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  1. Last 7 days
  2. Jun 2024
    1. Dem Global Energy Monitor zufolge sollen in den kommenden Jahren 1,5 Billionen Dollar in LNG Terminals und Pipelines investiert werden. 20% dieser Summe sind für Europa geplant und hier wiederum ein großer Teil für Anlagen in Griechenland. Die USA lobbyieren in Mittel- und Südosteuropa intensiv, um ihr LNG dort zu verkaufen. Der subventionierte Aufbau von Gasinfrastruktur übersteigt den europäischen Bedarf bei weitem. Reportage in der New York Times zum Gasboom in Griechenland. https://www.nytimes.com/2024/05/31/climate/greece-europe-natural-gas-lng.html

  3. May 2024
    1. Vor dem vierten Treffen der Small Island Developing States hat der Chef der UN-Organisation für Infrastrukturentwicklung Unops dafür plädiert die Schuldensituation dieser Länder zu verändern. Sie haben überproportional sowohl unter Corona wie unter den Folgen der globalen Erhitzung gelitten. Zwischen 2016 und 2020 haben sie 18mal so viel für denSchuldendienst bezahlt als sie an Klimafinanzierung erhalten haben. https://www.theguardian.com/global-development/article/2024/may/27/world-has-moral-responsibility-to-help-small-island-states-survive-climate-crisis-un-agency-chief

    2. 1950. 25 percent of Vanuatus 276,000 citizens lost their homes in 2015 when Cyclone Pam, a category 5 storm, devastated the South Pacific archipelago of 83 islands while wiping out two-thirds of its GDP.
    1. An escrow cache of unverified out-of-order event provides an opportunity for malicious at-tackers to send forged event that may fill up the cache as a type of denial of service attack. Forthis reason escrow caches are typically FIFO (first-in-first-out) where older events are flushed tomake room for newer events.

      This may misfire, when there's a ton of valid events to sync, whose amount is greater than the cache limit.

      May happen when adding a new witness, requiring to sync the entire history. (do we need to provide it the entire history though? only the last not-yet-verified events are of interest for the controller to be signed by the witness)

    2. Event escrow isan optional implementation specific configurable capability of controllers and witnesses imple-mentations
    1. In Frankreich beginnt in dieser Woche eine öffentliche Debatte um ein großes lithium-bergbauprojekt im zentralmassiv. Der umfassende Artikel beleuchtet eine Vielzahl von Aspekten des lithium-Abbaus und der zunehmenden Opposition dagegen, die eng mit dem Kampf gegen die individuelle motorisierte Mobilität verbunden ist. https://www.liberation.fr/environnement/climat/course-au-lithium-made-in-france-une-opportunite-a-saisir-ou-un-mirage-ecologique-20240310_FQOVXTBNKJC5NJ7EZI2UQKOAIY/in

    1. Der französische Präsident Macron hat in einer "Rede zur ökologischen Planung" dargestellt, wie Frankreich bis 2030 138 Millionen Tonnen CO2-Emissionen einsparen soll. Einige der Maßnahmen, z.b Förderung der Telearbeit Carsharing und Unterstützung des Leasing von Elektroautos, sind entschiedener als in vielen anderen Staaten. Insgesamt schätzen Fachleute die Maßnahmen aber als zu vorsichtig und zum Teil sogar als Verwässerung früher angekündigter Schritte ein. https://www.liberation.fr/politique/en-direct-suivez-le-conseil-de-planification-ecologique-et-le-discours-demmanuel-macron-20230925_R24KBBQHMFBNJDH2457O7LDNMU/

      Text und Video der Rede: https://www.elysee.fr/emmanuel-macron/2023/09/25/conseil-de-planification-ecologique

    1. Die Vereinigten Arabischen Emirate und andere Petrostaaten versuchen offen, die Öl- und Gasindustrie in eine Schlüsselrolle im COP-Prozess zu bringen. Propagandistisch wird das u.a. durch eine Bot-Armee auf Twitter unterstützt. Die UAE haben gerade die Zustimmung der OPEC zur Erschließung umfangreicher weiterer Öl- und Gaslager erhalten. https://www.nytimes.com/2023/06/14/climate/oil-fossil-fuel-climate-cop28.html

    1. In Afrika ist Gasinfrastruktur für 245 Milliarden Dollar geplant Vanessa Nakate ruft die westlichen Staaten auf, Afrika bei der Entwicklung erneuerbarer Energien zu unterstützen, statt Erdgasvorräte zu erschließen, Abhängigkeit und Verschmutzung zu steigern und die Klimakrise noch weiter zu verschärfen. Nakate argumentiert auch damit, dass nach dem neuesten IEA Report bereits 2025 ein Erdgasüberschuss herrschen wird. Nur 2% der Investitionen in Erneuerbare gehen im Augenblick nach Afrika https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2023/oct/27/rich-countries-fossil-fuels-africa-renewables-gas-climate

    1. Bei der Vorbereitung der COP28 in Bonn geht es nach wie vor vor allem um die Fixierung der Themen der Klimakonferenz. Ein neues Gutachten stellt fest, dass sich die großen Ölkonzerne nicht an die Vorgaben des Pariser Klimaabkommens halten.

    1. However, certain algo-rithms executed on the MEG do not scale well with thenumber of parent events, i.e., they can become very re-source intensive, especially when old parts of the MEGare referenced as parents [8]. In practice, the maximumnumber of parent events therefore has to be restrictedto a finite value d.
    1. If authentication of updates is desired, i.e. if it is importantto know which node generated which update, then updatescan additionally be cryptographically signed. However, thisis not necessary for achieving Strong Eventual Consistency
    2. Consequently, if updateu2 depends on update u1, it could happen that somenodes deliver u1 before u2 and hence process bothupdates correctly, but other nodes may try to deliveru2 and fail because they have not yet delivered u1. Thissituation also leads to divergence.

      I.e., linking by non-content-based id is not BFT.

    3. Say a Byzantine node generates twodifferent updates u1 and u2 that create two differentitems with the same ID. If a node has already deliveredu1 and then subsequently delivers u2, the update u2will be rejected, but a node that has not previously de-livered u1 may accept u2. Since one node accepted u2and the other rejected it, those nodes fail to converge,even if we have eventual delivery

      I.e., giving nodes IDs that are not content-based is not BFT strategy.

    1. In den Ländern, die sich in Paris 2015 einer Initiative gegen das Verbrennen von nicht genutztem Erdgas (flaring) angeschlossen hatten, wird das Verbrennen mit offener Flamme oft nur durch Verbrennung in geschlossenen Anlagen ersetzt, wie eine investigative journalistische Recherche ergab. Die Menge der Emissionen sinkt dadurch nicht wesentlich, aber diese Anlagen sind für Satelliten nicht äußerlich erkennbar. https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2024/may/02/methane-emissions-gas-flaring-hidden-satellite-monitors-oil-gas

      Ressourcen für die Recherche zu Methan-Emissionen: https://gijn.org/resource/new-tools-investigate-methane-emissions/

  4. Apr 2024
    1. Eine Gruppe von NGOs hat ein Konzept für eine Klimaschaden-Steuer ausgearbeitet, zu der Öl- und Gasgesellschaften ausgehend vom von ihnen verursachten CO2-Ausstoß herangezogen würden. Würde die Steuer in den OECD-Ländern mit 5$ pro Kilotonne CO2 beginnen und sich jährlich um weitere 5$ erhöhen, stünden 2030 jährlich 900 Milliarden $ vor allem für den Loss and Damage Fund zur Verfügung, der bei der COP28 beschlossen wurde.

      https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2024/apr/29/taxing-big-fossil-fuel-firms-raise-billions-climate-finance

      Bericht: https://www.greenpeace.fr/wp-content/uploads/2024/03/CDT_guide_2024_embargoed_version.pdf

    1. Eine extreme Hitzewelle hat in der Sahelzone Hunderte, wahrscheinlich Tausende Menschenleben gefordert. World Weather Attribution zufolge ist die Höhe der Temperaturen eindeutig auf die globale Erhitzung durch Treibhausgase zurückzuführen. https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2024/apr/18/lethal-heatwave-in-sahel-worsened-by-fossil-fuel-burning-study-finds

      Zur Studie: https://www.worldweatherattribution.org/extreme-sahel-heatwave-that-hit-highly-vulnerable-population-at-the-end-of-ramadan-would-not-have-occurred-without-climate-change/

    1. The consensus is reached in the same way as fortransactions i.e. using hasgraph consensus algorithm. The onlydifference is, that the concerning events in the hashgraph nowcontain other type of data instead of transactions

      Not necessarily, how to store received events is an implementation detail. One could dump them in an array on a side. Can be as efficient as array of pointers to events. Where idx of this array is event's position in total order.

    Tags

    Annotators

    1. In WhatsApp, members of a group must trust the serviceto correctly identify the member who authored an utterance, and utterances forwarded from onegroup to another have no credible attribution or context

      ^

    2. In existing social networks, utterances by members do not carry intrinsic attribution orprovenance. Hence, Twitter members must trust the social network operator to correctly identifythe authorship of a tweet

      ^

    3. As a screenshot with a tweet could easily be a fake, an author of a tweetcan later repudiate it simply by deleting it, and no proof that the tweet ever existed can be provided,except perhaps by the operator itself.

      ^

    1. The block content isa pair 퐶 = (푣, 푃) of an arbitrary value 푣 (the block payload)and a set 푃 of the block identities of the predecessors of 푏

      Since signature carries ID, referring by hash will not capture ID, wheres referring by ID will. Interesting approach.

    2. the block is valid: valid(푣, ≺푏),using the definition of valid provided by the data type

      ^ I.e., we need to ensure validity of block's ops. This is a datatype-specific validation.

    1. Die Wirtschaftsminister Deutschlands, Frankreich und Italiens, die sich an Montag in Brüssel getroffen haben, sind sich in der Forderung nach einer gemeinsamen europäischen Industriepolitik einig. Die Energiewende spielt darin eine entscheidende Rolle. Bei vielen damit verbundenen Fragen, z.B. nach der Subventionierung der Solarindustrie, besteht aber Uneinigkeit. In ihrem Bericht bezieht sich die Repubblica vor allem auf eine Analyse des Thinktanks Bruegel.

      Bruegel-Analyse: https://www.bruegel.org/first-glance/smart-solar-strategy-europe

    1. Die EU hat nicht erreicht, dass Mittel aus dem Inflation Reduction Act auch zur Subventionierung des Kaufs von aus der EU gelieferten privaten E-Autos verwendet werden. Bei der Entscheidung der USA, die in der EU-Wirtschaft vielfach als protektionistisch bewertet wird, spielt die Herkunft von Mineralien eine große Rolle. Die Verhandlungen über das Critical Minerals Agreement (CMA) führten nicht zu einer Einigung. Der Handelsblatt-Artikel stellt den komplexen Hintergrund ausführlich dar und berichtet auch über weitere Verhandlungen.

      https://www.handelsblatt.com/politik/international/ira-deutsche-autobauer-gehen-amerikanischen-milliarden-subventionen-leer-aus/100030133.html

    1. Bei der CERAWeek energy conference in Houston hat Aramco-Chef Amin Nasser unter Applaus dazu aufgerufen, die „Phantasie des Ausstiegs aus Öl und Gas“ aufzugeben. Die Energeiwende versage offensichtlich an den meisten Fronten. Das editoral board der Financial Times hält ihm die Temeperatur-Anomalien von 2023 entgegegen und verweist auf die Vermutung des NASA-Klimwissenschaftlers Gavin Schmidt, dass die Temeperaturentwicklungen seit 2023 auf eine nie dagewesenen Wissenslücke verweise und möglicherweise eine noch schnellere Erwärmung als bisher angenommen drohe. https://www.ft.com/content/6f858196-0a9c-4f0f-9720-a0a81849a998?accessToken=zwAAAY5x7Qlrkc9vhYGWCpxPD9OXIKCoGEmpmA.MEYCIQD3Tlyt5FrtHJnm7VkPQE0XYlj70r33jdeNBKWwre8I6AIhAP4kgVxDwXt_B_DxPSCCh_SLm696XOrWhri3AqJc8ZQG&segmentId=e95a9ae7-622c-6235-5f87-51e412b47e97&shareType=enterprise

  5. Mar 2024
  6. Feb 2024
    1. The vernacular tag, at least in Berlin, of Reichskristallnacht, or“night of shattered glass,” to designate what should be considered anationwide pogrom against more than 300,000 Germans Jews inNovember 1938, was inflected with sardonic humor, which mockedthe pretentiousness of Nazi vocabulary in which Reich-this andReich-that puffed up the historical moment of the regime
    2. The startling events of the spring of 1933, when more andmore Germans realized that they were not supposed to shop inJewish stores and when German companies felt compelled to fireJewish employees and remove Jewish businessmen from corporateboards, moved Germany quite some distance toward the ultimategoal of “Aryanizing” the German economy.
    3. May 1933 phy-sicians in Bremen called for comprehensive legislation to enablethe state to sterilize genetically unfit people
    4. The Ahnenpass enabled the Nazi regime to enforce the Septem-ber 1935 Nuremberg racial law
    5. In September 1939, after the invasion of Po-land, unter uns became legally enforced Aryan space when a decreeprohibited Jews from owning or listening to radios;
    6. Two days after the Day of Potsdam, the Nazis won passageof the Enabling Act. Supported by all the parties except the SocialDemocrats (Communist deputies had been banned), it provided thelegal framework for dictatorship
    7. the national sports competition organized by the Hit-ler Youth enrolled seven million boys and girls in 1939, twice asmany as in 1935, and provided opportunities to achieve distinc-tion.
    8. a ministerial committeeon “population and race,” which met on 28 June 1933 to draftcomprehensive racial legislation giving the state the right to sterilizecitizens
    9. On 7 April 1933 the government drew up the“Law for the Restoration of the Professional Civil Service,” whichforcibly retired all Jewish civil servants in addition to providing thelegal means to dismiss political opponents of the regime.
    10. In January 1935, huge fanfare welcomedthe Reich’s incorporation of the Saar region, where over 90 percentof the population had voted for reintegration into Germany in aLeague of Nations referendum
    11. Evenbefore Hitler spoke (8:00 p.m.), the choreography of May Day hadfastened the links between workers and the nation, between ma-chinists and machine-age dreams, between technical mastery andnational prowess
    12. This is thesignificance of the Day of Potsdam: the images of unity were madeavailable for national consumption. The growth in radio ownershipespecially in 1933 and 1934 indicates how great the desire was topartake in Nazi spectacle, although the fact that radios remainedmuch less common in rural areas
    13. Socialists around the worldhad celebrated May Day as a festival of labor since the 1880s; butin Germany they had failed to get the official recognition the Nazisnow offered. So strong were the hopes for national unity that theGerman Free Trade Unions welcomed the Nazi gesture and encour-aged members to participate in the celebrations.
    14. the stunning media spectacle of thespeeches and celebrations of 1 May also contrasted with 2 May,when stormtroopers sealed off and took over the operations of thesocialist Free Trade Unions and incorporated them into what be-came the German Labor Front, an integral part of the National So-cialist apparatus.
    15. The construction of the firstconcentration camps to media fanfare in March 1933, and therapid migration of the shorthand kz, for Konzentrationslager, intoordinary speech, left the public well aware that Nazis recognizedonly friends or foes;

      konzentrationslager (kz) - concentration camps

    16. Held on 21 March 1933 in Potsdam’s Garnisonkirche, whereFrederick the Great lay buried, the Day of Potsdam aligned Hit-ler with revered Prussian traditions, the Hohenzollern dynasty andthe founding of the German Reich some sixty years earlier, andthe heroic sacrifices of the Great War, represented by the “hero ofTannenberg,” President Paul von Hindenburg,
    17. the officially organized boycott of Jewish businesses on 1April 1933 required a more considered answer. Elisabeth beganwith a concession, contrasting the “happiness” of the world-histor-ical events taking place in Germany with her “sympathy” for “thefate of the individual.”
    18. sincediscussions about Jewish suffering frequently switched to the sub-ject of German suffering: “Versailles” had taken the “opportunitiesfor life” away from Germans, who were now “completely under-standably” fighting back on behalf of their “own sons.”

      "versailles" refers to the treaty of versailles, which placed the debt of ww1 on germany and tanked the economy.

  7. Jan 2024
  8. Dec 2023
    1. next year we we'll know whether your your your numbers are right in your pipeline paper around May of next year 01:46:30 and then it's going to be a very warm year it's going to be a lot of Destruction then we need we need to see how far the temperature Falls with the elino with the linia that follows but I 01:46:42 I expect it's not going to fall as much as you would otherwise have expected because of the large planetary energy balance there's more energy coming in than going out so it's hard for the 01:46:55 linia to cool it off as much as it used to
      • for:May 2024 - James Hansen prediction, extreme weather event - May 2024 - Hansen 2023 paper, prediction - extreme weather 2024
  9. Nov 2023
    1. Das deutsche Bundesverfassungsgericht hat untersagt, dass 60 Milliarden Euro, die ursprünglich für Corona-Hilfen vorgesehen waren aber nicht abgerufen worden, für Klimaschutz- und andere Projekte benutzt werden. Die im deutschen Grundgesetz festgelegte Schuldenbremse dürfe so nicht umgangen werden. Damit ist die deutsche Bundesregierung zu einer Neu-Festlegung ihrer Klimapolitik gezwungen, die zu erheblichen Konflikten zwischen den Ampelparteien führen dürfte.https://www.derstandard.de/story/3000000195316/gericht-stoppt-finanztrick-der-deutschen-ampel

    1. Splitting a “transaction” into a mul-tistage pipeline of stream processors allows each stage to make progress based only on local data; it ensures that one partition is never blocked waiting for communication or coordination with another partition.

      Event logs allow for gradual processing of events.

    2. A subscriber periodically check-points the latest LSN it has processed to stable storage. When a subscriber crashes, upon recovery it resumes pro-cessing from the latest checkpointed LSN. Thus, a subscriber may process some events twice (those processed between the last checkpoint and the crash), but it never skips any events. Events in the log are processed at least once by each subscriber.

    Tags

    Annotators

    1. Partially ordered event-based systems are well placed to supportsuch branching-and-merging workflows, since they already makedata changes explicit in the form of events, and their support forconcurrent updates allows several versions of a dataset to coexistside-by-side.

      Event-based systems allow for divergent views as first-class citizens.

    2. in Git terms, one user can create a branch (a setof commits that are not yet part of the main document version),and another user can choose whether to merge it

      Users are empowered to create composed views out of events of their choice.

      I.e., collaboration as composition.

      I.e., divergent views as first-class citizens.

    3. compute the differencesbetween versions of the document to visualise the change history
    4. we can reconstruct the state of thedocument at any past moment in time
    5. an initial event represents only the intention toperform a certain action
    6. Moreover, if processing an event may have external side-effectsbesides updating a replica state – for example, if it may trigger anemail to be sent – then the time warp approach requires some wayof undoing or compensating for those side-effects in the case wherea previously processed event is affected by a late-arriving eventwith an earlier timestamp. It is not possible to un-send an emailonce it has been sent, but it is possible to send a follow-up emailwith a correction, if necessary. If the possibility of such correctionsis unacceptable, optimistic replication cannot be used, and SMR oranother strongly consistent approach must be used instead. In manybusiness systems, corrections or apologies arise from the regularcourse of business anyway [27], so maybe occasional correctionsdue to out-of-order events are also acceptable in practice.
    7. If permanent deletion of records is required (e.g. to delete per-sonal data in compliance with the GDPR right to be forgotten [62]),an immutable event log requires extra care.
    8. In applications with a high rate of events, storing and replaying thelog may be expensive
    9. the level of indirection between the event log andthe resulting database state adds complexity in some types of appli-cations that are more easily expressed in terms of state mutations
    10. itis less familiar to most application developers than mutable-statedatabases
    11. it is easy to maintain severaldifferent views onto the same underlying event log if needed
    12. If the applicationdevelopers wish to change the logic for processing an event, forexample to change the resulting database schema or to fix a bug,they can set up a new replica, replay the existing event log usingthe new processing function, switch clients to reading from thenew replica instead of the old one, and then decommission theold replica [34].
    13. well-designed events oftencapture the intent and meaning of operations better than eventsthat are a mere side-effect of a state mutation [68].
    1. where the Indians shall have the same benefit, Advantages and Priviledges, as anyothers of His Majesty's Subjects

      While the Wabanaki/Mi'kmaq cede sovereignty over dispute-resolution to the British courts (and by extension gain rights within British Common Law), by virtue of the wording in this sentence, they have not ceded their absolute sovereignty.

      I conclude this since they continue to use a separate legal term "Indian" for the Mi'kmaq rather than describing them as "British Subjects".

      This further suggests, as with the 1725 treaty, that from the British perspective the Wabanaki nations are entering into either a sub-sovereign status or a transnational status. I am hesistant to assert that the Wabanaki share this sentiment, but I am confident in asserting that the British do not consider them to be either British Subjects or a vassal nation.

    2. first day of October Yearly, so long as they shall Continue inFriendship, Receive Presents of Blankets, Tobacco, and some Powder & Shot; and the saidIndians promise once every Year, upon the first of October to come by themselves or theirDelegates and Receive the said Presents and Renew their Friendship and Submissions

      Again, the British are now pledging to arm the Mi'kmaq as the French had done previously. Building upon their policy of replacing the French King in relations with Wabanaki.

      Given that the Wabanaki are presumably willing to establish such a relationship would suggest a shift in their foreign policy as well.

    3. That a Quantity of Bread, Flour, & such other Provisions as can be procured, necessary for theFamilys, and proportionable to the number of the said Indians, shall be given them half yearlyfor the time to come;

      Any nation which signs this treaty will gain the benefit of economic support from the British King. This was a role previously played by their amicable relationship with the French King, given that the missionary documents recorded such a practice.

      This suggests a shift in British policy wherein they wish to become the "patron's" of the Indigenous nations while the Wabanaki appear to be more amenable to the British (whether willingly or by coercion).

    4. It is agreed that the said Tribe of Indians shall not be hindered from, but have free liberty ofHunting & Fishing as usual

      Two things occur to me with this passage. Firstly, this is something the Mi'kmaq have actively asked for and the British have conceded ("It is agreed..." suggests that both parties have concluded this together to the benefit of the Mi'kmaq).

      Secondly, this is a positive right for the Mi'kmaq and a restriction of British liberty. Mi'kmaw hunters and fishers are free to exercise their right to hunting and fishing throughout Mi'kma'ki and now the British are restricted from obstructing this practice. This was one of the primary disputes the Mi'kmaq had with the founding of Halifax overtop Kjipuktuk.

    5. be buried in Oblivion with theHatchet

      The British invoke a concept from the Haudenosaunee and their Great Law of Peace. Without digressing too much, the Haudenosaunee first confederated by quite literally "burying their hatchets" and affirming a permanent state of peace between the 5 founding nations of the confederation.

      I imagine the British, being traditional allies of the Haudenosaunee, are either invoking this concept or otherwise agreeing to the Wabanaki's invocation of it. This suggests something both deeper and grander than the wording used in the previous treaty of 1725.

    6. Renewed, Reiterated,and forever Confirmed by them and their Tribe;

      While the overall language of this document suggests the submission of the Wabanaki, and thus suggests that they have lost the war to the British, the fact that the previous treaty is "Renewed, Reiterated, and forever Confirmed" might very well be a compromise from the British as well.

      The justification for war given by the Wabanaki in July of 1721 mentions British violations of this treaty. Presuming that they either have no objections to the terms of this treaty or have otherwise amended them through the other terms of this treaty suggests to me that it is in the interests of the Wabanaki to renew this older treaty.

    1. all the Captives taken

      The wording of "all captives" suggests both captives of the British and of the Wabanaki. This is likely a concession to the Wabanaki Confederacy from the British as European powers would traditionally hold hostages as ensurances of peace.

      One of the reasons the Wabanaki entered this war was due to a hostage not being returned after payment was duly rendered (28 July 1721). The fact that the British do not repeat this policy suggests that they have conceded to a request from the Wabanaki.

    2. They being now Sensibleof the Miseries and Troubles they have Involved themselves in, and being Desirous to berestored to his Majesty's Grace and Favour and to live in Peace

      The British characterise the Wabanaki as being the party responsible for the war and suggest that they had previously been in the good graces of the British King.

      This clause also suggests that the Wabanaki have acknowledged this responsibility and indicates that this acknowledgement is a condition of the treaty.