchers behind the photograph of the black hole

      Press coverage

    11. Meets criteria under WP:NACADEMIC due to *extensive* press coverage (including multiple secondary sources) over the past 48 hours.

      Criteria Notable Press coverage

    12. it was held recently in the AfD discussion about Saikat Chakrabarti that coverage of other aspects of the person's like (which our article on her details a fair bit of) satisfied those concerns even if the coverage was in news stories otherwise about the "1E"

      Article for Deletion discussion Coverage Notable

    13. the subject meets WP:GNG

      Notable Significant coverage Reliable source

    14. There is an important nuance that you're missing (along with others)—WP:SUSTAINED press coverage is what establishes notability, not a sudden burst of coverage. WP:TOOSOON also applies.

      Press coverage Notable

    15. it isn't indicative of is significance, but that's a different thing

      Significance

    16. press coverage is exactly indicative of (and more or less synonymous with) notability, as defined by GNG

      Press coverage Notable

    17. not necessary indicative of notability if it is not WP:SUSTAINED

      Notable

    18. it will be more due to press/social media celebrity

      press/social media

    19. the sources like the NYT note that the press coverage she's received is of outsize significance to her actual role in the project.

      Sources Press coverage

    20. WP:1E is pretty clear;

      Notable

    21. I don't know that "her story needs to be told" is a justification for a WP article.

      Story

    22. the disproportionate level of coverage to her share of the project should be clarified.

      Coverage

    23. Bouman has received substantial focused coverage from many major news outlets

      Coverage

    24. it's an embarrassment to Wikipedia to have the AfD tag on top

      Article for Deletion

    25. WP:SNOW

      Borocratic behaviour

    26. is predicated on non-trivial coverage in reliable sources, and there is plenty of that here

      Coverage Reliable sources

    27. WP:BIO

      Wikipedia: Notability (person) Notable

    28. Her notability doesn't hinge on whether she was the principal person behind the the images

      Notable

    29. This article is much better than many others about non-notable academics!

      Non-notable academics

    30. this is good indication that the Bouman article is notable

      Notable

    31. Prominent coverage is primarily due to a facebook photo that went viral.

      Coverage

    32. per WP:1E

      Notable

    33. the press should not have covered her work is original research

      Press Covered Original research

    34. the subject meets criterion 7 under NACADEMIC due to the press coverage

      Criterion (policy) Notable Press coverage

    35. adjust her article to reflect the analysis—in reputable secondary sources—about how the media singled her out as the "hero".

      Secondary sources Media

    36. Her story *should* be on Wikipedia

      Story

    37. Bouman has probably been covered in the news in every country in the world

      Covered News

    38. She is obviously notable enough to have a profile on here

      Notable

    39. And the Washington Post story shifts gears from her role in the black hole image to online trolling focused around her,

      (Press) story Trolling

    40. There's now tons of in-depth coverage specifically about her

      Coverage

    41. WP:GNG or WP:NACADEMIC.

      Wikipedia: Notability Wikipedia: Notability (academics) Notable

    42. There is no evidence that she is a "key component"

      Evidence

    43. Easily notable

      Notable

    44. list of Academics and educators-related deletion discussions

      Academics and educators-related deletion discussions

    45. list of Women-related deletion discussions.

      Women-related deletion discussions

    46. list of Science-related deletion discussions.

      Science-related deletion discussions

    47. We cover what reliable sources cover.

      Cover Reliable source

    48. Something like that would almost be worth an article itself.

      Article

    49. I don't see the policy basis for keeping this page

      Policy

    50. doesn't satisfy WP:NACADEMIC

      Wikipedia: Notability (academics) Notable

    51. Where do the sources say that she is tenured?

      Sources

    52. her tenured position at CalTech was announced before the media frenzy this week

      Media

    53. I don't support deletion of the article, but the importance of the mediatic coverage and her implication in the M*87 black hole should be explicit as “member of a collaboration of 200 researchers”

      Coverage

    54. Don't you think that this position is a consequence of this mediatic coverage?

      Coverage

    55. She's been featured in almost all coverage

      Coverage

    56. There were at least 200 people with comparable roles and dozens of people with much more notable roles in this event.

      Notable

    57. WP:1E,

      Notable

    58. These are guidelines, not policy, and based on the amount of publicity she's receiving, I see no reason why Wikipedia shouldn't have a well-sourced article on her.

      Policy Publicity Well-sourced article

    59. she isn't actually credited with any notable accomplishments herself.

      Notable

    60. only in the context of WP:1E

      Notable

    61. there are many reliable sources providing significant coverage of her personally.

      Reliable sources

    62. Bouman's not right for Wikipedia because she "is certainly not notable as a scientist",

      Notable

    63. Any relevant material can be mentioned there

      Relevant

    64. of WP:1E

      Wikipedia: Notability (people). Notable

    65. Someone who isn't even an assistant professor is certainly not notable as a scientist.

      Notable as a scientist

    66. Wikipedia:Notability is not inherited.

      Notability

    67. The Event Horizon Telescope project is notable in itself, and has its own article, but anyone who are in some way (remotely) associated with it are not inherently notable.

      Notable

    1. The urticaria resolved upon treatment of the AITD. We also summarize the currently postulated pathophysiological links between the two diseases.

      Before reading the study, I'll state that my suspected mechanism is dry skin. Hyperthyroidism causes oily skin, while hypothyroidism causes dry skin. Thus, I'd expect hypothyroidism to have similar symptoms to using harsh detergents/soap and/or scrubbing too frequently or too hard.

    1. Interactions between Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) and human (players) are often included in the Mtb’s strategies to invade host responses, to replicate and persist within the host,

      Does the M.Tb have knowledge of the host responses or is it merely adapting bet hedging strategies (a mix of multiple strategies across population) and whatever survived is what we see.

      This will have major implications in treating the problem in a game theoretic fashion

  3. Dec 2019
    1. arborescence

      First sighting of word arborescence. I thought they were just doing that for fun, as a play on "tree", but I guess it's a real graph theory concept (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arborescence_(graph_theory)).

    1. branching

      I like this as a good alternative to the word arborescence. It seems to intuitively describe the concept using a more English-sounding word: it's talking about a specific branch/branching of the tree. Right?

    1. Langdon is of the opinion that these dreams are recounted to Enkidu by a woman with whom Enkidu cohabits for six days and seven nights and who weans Enkidu from association with animals. This, however, cannot be correct. The scene between Enkidu and the woman must have been recounted in detail in the first tablet, as in the Assyrian version,30 whereas here in the second tablet we have the continuation of the tale with Gilgamesh recounting his dreams directly to his mother. The story then continues with the description of the coming of Enkidu, conducted by the woman to the outskirts of Erech, where food is given him. The main feature of the incident is the conversion of Enkidu to civilized life. Enkidu, who hitherto had gone about naked, is clothed by the woman. Instead of sucking milk and drinking from a trough like an animal, food and strong drink are placed before him, and he is taught how to eat and drink in human fashion. In human fashion he also becomes drunk, and his “spree” is naïvely described: “His heart became

      This gives insight into Langdons logic and reasoning resonating in his translation.

    1. Many people luck out like me, accidentally. We recognize what particular path to mastery we’re on, long after we actually get on it.

      Far too many people luck out this way and we all perceive them as magically talented when in reality, they're no better than we, they just had better circumstances or were in the right place at the right time.

    1. Nash proved that if we allow mixed strategies, then every game with a finite number of players in which each player can choose from finitely many pure strategies has at least one Nash equilibrium.

      It always has at least one Nash equilibrium (but it may only be a NE in mixed strategies).

    1. How to sway the other side: Use their morals against them Willer’s work is based on moral foundations theory. It's the idea that people have stable, gut-level morals that influence their worldview. The liberal moral foundations include equality, fairness, and protection of the vulnerable. Conservative moral foundations are more stalwart: They favor in-group loyalty, moral purity, and respect for authority.
  4. Nov 2019
    1. Training and Development Policy Wiki

      This webpage, under the Office of Personnel Management (OPM) .gov site, provides an extensive list of technology resources that can be and have been implemented into a variety of employee deveolpment programs. These tools allow for more personalized learning, active participation, collaboration, and communication.In the first section of the site, examples of Web 2.0 tools are listed that can promote collaboration and constructive learning. You can also find technologies that are used in specific sectors, such as the Federal Government and the Private Sector. Clicking on the links redirects you to additional resources on the tech tools, including how to use them effectively and professionally for employee training. Rating 10/10

    1. 1Engaging Adults Learners with TechnologyThrough

      Instruction Librarians from the Twin Cities Campus Library created this instructional gudie as a workshop for implementing technology for adult learning. First, the authors describe key characteristics of adult learners as identified in the theory of andragogy. Examples of these characteristics include the need to know, learner responsibility, past experiences, and motivation to learn. The authors then suggest instructional practices and activities to meet the needs of adult learners, Finally, they provide examples of technology tools for effectively engaging adult learners. Rating 10/10

    1. This article, developed by faculty members at NAU, provides research behind and practices for technology-infused professional development (PD) programs. The authors first emphasize the importance of designing professional development for teachers around how they and their students learn best. Many approaches to PD have taken a one-size-fits-all approach in which learners take a more passive role in absorbing standardized information. The authors in this article suggest the need for a more effective model, one in which teachers play an active role in learning in ways that they find most effective for them and their students. Technology can support this PD through interactive and learner-centered instruction. Rating: 9/10

    1. Advantages of Online Professional Development

      This chapter, "Advantages of Online Professional Development" describes the benefits of online teacher professional development (OTPD), which implements technology to deliver training and learning in an online environment. OTPD allows teachers to participate in a flexible, self-directed, and collaborative learning community. They can interact with other teachers synchronously and asynchronously, or take professional development courses at their own schedule.

    1. E-Learning Theory (Mayer, Sweller, Moreno)

      This website outlines key principles of the E-Learning Theory developed by Mayer, Sweller, and Moreno. E-Learning Theory describes how the implementation of educational technology can be combined with key principles of how we learn for better outcomes. This site describes those principles as a guide of more effective instructional design. Users can also find other learning theories under the "Categories" link at the top of the page. Examples include Constructivist theories, Media & Technology theories, and Social Learning theories. Rating: 8/10

    1. Learning Domains

      This website provides several examples of domains adults may learn in or engage with. By clicking on each type, you are redirected to a detailed description of the domain. Descriptions include, but are not limited to, definitions, theories and research behind the topic, and real-world examples. You can also find references used in the description, which can be helpful for further exploration. This InstructionalDesign.org website also provides extensive lists of learning concepts (i.e. motivation, personalized learning, storyboard, etc.) and theories (i.e. Adult Learning Theory, Social Learning, Constructivism, etc.). Each learning theory link provides a theoretical definition, applications, examples, key principles, references, and related websites. Rating 10/10.

    1. Tech Literacy Resources

      This website is the "Resources" archive for the IgniteED Labs at Arizona State University's Mary Lou Fulton Teachers College. The IgniteED Labs allow students, staff, and faculty to explore innovative and emerging learning technology such as virtual reality (VR), artifical intelligence (AI), 3-D printing, and robotics. The left side of this site provides several resources on understanding and effectively using various technologies available in the IgniteED labs. Each resources directs you to external websites, such as product tutorials on Youtube, setup guides, and the products' websites. The right column, "Tech Literacy Resources," contains a variety of guides on how students can effectively and strategically use different technologies. Resources include "how-to" user guides, online academic integrity policies, and technology support services. Rating: 9/10

    1. How this phenomenon translates into absolute, rather than relative, risk, however, is a bit thorny. A large study published in 2018, for instance, found that among women who had children between 34 and 47, 2.2 percent developed breast cancer within three to seven years after they gave birth (among women who never had children, the rate was 1.9 percent). Over all, according to the American Cancer Society, women between 40 and 49 have a 1.5 percent chance of developing breast cancer.

      The rates here are so low as to be nearly negligible on their face. Why bother reporting it?

    1. figuring out the shape of physical features from even the highest points of observation on the surface of the earth is still barely adequate as a way to map it.

      This is why people used to think the earth was flat. If it weren't for technology we have today, we would have no idea that the earth is actually round!

    1. The most interesting examples have been the weird ones (cf. HI7), where the language model has been trained on narrower, more colorful sets of texts, and then sparked with creative prompts. Archaeologist Shawn Graham, who is working on a book I’d like to preorder right now, An Enchantment of Digital Archaeology: Raising the Dead with Agent Based Models, Archaeogaming, and Artificial Intelligence, fed GPT-2 the works of the English Egyptologist Flinders Petrie (1853-1942) and then resurrected him at the command line for a conversation about his work. Robin Sloan had similar good fun this summer with a focus on fantasy quests, and helpfully documented how he did it.

      Circle back around and read this when it comes out.

      Similarly, these other references should be an interesting read as well.

    1. The three major prominent learning theories are known as behaviourist, cognitivist and constructivist, though Siemens later developed the connectivism theory as a learning theory for the digital age.

      The e-learning learning websites is a collection of peer articles with from around the world. It is a collection of high quality articles, blogs, journals.

      Rating: 7/10

    1. The article, "Keys to success: Self-directed learning,' authors Fellows, Culver, and Beston discuss the components of Grow's self-directed learning (SDL) model. Learners and instructors fit into a matrix which can be used to determine optimal instructional strategies to meet the readiness of the learner. The authors discuss how SDL is implemented in multiple institutions for higher education. Instructional methods are shared to address foundational SDL skills as well as issues that arose when learners were having difficulty transitioning from one stage of readiness to another. Overall, holistic learner skills were enhanced with SDL. Rating: 9/10

    1. The text documents a year-long research project into experiential learning in teacher professional development. Teachers participated in experiential learning themselves to then begin to implement it into their own classrooms to serve their students. By and large, teachers were receptive, had misconceptions addressed, changed their practices with their colleagues and students to develop more engaging and active classrooms. Essentially, a shift from teacher-centered learning to student-centered learning was achieved in small increments by using experiential learning and reflection to facilitate teacher growth thereby creating new pathways for student learning. Given the nature of the traditional methods predominantly used, this study seems to reflect some elements of transformative learning in which teacher conventions and ideas were challenged and adjusted through heterogenous groups and personal reflection. Rating: 9/10

    1. The Northwest Center of Public Health Practice's toolkit title "Effective Adult Learning: A toolkit for teaching adults," is . a highly comprehensive resource for instructional design for adult learning instructors. Sections include course or training design, objectives of adult learning, various tools to help in the process of course design, and brief overviews of adult learning methods and theory. The embedded section review charts make it easier for quick references. Rating: 10/10

    1. Transformative learning theory and methods to support it are discussed in this text. Andragogy is initially reviewed in order for the reader to become acclimated to basic principles of adult learning. Transformative learning segments emphasize the methods and environments needed to achieve such deep and challenging learning. Due to the intensive personal nature of transformative learning, one must understand the readiness of the learner. The text notes that learners in transition are more apt to engage in transformative learning if given an opportunity to develop self-awareness, and a willingness to be in discomfort in open, non-hierarchical environments.

    1. In this text, instructional designers are given brief synopses of three adult learning theories including andragogy, transformational learning, and experiential learning in order to understand how adults best learn and apply learning. The structure of the text is brief paragraphs with numerated descriptors and/or bullet points for reader convenience. Suggestions for learning activities are also provided for the instructional designer to consider in their course design. In the segment for transformative learning, a link is provided to provide the instructional designer more specific methods to incorporate. At the end of the text, diagrams are provided to visual core aspects and flow of each learning theories process. Rating: 7/10

    1. As online learning matures, it is important for both theorists and practitioners to understand how to apply new and emerging educational practices and technologies that foster a sense of community and optimize the online learning environment.

      The article expresses the design theory elements (goals, values, methods) and how it can assist with defining new tools for online learning. Rating 5/5

  5. Oct 2019
    1. categorical formalism should provide a much needed high level language for theory of computation, flexible enough to allow abstracting away the low level implementation details when they are irrelevant, or taking them into account when they are genuinely needed. A salient feature of the approach through monoidal categories is the formal graphical language of string diagrams, which supports visual reasoning about programs and computations. In the present paper, we provide a coalgebraic characterization of monoidal computer. It turns out that the availability of interpreters and specializers, that make a monoidal category into a monoidal computer, is equivalent with the existence of a *universal state space*, that carries a weakly final state machine for any pair of input and output types. Being able to program state machines in monoidal computers allows us to represent Turing machines, to capture their execution, count their steps, as well as, e.g., the memory cells that they use. The coalgebraic view of monoidal computer thus provides a convenient diagrammatic language for studying computability and complexity.

      monoidal (category -> computer)

  6. Sep 2019
    1. NOTE: This annotation is a contemplation/criticism of a particular style of linking and is no way a reflection of my opinion about the author's work and ideas, which I respect greatly.

      I was contemplating why the use of links in this paper bothered me so much, and it led to some interesting questions/thoughts.

      (I know many others within the hypertext literature community have written about the many (multivariate) semantic functions of links, but I have admittedly yet to read that research, so I apologize if my extemporaneous thoughts on the subject are banal.)

      The destinations of most links in this paper (take the whole Abstract for example) are highly ambiguous. As the reader I experience curiosity, yes, but also a certain amount of anxiety about the constant choices I must make and the impossibility of dispelling the unknown. This is made considerably worse on mobile where there is no "hover" state to reveal the destination url. Even on desktop the urls are all routed through researchgate.net and thus require some additional cognitive effort to parse the final destination. Upon exploring some of these links, we find that the type of destination is also highly diverse/multivariate:

      • weaving meaning → presentation notes
      • Things → blog post
      • Personal Knowledge → blog post
      • augmenting their tacit awareness → annotation of conference session
      • Knowledge Augmentation → academic paper

      Thus even after following these links one is not able to derive any meaningful expectations about where the links might lead. There is a double confusion: the initial ambiguity and the { patternlessness / resistance to learning }. In my experience as the reader, and perhaps I am not the only one, I feel anxious, split, and ultimately mired in the heap of heterogeneous connections that I am being presented with. The nature/style of link usage in this paper works against its basic coherency. They land as distractions. Only through an application of will may I forge ahead to read the paper in its (short) entirety.

      Perhaps, you might suggest, I am doing it all wrong; I should read the paper through, and then go back to explore connections. Inline/embedded links still represent an improvement over traditional footnotes as I do not have to navigate back and forth between them. Yes, how am I as the reader to resist the tempting azure, the smooth and confident understroke, of the link? It is like going for a hike and suffering either blind adherence to an arbitrary path, haunted by the mystery of untaken side trails, or the aimlessness of tangential indulgence that leaves you a hundred meters from the trailhead.

      Context, it must be acknowledged, is important. If this were a piece of literary fiction, the reader may very well have the expectation that their journey will be filled with mysterious choices; all the better, as the choices were designed with one's reading pleasure in mind! There is nothing but the happy exploration of the branching narrative. Yet, this is an academic paper (at least presented as such), and so the reader expects to learning something, to acquire a deeper understanding of a subject, or at least to broaden one's sensemaking horizons. The constant branches might as well be rocks in the path that the reader is constantly tripping over, knowing the trail must offer some glimpses of natural beauty if only they could focus on the journey.

      It all begs the question: Who are the links really for? They represent the author's mental model, the author's priorities. It is like being invited to peruse someone's home: "Yes, yes, feel free to look around, as you will!" The reader will no doubt form their own mental model of the disparate data. Yet the stasis of the document resists the reader's creative impulses; it won't move for them. Text will not rearrange, links will not form. That power was granted to the author. Now, the reader clumsily explores the frozen statue of the author's creation.

      Let us not fall into the false choice between staid nonambiguity and scattershot freedom. As we turn our awareness inward, we see the richness of consciousness, of feeling, of the interpretative process, of apprehension as it miraculously unfolds. It is structured, it is emotional, and it is limited only by our imagination. Reaching into the depths of our phenomenology provides the basis for a principled and decidedly human topology of hypertext that points the way to truly augmenting human intelligence.

    1. He is now intending to collaborate with Bourne on a series of articles about the find. “Having these annotations might allow us to identify further books that have been annotated by Milton,” he said. “This is evidence of how digital technology and the opening up of libraries [could] transform our knowledge of this period.”
    2. “Not only does this hand look like Milton’s, but it behaves like Milton’s writing elsewhere does, doing exactly the things Milton does when he annotates books, and using exactly the same marks,” said Dr Will Poole at New College Oxford.

      The discussion of the information theoretic idea of "hand" is interesting here, particularly as it relates to the "hand" of annotation and how it was done in other settings by the same person.

    1. from falsehood you can derive everything ** false \leq truerestrict: don't talk about elements -> you have to talk about arrows (relations) .... interview the friends *product types: [pairs, tuples, records,...]

    1. Introduction

      Introduction is a bit longer summary of the entire paper. This is where researchers describe and justify their research questions and briefly discuss what is to come. Typically, introduction is about 500 -- 1000 words.

      Please identify and highlight a research question(s).

  7. Aug 2019
    1. But there is an alternative. It’s called denotational semantics and it’s based on math. In denotational semantics every programing construct is given its mathematical interpretation. With that, if you want to prove a property of a program, you just prove a mathematical theorem
    1. hierarchy of questions: "What about the relationships between the relationships between the relationships between the...?" This leads to infinity categories. [And a possible brain freeze.] For more, see here.)  As pie-in-the-sky as this may sound, these ideas---categories, functors, and natural transformations---lead to a treasure trove of theory that shows up almost everywhere.

      Turtles all the way up

    1. In characterizing the change-over from the manipulating and using and so forth which are circumspective in a ‘practical’ way, to ‘theoretical’ exploration, it would be easy to suggest that merely looking at entities is something which emerges when concern holds back from any kind of manipulation. What is decisive in the ‘emergence’ of the theoretical attitude would then lie in the disappearance of praxis. So if one posits ‘practical’ concern as the primary and predominant kind of Being which factical Dasein possesses, the ontological possibility of ‘theory’ will be due to the absence of praxis—that is, to a privation. But the discontinuance of a specific manipulation in our concernful dealings does not simply leave the guiding circumspection behind as a remainder. Rather, our concern then diverts itself specifically into a just-looking-around [ein Nur-sich-umsehen]. But this is by no means the way in which the ‘theoretical’ attitude of science is reached. On the contrary, the tarrying which is discontinued when one manipulates, can take on the character of a more precise kind of circumspection, such as ‘inspecting’, checking up on what has been attained, or looking over the ‘operations’ [“Betrieb”] which are now ‘at a standstill’. Holding back from the use of equipment is so far from sheer ‘theory’ that the kind of circumspection which tarries and ‘considers’, remains wholly in the grip of the ready-to-hand equipment with which one is concerned. ‘Practical’ dealings have their own ways of tarrying. And just as praxis has its own specific kind of sight (‘theory’), theoretical research is not without a praxis of its own. Reading off the measurements which result from an experiment often requires a complicated ‘technical’ set-up for the experimental design. Observation with a microscope is dependent upon the production of ‘preparations’. Archaeological excavation, which precedes any Interpretation of the ‘findings’, demands manipulations of the grossest kind. But even in the ‘most abstract’ way of working out problems and establishing what has been obtained, one manipulates equipment for writing, for example. However ‘uninteresting’ and ‘obvious’ such components of scientific research may be, they are by no means a matter of indifference ontologically. The explicit suggestion that scientific behaviour as a way of Being-in-the-world, is not just a ‘purely intellectual activity’, may seem petty and superfluous. If only it were not plain from this triviality that it is by no means patent where the ontological boundary between ‘theoretical’ and ‘atheoretical’ behaviour really runs!

      Heidegger: "just as praxis has its own specific kind of sight (‘theory’), theoretical research is not without a praxis of its own." ||

    1. There are important differences between social imaginaryand social theory. I adopt the term imaginary (i) because myfocus is on the way ordinary people ‘‘imagine’’ their socialsurroundings, and this is often not expressed in theoreticalterms, but is carried in images, stories, and legends. It is alsothe case that (ii) theory is often the possession of a small mi-nority, whereas what is interesting in the social imaginary isthat it is shared by large groups of people, if not the wholesociety.Which leads to a third difference: (iii) the social imagi-nary is that common understanding that makes possible com-mon practices and a widely shared sense of legitimacy.

      Theory is the formal abstraction of how a society works/social problem is caused. It is usually constructed by specialists such as sociologists on the basis of evidence and prior theoretical constructs (method and methodology). Social imaginary = how people in their everyday lives join the dots between themselves, others and the wider world. My questions: where do discourse, ideology and social institutions fit here?

  8. Jul 2019
    1. I first briefly lay out alternative media theory as it existed prior to the dominance of Facebook, Google, and Twitter.

      I've been thinking about it for a while but even if all social sites were interoperable, I suspect that a small handful of 2 or 3 would have the largest market share. This is as the result of some of the network theory and research found in Linked: How Everything Is Connected to Everything Else and What It Means for Business, Science, and Everyday Life by Alberto-Llaszlo Barabasi

    1. for lack of a better term

      I'm not really satisfied using the term "critical theory" either, given that it could include works that aren't really "PoMo" (eg, Marxism or historical materialism). I'd use "post-structuralism", but I don't think that many folks know what it means and it's not totally accurate either. So I decided to just leave it as "critical theory" as in the original rant.

    1. Such are great historical men—whose own particular aims involve those large issues which are the will of the World-Spirit.
  9. Jun 2019
  10. May 2019
    1. However, it is still often stated that the other orbital energies have no physical meaning, and that it is a pity that nothing like Koopmans' theorem to give meaning to the other occupied orbital energies exists. The truth could not be more different: it has been established22–25 that the KS orbital energies of the valence levels in molecules approximate the experimental ionization energies much more closely (typically at 0.1 eV level) than the Hartree–Fock orbital energies do (difference with IPs typically ∼1 eV).

      This is really one of the more spicy takes here. KS orbitals having no physical interpretation is often heard in the community, and here is a list of references and evidence that they do have physical significance.

  11. Apr 2019
    1. drei Dimensionen der Resonanzbeziehung

      Dinge Menschen Welt … Tiere Pflanzen Orte Landschaften Elemente … konzeptionelle Übersimplifizierung der Theorie? oder: treffende Beschreibung "moderne[r] Gesellschaften westlichen Typs" ?

    1. Digital sociology needs more big theory as well as testable theory.

      Here I might posit that Cesar Hidalgo's book Why Information Grows (MIT, 2015) has some interesting theses about links between people and companies which could be extrapolated up to "societies of linked companies". What could we predict about how those will interact based on the underlying pieces? Is it possible that we see other emergent complex behaviors?

    1. ConceptNet is a freely-available semantic network, designed to help computers understand the meanings of words that people use.

      this is super cool

  12. Mar 2019
    1. I hope that non-theorists, even if they don't understand everything, will at least find some amusement in the many exotic beasts that complexity theory has uncovered.
    1. Designing Technology for Adult Learners: Applying Adult Learning Theory

      Discusses how adult learning theory can be applied for digital learning for adults. It suggests making sure interactions are built on real world and relevant situations, that learners and go at their own pace, they are allowed to reflect on their learning, and interact with each other and different points of view. Rating 10/10

    1. This article discusses that technology rich classroom research is lacking in the research world. This paper created a scale in which it could evaluate classroom environments. The authors tested this scale and determined it was a good starting framework for how to improve classroom environments. This scale could be useful later in class when evaluating technologies.Rating 9/10 for help assessment techniques

    1. What Makes for Effective Adult Learning

      This article provides a short overview or strategies and techniques to make adult learning effective. This article quotes adult learning researches like Knowles to provide information about meaningful learning experiences. This article provides idea for activities that fit in the category of affective adult learning.

    1. This fact sheet provides an overview of adult learning theories in a digestible format with citations throughout the sheet. The citations are from various experts on adult learning theory and examples are provided as well. Rating: 8/10 Clear and concise overview of adult learning theories.

    1. As one understands professional development in educational technology as potential transformational learning experiences, one can begin to reconceptualize its outcomes.

      This article provides an in-depth view from the teachers perspective about how to prepare for technology in their learning environments. Through professional development training, teachers and instructors can gain new knowledge about how to incorporate new technologies into their practice. This article focuses on one study and concludes that new technology needs to be introduced slowly for best practices.

    1. one main goal: they help you create effective learning experiences for the adult corporate learner.

      This article takes on Adult Learning from an Instructional Design perspective. This article reviews 3 adult learning theories and why it's important for Instructional Designers to keep these theories in mind the facilitate the learning process. Rating: 9/10 for easy reading, overview of learning theories and emphasis on instructional design

    1. Report: It's Time for Ed Tech to Tackle the Adult Learner

      This article recommends the way in which education technology should adapt to be aimed at adult learners. Specifically that education should all students to assess themselves as they go and fill in any missing gaps in knowledge. It should also be relevant to their life needs, and connect their own experiences back into the learning environment. I feel most of this is known in adult learning theory in general, however this article is really aimed at those outside the industry and is a very helpful summary in this way. Rating 7/10

    1. This webpage discusses different learning styles for adults, the principles of adult learning theory and different instructional design models for the the present and future. This webpage reviews andragogy and adult learning theory from the works of Malcolm Knowles. This article comes from Rutgers University and provides additional resources for adult learners. Ratings: 7/10 for helpful, short overview

    1. Perhaps, he realized, these viruses don’t actually need to unite their segments in the same host cell. “If theory was saying that this is impossible, maybe the viruses just don’t do it,” he says. “And once we had this stupid idea, testing it was very easy.”

      This is different from the theory of evolution or the theory of electromagnetism. It's a smaller things, like an assumption. Evolution, also in biology, is a more encompassing set of ideas. So the theoretical framework has a hierarchy. Perhaps at the top is a Kuhnian paradigm or a Lakatosian research program.

      Does this hierarchy different between sciences, though? Like, how hard is it to take a new assumption and grow it into a fully-fledged theory? Biology is more complex than physics, with more "facts" and forms to understand. Evolution is different from electromagnetism because it doesn't limit as much. EM clearly prescribes what's possible and what isn't, whereas evolution doesn't make the distinction so clearly.

    1. Human Performance Technology Model This page is an eight page PDF that gives an overview of the human performance technology model. This is a black and white PDF that is simply written and is accessible to the layperson. Authors are prominent writers in the field of performance technology. Rating 5/5

    1. This link is to a three-page PDF that describes Gagne's nine events of instruction, largely in in the form of a graphic. Text is minimized and descriptive text is color coded so it is easy to find underneath the graphic at the top. The layout is simple and easy to follow. A general description of Gagne's work is not part of this page. While this particular presentation does not have personal appeal to me, it is included here due to the quality of the page and because the presentation is more user friendly than most. Rating 4/5