162 Matching Annotations
  1. Jul 2021
    1. The Cappers Act of 1488 forbade, on penalty of a fine, the wearing of foreign-made caps in England and Wales. A further Act of Parliament in 1571, during the reign of Elizabeth I, stated that every person above the age of six years (excepting "Maids, ladies, gentlewomen, noble personages, and every Lord, knight and gentleman of twenty marks land") residing in any of the cities, towns, villages or hamlets of England, must wear, on Sundays and holidays (except when travelling), "a cap of wool, thicked and dressed in England, made within this realm, and only dressed and finished by some of the trade of cappers, upon pain to forfeit for every day of not wearing 3s. 4d." This legislation was intended to protect domestic production, as caps were becoming unfashionable and were being challenged by new forms of imported headgear. It was repealed in 1597 as unworkable

      Example of legislating fashion as protectionism.

  2. Jun 2021
    1. This article was mentioned/recommended by @RemiKalir earlier today at a session at [[I Annotate 2021]].

    2. There will still be general guidelines for assignments in order for them to count as complete labor. These are simple things like: How much time you spend on a task, whether you followed the labor instructions, and how many words you produce or read.

      I'm glad to see that reading makes an appearance here, if only a nodding one. Reading and subsequently annotating and thinking about my reading takes up a significant portion of time and labor which goes into my ultimate writing. Reading and annotating is the underlying bedrock for my rhetorical inventio process. Where would I be without it?

    3. a labor-based grading system produces your final course grade by focusing on how much labor, or effort, you do in this course. The more labor you do, the higher your final course grade will be, regardless of what anyone thinks of the products of that labor.

      Definition of a labor-based grading system. It's pretty much what one might suspect.

      The underlying supposition is that doing some work at improvement will help one learn and improve.

      The missing assumptions may include which sorts of work are best? Do they work for some students and not others? What sorts of work for specific tasks might improve performance and output(s)?

    1. Some argue that the American elite is functionally an old-fashioned aristocracy that owes its income to nepotism and opportunism. Others argue that the elite is functionally an oligarchy that owes its rising income to a shift away from labor and toward capital. According to this view, elites don’t even need nepotism — they are using preexisting wealth and inheritance to rebuild an old-fashioned feudal class.

      So much here to unpack...

  3. Mar 2021
  4. Feb 2021
    1. So which seems likelier: that we're no better off than we were a quarter century ago, or that Shadow Stats is total bunk?

      Great Question

      This is an easy question to answer from my perspective. For me (age 62) and most of my peers, their kids and their peers, we are NO better off than we were a quarter century ago! A large part is the change from Industrial/Manufacturing to Technology and the outsourced labor and manufacturing. America has changed, this is FACT

  5. Jan 2021
  6. Dec 2020
  7. Nov 2020
  8. Oct 2020
    1. Name the parts, Mr. Jennings!” he said loftily

      Betteredge stays true to his character. Despite him disliking the idea of working with Jennings, he still delivers because his Lady told him so--a loyal and proud servant through and through.

    1. the entire supply chain putting food in our supermarkets has been whittled down to the sharpest edge of profitability by suit-wearing Midwesterners who pride themselves on exemplifying the American capitalist spirit. It’s more surprising that anybody put the Thai shrimp industry story on a newspaper front page, Lorr thinks, than it is that we’re eating the fruits of indentured labor.

      So your instinctive reaction is "fine, I'll stop buying slave labor shrimp imported from Thailand." Or "I'll stop eating shrimp, being a vegetarian is more ethical, right?" ...

    1. For example, the idea of “data ownership” is often championed as a solution. But what is the point of owning data that should not exist in the first place? All that does is further institutionalise and legitimate data capture. It’s like negotiating how many hours a day a seven-year-old should be allowed to work, rather than contesting the fundamental legitimacy of child labour. Data ownership also fails to reckon with the realities of behavioural surplus. Surveillance capitalists extract predictive value from the exclamation points in your post, not merely the content of what you write, or from how you walk and not merely where you walk. Users might get “ownership” of the data that they give to surveillance capitalists in the first place, but they will not get ownership of the surplus or the predictions gleaned from it – not without new legal concepts built on an understanding of these operations.
    2. In this way they have come to dominate what I call “the division of learning in society”, which is now the central organising principle of the 21st-century social order, just as the division of labour was the key organising principle of society in the industrial age.
    1. DURING the middle decades of the eighteenth century, the nature of Northern slavery changed dramatically. Growing demand for labor,

      Free labor became popular in the North, so they started bringing more people from Africa.

  9. Sep 2020
  10. Aug 2020
    1. Cajner, T., Crane, L. D., Decker, R. A., Grigsby, J., Hamins-Puertolas, A., Hurst, E., Kurz, C., & Yildirmaz, A. (2020). The U.S. Labor Market during the Beginning of the Pandemic Recession (Working Paper No. 27159; Working Paper Series). National Bureau of Economic Research. https://doi.org/10.3386/w27159

  11. Jul 2020
    1. Rojas, F. L., Jiang, X., Montenovo, L., Simon, K. I., Weinberg, B. A., & Wing, C. (2020). Is the Cure Worse than the Problem Itself? Immediate Labor Market Effects of COVID-19 Case Rates and School Closures in the U.S. (Working Paper No. 27127; Working Paper Series). National Bureau of Economic Research. https://doi.org/10.3386/w27127

  12. Jun 2020
    1. How can teachers maintain an awareness of how much of a workload something seems to students online

      This is such an important question. Our students suffer time scarcity just as we do. In addition to the workload calculator, I have been experimenting with Labor Based grading contracts inspired by the work of Asao Inoue, as a way of making workload more transparent and equitable.


  13. May 2020
  14. Apr 2020
    1. his. Whatsoever, then, he removes out of the state that Nature hath provid

      John Locke seemed to be extremely an influential philosopher during this time period, so I think it's important that he states the fact that a person's labor is their own property. I know that in previous governments, such as the Roman Empire, the labor of a person was the government's property, but this statement objects that idea and brings a new power to the working class.

    1. Lily and Bill were part of a supply chain that fed the military indus-trial complex that fed the budding digital industries.

      this still reads pre-digital to me.

    2. The dream of spaceships made other dreams of providing nurturing and care to indigenous children impossible when Asian women in factories overseas took their place as precarious workers in electronics factories.

      Obviously, indigenous labor in the US was not the "lowest level of production" (highlighted 2 paragraphs above) if it could be farmed out to equally exploited asian workers.

    3. 8 1 Social Text 141• December 2019Precarity Lab · Digital Precarity Manifestofemale and nonwhite labor, all linked to one another across time and space by bonds of capital, material object production, and social reproduction. Theories of network cultures celebrate the new connectivity afforded by digital technology and attempt to erase the chains it puts in place. These chains pull some people up, yet weigh down so many others.

      continued from above - invisible labor - chains.

    4. This labor has always been visible in the same way that the people who do this labor have been: in plain sight but undervalued. If we pay attention to “invisible labor,” we see not a network of actors or artifacts but, rather, a chain: a supply chain, a blockchain, a chain of

      invisible labor - opposition to - refusal to see what's in plain sight - connected across time and space.

  15. Mar 2020
    1. Rojas-Lozano claimed that the second part of Google’s two-part CAPTCHA feature, which requires users to transcribe and type into a box a distorted image of words, letters or numbers before entering its site, is also used to transcribe words that a computer cannot read to assist with Google’s book digitization service. By not disclosing that, she argued, Google was getting free labor from its users.
  16. Feb 2020
    1. Capital is money: Capital is commodities.

      Capital equals self-valorizing value. The "self" relates to labor-power qua capital purchased by the capitalist realized in the process of production. Therefore, "capital is money capital is commodities," as it uses, realizes, and incorporates money and the commodity of labor.

    1. Exchange value

      Exchange value appears as the property of a commodity that is exchangeable for other commodities. It also presupposes societies who produce commodities and exchange them. While all societies have things with use values, exchange value is relative to a specific time and place.

      Additionally, exchanging commodities must also presupposes a way to determine proportionality between different commodities, so that they can be exchanged in the first place.

      Exchange therefore requires some other measure that stands above the two commodities meant to be exchanged. If there were no ways in which iron and corn were found similar to a society, for example, then we would not exchange them and they would have no exchange value.

      Marx will contend that what each commodity must contain crystalized within it is value (formally) and that the substance of value is labor (viz. the common factor of both iron and corn is labor). Marx will call this kind of labor abstract labor.

  17. Jan 2020
    1. prevails

      In the original German, 'prevails' is rendered "herrscht." Herrscht shares a common root with the ordinary German word Herr (Mister, or, more evocatively, Master). 'Lordship' (as, in the chapter of Hegel's Phenomenology of Spirit, on 'Lordship and Bondage' is rendered Herrschaft.)

      My own reading of Capital tends to center upon the question of domination in capitalist societies, and throughout chapter 1 (in particular, in The Fetishism of Commodities and the Secret Thereof) Marx is especially attuned to the distinguishing how the forms of domination that are prevalent in capitalist societies are distinct from the relations of "personal dependence" that characterize pre-capitalist modes of production.

      It seems prudent, therefore, to take note of the way that the seemingly innocuous notion of 'prevalence' is, for Marx, in his original formulation, already evocative of the language of mastery, domination, perhaps even something like 'hegemony'.

      Furthermore, the capitalist mode of production prevails--it predominates. Yet, as Louis Althusser observes in his discussion of the concept of the 'mode of production' in On the Reproduction of Capitalism, every concrete social formation can be classified according to the mode of production that is dominant (that prevails--herrscht). In order to dominate, something must implicitly be dominated, or subordinate. "In every social formation," Althusser writes, "there exists more than one mode of production: at least two and often many more." Althusser cites Lenin, who in his analysis of the late 19th c. Russian social formation, observes that four modes of production can be distinguished (Louis Althusser, On the Reproduction of Capitalism, Verso 2014, p. 19.)

      In our analysis of social formations, the concrete specificity of each can be articulated by carefully examining the multiplicity of modes of production that coincide within it, and examine the way in which capitalism tends to dominate a multiplicity of subordinate modes of production that, on the one hand, survive from past modes of production but which may also, on the other, be emerging in the present (i.e. communism). Thus even if capitalism tends towards the formation of a contiguous world-system dominated by its particular imperatives, this does not mean that this process is homogenous or unfolds in the same way in each instance.

      For some commentators, capitalism is defined by the prevalence of wage labor and the specific dynamics that obtain therefrom. Yet this has often led to confusion over, whether, in analyzing the North American social formation prior to 1865, in which slavery coexists with wage-labor, the mode of production based on slave-labor is pre-capitalist. Yet as we find here in ch. 1, what determines the commodity as a commodity is not that it is the product of wage labor, rather that it is produced for exchange. As Marx writes on p. 131, "He who satisfies his own need with the product of his own labor admittedly creates use-values, but not commodities. Insofar as the slave-system in North America produced commodities (cotton, tobacco, etc.) for exchange on the world market, the fact that these commodities were produced under direct conditions of domination does not have any bearing on whether or not we identify this system of production as 'capitalist'. Wage-labor is therefore not likely the determinative factor; the determinative factor is the production of commodities for exchange. It is only insofar as commodities confront one another as exchange-values that the various modes of useful labor appear as expressions of a homogenous common substance, labor in the abstract

      It is in this sense that we can observe one of the ways that the capitalist mode of production prevails over other modes of production, as it subordinates these modes of production to production for exchange, and thus the law of value, regardless of whether wage-labor represents the dominant form of this relation. Moreover, it provides a clue to how we can examine, for example, the persistence of unwaged work within the family, which has important consequences for Social Reproduction Theory.

      Nonetheless, we can say that insofar as commodities confront each other on the market in a scene of exchange that they implicitly contain some 'third thing' which enables us to compare them as bearers of a magnitude of value. This 'third thing', as Marx's demonstration shows, is 'socially necessary labour time', which anticipates the way that wage-labor will become a dominant feature of capitalist society.

  18. Oct 2019
  19. library.oapen.org library.oapen.org
    1. enerallyatthisplacetheyfeedandclothesthemselvesfarbetterthantheydidwhenIfirstknewthem.ButgenerallytheIndiansmanifestveryA“littledesiretoimprovetheircondition,aswretchedasitis

      Hall says the Natives are more willing to "work" but still "don't want to improve their lives"

    2. ostofthemregardworkasdegradingandafitemploymentonlyforwomenandslaves

      according to Hall, most male Ojibwe see labor as a female or slave task

    3. oyouseeIhavenotescaped,eventhisyearourspring,dreadedwor

      Mills is in charge of all the household affairs basically