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  1. Nov 2023
    1. Moreover, if processing an event may have external side-effectsbesides updating a replica state – for example, if it may trigger anemail to be sent – then the time warp approach requires some wayof undoing or compensating for those side-effects in the case wherea previously processed event is affected by a late-arriving eventwith an earlier timestamp. It is not possible to un-send an emailonce it has been sent, but it is possible to send a follow-up emailwith a correction, if necessary. If the possibility of such correctionsis unacceptable, optimistic replication cannot be used, and SMR oranother strongly consistent approach must be used instead. In manybusiness systems, corrections or apologies arise from the regularcourse of business anyway [27], so maybe occasional correctionsdue to out-of-order events are also acceptable in practice.