133 Matching Annotations
  1. Last 7 days
    1. ReconfigBehSci. (2020, November 18). @danielmabuse yes, we all make mistakes, but a responsible actor also factors the kinds of mistakes she is prone to making into decisions on what actions to take: I’m not that great with my hands, so I never contemplated being a neuro-surgeon. Not everyone should be a public voice on COVID [Tweet]. @SciBeh. https://twitter.com/SciBeh/status/1329002783094296577

    1. Dr Zoë Hyde. (2021, February 23). I don’t like to dwell on negatives, but something important happened recently that I’d like to make public. Shortly before Christmas, @mugecevik made a complaint to my university about me. When asked for details, she didn’t provide any. My employer took a dim view of the matter. [Tweet]. @DrZoeHyde. https://twitter.com/DrZoeHyde/status/1364184623262048259

  2. Apr 2021
    1. Regardless of an explicit requirement, it is an implication of membership in the academic community that its members have a responsibility, and a right, to contribute to the intellectual corpus of their time.

      So who then is, or isn't, a "member" of the "academic community?" And is it incumbent that members "produce ideas" within their defined fields, or does their membership entitle (require?) them to speak more broadly than that?

    2. I had always understood that academic freedom was associated with job security; however, and forgive my naïveté, I was disappointed to learn that academic freedom was inexorably tied to tenure. Before that revelation, I had always thought of academic freedom as a principle complemented by tenure, not contingent upon it.

      This is the thorny heart of the problem - does the freedom only flow from the power to protect it?

  3. Mar 2021
  4. Feb 2021
    1. Researchers do the actual work: they invent the hypothesis, do the experiments and write the articles describing the results of these experiments. Then they publish this article in an academic journal. They cannot simply put this article online on their blog: to be recognised as research work, it must be published in a respectable peer-reviewed journal. So they send their articles to publishers like Elsevier, Wiley or Springer. Publishers send articles they have received to other scientists for peer-review. Reviewers give their opinion on whether the work should be accepted in a journal or not, or if some additional work must be done. Based on these reviews, the article is published or rejected. Both reviewers and scientists work for free. They do not earn any compensation from the academic publisher. Here, academic publishers work as organisers of the academic community, but not as creators. The work of the academic publisher is organisational and not creative.

      These few paragraphs do a great job of outlining the idea of slavery in an academic setting.

    2. They cannot simply put this article online on their blog: to be recognised as research work, it must be published in a respectable peer-reviewed journal.

      Why not? Why couldn't they put their articles on their own sites or even those of the libraries of their institutions where others might read and evaluate them? annotate them? argue over all the fine points?

    1. One study suggests that academics who write daily and set goals with someone weekly write nearly ten times as many pages as those without regular writing habits.

      See Silvia, P. J. (2018). How to Write a Lot: A Practical Guide to Productive Academic Writing (Second Edition). APA LifeTools.

    1. And if the world is going to grasp what’s happening then our writing needs to be digestible.

      You need to use different language when writing on your blog, compared to writing papers. You don't need references. You should write in first person. Spell checking is optional.

    2. An academic blogger may feel constrained to topics only related to his or her academic research, whereas a blogger who is also an academic is free to explore wider fields of discussion.

      This idea of "identity" is important. Many academics don't even think of themselves as authors let alone bloggers.

    1. The Rights Retention Strategy ignores long-standing academic freedoms

      It’s not entirely clear what is meant by this statement. This is incredibly inflammatory rhetoric for most academics who take academic freedom very seriously - for very good reasons. However, the academic has the freedom not to accept a grant if they fundamentally disagree with the funder’s desired approach to effective dissemination of the research they support. Furthermore, the rights retention strategy (RRS) is in place to give the authors more freedom of choice over what happens to the version of record (VoR). Because of the RRS, the author can submit to the most appropriate journal for the research regardless of whether it explicitly provides a compliant route to publication (assuming the journal takes the submission forwards) or whether or not the author can access funds to pay a publication charge (APC) in a hybrid subscription journal.

  5. Dec 2020
    1. Academic research and teaching often necessitate manipulation, re-creation, breaking, rebuilding, etc. This “manipulation, re-creation, breaking, rebuilding” — in other words, hacking

      It's not self-evident to me that these activities are the same as those associated with hacking (and I'm not talking about the malevolent/negative connotations of hacking).

      I also think of a hacker as a tinkerer, which can include "manipulation, re-creation, breaking, building, etc." but need not. It feels like there's something fundamental missing here but I can't put my finger on it.

      I don't really have a conclusion here, other than to suggest that the hacker/scholar relationship might need a lot more development than I see here.

  6. Oct 2020
    1. And though flags from this software don’t automatically mean students will be penalized—instructors can review the software’s suspicions and decide for themselves how to proceed—it leaves open the possibility that instructors’ own biases will determine whether to bring academic dishonesty charges against students. Even just an accusation could negatively affect a student’s academic record, or at the very least how their instructor perceives them and their subsequent work.

      The companies are hiding behind this as a feature - that the algorithms are not supposed to be implemented without human review. I wonder how this "feature" will interact with implicit (and explicit) biases, or with the power dynamics between adjuncts, students, and departmental administration.

      The companies are caught between a rock and a hard place in the decision whether students should be informed that their attempt was flagged for review, or not. We see that, if the student is informed, it causes stress and pain and damage to the teacher-student relationship. But if they're not informed, all these issues of bias and power become invisible.

    2. When I asked Alessio whether her work addressed the possibility that proctoring itself could affect scores, she said it’d make for an interesting study.

      Given all the iGen research about the growing amount of anxiety among students, this seems very interesting indeed.

    3. “They can see you, but you can’t see them, which I didn’t feel good about,”
    1. Clicking through to the photo, there is no mention of this image appearing on this important announcement. Perhaps the author privately contact the photographer about using his image. Since Ken Doctor is so incredible with his media experience (i’m being serious), I’m fairly certain someone from his team would have contacted the photographer to give him a heads up.

      I'm sure I've said it before, but I maintain that if the source of the article and the target both supported the Webmention spec, then when a piece used an image (or really any other type of media, including text) with a link, then the original source (any website, or Flickr in this case) would get a notification and could show—if they chose—the use of that media so that others in the future could see how popular (or not) these types of media are.

      Has anyone in the IndieWeb community got examples of this type of attribution showing on media on their own websites? Perhaps Jeremy Keith or Kevin Marks who are photographers and long time Flickr users?

      Incidentally I've also mentioned using this notification method in the past as a means of decentralizing the journal publishing industry as part of a peer-review, citation, and preprint server set up. It also could be used as part of a citation workflow in the sense of Maria Popova and Tina Roth Eisenberg's Curator's Code<sup>[1]</sup>set up, which could also benefit greatly now with Webmention support.

    1. and serve as pre-prints to work that may live later on, or always exist in their current format

      Thinking of a personal site as a pre-print server is an interesting concept and somewhat similar to the idea of a commonplace book.

    1. Senior colleagues indicate that I should not have to balance out publishing in “traditional, peer-reviewed publications” as well as open, online spaces.

      Do your colleagues who read your work, annotate it, and comment on it not count as peer-review?

      Am I wasting my time by annotating all of this? :) (I don't think so...)

    2. academia is built on the premise (IMHO) of getting a good idea, parlaying that into a job and tenure, and waiting for death. I’ve had a lot of colleagues and acquaintances ask why I would bother blogging. Ask why I share all of this content online. Ask why I’m not afraid that someone is going to steal my ideas.

      Though all too true, this is just a painful statement for me. The entirety of our modern world is contingent upon the creation of ideas, their improvement and evolution, and their spreading. In an academic world where attribution of ideas is paramount, why wouldn't one publish quickly and immediately on one's own site (or anywhere else they might for that matter keeping in mind that it's almost trivially easy to self-publish it on one's own website nearly instantaneously)?

      Early areas of science were held back by the need to communicate by handwriting letters as the primary means of communication. Books eventually came, but the research involved and even the printing process could take decades. Now the primary means of science communication is via large (often corporate owned) journals, but even this process may take a year or more of research and then a year or more to publish and get the idea out. Why not write the ideas up and put them out on your own website and collect more immediate collaborators? Funding is already in such a sorry state that generally, even an idea alone, will not get the ball rolling.

      I'm reminded of the gospel song "This little light of mine" whose popular lyrics include: "Hide it under a bushel? No! / I'm gonna let it shine" and "Don't let Satan blow it out, / I'm gonna let it shine"

      I'm starting to worry that academia in conjunction with large corporate publishing interests are acting the role of Satan in the song which could easily be applied to ideas as well as to my little light.


      [also on boffosocko.com]

    1. There are still some wrinkles to be ironed out in getting the various platforms we use today to play well with Webmentions, but it’s a real step toward the goal of that decentralized, distributed, interconnected future for scholarly communication.

      The fun, secret part is that Kathleen hasn't (yet?) discovered IndieAuth so that she can authenticate/authorize micropub clients like Quill to publish content to her own site from various clients by means of a potential micropub endpoint.

      I'll suspect she'll be even more impressed when she realizes that there's a forthcoming wave of feed readers [1] [2] that will allow her to read others' content in a reader which has an integrated micropub client in it so that she can reply to posts directly in her feed reader, then the responses get posted directly to her own website which then, in turn, send webmentions to the site's she's responding to so that the conversational loop can be completely closed.

      She and Lee will also be glad to know that work has already started on private posts and conversations and posting to limited audiences as well. Eventually there will be no functionality that a social web site/silo can do that a distributed set of independent sites can't. There's certainly work to be done to round off the edges, but we're getting closer and closer every day.

      I know how it all works, but even I'm impressed at the apparent magic that allows round-trip conversations between her website and Twitter and Micro.blog. And she hasn't really delved into website to website conversations yet. I suppose we'll have to help IndieWebify some of her colleague's web presences to make that portion easier. Suddenly "academic Twitter" will be the "academic blogosphere" she misses from not too many years ago. :)

      If there are academics out thee who are interested in what Kathleen has done, but may need a little technical help, I'm happy to set up some tools for them to get them started.

    1. Academic capitalism promotes engaged academics as an empirical measure of a university’s reputational currency. Academic capitalism refers to the ways in which knowledge production increasingly embeds universities in the new economy (Berman 2011; Rhoades and Slaughter 2010).
  7. Sep 2020
    1. Writing in the margins has always been an essential activity for students.

      I never really got into the habit of writing in the margins of books, it was something that never really occurred to me. While I am still hesitant to write in the margins of physical books, doing so digitally does appeal. Something I am starting to get more into, now that I'm on the journey to getting my Arts and Humanities degree.

  8. Jun 2020
  9. May 2020
  10. Apr 2020
  11. Mar 2020
  12. Jan 2020
  13. Dec 2019
  14. Nov 2019
    1. We’re excited to announce that The Francis Crick Institute have partnered with our portfolio companies Symplectic and Figshare to enable richer profiles for their researchers and to make it easier for them to publish their papers and data Open Access.

  15. Sep 2019
  16. Jul 2019
  17. May 2019
  18. Apr 2019
    1. Ashley Norris is the Chief Academic Officer at ProctorU, an organization that provides online exam proctoring for schools. This article has an interesting overview of the negative side of technology advancements and what that has meant for student's ability to cheat. While the article does culminate as an ad, of sorts, for ProctorU, it is an interesting read and sparks thoughts on ProctorU's use of both human monitors for testing but also their integration of Artificial Intelligence into the process.

      Rating: 9/10.

    1. This journal article, written by Amaury Nora, who is currently the Dean for Research at the University of Texas San Antonio and Blanca Plazas Snyder who was pursuing a degree in educational psychology at the time this article as written. The author's bring an honest review of technology and include the benefits, the downfalls and they identify areas where more research needs to be conducted (especially around student persistence).

      Rating: 9/10. The article is informative and takes many perspectives. The only flaw is that when discussing technology in Higher Education, this article is from 2008, but it was also helpful to get the perspective from 10 years ago.

  19. Feb 2019
    1. “Academic capitalism”, as it has been called since 1997, is a growing phenomenon, linked by Slaughter and Rhoades in 2004 to the “corporatization of education”, which has taken us from a public goods paradigm to an "academic capitalism knowledge regime [that] values knowledge privatization and profit taking in which institutions, inventor faculty, and corporations have claims that come before those of the public".

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  20. Jan 2019
    1. I will complicate both narratives, showing that each depends on earlier devel-opments.

      classic scholarly move -- I'm appreciating the repeated use of the personal "I" through here. I've noticed (both here and in Paul's class) that scholars of rhetoric seem more amenable to personal insertion into academic writing.

  21. Nov 2018
    1. Over-Optimization of Academic Publishing Metrics: Observing Goodhart's Law in Action

      爱可可:学术指标的过拟合游戏——古德哈特定律:“当一项指标成为目标时,它就不再是好的衡量标准。” 作者名单长、论文短、出版物数量激增、自引用和冗长参考文献列表,使得基于引用的指标越来越显现出局限性,是时候重新思考如何衡量学术成功了。

    1. I have published a more extensive bibliography on the website for this book, http://www.twitterandteargas.com.

      I wish more books did this...

    2. The author has made an online version of this work available under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International Public License. It can be accessed through the author’s website at http://www.twitterandteargas.com.

      A great example of academic samizdat on Zeynep Tufekci's part.

      The free creative commons version is available in the footer link at https://www.twitterandteargas.org/

    1. Some news: there will be a free creative commons copy of my book. It will be available as a free PDF download in addition to being sold as a bound book. This is with the hopes that anyone who wants to read it can do so without worrying about the cost. However, this also means that I need to ask that a few people who can afford to do so to please consider purchasing a copy. This is not just so that Yale University Press can do this for more authors, but also because if it is not sold (at least a little bit!) in the initial few weeks, bookstores will not stock it and online algorithms will show it to fewer people. No sales will mean less visibility, and less incentive for publishers to allow other authors creative commons copies. 

      An excellent example of academic samizdat

    1. Freedom of intramural expression means that teaching personnel is not only allowed to teach according to their knowledge, but that they can take part in the administration of their institutions. This is supported by the freedom of extramural expression, which gives teachers the capacity to share their research outcomes and disseminate the knowledge acquired.

      participation in activities to share research outcomes.

    1. This page has easy-to-follow methods for integrating technology into academic advising practices. Many of the theories listed are quite similar to simply good teaching techniques such as using data to drive instruction and maintaining continuous outreach. Rating: 8/10

    1. This article gives a few quick insights into how technology is useful in academic advising. This article makes the distinction between technology "complementing" advising and actually impacting student success. In other words, technology should never be a sole substitute for success. I would like to see more numerical-based data supporting the claims listed, but there are some great resources cited.

      Rating: 7/10

  22. Sep 2018
  23. Jul 2018
    1. In fact blog posts are not the kind of thing one can detail on one’s annual review form, and even a blog in the aggregate doesn’t have a place in which it’s easy to be claimed as a site of ongoing scholarly productivity.
  24. Jun 2018
  25. May 2018
    1. As an academic, I need to regularly have empirical research publications in top-tier, peer-reviewed journals. Nothing else matters. Many senior colleagues bemoan the fact that I need to play double duty…yet the system still exists.

      And why can't your own blog count as a top-tier, peer-reviewed journal?

  26. Mar 2018
    1. Having found my voice in the academic community and a means to engage in the meaningful deployment of my abilities across institutional and national boundaries thanks to the open internet, I have made yet another career "modification" - one where I can pass on a new perspective to students considering teaching languages.

      agency, voice research community

  27. Nov 2017
    1. On the users’ side, a number of indicators are examined: share of firms and investment financed by bank credit, share of the population with account at a formal financial institution by gender and by income groups, share of firms citing finance as a major obstacle, share of adults using accounts to receive transfers and wages, share of bank borrowers in the population, and, finally, the extent of the use of insurance products.
  28. Oct 2017
    1. Kamler, Barbara. 2008. “Rethinking Doctoral Publication Practices: Writing from and beyond the Thesis.” Studies in Higher Education 33 (3): 283–94. doi:10.1080/03075070802049236.

  29. Sep 2017
    1. ccording to this blog,

      When I read this blog, I thought about how knowledge comes to mature academics. When we are junior, we spend a great deal of time reading the specifics of articles and texts. Do we do the same as senior academics? Or does knowledge come to us via our networks? We talk to people at conferences or exchange ideas via email or other digital means? Just wondering if knowledge networks change over the life course of an academic?

    1. t is possible to identify a wide variety of actors who have contributed to ashift towards, and/or reproduced, academic capitalism:

      Each of these could be a network. You could compare the networks to see if they are structured differently as a way of trying to understand who is most responsible for the push towards Academic Capitalism.

  30. Jul 2017
    1. Finding out what has been published. Determining where a copy of that item may be located. Obtaining a copy of that item. Interpreting the meaning of that item (i.e. it may be written in very technical language).

      Stated uses and goals of the Biography of the Athabasca River Basin. This site was primarily intended for researchers and academic uses. There is no stated or implied opinion on the Alberta oil sands.

  31. Apr 2017
    1. The Initiative for Open Citations I4OC is a collaboration between scholarly publishers, researchers, and other interested parties to promote the unrestricted availability of scholarly citation data.

      https://twitter.com/i4oc_org

  32. Mar 2017
    1. Our students are required to develop a professional digital identity, and their blogs are central to this.

      The way we are visible to others is changing. Science 50 years ago was quite closed, and relied on paper constructs to pass and organize knowledge. As well as face2face. We are now able to be present in many places at once and hold asynchronous convos with increasing complexity. How will we design new tech to meet our evolving digital culture? I am seeing DPL on the forefront, and hope to contribute...

    1. I spoke, I was in tears at all the frustration I had felt, the people in the room were touched.

      This was me who was doing that.

      This was the best work that I could muster at that moment.

      Frustration at not having the means to communicate.

    1. Willkommen in diesem B1 Sprach- und Kulturkurs Deutsch!  Dieser Kurs ist für alle diejenigen offen, die sich für die deutsche Sprache und Kultur interessieren (kann in Kanada oder anderswo in der Welt sein). Teilnehmende werden notwendige Einsichten in das (Uni-)Leben in Deutschland und anderen deutschsprachigen Ländern bekommen. Sie müssen also gar nicht nach Deutscland fahren, um zu erleben, wie sich Deutschland anfühlt.Vision: Dieser Kurs möchte Lernern mit beschränktem Zugang eine kostengünstige Alternative zum Deutschlernen auf B1-Niveau anbieten.Für Wen: Interessenten jeder Art, die einen Studienaufenthalt in Deutschland planen oder sich generell für das Leben in Deutschland heute interessieren. Übergreifendes Ziel des Kurses: Eine aktive Gemeinschaft von Deutschlernenden bilden, deren Mitglieder sich mithilfe nützlicher Webtools auch über Länder- und Zeitgrenzen hinweg selbstständig dem Deutschlernen widmen können.Kursdauer: 10-12 WochenWöchentlicher Arbeitsaufwand: 3-5 StundenKurskommunikation zwischen Kursleitung und KursteilnehmendenRegelmäßige Umfragen an Studenten, um Bedürfnisse der Teilnehmenden zu erfassenLernstandsmessung: Eine Kombination aus automatisiertem Feedback und persönlichen Kommentaren der Kursleitung Kursmaterialien: alle verwendeten Materialien sind kostenfrei im Internet zugänglich und von jederman nutzbar (OER)Kursbuch: Deutsch im Blick. Online German Course Components including textbook/ audio/ video/ etc. CC-BY-NC-ND: UT Austin. Available: http://coerll.utexas.edu/dib/ 

      This course caters to all people interested in learning German (in Canada or other parts of the world). Participants in this course will gain an insight into so (university) life in Germany and the German-speaking countries. You won't have to be there to still see what Germany feels like!

      Intended Audience: Informal students or faculty/ instructors planning a study visit to Germany or people interested in (uni) life in Germany

      High-level Course Goal: Build a community of learners of German and provide its members with valuable insights into webtools and open study content, so that the learners can then continue learning German independently after this course.

      Length of Course: 10-12 weeks Weekly study time for students: 3-5 hours Communication of instructor with students: General feedback on collaborative activities on a weekly basis (private speaking lessons with one-on-one practice sessions can be arranged for a fee) Track students’ happiness with individual module surveys Assessment: Automated Feedback or General Feedback to community at the end of weekly modules Materials used: all materials and tools used for language learning activities are either Open Educational Resources (OER) or otherwise freely available resources on the internet Course Book: Deutsch im Blick. Online German Course Components including textbook/ audio/ video/ etc. CC-BY-NC-ND: UT Austin. Available: http://coerll.utexas.edu/dib/

  33. Feb 2017
    1. Corin Throsby human terms as a 'companion' who 'converses' with her, and in this way blurs the distinction between author and text:

      I feel that Byron has always struggled with identity so it does not surprise me that Throsby points out the distinction between author and text beginning to blur. Lord Byron has been known to live a "risque"lifestyle so whose to say their is not very much distinction between what Byron writes and what he leaves? This adds to the mystique of who Lord Byron is and add to his appeal to women reading his literature.

  34. Dec 2016
    1. One challenge is whether – or how – this conversation becomes generative of traditional scholarship, such as a more linear, peer-reviewed article.

      There is, truly, so much potential in these tools and approaches toward asynchronous, distributed reading and writing. One question I have, already, is how such distributed forms of production-consumption further dissolve notions of textuality and authorship so entrenched within traditional notions and practices of scholarship and empirical research. The flattened hierarchies, especially, threaten the institutionalized power structures which have tightly controlled the design, review, and dissemination of scholarship and research.

  35. Nov 2016
  36. Sep 2016
    1. Facebook Twitter LinkedIn GooglePlus jQuery(document).ready(function() { "use strict"; $ = jQuery; var decal = $('.c-socialbar-cta:not(.horizontal)').parent().width(); $('.c-socialbar-cta:not(.horizontal)').css({'margin-left':decal+5}); $('.c-socialbar-cta:not(.horizontal)').fadeIn(); $(window).scroll(function() { socialbar.scroll(); }); }); var socialbar = (function(jQuery) { var timeOutId = 0; var jitterBuffer = 20; return { scroll:function() { var offset = $('.c-socialbar-cta:not(.horizontal)').parent().offset(); var top = offset.top -150; //alert(offset.top); if ($(window).scrollTop() > top) { $('.c-socialbar-cta:not(.horizontal)').addClass('fixed'); } else { $('.c-socialbar-cta:not(.horizontal)').removeClass('fixed'); } } }; })(); Message from the president: 'This is a victory for academic freedom'
    1. "The university is thankful that the tireless efforts of governments, diplomats and colleagues across Canada and internationally were successful. The Concordia community — in particular faculty and staff members and unions — played a critical role in securing her release. This is a victory for academic freedom."
    1. Application Modern higher education institutions have unprecedentedly large and detailed collections of data about their students, and are growing increasingly sophisticated in their ability to merge datasets from diverse sources. As a result, institutions have great opportunities to analyze and intervene on student performance and student learning. While there are many potential applications of student data analysis in the institutional context, we focus here on four approaches that cover a broad range of the most common activities: data-based enrollment management, admissions, and financial aid decisions; analytics to inform broad-based program or policy changes related to retention; early-alert systems focused on successful degree completion; and adaptive courseware.

      Perhaps even more than other sections, this one recalls the trope:

      The difference probably comes from the impact of (institutional) “application”.

    1. We commonly look at Ivy League institutions as the standard of higher education in America, but the truth is that the majority of the nation's workforce, innovation identity and manufacturing futures are tied to those institutions which graduate outside of the realm of high achievers from wealthy families. 
  37. Jul 2016
    1. Hello. This is my first entry. Dario and I plan to create a podcast that has three elements:

      1) A formal exploration of the podcast form using our own podcast as a case study. 2) A discussion around academic research and the podcast. 3) A discussion around the 'disruptive journal' featuring input from JMP contributors.

      The aim is to construct a text that operates as a viable and valid piece of research and also is reflexive regarding the changing nature of academic research.

      We will be talking in person late July following some leave and will be emailing disruptive JMP participants shortly to invite them to participate.

      For now I listening to podcasts to prepare, and recommend the latest NPR Invisibilia episode on problem solving, and any episode of the brilliant Longford Podcast.

  38. Jun 2016
    1. VIA EFF

      Open access: All human knowledge is there—so why can’t everybody access it? (Ars Techica)

      Excellent report on the state of academic publishing— and why so much of it is still locked down.

      NOTE

      if we can Not access the works we fund, we can Neither annotate all knowledge.

      And this case, it may pertain the most crucial body of all our knowledge — the knowledge upon what we are to found our own futures for us all. What is to be recognized as "the Human knowledge", whilst yet unknown by almost everyone us Humans ourselves.>

    2. A history of open access academic publishing from the early 1990s to 2016.

    1. uthorship (and therecognition that flows therefrom) is the undisputed coin ofthe realm in academia: it embodies the enterprise of schol-arship (Bourdieu, 1991; Cronin, 1984, 2000; Franck, 1999

      Authorship "is the coin of the realm in academia"; "it empbodies the enterprise of scholarship.