134 Matching Annotations
  1. Last 7 days
    1. Cajner, T., Crane, L. D., Decker, R. A., Grigsby, J., Hamins-Puertolas, A., Hurst, E., Kurz, C., & Yildirmaz, A. (2020). The U.S. Labor Market during the Beginning of the Pandemic Recession (Working Paper No. 27159; Working Paper Series). National Bureau of Economic Research. https://doi.org/10.3386/w27159

  2. Aug 2020
  3. Jul 2020
    1. Rojas, F. L., Jiang, X., Montenovo, L., Simon, K. I., Weinberg, B. A., & Wing, C. (2020). Is the Cure Worse than the Problem Itself? Immediate Labor Market Effects of COVID-19 Case Rates and School Closures in the U.S. (Working Paper No. 27127; Working Paper Series). National Bureau of Economic Research. https://doi.org/10.3386/w27127

  4. Jun 2020
    1. How can teachers maintain an awareness of how much of a workload something seems to students online

      This is such an important question. Our students suffer time scarcity just as we do. In addition to the workload calculator, I have been experimenting with Labor Based grading contracts inspired by the work of Asao Inoue, as a way of making workload more transparent and equitable.

      https://wac.colostate.edu/books/perspectives/labor/

  5. May 2020
  6. Apr 2020
    1. his. Whatsoever, then, he removes out of the state that Nature hath provid

      John Locke seemed to be extremely an influential philosopher during this time period, so I think it's important that he states the fact that a person's labor is their own property. I know that in previous governments, such as the Roman Empire, the labor of a person was the government's property, but this statement objects that idea and brings a new power to the working class.

    1. Lily and Bill were part of a supply chain that fed the military indus-trial complex that fed the budding digital industries.

      this still reads pre-digital to me.

    2. The dream of spaceships made other dreams of providing nurturing and care to indigenous children impossible when Asian women in factories overseas took their place as precarious workers in electronics factories.

      Obviously, indigenous labor in the US was not the "lowest level of production" (highlighted 2 paragraphs above) if it could be farmed out to equally exploited asian workers.

    3. 8 1 Social Text 141• December 2019Precarity Lab · Digital Precarity Manifestofemale and nonwhite labor, all linked to one another across time and space by bonds of capital, material object production, and social reproduction. Theories of network cultures celebrate the new connectivity afforded by digital technology and attempt to erase the chains it puts in place. These chains pull some people up, yet weigh down so many others.

      continued from above - invisible labor - chains.

    4. This labor has always been visible in the same way that the people who do this labor have been: in plain sight but undervalued. If we pay attention to “invisible labor,” we see not a network of actors or artifacts but, rather, a chain: a supply chain, a blockchain, a chain of

      invisible labor - opposition to - refusal to see what's in plain sight - connected across time and space.

  7. Mar 2020
    1. Rojas-Lozano claimed that the second part of Google’s two-part CAPTCHA feature, which requires users to transcribe and type into a box a distorted image of words, letters or numbers before entering its site, is also used to transcribe words that a computer cannot read to assist with Google’s book digitization service. By not disclosing that, she argued, Google was getting free labor from its users.
  8. Feb 2020
    1. Capital is money: Capital is commodities.

      Capital equals self-valorizing value. The "self" relates to labor-power qua capital purchased by the capitalist realized in the process of production. Therefore, "capital is money capital is commodities," as it uses, realizes, and incorporates money and the commodity of labor.

    1. Exchange value

      Exchange value appears as the property of a commodity that is exchangeable for other commodities. It also presupposes societies who produce commodities and exchange them. While all societies have things with use values, exchange value is relative to a specific time and place.

      Additionally, exchanging commodities must also presupposes a way to determine proportionality between different commodities, so that they can be exchanged in the first place.

      Exchange therefore requires some other measure that stands above the two commodities meant to be exchanged. If there were no ways in which iron and corn were found similar to a society, for example, then we would not exchange them and they would have no exchange value.

      Marx will contend that what each commodity must contain crystalized within it is value (formally) and that the substance of value is labor (viz. the common factor of both iron and corn is labor). Marx will call this kind of labor abstract labor.

  9. Jan 2020
    1. prevails

      In the original German, 'prevails' is rendered "herrscht." Herrscht shares a common root with the ordinary German word Herr (Mister, or, more evocatively, Master). 'Lordship' (as, in the chapter of Hegel's Phenomenology of Spirit, on 'Lordship and Bondage' is rendered Herrschaft.)

      My own reading of Capital tends to center upon the question of domination in capitalist societies, and throughout chapter 1 (in particular, in The Fetishism of Commodities and the Secret Thereof) Marx is especially attuned to the distinguishing how the forms of domination that are prevalent in capitalist societies are distinct from the relations of "personal dependence" that characterize pre-capitalist modes of production.

      It seems prudent, therefore, to take note of the way that the seemingly innocuous notion of 'prevalence' is, for Marx, in his original formulation, already evocative of the language of mastery, domination, perhaps even something like 'hegemony'.

      Furthermore, the capitalist mode of production prevails--it predominates. Yet, as Louis Althusser observes in his discussion of the concept of the 'mode of production' in On the Reproduction of Capitalism, every concrete social formation can be classified according to the mode of production that is dominant (that prevails--herrscht). In order to dominate, something must implicitly be dominated, or subordinate. "In every social formation," Althusser writes, "there exists more than one mode of production: at least two and often many more." Althusser cites Lenin, who in his analysis of the late 19th c. Russian social formation, observes that four modes of production can be distinguished (Louis Althusser, On the Reproduction of Capitalism, Verso 2014, p. 19.)

      In our analysis of social formations, the concrete specificity of each can be articulated by carefully examining the multiplicity of modes of production that coincide within it, and examine the way in which capitalism tends to dominate a multiplicity of subordinate modes of production that, on the one hand, survive from past modes of production but which may also, on the other, be emerging in the present (i.e. communism). Thus even if capitalism tends towards the formation of a contiguous world-system dominated by its particular imperatives, this does not mean that this process is homogenous or unfolds in the same way in each instance.

      For some commentators, capitalism is defined by the prevalence of wage labor and the specific dynamics that obtain therefrom. Yet this has often led to confusion over, whether, in analyzing the North American social formation prior to 1865, in which slavery coexists with wage-labor, the mode of production based on slave-labor is pre-capitalist. Yet as we find here in ch. 1, what determines the commodity as a commodity is not that it is the product of wage labor, rather that it is produced for exchange. As Marx writes on p. 131, "He who satisfies his own need with the product of his own labor admittedly creates use-values, but not commodities. Insofar as the slave-system in North America produced commodities (cotton, tobacco, etc.) for exchange on the world market, the fact that these commodities were produced under direct conditions of domination does not have any bearing on whether or not we identify this system of production as 'capitalist'. Wage-labor is therefore not likely the determinative factor; the determinative factor is the production of commodities for exchange. It is only insofar as commodities confront one another as exchange-values that the various modes of useful labor appear as expressions of a homogenous common substance, labor in the abstract

      It is in this sense that we can observe one of the ways that the capitalist mode of production prevails over other modes of production, as it subordinates these modes of production to production for exchange, and thus the law of value, regardless of whether wage-labor represents the dominant form of this relation. Moreover, it provides a clue to how we can examine, for example, the persistence of unwaged work within the family, which has important consequences for Social Reproduction Theory.

      Nonetheless, we can say that insofar as commodities confront each other on the market in a scene of exchange that they implicitly contain some 'third thing' which enables us to compare them as bearers of a magnitude of value. This 'third thing', as Marx's demonstration shows, is 'socially necessary labour time', which anticipates the way that wage-labor will become a dominant feature of capitalist society.

  10. Oct 2019
  11. ucc9d37bcb9c001ec3ffeaf8a9d4.previews.dropboxusercontent.com ucc9d37bcb9c001ec3ffeaf8a9d4.previews.dropboxusercontent.com
    1. enerallyatthisplacetheyfeedandclothesthemselvesfarbetterthantheydidwhenIfirstknewthem.ButgenerallytheIndiansmanifestveryA“littledesiretoimprovetheircondition,aswretchedasitis

      Hall says the Natives are more willing to "work" but still "don't want to improve their lives"

    2. ostofthemregardworkasdegradingandafitemploymentonlyforwomenandslaves

      according to Hall, most male Ojibwe see labor as a female or slave task

    3. oyouseeIhavenotescaped,eventhisyearourspring,dreadedwor

      Mills is in charge of all the household affairs basically

    4. educethenumberoflabourers

      It is ironic that Hall mentions this since all the missionaries have been asking for female help

    5. ytimeggghttg_b§.whollydevotedtogivingreligiousinstruction,translating,andperfectingmyselfintheknowledgeofthenativelanguage,togetherwithcollectingmatarialsforavocabularyandgrammarofit

      Hall's opinion is that he is wasting his own time doing manual labor and not preaching

    6. ThecomplaintwhichIhavemostfrequentlyheardhimmakeagainstthepresentplanofoperationshere,is,thatthetimeofthemissionariesistoomuchoccupiedinmanuallabourandinprovidingfortheirfamili

      Town's chief complaint is too much manual labor

    7. butclothingisbetterthanalmostanythingelsetopaythelabourwehavetohire.

      new clothing is the best payment method for Native labor

    1. Eyewitness News has learned that the organisation that runs the Spar supermarket franchise has instructed that a human resources audit be conducted at all the Spars owned by Chris Giannakopoulos, who has been accused of assaulting staff and unfair labour practice.Giannakopoulos first started making headlines in October last year when he was accused of beating a female employee at the Food Lover's Market store in Hartebeespoort. He was scheduled to appear in court a week ago, but that the matter was struck from the role.The Giannakopoulos Group owns and operates more than two dozen Spars and also has interests in Food Lover's Market and OK Foods.Eyewitness News has seen a Spar guild letter to Giannakopoulos in which it states that he will no longer be allowed to play in role in the management and control of the Spars in the Giannakopoulos Group.The guild says that a human resources audit will be conducted at their Spars twice a year and the group is to dispose of its interests in Food Lover's Market and OK Food.The guild warns that if the Giannakopoulos Group fails to adhere to these instructions, it will remove all the Spars from the group.Spar’s Mandy Hogan declined to answer questions related to the content of the letter but says the company does not condone criminal behavior by any person and will take appropriate action where a person is found guilty.

      https://ewn.co.za/2019/01/14/spar-issues-ultimatum-to-franchise-owner-over-compliance-with-hr-audit Eyewitness News has learned that the organisation that runs the Spar supermarket franchise has instructed that a human resources audit be conducted at all the Spars owned by Chris Giannakopoulos, who has been accused of assaulting staff and unfair labour practice.

      Giannakopoulos first started making headlines in October last year when he was accused of beating a female employee at the Food Lover's Market store in Hartebeespoort. He was scheduled to appear in court a week ago, but that the matter was struck from the role.

      The Giannakopoulos Group owns and operates more than two dozen Spars and also has interests in Food Lover's Market and OK Foods.

      Eyewitness News has seen a Spar guild letter to Giannakopoulos in which it states that he will no longer be allowed to play in role in the management and control of the Spars in the Giannakopoulos Group.

      The guild says that a human resources audit will be conducted at their Spars twice a year and the group is to dispose of its interests in Food Lover's Market and OK Food.

      The guild warns that if the Giannakopoulos Group fails to adhere to these instructions, it will remove all the Spars from the group.

      Spar’s Mandy Hogan declined to answer questions related to the content of the letter but says the company does not condone criminal behavior by any person and will take appropriate action where a person is found guilty.

    1. Annotations

      https://ewn.co.za/2019/01/14/spar-issues-ultimatum-to-franchise-owner-over-compliance-with-hr-audit

      Eyewitness News has learned that the organisation that runs the Spar supermarket franchise has instructed that a human resources audit be conducted at all the Spars owned by Chris Giannakopoulos, who has been accused of assaulting staff and unfair labour practice.

      Giannakopoulos first started making headlines in October last year when he was accused of beating a female employee at the Food Lover's Market store in Hartebeespoort. He was scheduled to appear in court a week ago, but that the matter was struck from the role.

      The Giannakopoulos Group owns and operates more than two dozen Spars and also has interests in Food Lover's Market and OK Foods.

      Eyewitness News has seen a Spar guild letter to Giannakopoulos in which it states that he will no longer be allowed to play in role in the management and control of the Spars in the Giannakopoulos Group.

      The guild says that a human resources audit will be conducted at their Spars twice a year and the group is to dispose of its interests in Food Lover's Market and OK Food.

      The guild warns that if the Giannakopoulos Group fails to adhere to these instructions, it will remove all the Spars from the group.

      Spar’s Mandy Hogan declined to answer questions related to the content of the letter but says the company does not condone criminal behavior by any person and will take appropriate action where a person is found guilty.

    2. https://ewn.co.za/2019/01/14/spar-issues-ultimatum-to-franchise-owner-over-compliance-with-hr-audit

      EWN has learned that the organisation that runs the Spar supermarket franchise has instructed that a human resources audit be conducted at all the Spars owned by Chris Giannakopoulos, who has been accused of assaulting staff and unfair labour practice.

      Eyewitness News has learned that the organisation that runs the Spar supermarket franchise has instructed that a human resources audit be conducted at all the Spars owned by Chris Giannakopoulos, who has been accused of assaulting staff and unfair labour practice.

      Giannakopoulos first started making headlines in October last year when he was accused of beating a female employee at the Food Lover's Market store in Hartebeespoort. He was scheduled to appear in court a week ago, but that the matter was struck from the role.

      The Giannakopoulos Group owns and operates more than two dozen Spars and also has interests in Food Lover's Market and OK Foods.

      Eyewitness News has seen a Spar guild letter to Giannakopoulos in which it states that he will no longer be allowed to play in role in the management and control of the Spars in the Giannakopoulos Group.

      The guild says that a human resources audit will be conducted at their Spars twice a year and the group is to dispose of its interests in Food Lover's Market and OK Food.

      The guild warns that if the Giannakopoulos Group fails to adhere to these instructions, it will remove all the Spars from the group.

      Spar’s Mandy Hogan declined to answer questions related to the content of the letter but says the company does not condone criminal behavior by any person and will take appropriate action where a person is found guilty.

    1. https://ewn.co.za/2019/01/14/spar-issues-ultimatum-to-franchise-owner-over-compliance-with-hr-audit

      SPAR ISSUES ULTIMATUM TO FRANCHISE OWNER OVER COMPLIANCE WITH HR AUDIT EWN has learned that the organisation that runs the Spar supermarket franchise has instructed that a human resources audit be conducted at all the Spars owned by Chris Giannakopoulos, who has been accused of assaulting staff and unfair labour practice.

      Eyewitness News has learned that the organisation that runs the Spar supermarket franchise has instructed that a human resources audit be conducted at all the Spars owned by Chris Giannakopoulos, who has been accused of assaulting staff and unfair labour practice.

      Giannakopoulos first started making headlines in October last year when he was accused of beating a female employee at the Food Lover's Market store in Hartebeespoort. He was scheduled to appear in court a week ago, but that the matter was struck from the role.

      The Giannakopoulos Group owns and operates more than two dozen Spars and also has interests in Food Lover's Market and OK Foods.

      Eyewitness News has seen a Spar guild letter to Giannakopoulos in which it states that he will no longer be allowed to play in role in the management and control of the Spars in the Giannakopoulos Group.

      The guild says that a human resources audit will be conducted at their Spars twice a year and the group is to dispose of its interests in Food Lover's Market and OK Food.

      The guild warns that if the Giannakopoulos Group fails to adhere to these instructions, it will remove all the Spars from the group.

      Spar’s Mandy Hogan declined to answer questions related to the content of the letter but says the company does not condone criminal behavior by any person and will take appropriate action where a person is found guilty.

    1. disappointing that the Labor Party actively boycott this event when its intention is to uplift women

      Divya Ahlawat was simply stating the facts - Liberal councillors did not vote to ban the event, nor did council - but Labor councillors have ensure a course of action which doesn't reflect the decision made by council.

      And that's mainly to cover for the stuff up of a departed member of their dominant Left faction. Although he is attached to the hip with Mayor Laxale who has made unfortunate previous comments on social media.

      It's amazing that you would have your male mates on one side partially geeing you up on social media to trick you into another story and then on the other hand, you've come along to the event - after pre-writing most of the story - only to hear the previous year's queen debunk the misinformation assembled by your mates.

      And then, this year's winner's comments just didn't fit with the story you wanted to do (see further down).

    1. We live in an age of paradox. Systems using artificial intelligence match or surpass human level performance in more and more domains, leveraging rapid advances in other technologies and driving soaring stock prices. Yet measured productivity growth has fallen in half over the past decade, and real income has stagnated since the late 1990s for a majority of Americans. Brynjolfsson, Rock, and Syverson describe four potential explanations for this clash of expectations and statistics: false hopes, mismeasurement, redistribution, and implementation lags. While a case can be made for each explanation, the researchers argue that lags are likely to be the biggest reason for paradox. The most impressive capabilities of AI, particularly those based on machine learning, have not yet diffused widely. More importantly, like other general purpose technologies, their full effects won't be realized until waves of complementary innovations are developed and implemented. The adjustment costs, organizational changes and new skills needed for successful AI can be modeled as a kind of intangible capital. A portion of the value of this intangible capital is already reflected in the market value of firms. However, most national statistics will fail to capture the full benefits of the new technologies and some may even have the wrong sign

      This is for anyone who is looking deep in economics of artificial intelligence or is doing a project on AI with respect to economics. This paper entails how AI might effect our economy and change the way we think about work. the predictions and facts which are stated here are really impressive like how people 30 years from now will be lively with government employment where everyone will get equal amount of payment.

  12. Sep 2019
    1. One widely circulated report this summer—which appears to have caught Mr. Trump’s attention—estimates that China shed five million industrial jobs, 1.9 million of them directly because of U.S. tariffs, between the beginning of the trade conflict and the end of May this year.
    2. That isn’t insubstantial. But it is still small compared with China’s urban labor force of 570 million. It also represents a slower pace than the 23 million manufacturing jobs shed in China between 2015 and 2017, according to the report, published by China International Capital Corp., an investment bank with Chinese state ownership.
    1. A prolonged walkout can quickly take a financial toll on car companies because they book revenue only when a vehicle is shipped to a dealership. An assembly-plant shutdown can cost an auto maker an estimated $1.3 million every hour, according to the Center for Automotive Research in Ann Arbor, Mich.
    2. The GM strike would surpass in size the work stoppage by more than 30,000 employees at Stop & Shop groceries in New England earlier this year. But it would be far smaller than one involving 73,000 GM workers in 2007, when the company’s workforce was much larger.
    1. ightitnotbefortheinterestofthecausetocalloneofushomefortwoorthreemonths,ofwecanbespared,toconsultwiththeCommitteeandmakeeffortstoobtainlabourersforthisne

      Hall is suggesting sending missionaries back to Boston for a few months to have them talk to the committee and obtain new people for labor

      he also wants to keep the newly built houses in the hands of the committee and lend them to the Natives

    2. FondduLacandLeechLak

      All Northwest Missions, but especially Fond du Lac and Leech Lake, need more labor to sustain them

  13. Aug 2019
    1. saweqthfromthefeet,thatshe3.1...mysmakesthearden,in0.5muchastheInd.dagge-itde'gmja'dtnghim“elftouseM9435thehueorMS

      the women are the only ones who work the garden because the men find it degrading to use a hoe or axe

    2. 113ourcanoeswereunind§gg,ton€ergotingé

      He is unclear about who performs the labor of unloading the canoes and pitching the tents while he walks

    3. oraretheequatenegl(cted,whohavecutdone,byfa

      The Mothers are said to have done more work than any North English Yankee and even more than some of the shoulders - implied that they did the work while carrying their children

    4. r8.heredistributedpresentstotheInde.mostofthemhavesidedusincarryin

      Schoolcraft gave gifts to the male and female Natives who helped carry supplies

    5. ThesquatisoftenseenwithallthematerialsonherbackwhichmakethehouseInds.House,&thearticleswhichfurnishit,suchaskettles,woodenladies,drum,traps&axes&onthetapofalltheInd.cradleinwhichisboundthenursingchild,whiletheInd.isseldomseenwithmorethanhispipe,tobaccosack&musket

      squaw carries materials for the Native homes on her back (wood, kettles, drums, traps, axes, ladles, etc) AND ALSO she carries her nursing child the men rarely carry more than a pipe, tobacco, and a musket

    6. heyoungmenalllookthiseve.likecrestfallenfowls,tosay-nothinghowtheyfee
    7. unfrequentlytheInd.cradleishungslungtopofall,thehoopofwhichdefendsthechildehead,projectingsohighastooatheverybushnowdrippingwiththerain&shakeitwellintothechildsface.Asthemothercannotwellleavethenursingchild,itmustridebothways,sothatshehasnotthereliefofavoyageur,whotakesbreathinreturningbackforanotherlo

      Cradles are carried up the path as well as pork and flour The mothers can't just set their children down while they work, they are forced to carry their babies with them as they make trips to carry all the foodstuffs to the next point

    8. ombinawabqut.sqMamfrom.IAthoQantlnmont..'*'-}"',:55I“."‘J”I.Ilq'jn,I-.'4vC-h-..,1Pew.includingFrench,halfwbreeda,Englichr'Sooth~éabcnm3000...‘-41’.3anyhiuhn~&twopriaata.Theyhavebutonezéah‘probg~e§t1m3teofsrnslsrufrom50to$0.rhavareTradnrsintheir1abor

      Mr. David Aitkins (Brother of M Aitkins) visits Pombinaw often and says the population is 2000 and that they trade their labor

  14. Jul 2019
    1. The position of machine products in the civilized scheme of consumption serves to point out the nature of the relation which subsists between the canon of conspicuous waste and the code of proprieties in consumption. Neither in matters of art and taste proper, nor as regards the current sense of the serviceability of goods, does this canon act as a principle of innovation or initiative. It does not go into the future as a creative principle which makes innovations and adds new items of consumption and new elements of cost. The principle in question is, in a certain sense, a negative rather than a positive law. It is a regulative rather than a creative principle. It very rarely initiates or originates any usage or custom directly. Its action is selective only. Conspicuous wastefulness does not directly afford ground for variation and growth, but conformity to its requirements is a condition to the survival of such innovations as may be made on other grounds. In whatever way usages and customs and methods of expenditure arise, they are all subject to the selective action of this norm of reputability; and the degree in which they conform to its requirements is a test of their fitness to survive in the competition with other similar usages and customs.
  15. Jun 2019
  16. May 2019
    1. Calling them “emotional labor,” as Julie Beck points out, has the curiously sexist implication that all work performed by women is somehow about feelings.

      "them" referring to domestic work - chores.

    2. The original meaning was the labor involved in regulating, evoking and suppressing certain feelings while you’re at work — as Hochschild puts it, it’s “trying to feel the right feeling for the job.” It described work for which you are paid (although not always adequately compensated) and didn’t only apply to labor performed by women.

      Original definition.

  17. Apr 2019
    1. We often think about AI “replacing us” with a vision of robots literally doing our jobs, but it’s not going to shake out in quite that way. Look at radiology, for example: with the advances in computer vision, people sometimes talk about AI replacing radiologists. We probably won’t ever get to the point where there’s zero human radiologists. But a very possible future is one where, out of 100 radiologists now, AI lets the top 5 or 10 of them do the job of all the rest. If such a scenario plays out, where does that leave the other 90 or so doctors?
  18. Mar 2019
    1. protect the chi!-· dren

      I know we would like to think of the exploitation of child labor as some relic of Dickensian fiction, but the bosses still find ways to exploit. I've had many students over the years who worked jobs under management that forced them to work long hours, always at the expense of school work, etc. The policies today seem more concerned with immigration status than academic success. [https://www.employmentlawhandbook.com/wage-and-hour-laws/minimum-wage/new-laws-and-regulations-for-2019/]

  19. Feb 2019
    1. For example, the idea of “data ownership” is often championed as a solution. But what is the point of owning data that should not exist in the first place? All that does is further institutionalise and legitimate data capture. It’s like negotiating how many hours a day a seven-year-old should be allowed to work, rather than contesting the fundamental legitimacy of child labour. Data ownership also fails to reckon with the realities of behavioural surplus. Surveillance capitalists extract predictive value from the exclamation points in your post, not merely the content of what you write, or from how you walk and not merely where you walk. Users might get “ownership” of the data that they give to surveillance capitalists in the first place, but they will not get ownership of the surplus or the predictions gleaned from it – not without new legal concepts built on an understanding of these operations.
    2. In this way they have come to dominate what I call “the division of learning in society”, which is now the central organising principle of the 21st-century social order, just as the division of labour was the key organising principle of society in the industrial age.
  20. Jan 2019
    1. esearchershave discovered that it takes about 45 minutes to craft a single bead; to make 10,000 suchbeads totals 7,500 hours of work, or three years of labor by skilled craftspeople

      Cf. Le Guin's discussion of gatherers and labor/leisure time

    1. fifteen-hour work week

      Wouldn't that ease of gathering only be viable for a certain amount of time, in certain areas? With larger populations and in scarcer areas, that time increases. I wonder what other statistics or sources provide similar or disparate numbers, and how those numbers change over time. When did gathering become less efficient?

  21. Oct 2018
  22. Aug 2018
    1. Kojève thought that the other way was through labor. The slave achieves his sense of self by work that transforms the natural world into a human world. But the slave is driven to labor in the first place because of the master’s refusal to recognize him. This “master-slave dialectic” is the motor of human history, and human history comes to an end when there are no more masters or slaves, and all are recognized equally.
  23. Jul 2018
    1. The task for social theory, therefore, is to render the invisible visible, show relations and intercon­nections, begin tbe process of questioning the unquestioned. Before we can identify some of these economic relations of temporal inequity, however, we first need to understand in what way the sin of usury was a barrier to the develop­ment of economic life as we know it today in industrial societies.

      Citing Weber (integrated with Marx), Adam describes how time is used to promote social inequity.

      Taken for granted in a socio-economic system, time renders power relationships as invisible

    2. Marx's princi­pal point regarding the commodification of time was that an empty, abstract, quantifiable time that was applicable any­where, any time was a precondition for its use as an abstract exchange value on the one hand and for the commodification of labour and nature on the other. Only on the basis of this neutral measure could time take such a pivotal position in all economic exchange.

      Citing Marx' critique on how time is commodified for value, labor and natural resources.