402 Matching Annotations
  1. Jul 2021
  2. Jun 2021
  3. May 2021
    1. Datafication, the authors argued, involves much more than converting symbolic materialinto digital form, for it is datafication, not digitization, that “made [digital] text indexable andthus searchable”

      One could be tempted to assert that digitization is a matter of mediality, while the datafication is a matter of epistemological concern. It is to say that datafication is a particular gnoseological process that not only translate an 'event' from a medium to another, but rather a process of refinement of the event qualities.

  4. Apr 2021
    1. Events AAA and BBB are mutually exclusive (cannot both occur at once) if they have no elements in common.

      Events \(A\) and \(B\) are mutually exclusive (cannot both occur at once) if they have no elements in common.

      Events \(A\) and \(B\) are mutually exclusive if: $$P(A∩B)=0$$

    2. The complement of an event AAA in a sample space SSS, denoted AcAcA^c, is the collection of all outcomes in SSS that are not elements of the set AAA. It corresponds to negating any description in words of the event AAA.

      The complement of an event \(A\) in a sample space \(S\), denoted \(A^c\), is the collection of all outcomes in \(S\) that are not elements of the set \(A\). It corresponds to negating any description in words of the event \(A\).

      The complement of an event \(A\) consists of all outcomes of the experiment that do not result in event \(A\).

      Complement formula:


  5. Mar 2021
    1. Li, S., Sim, S.-C., Lee, L., Pollack, H. J., Wyatt, L. C., Trinh-Shevrin, C., Pong, P., & Kwon, S. C. (2017). Hepatitis B Screening and Vaccination Behaviors among a Community-based Sample of Chinese and Korean Americans in New York City. American Journal of Health Behavior, 41(2), 204–214. https://doi.org/10.5993/AJHB.41.2.12

  6. Feb 2021
    1. Note that the path ends in its very own end, signalizing a new end state, or outcome. The end’s semantic is :with_cc.
  7. Jan 2021
    1. Knowing exactly what happens in your application can mean the difference between feeling in full control or experiencing deep frustration. Personally, unknowns drive me crazy, which in turn often leads to all sorts of experiments and/or debug sessions.
    1. beforeUpdate(async () => { console.log('the component is about to update'); await tick(); console.log('the component just updated'); });
    1. “Once” handlers Say a button does something pretty darn important, like submitting a payment. It would be pretty scary if it was programmed such that clicking the button multiple times submitted multiple payment requests. It is situations like this where you would attach a click handler to a button that only runs once. To make that clear to the user, we’ll disable the button on click as well.
  8. Dec 2020
    1. etainee abuse scandal


    2. how naked prisoners being subjected to sexual humiliation by American women

      event = sexual humiliation - why is it important that it is done by women? Why is not a stronger word than humiliation used?

    1. Saad Naif said he saw a prisoner shot dead at Abu Ghraib when he approached the razor wire.
    2. Seeing her lying bound in the sun, the brother angrily started to cross the razor wire ringing his tent, "and they shot him in the shoulder," Naif said.
    3. punished by having rations reduced or withdrawn,
    4. "The Gardens" – a razor-wire enclosure where prisoners were made to lie face down on the burning sand for two or three hours, hands bound.
    5. Sometimes we'd fight the Americans with tent poles. The Americans would come at us behind riot shields, firing plastic bullets and electric pistols (stun guns).
    6. He said two died in the next tent while he was there.
    7. Water was the first concern for internees everywhere, especially as summer temperatures topped 120 degrees. There was never enough to drink and wash with, they said.
    8. ICRC's decision to reduce its Baghdad staff, because of the bombing of its headquarters, may limit its ability to visit detention sites.

      rationalizing lack of agency as a consequence of resistance

    9. organization's policy does not allow any public comment on any abuse or other poor conditions detected

      policy is prohibiting accountability

    10. representatives are the only outsiders allowed into the camps

      explains why testimonies are so sparse

    11. listing and processing of detainees has improved in recent weeks.


    12. In toppling the Saddam government last April, the U.S.-British invasion force inherited a legal vacuum and began incarcerating ordinary criminals with prisoners of war and less well-defined detainees.
    13. In one, four soldiers are accused of beating Iraqi prisoners; in the other, two Marines are charged in connection with an Iraqi's death in detention.

      legal proceedings

    14. Baghdad airport's overcrowded Camp Cropper, was closed.
    15. riots, punishment in the sun

      on the subject of event: accounts of abuse have not yet solidified in the international press as a single event & scandal as evidenced here by a lack of proper nouns in the article's headline. does this factor actually affect the event's reception?

    1. For example, an event handler callback that can be used to handle both fullscreenchange and fullscreenerror might look like this:
    1. A listener watches for an event to be fired. For example, a KeyListener waits for KeyEvents, a MessageListener waits for messages to arrive on a queue and so on. The handler is responsible for dealing with the event. Normally, listeners and handlers go hand-in-hand. For example, the KeyListener tells the ExitHandler that "the letter Q was pressed" and the handler performs logic such as cleaning up resources and exiting the application gracefully. Similary a ButtonClickListener would tell the same ExitHandler that the "Exit button was clicked". So, in this case you have two different events, two different listeners but a single handler.

      You can use the same handler for multiple events/listeners.

    2. The most basic difference is the association Listener is associated with Event Source (Ex: key board) Handler is associated with an Event (Ex: keydown)
  9. Nov 2020
  10. Oct 2020
  11. Sep 2020
    1. Part of the functionality that is returned are event handlers. I'd like to avoid needing to manually copy the events over one by one so the hook implementation details are hidden.
    1. A quick note: During Week 4, there are multiple events happening:

      1) On Thursday, September 17 at 4pm: there is a presentation on Indigenous Studies hosted by UMD.

      2) On Friday, September 18 at noon (aka during our class), there is a book launch hosted by the History Department.

      3) We still have reading listed for Friday, September 18.

      Numbers 2 and 3 are required. Number 1 is strongly recommended.

      Your weekly response can be on 1, 2, or 3

  12. Aug 2020
  13. Jul 2020
  14. Jun 2020
  15. May 2020
  16. Apr 2020
  17. Mar 2020
  18. Dec 2019
  19. Nov 2019
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    1. The second type of these “Imperative Shell” services execute side-effects outside of the bounded context, such as sending an email, SMS, or mobile push notification to a user, or calling out to some other external service.

      What if the bounded context is about managing side effects — say we are implementing a transactional mail service. Should we separate the “functional core” recording mail processing events from the “imperative shell” which performs the actual SMTP?

  20. Sep 2019
    1. Independently on how the schema changes are handled, managing these changes is one of the most complex and error prone drawbacks associated with event sourcing. A strategy should be prepared upfront and considered on the system design.

      Plan for schema evolution upfront.

    2. Also your events will be based on a SomethingCreated or SomethingUpdated which has no business value at all. If the events are being designing like this then it is clear you’re not using DDD at all and you’re better of without event sourcing.

      litmus test

    1. I think you don't hear much about using Kafka for event sourcing primarily because the event sourcing terminology doesn't seem to be very prevalent in the consumer web space where Kafka is most popular.
    1. Another way to get consistency is to assure serialized writes, i.e using the single-writer principle, meaning we make sure all writes concerning a particular entity ID occur on a single thread.

      This is the akka-cluster approach?

    2. If the business logic fails we return an error to the client but if it succeeds a new event is emitted. In that case we must be able to save the new event to our event store with a guarantee that no other event has been stored for this particular entity ID in the meantime, or we would risk breaking the consistency of our domain objects.
    3. One alternative would be to have one topic per entity

      Other alternative: have a consumer group write a read model to a database, indexed by entity id.

  21. Apr 2019
  22. Dec 2018
    1. But the Tunguska airburst stands as the most powerful impact event in recorded human history, and it remains enigmatic, as scientists don’t know the origin of the object or whether it was an asteroid or a comet.

      More on the Tunguska Event here.

    2. Tunguska event

  23. Sep 2018
    1. It's important to understand that in the Event Loop there are Tasks & Microtasks. The Microtask queue is exhausted before returning to the Task queue - and Microtasks can queue other Microtasks, hance why the for loop in this example will block any other execution.

  24. Aug 2018
    1. Event time, in contrast, is conceived as "qualitative time-heterogeneous, discontinuous, and unequivalent when different time periods are compared" (Starkey

      Event time definition -- as qualitative.

      How does this help describe friction of SBTF social coordination attempting to handle mechanical clocktime (timestamps, urgency, timelines, etc.) and dynamic event time (disaster unfolds, rhythms, horizons, etc.)

    1. At a higher level, with their roadmaps and deadlines, projects also hold a temporal dimension.

      The DHN analog to projects could be the deployment and/or the humanitarian event temporality (slow-onset, rapid-onset and chronic).

  25. Jun 2018
  26. Jan 2018
    1. “Perhaps something occurred in the history of the concept of structure,” so he hypothesized, “that could be called an ‘event,’ if this loaded word did not entail a meaning which it is precisely the function of structural — or structuralist — thought to reduce or to suspect.” Structuralism’s eponymous reliance on structures, on that which by definition is permanent, stable, and universal, made it so that it had no lexicon, no methodology, to deal with “events,” i.e., with that which is singular, wholly other, non-repeatable.
  27. Sep 2017
    1. Terrorist use of an actual nuclear bomb is a low-probability event

      Low probability and high impact but not a black swan

  28. Jan 2017
    1. The combination of the Sun's high circulation and the newsboys meant that everyone throughout the city, spanning all social classes, heard about the lunar discoveries at the same time. They experienced it as a shared social event in a way that was entirely new.

      Birth of the Shared Event

      One of the new features of the moon hoax was that is was a shared event, experienced by everyone more or less at the same time, due to both new technologies and new systems of distribution. In some ways the haox was the polar opposite of the fragmentation we see today in Facebook hoaxes -- which are often known among only certain subgroups, and build ingroup identity not a universal experience.

    1. Early event detection problems can go here. Two example cases just came to my mind are: 1- in emergency response: detecting a disaster quickly is important. 2- in computational journalism: many locals suddenly start talking about an event means something newsworthy is going on.

  29. Nov 2016
  30. Dec 2015
    1. An international mechanism to address loss and damage is hereby defined under this agreement/protocol and shall be bound by the principles and provisions of the Convention, in particular common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities. The purpose of the mechanism shall be to promote and support the development and implementation of approaches to address loss and damage associated with the adverse effects of climate change, inter alia, extreme events and slow onset events, in developing countries that are particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of climate change. The international mechanism on loss and damage shall draw upon, further develop and elaborate on the work of the Warsaw International Mechanism on Loss and Damage pursuant to relevant COP decisions, including the development of modalities and procedures for the mechanism’s operation and support. It can involve, as appropriate, existing bodies and expert groups under the Convention, as well as relevant organizations and expert bodies outside the Convention, and be informed by relevant precedents in international law.

      In the Paris agreement, President Tommy Remengesau, Palau, called for inter alia: a regular review process that drives ambition; robust transparency rules; and a permanent loss and damage mechanism.

      Calling for resolute action, President Ameenah Gurib-Fakim, Mauritius, said the Paris agreement should, inter alia: respect and maintain the principles of equity and CBDR; and treat adaptation and loss and damage as separate components of the agreement, anchoring loss and damage in it as a permanent mechanism.

      Prime Minister Enele Sosene Sopoaga, Tuvalu, called for a permanent mechanism for loss and damage to be anchored in the “treaty” and easy access to predictable finance.

    2. Article 7 (technology development and transfer)

      President Ali Bongo Ondimba, Gabon, urged parties to “act in order not to be responsible for something that we still can avoid,” and called for technology transfer in the areas of agriculture, forestry and clean energy, suggesting this is “the price of shared responsibility.”

    3. The nationally determined [mitigation] [contribution] [commitment] shall be legally binding on that Party upon entry into force of this Agreement for that Party.]

      President Vladimir Putin, Russian Federation, highlighted that it is possible to ensure economic development and take care of the environment, saying Russia stands ready to exchange energy efficiency solutions. He called for the new climate agreement to build on the principles of the UNFCCC, be legally-binding and include participation of developing countries.

    4. Progression/ambition Each Party’s successive [NDMC*][INDC] [shall][should][will] represent a progression beyond the Party’s previous efforts and reflect its highest possible ambition [based on common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities [[and] in light of different national circumstances [and best available science]] [based on provision of finance, technology and capacity-building to developing countries].3

      Noting that current INDCs are voluntary and thus far not ambitious enough to attain the 2°C temperature goal, a goal insufficient for small island nations, Chancellor Angela Merkel, Germany, called for a binding review mechanism with a five-year cycle to begin in 2020 to ensure credibility and increased ambition.

    5. equitable distribution of a global carbon budget based on historical responsibilities and [climate] justice]

      President Maithripala Sirisena, Sri Lanka, emphasized the necessity of deep cuts in global emissions, considering the principle of historical responsibility, and said that technology transfer will ensure adaptation and nationally suitable mitigation actions in developing countries.

    6. [the integrity of Mother Earth

      President Evo Morales, Bolivia, shared the outcome of the World People’s Conference on Climate Change and the Rights of Mother Earth, which took place in October 2015, in Cochabamba, Bolivia, and called on COP 21 to address capitalism, which he emphasized as the origin of the climate crisis.

    7. [All Parties [shall] regularly prepare, communicate [and implement] [intended] nationally determined [contributions][components] [on [mitigation] and adaptation] [undertakings in adaptation planning] [and means of implementation]* [towards achieving the [purpose of this Agreement as set out in Article 2] [objective of the Convention as set out in its Article 2],] [in accordance with Article 4 of the Convention] [in accordance with the provisions of this Agreement including the specific provisions related to mitigation and adaptation and means of implementation.]]

      Saying that COP 21 builds on the “historic and bold decisions taken at COP 17,” President Jacob Zuma, South Africa, called for a legally-binding agreement based on equity and differentiation that will enable ambitious action through the provision of means of implementation (MOI).

    8. [For the purpose of meeting a portion of its mitigation commitment under Article 3, any Party may elect to use certified units (CU) generated under the new market-based mechanism defined under decision 2/CP.17, paragraph 83, subject to the adoption by the CMA of modalities and procedures elaborating each of the elements in decision 1/CP.18 paragraph 51, and the adoption of eligibility rules for participation which promote fair and equitable access for all Parties. These modalities and procedures shall ensure that the design and operation of the mechanism delivers net global emission reductions, through the cancellation of a share of units generated, transferred, used or acquired from offsetting activities.]

      President Park Geun-hye, Republic of Korea, underscored the importance of a global carbon market that brings together developed and developing countries.

    9. The purpose of the REDD-plus mechanism shall be to incentivize the reduction of emissions from deforestation and forest degradation and to promote conservation, sustainable management of forests and enhancement of forest carbon stocks in developing countries, while enhancing the non-carbon benefits derived as a result of the multiple functions of forests, including alleviating poverty and building ecosystem resilience.

      President Juan Hernández, Honduras, called for, inter alia, making the Warsaw Framework for REDD+ and WIM binding, and stressed the global average temperature rise should not exceed 1.5°C above the pre-industrial era.

      Prime Minister Erna Solberg, Norway, announced that her country would double its contribution to the GCF by 2020 in the context of verifiable emissions reductions from REDD+.

      President Juan Carlos Varela, Panama, proposed setting up an international center for facilitating a network of public and private actors to combat deforestation, promote sustainable forestry and reduce carbon emissions.

    10. Hold the increase in the global average temperature [below 1.5 °C] [or] [well] [below 2 °C] above preindustrial levels by ensuring deep cuts in global greenhouse gas [net] emissions;

      President Abdel Fattah El Sisi, Egypt, said the new agreement should: not harm African countries’ efforts to eradicate poverty, or their right to develop; be based on the principle of CBDR; include a commitment that global average temperature increase not exceed 1.5°C; and include a global target on adaptation.

      President Christopher Loeak, the Marshall Islands, underscored that current contributions are not enough to limit warming to 1.5°C, saying nations should reset their targets every five years.

      President Uhuru Kenyatta, Kenya, supported a long-term global goal of a maximum 1.5°C temperature increase and continuing the Convention’s financial mechanism and the WIM.

      President Issoufou Mahamadou, Niger, stressed the need for: increased resilience of peoples and ecosystems; ambitious global efforts to limit global temperature rise to below 1.5°C; balancing mitig