35 Matching Annotations
  1. Sep 2019
  2. Aug 2019
    1. Implementation is a new and frequently advancing field, and realistically, it’s beyond what a lot of us are going to be able to evaluate in our agencies at this point. But even taking pieces of it – especially the pieces about the importance of context for our programs and evaluations – is useful. Even if you don’t use it as an evaluative framework, the questions outlined above are good ones to ask when you’re planning your program in the first place.

      Good use of a practical, straightforward summary paragraph to conclude this section. Noting that implementation science is often beyond the scope of student work at this point in their careers is a useful observation and also a way to keep students interested and engaged with the material here.

    2. you’ve got a good enough idea for a little exercise below.

      This is a potentially helpful review method for student readers. For some of the other chapters (the chapters on qualitative data collection and analysis, for example), this kind of quick review might also be helpful to promote reader comprehension and internalization of key terms/concepts.

    3. Imagine you are working for a nonprofit focused on children’s health and wellness in school

      Great way to begin this chapter. I appreciate the introduction of this chapter's topic by way of a concrete example.

    1. Dr. Tiffany Gallicano has a helpful blog post

      The "Coding in grounded theory" section is fairly dense and potentially difficult-to-grasp for some readers. I think the inclusion of the blog post link is a great way to help students internalize concepts. Perhaps we can also provide linked definitions for the different coding types (open coding; axial coding; selective/theoretical coding) to clarify that these are each separate terms with separate definitions, and also to preserve formatting consistency used earlier in the textbook.

    2. Vaismoradi, Turunen, and Bondas (2013).[3]

      Good inclusion of an example from the literature to illustrate and expand on this section's material.

    3. A few exemplars of studies employing Thematic Analysis:

      I appreciate the author's inclusion of exemplars here. Is there a way to thread some of these exemplars into the main bodies of text in the Thematic Analysis sections? Some readers may tend to skip over these end-of-section details, in my experience.

    4. Let’s say that you are studying empowerment of older adults in assisted living facilities by interviewing residents in a number of these facilities.

      Great use of an example that will likely connect with students' real-world experiences. This example also contextualizes and provides a concrete platform for info in this section.

    5. We have an ethical responsibility to treat what is shared with us by participants with a sense of respect during this process of deconstruction and reconstruction. This means that we make conscientious efforts not to twist, change, or subvert the meaning of bits of data as we break them down or as we string them back together. 

      Good section reinforcing similar points emphasized in earlier chapter(s). While this section is not redundant, it does dovetail nicely with previous sections focusing on ethical issues in qualitative research.

    6. Just a brief disclaimer, this chapter is not intended to be a comprehensive resource on qualitative data analysis. It does offer you an overview of some of the diverse approaches that can be used for qualitative data analysis, but as you will read, even within each one of these approaches there is variation in how they might be implemented in a given project. If you are passionate (or at least curious 😊) about conducting qualitative research, use this as a beginning point to help you to dive deeper into some of these strategies. Before we begin reviewing some of these strategies, here a few considerations regarding ethics, cultural responsibility, and power and control that should influence your thinking and planning as you map out your data analysis plan.

      Solid, concise, easy-to-understand but still sufficiently detailed introduction to this chapter.

    1. When taking field notes, it is a good practice to make a quick seating chart at the beginning so you can make quick references for yourself of who is saying what.

      Good inclusion of a practical focus group prep strategy

    2. Some common norms to include are:

      I think students will appreciate the inclusion of common focus group norms. Good way to link real-world experience and practical considerations with the concepts and terms presented in this chapter.

    3. We are usually relatively unfamiliar with our participants, at least on a personal level. This can make sitting down for an interview where we might be asking some deep questions a bit awkward and uncomfortable, at least at first. Because of this, we want to craft our questions in such a way that they are not off-putting, inadvertently accusatory or judgmental, or culturally insensitive.  To accomplish this we want to make sure we phrase questions in a neutral tone (e.g. “Tell me what that was like”, as opposed to, “That sounds horrible, what was that like”). To accomplish this we can shift perspectives and think about what it would be like for us to be asked these questions (especially by a stranger), and we can pilot test our questions to see how they ‘feel’ to others. Also, if we are conducting interviews on topics that may be particularly hard for people to talk about, we likely will want to start out with some questions that are easier to address prior to getting into the heavier topics. Make them relatable Unlike surveys, where researchers may not be able to explain the meaning of question, when conducting interviews, we are present to help further explain questions if there is some confusion. However, ideally our questions are as clear as possible from the beginning. This means that we avoid jargon or technical terms, we anticipate areas that might be hard to explain and try to provide some examples or a metaphor that might help to get the point across, and we do our homework to relay our questions in a cultural context that is appropriate. Like the discussion above, pilot testing our questions can be very helpful for ensuring the relatability of our questions, especially with community representatives. What sounds good in our heads as a question, might make little sense to our intended audience. Make them individually distinct, but collectively comprehensive Just like when we are developing survey questions, you don’t want to ask more than one question at the same time. This is confusing and hard to respond to for the participant, so make sure you are only asking about one idea in each question.  However, when you are thinking about your list of questions, or your whole interview guide collectively, ensure that you have comprehensively included all the ideas related to your topic. It’s extremely disheartening as a qualitative researcher that has concluded their interviews and realized there was a really important area that you failed to include in your guide. To avoid this, make sure to know the literature in your area well and talk to other people who study this area to get there perspective on what topics need to be included.

      This table is a great review resource for student readers. However, perhaps the text can be formatted differently or broken up to facilitate quick review. Can we organize important points as bullet points rather than complete sentences? This may make for easier reader review.

    4. If we are using a highly structured interview guide, this suggests we are learning towards deductive science – we have a pretty good idea based on existing evidence what we are looking for and what questions we want to ask to help us test our existing understanding.  If we are using an unstructured guide, this suggests we are learning towards an inductive science approach – we start by trying to get people to elaborate extensively on open-ended questions to provide us with data that we will use to develop our understanding of this topic.

      Good references to previously introduced concepts. Linking scientific approaches with interview guide styles is a great way to facilitate student internalization of connections between important concepts.

    5. Data Gathering Strategy  Strengths  Challenges 

      This review table will definitely be useful for students. I imagine this will often be used as a reference point for students considering which data collection strategy to employ for their projects.

    6. As a reminder, saturation is the point at which no new ideas or concepts are being presented as you continue to collect new pieces of data

      Good reference to previously introduced terminology.

    7. Remember, qualitative research is a labor-intensive venture. While it may not require lots of fancy equipment, it requires a significant investment of people’s time and potentially other resources (e.g. space, incentives for participants, transportation). Each source of data (interviews, focus groups, observations, other artifacts), will require separate planning as you approach data gathering.

      Nice summary review of benefits, costs, and work surrounding qualitative research. Wording is straightforward, and important ideas are easily digestible.

    8. It is a resource that participants own that they choose to share with us.

      Again - interesting and helpful way to conceptualize intellectual ownership and sharing. To emphasize and clearly illustrate this point, perhaps we can include a brief example, which might read something like this:

      "It is a resource that participants own that they choose to share with us. Think about it: When a smart phone app or computer program wants your personal data, you're usually asked to read a privacy statement and agree to certain terms. Companies are legally required to notify you about their intentions to use the data you may share. And many companies certainly recognize that your data is a valuable resource. As researchers, we have similar responsibilities."

    9. As we are thinking about going out in the world to gather data, I think it can be helpful to think about the data that is shared with us a resource.

      Great point about conceptualizing shared data as a resource. This is an important and helpful way for researchers to think about the information they get from participants. However - the repetitive use of the word "think" in this sentence threw me off a bit. Perhaps revise to something like:

      "As we're thinking about going out into the world to gather data, it may be helpful to conceptualize the data that is shared with us as a resource."

    1. Public recruitment is most likely to be associated with convenience or quota sampling and is unlikely to be used with purposive or snowball sampling, where we need some knowledge of people and the characteristics they possess in advance.

      Good references to previous material in this chapter. Linking these ideas about sampling methods and recruitment strategies can be very helpful for students as they think about project design. Also, referring back to previously presented info helps readers absorb important information.

    2. Sampling Type Brief Description Convenience/ Availability You gather data from whatever cases/people/documents happen to be convenient Purposive You seek out elements that meet specific criteria, representing different perspectives Snowball You rely on participant referrals to recruit new participants Quota You select a designated number of cases from specified subgroups Sampling Type Strengths Challenges Convenience/ Availability Allows us to draw sample from participants who are most readily available/accessible Sample may be biased and may represent limited or skewed diversity in characteristics of participants Purposive Ensures that specific expertise, positions, or experiences are represented in sample participants It may be challenging to define purposive criteria or to locate cases that represent these criteria; restricts our potential sampling pool Snowball Accesses participant social network and community knowledge Can be helpful in gaining access to difficult to reach populations May be hard to locate initial small group of participants, concerns over privacy  – people might not want to share contacts, process may be slow or drawn-out Quota Helps to ensure specific characteristics are represented and defines quantity of each Can be challenging to fill quotas, especially for subgroups that might be more difficult to locate or reluctant to participate

      Very helpful summary tables - great way to review chapter info

    3. Convenience or availability

      Well-written, easy-to-understand summary of convenience/availability sampling.

    4. Qualitative research generally exists on the idiographic end of this continuum. We are most often seeking to obtain a rich, deep, detailed understanding from a relatively small group of people.

      Great way to bring topics together under a single easy-to-understand conceptual umbrella. Helpful conclusion for this section.

    5. In what ways might you be biased about this topic?

      I like the author's addition here. Reminding students to strive for thoughtful approaches to these exercise questions/suggested activities is a great way to keep readers engaged.

    6. As qualitative researchers, we are often not looking to uncover one truth or hard facts about something.  We are generally seeking to expand our understanding of the breadth and depth of human experience.

      Good way to reiterate core concepts. Though this point is a repetition of an earlier-presented theme, it does not seem repetitive here and flows naturally in the chapter's progression.

    7. Qualitative research is situated most often (though not exclusively) in an interpretivist paradigm, meaning we appreciate and try to study the unique experiences of individuals to better understand how they subjectively experience the world.

      Great way to link previous chapter material, especially research paradigm topics, to a concrete definition for/explanation of qualitative research

    8. Quantitative studies are great when we want to summarize data and examine or test relationships between ideas using numbers and the power of statistics.

      This intro stands as a good example of how we can summarize previous chapter material and simultaneously aid reader understanding of the upcoming chapter's topic.

  3. Apr 2019
  4. Mar 2019
  5. Oct 2018
    1. reconocer que producir alimentos y alimentar poblaciones, construir refugio y vivienda, enseñar e investigar, cuidar de los niños, los enfermos y los ancianos requiere de la movilización de la invención y la cooperación sociales.
    1. Students critically evaluate online information by considering the credibility (truthfulness) and validity (usefulness) of the information obtained.

      This is a critical phase (as are the others) that really sets the basis for online navigation that will continue throughout the child's life. It is important to be smart and efficient on the internet and be able to critically analyze what is important, valid, and credible for every search done and even things that come up on social media.

  6. Dec 2017
    1. Stanley Milgram’s original study on obedience to authority

      Tragic, but interesting and easy to remember example

  7. Apr 2017
    1. Appendix. Technical demonstration of the SOMprocedure

      This is a great example of Kohonen's Self-organizing Maps and the use of the U-Matrix. The authors were very thorough in explaining how it can be used.

  8. Oct 2013