23 Matching Annotations
  1. Sep 2021
    1. The Virginians needed labor, to grow corn for subsistence, to grow tobaccofor export. They had just figured out how to grow tobacco, and in 1617 theysent off the first cargo to England. Finding that, like all pleasurable drugstainted with moral disapproval, it brought a high price, the planters, despitetheir high religious talk, were not going to ask questions about something soprofitable.

      Told from this perspective and with the knowledge of the importance of the theory of First Effective Settlement, is it any wonder that America has grown up to be so heavily influenced by moral and mental depravity, over-influenced by capitalism and religion, ready to enslave others, and push vice and drugs? The founding Virginians are truly America in miniature.

      Cross reference: Theory of First Effective Settlement

      “Whenever an empty territory undergoes settlement, or an earlier population is dislodged by invaders, the specific characteristics of the first group able to effect a viable, self-perpetuating society are of crucial significance for the later social and cultural geography of the area, no matter how tiny the initial band of settlers may have been.” “Thus, in terms of lasting impact, the activities of a few hundred, or even a few score, initial colonizers can mean much more for the cultural geography of a place than the contributions of tens of thousands of new immigrants a few generations later.” — Wilbur Zelinsky, The Cultural Geography of the United States, Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1973, pp. 13–14.

    1. One last resource for augmenting our minds can be found in other people’s minds. We are fundamentally social creatures, oriented toward thinking with others. Problems arise when we do our thinking alone — for example, the well-documented phenomenon of confirmation bias, which leads us to preferentially attend to information that supports the beliefs we already hold. According to the argumentative theory of reasoning, advanced by the cognitive scientists Hugo Mercier and Dan Sperber, this bias is accentuated when we reason in solitude. Humans’ evolved faculty for reasoning is not aimed at arriving at objective truth, Mercier and Sperber point out; it is aimed at defending our arguments and scrutinizing others’. It makes sense, they write, “for a cognitive mechanism aimed at justifying oneself and convincing others to be biased and lazy. The failures of the solitary reasoner follow from the use of reason in an ‘abnormal’ context’” — that is, a nonsocial one. Vigorous debates, engaged with an open mind, are the solution. “When people who disagree but have a common interest in finding the truth or the solution to a problem exchange arguments with each other, the best idea tends to win,” they write, citing evidence from studies of students, forecasters and jury members.

      Thinking in solitary can increase one's susceptibility to confirmation bias. Thinking in groups can mitigate this.

      How might keeping one's notes in public potentially help fight against these cognitive biases?

      Is having a "conversation in the margins" with an author using annotation tools like Hypothes.is a way to help mitigate this sort of cognitive bias?

      At the far end of the spectrum how do we prevent this social thinking from becoming groupthink, or the practice of thinking or making decisions as a group in a way that discourages creativity or individual responsibility?

  2. Aug 2021
    1. therefore in practice it's a bit academic to worry about which lines inside that block the compiler should be happy or unhappy about. From falsehood, anythihng follows. So the compiler is free to say "if the impossible happens, then X is an error" or "if the impossible happens, then X is not an error". Both are valid (although one might be more or less surprising to developers).
  3. May 2021
  4. Feb 2021
    1. Though rarer in computer science, one can use category theory directly, which defines a monad as a functor with two additional natural transformations. So to begin, a structure requires a higher-order function (or "functional") named map to qualify as a functor:

      rare in computer science using category theory directly in computer science What other areas of math can be used / are rare to use directly in computer science?

    1. It's hard to say why people think so because you certainly don't need to know category theory for using them, just like you don't need it for, say, using functions.
    1. cultural capital

      Introduced by Pierre Bourdieu in the 1970s, the concept has been utilized across a wide spectrum of contemporary sociological research. Cultural capital refers to ‘knowledge’ or ‘skills’ in the broadest sense. Thus, on the production side, cultural capital consists of knowledge about comportment (e.g., what are considered to be the right kinds of professional dress and attitude) and knowledge associated with educational achievement (e.g., rhetorical ability). On the consumption side, cultural capital consists of capacities for discernment or ‘taste’, e.g., the ability to appreciate fine art or fine wine—here, in other words, cultural capital refers to ‘social status acquired through the ability to make cultural distinctions,’ to the ability to recognize and discriminate between the often-subtle categories and signifiers of a highly articulated cultural code. I'm quoting here from (and also heavily paraphrasing) Scott Lash, ‘Pierre Bourdieu: Cultural Economy and Social Change’, in this reader.

  5. Oct 2020
    1. Yes, you can embed loops in it and compose lots of small repeated JSX snippets, but that almost never happens in practice because mixing the turing complete of javascript with the markup of HTML eliminates the readability of JSX so that it is actually harder to parse than a solution like hyperscript (the syntactical approach taken by virtual-dom).
    1. Description: This text describes adult learning theories best used in a workforce training. It describes the environmental factors which lead to success in an adult student (such as a positive atmosphere) as well as techniques like heterogeneous learning groups. It attempts to persuade the reader to address the personal needs of each student while still moving the class towards the trainings goal. As a whole, this article covers the basics of what trainers need to know when teaching adults in a workface setting.

      Rating: 6/10

      Reason for rating: This article is very quick and direct. It discusses each technique, skill, or factor with examples and reasoning for the suggestions. Each suggestion is well-thought out and logical. Yet, the article cites few other texts which discredits it a little. The article was found through JSTOR which only sources peer-reviewed texts.

  6. Aug 2020
  7. May 2020
  8. Jan 2020
    1. Wikipedia:Articles for deletion/Katie Bouman

      El caso de Katie Bouman en la categoría de Articles for Deletion y mi análisis de los comentarios bajo la categoría inicial de not relevant

    2. Any relevant material can be mentioned there

      Relevant

    3. of WP:1E

      Wikipedia: Notability (people). Notable

    4. Someone who isn't even an assistant professor is certainly not notable as a scientist.

      Notable as a scientist

    5. Wikipedia:Notability is not inherited.

      Notability

    6. The Event Horizon Telescope project is notable in itself, and has its own article, but anyone who are in some way (remotely) associated with it are not inherently notable.

      Notable

  9. Nov 2018
    1. 2.1.1 Cognitive and psycholinguistic theories of SLA One of the main theoretical frameworks on the cognitive side is the input–interactionist paradigm (Long, 1996), and the early research on online interaction in FL/SL contexts focused on the development of linguistic competence in in-class interaction, e.g., comparing online synchronous interaction with face-to-face student interaction. Many of these studies used a quantitative methodology, involving control groups of students engaged in face-to-face interaction that were compared to experimental groups of learners participating in online interaction or intra-class studies in which the same students took part in both face-to-face and online interaction (Warschauer, 1996b). What was often counted and categorized were linguistic features and language functions (e.g., Chun, 1994; Kern, 1995), and researchers showed how negotiation for meaning occurs in intra-class online chat (e.g., Blake, 2000). Similarly, studies of online interaction based on psycholinguistic theories of SLA (e.g., Ellis’ (2006) Associative Cognitive CREED and Schmidt’s (1990) Noticing Hypothesis) have found that text-based chat promotes noticing of grammatical and lexical features or errors (e.g., Lai & Zhao, 2006; Lee, 2008). Other studies of interclass interactions between learners and native speakers (Tudini, 2003) or tandem learning partnerships (Kötter, 2003; O’Rourke, 2005) have investigated form-focused interaction, negotiation of meaning and code switching, primarily linguistic aspects of SL/FL learning.

    1. Psycholinguistics, SLA, and Technology (Scott Payne): Investigating second language acquisition and CALL from a psycholinguistic perspective entails examining how language learners process, store, and retrieve information from memory and how cognitive capacity impacts acquisition and influences performance. This paper will provide an overview of psycholinguistic approaches to SLA research highlighting research findings relevant to the field of CALL. This discussion will include some of the challenges and opportunities for researchers interested in employing psycholinguistic methods for studying SLA in classroom and computer-mediated contexts.

      (https://paperpile.com/view/d6077af8-b494-0c5b-bcbe-71ea1d198029)

  10. Mar 2018
    1. Complexity Theory replaces simple causality with an emphasis on networks, linkages, holism, feedback, relationships and interactivity in context, emergence, dynamical systems, self-organization and an open system, rather than the closed world of the experimental laboratory. Even if we could conduct an experiment, its applicability to ongiong, emerging, interactive, relational, changing, open situations, in practice, may be limited. It is misconceived to hold variables constant in a dynamical, evolving, fluid, open situation.