14 Matching Annotations
  1. Jun 2018
  2. Dec 2017
    1. There are two ways to think about what counterbalancing accomplishes. One is that it controls the order of conditions so that it is no longer a confounding variable. Instead of the attractive condition always being first and the unattractive condition always being second, the attractive condition comes first for some participants and second for others.

      Gave me a good understanding of how counterbalancing works and what it does

    2. The three most common versions of the t-test are: one-sample t-test, independent samples t-test, and the paired samples t-test. The one sample t-test is used to test whether a sample mean could have come from a particular population. The independent samples t-test is used in between-subjects designs, to test whether the sample mean in one condition is different from the sample mean in another condition. The paired samples t-test is used in within-subjects designs, to test whether the sample mean in one condition is different from the sample mean in the other condition.

      Helpful and clear explanation of t-tests

    1. ecall that internal validity is the extent to which the design of a study supports the conclusion that changes in the independent variable caused any observed differences in the dependent variable.


    2. 9.1.2 this sections is explained very well and i under stand this concept much better now

    1. is chapter, we look at how to present your research effectively.

      maybe discuss this chapter in the beginning of the semester would be helpful for the lab

    2. cles For journal articles, the generic format for a reference is as follows: Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (year). Title of article. Title of Journal, xx(yy), pp–pp. doi:xx.xxxxxxxxxx
    1. Imagine if chemistry could tell us only that there is some relationship between the temperature of a gas and its volume—as opposed to providing a precise equation to describe that relationship.

      Good example, showing the importance of quantitative data over qualitative findings

    2. (Note that the term error here refers to random variability and does not imply that anyone has made a mistake. No one “commits a sampling error.”)


    3. Learning Objectives

      I find the learning objectives to be really helpful in explaining the purpose of each section.

    1. Consider, for example, an actual study on “personal space” conducted in a public men’s room (Middlemist, Knowles, and Matter 1976). The researchers secretly observed their participants to see whether it took them longer to begin urinating when there was another man (a confederate of the researchers) at a nearby urinal. While some critics found this to be an unjustified assault on human dignity (Koocher 1977), the researchers had carefully considered the ethical conflicts, resolved them as best they could, and concluded that the benefits of the research outweighed the risks (Middlemist, Knowles, and Matter 1977). For example, they had interviewed some preliminary participants and found that none of them was bothered by the fact that they had been observed

      Helpful example of ethnical conflict.

    2. Know and Accept Your Ethical Responsibilities


  3. Oct 2017
    1. but you found that this had no effect on the number of happy or sad childhood events they recalled. This could be because being in a happy or sad mood has no effect on memories for childhood events. But it could also be that the music was ineffective at putting participants in happy or sad moods. A manipulation check—in this case, a measure of participants’ moods—would help resolve this uncertainty

      The example helped me gain a better understanding of why it's necessary, especially in our first paper.