164 Matching Annotations
  1. Jul 2021
  2. Jun 2021
    1. The problem is, algorithms were never designed to handle such tough choices. They are built to pursue a single mathematical goal, such as maximizing the number of soldiers’ lives saved or minimizing the number of civilian deaths. When you start dealing with multiple, often competing, objectives or try to account for intangibles like “freedom” and “well-being,” a satisfactory mathematical solution doesn’t always exist.

      We do better with algorithms where the utility function can be expressed mathematically. When we try to design for utility/goals that include human values, it's much more difficult.

    2. many other systems that are already here or not far off will have to make all sorts of real ethical trade-offs

      And the problem is that, even human beings are not very sensitive to how this can be done well. Because there is such diversity in human cultures, preferences, and norms, deciding whose values to prioritise is problematic.

    1. we propose that the value of a well-run journal does not lie simply in providing publication technologies, but in the user community itself. Journals should be seen as a technology of social production and not as a communication technology.

      Such a powerful shift.

  3. May 2021
    1. career capital

      You must first generate this capital by becoming good at something rare and valuable. It is something that makes you hard to replace and is therefore the result of putting effort into developing skills that differentiate you from others.

      Newport, C. (2016). Deep Work: Rules for Focused Success in a Distracted World (1 edition). Grand Central Publishing.

  4. Apr 2021
  5. Mar 2021
    1. easily exploited by a bullshitter. To counter this,organizations should only establish committees andhave meetings when there are clear terms ofreference, a value-adding agenda, and the rightattendees who can contribute to the desiredagenda. More simply, the need for a meeting shouldbe questioned unless an important decision needs tobe made.
    1. Gupta, R. K., Marks, M., Samuels, T. H. A., Luintel, A., Rampling, T., Chowdhury, H., Quartagno, M., Nair, A., Lipman, M., Abubakar, I., Smeden, M. van, Wong, W. K., Williams, B., & Noursadeghi, M. (2020). Systematic evaluation and external validation of 22 prognostic models among hospitalised adults with COVID-19: An observational cohort study. MedRxiv, 2020.07.24.20149815. https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.07.24.20149815

  6. Feb 2021
    1. So, where did J.C. Penney go wrong? Well, while we admire their attempt to change, they attempted to destroy over a century’s worth of price conditioning consumers have been through with department stores and pricing in general. They weren’t completely off base, as consumers with more and more access to information (comparison shopping engines, consumer reports, etc.), are beginning to realize that the value of products is determined much differently than a sticker would suggest. Yet, assuming that most soccer moms (and dads) wouldn’t fall prey to the colorful print ads tucked within the comics section in the Sunday paper, overlooks how much the majority of consumers value “winning” the retail game. Simply, deflating the perceived value causes customers to value the actual product less.
    2. Almost no one ever pays full price. In fact, studies show that people are much more inclined to pay $25 for an item valued at $50, than paying for the same item without a sale at $25. It’s all about the “price framing” of a product that creates a perceived value, which all leads to the excitement of getting a good deal
    1. Or you can use Maybe container! It consists of Some and Nothing types, representing existing state and empty (instead of None) state respectively.
    1. Let’s start with the same number dividing example, which returns 0 when the error happens. Maybe instead we can indicate that the result was not successful without any explicit numerical value?
    2. You can use container values, that wraps actual success or error value into a thin wrapper with utility methods to work with this value. That’s exactly why we have created @dry-python/returns project. So you can make your functions return something meaningful, typed, and safe.
    1. this implies direct work with nil-able values which may end up with errors.
    2. To get the final value you can use value_or which is a safe way to unwrap a nil-able value.
    1. In the telecommunications industry, on a conceptual level, value-added services add value to the standard service offering, spurring subscribers to use their phone more and allowing the operator to drive up their average revenue per user.
    2. For mobile phones, technologies like SMS, MMS and data access were historically usually considered value-added services, but in recent years SMS, MMS and data access have more and more become core services, and VAS therefore has begun to exclude those services.
    1. Blockchain is tackling value industries like financial services and supply chains. These are far larger than information industries like media and publishing, and so the impact of blockchain will be that much greater, and so potentially will the aggregate value. Sometimes the saying goes, "We need a little irrational exuberance to build the future."

      Blockchain is looking beyond information. Blockchain is looking for value

    1. Tools for determining the value of a keywordHow much value would a keyword add to your website? These tools can help you answer that question, so they’d make great additions to your keyword research arsenal:

      With so many tools to determine the value of a keyword, which one do you recommend is the most beneficial and accurate? I struggle with the trial and error aspect of audience acquisition and engagement. With so many great tools available at our fingertips, which I was unaware of until this course, how do we know which tool to use? Do these tools contradict each other?

  7. Jan 2021
  8. Dec 2020
  9. Nov 2020
    1. There are different schools of thought in the realm of productivity.

      The energy school focuses on optimizing your energy levels. The focus school is all about getting into and staying in flow. The efficiency school is obsessed with the logistics of work.

      Tiago positions his philosophy as the value school: Making sure you deliver value after every block of work by delivering, what Tiago calls, Intermediate Packets.

      He draws parallels to Just In Time production from Toyota and Continuous Integration in software development.

      Intermediate Packets is continuous integration for knowledge work.

  10. Oct 2020
    1. By default all content inside template strings is escaped. This is great for strings, but not ideal if you want to insert HTML that's been returned from another function (for example: a markdown renderer). Use nanohtml/raw for to interpolate HTML directly.
    1. Reversing the trend toward privatization will thus require not just massive public mobilization and demand of elected officials, but also a hard turn away from efficiency as a primary value, a recognition that the building of relationships and the cultivation of care is slow and difficult and of necessity inefficient. In fact, that its value lies in its inefficiency — but making the case for such inefficiency as a necessary value requires a lot of effort, and a lot of caution.

      There's a kernel here of something about the value of links (social, business, etc.) as put forward by Cesar Hidalgo in Why Information Grows. Where is the real value? How can it best be extracted? Built up? Having a more direct means of valuing these otherwise seeming intangibles will be important in the future.

    1. Gradually, we begin to conflate visibility with value. If something is being talked about and seen, we assume that it must be important in some way. – An Illustrated Guide to Guy Debord’s ‘The Society of the Spectacle’

      And in an over-saturated media space, this is exactly the sort of thing that lands us a narcissistic and incompetent president.

    1. Is it possible to avoid the public goods problem altogether?

      As Lynne Kelly indicates, knowledge is a broad public good, so it is kept by higher priests and only transferred in private ceremonies to the initiated in indigenous cultures. In many senses, we've brought the value of specific information down dramatically, but there's also so much of it now, even with writing and better dissemination, it's become more valuable again.

      I should revisit the economics of these ideas and create a model/graph of this idea over history with knowledge, value, and time on various axes.

    1. To get the best performance for my dollar, I restricted my search to used CPUs, released four to eight years ago.

      🙇 boom

      didn't realize that the modern era had expanded as such. this is way more modern than i knew was accessible.

    1. Returning null defers to other resolveId functions and eventually the default resolution behavior; returning false signals that source should be treated as an external module and not included in the bundle.

      I like how null and false, although both falsy, can be treated differently when a useful need for such distinction, such as this case, arises.

  11. Sep 2020
    1. Your problem is that you were returning the rejected loginDaoCall, not the promise where the error was already handled. loginApi.login(user, password) did indeed return a rejected promise, and even while that was handled in another branch, the promise returned by the further .then() does also get rejected and was not handled.
    1. Natalie E. Dean en Twitter: “VACCINE EFFICACY 101: A biostatistician's primer. Ten tweets to cover:- How is vaccine efficacy calculated?- Distinguishing between infection, disease, & severe disease.- Measuring reduced infectiousness.- Vaccine efficacy vs. effectiveness!n” / Twitter. (n.d.). Twitter. Retrieved September 30, 2020, from https://twitter.com/nataliexdean/status/1310613702476017666

    1. Mark the schema as required. All field values apart from undefined and null meet this requirement.
    2. The same as the mixed() schema required, except that empty strings are also considered 'missing' values.
    1. Customers care more about the value our application adds to their lives than the programming language or framework the application is built with. Visible Technical Debt such as bugs and missing features and poor performance takes precedence over Hidden Technical Debt such as poor test code coverage, modularity or removing dead code
  12. Aug 2020
  13. Jul 2020
  14. Jun 2020
  15. May 2020
  16. Apr 2020
    1. You are qualified and responsible, but not everyone will see what you bring. Only the people who get you, deserve you. Why waste your time with the rest?
    1. From my perspective this would at least require a deep change in how we measure value, define labor and organize the financial system.

      Yes, and maybe more importantly in what we value - not just how we measure it.

  17. Mar 2020
    1. The equality of all sorts of human labour is expressed objectively by their products all being equally values; the measure of the expenditure of labour power by the duration of that expenditure, takes the form of the quantity of value of the products of labour; and finally the mutual relations of the producers, within which the social character of their labour affirms itself, take the form of a social relation between the products.

      Every form of particular, useful labor, that which directs physiological energy towards specific outcomes, is grouped under the category of "abstract labor" under capitalism. The magnitude and duration of "abstract labor" is expressed as exchange value in commodities, which brings products into reducible, quantifiable relation to each other. It is because commodities are all equal to each other insofar as they are bearers of quantifiable exchange value that so many forms of human labor are equated as different magnitudes and durations of "abstract labor" (many value-form theorists and value critics have argued that "labor" as such is not a transhistorical category, but only a category under capitalism by virtue of its being the source of exchange value). The distribution of value amongst commodities indexes and organizes the division and distribution of labor, and this is what Marx means when he writes that "the mutual relations of the producers, [...] take the form of a social relation between the products." That "social relation" is the relation between producers, which is determined by the relations of value between commodities produced for the market.

  18. Feb 2020
    1. The coat is a use value that satisfies a particular want

      Marx: "Yesterday I pawned a coat dating back to my Liverpool days in order to buy writing paper" (Karl Marx and Frederick Engels, Collected Works, vol. 38 [1852-55]: 221).

      On the significance of Marx's coat, see Peter Stallybrass, “Marx’s Coat,” in Border Fetishisms: Material Objects in Unstable Spaces, ed. Patricia Spyer (New York: Routledge, 1998): 183–207. [PDF].

    2. Exchange value

      Exchange value appears as the property of a commodity that is exchangeable for other commodities. It also presupposes societies who produce commodities and exchange them. While all societies have things with use values, exchange value is relative to a specific time and place.

      Additionally, exchanging commodities must also presupposes a way to determine proportionality between different commodities, so that they can be exchanged in the first place.

      Exchange therefore requires some other measure that stands above the two commodities meant to be exchanged. If there were no ways in which iron and corn were found similar to a society, for example, then we would not exchange them and they would have no exchange value.

      Marx will contend that what each commodity must contain crystalized within it is value (formally) and that the substance of value is labor (viz. the common factor of both iron and corn is labor). Marx will call this kind of labor abstract labor.

    3. Section 1. The Two Factors of a Commodity, Use-Value and Value

      Marx's analysis of a capitalist system begins by postulating that it's fundamentally composed of units called commodities.

      In the capitalist system commodities have two features.

      1. They are produced

      2. They are produced by capitalists

      Capitalists produce commodities by employing workers to produce them.

      In this section, Marx begins his analysis of the first feature of the capitalist system (viz. that it is commodity producing). Workers and capitalists will not appear in Marx's analysis for several more chapters.

    4. A commodity, such as iron, corn, or a diamond, is therefore, so far as it is a material thing, a use value, something useful

      What commodities are thought to be useful for or not is irrelevant to Marx at this very early stage of his analysis, even from a moral point of view. Diamonds satisfy a need in some societies at specific times and places the same as corn or iron.

  19. Jan 2020
    1. We tend to treat our knowledge as personal property to be protected and defended. It is an ornament that allows us to rise in the pecking order.
  20. Dec 2019
    1. Arguably, the rails-team's choice of raising ArgumentError instead of validation error is correct in the sense that we have full control over what options a user can select from a radio buttons group, or can select over a select field, so if a programmer happens to add a new radio button that has a typo for its value, then it is good to raise an error as it is an application error, and not a user error. However, for APIs, this will not work because we do not have any control anymore on what values get sent to the server.
    2. liberal_enum :kind
    1. When the controller creates the user, instead of adding a validation error to the record, it raises an exception. How to avoid this?
    2. I really dislike the reasoning as stated in the issue listed above. Since the value is coming over the wire, it should be treated the same as a freetext input where the expectation is to validate in the model and not the controller. This is especially true in APIs where the developers have even less of a say as far as expected input coming from form data (for example).
    3. In case anyone wants a hack, here is what I came up with.
  21. Nov 2019
    1. In the React rendering lifecycle, the value attribute on form elements will override the value in the DOM. With an uncontrolled component, you often want React to specify the initial value, but leave subsequent updates uncontrolled. To handle this case, you can specify a defaultValue attribute instead of value.
  22. Oct 2019
    1. But an idea, unfortunately, is worth nothing. Less, even, than the paper it’s written on (idea guys love restaurant napkins).

      It depends on the man with the idea, I think, and his influence over peers and colleagues.

  23. Sep 2019
    1. Estimated economic benefit of data linkage

      the potential value from linking Census data to administrative data sets is only beginning to be realised and holds immense potential.(In other work for the Population Health Research Network, Lateral Economics concluded that data linkage generated over $16 for every dollar invested).

    2. Economic benefit of the Census.

      Our estimates suggest the benefits of running the Census easily outweigh its costs in the order of$6 of economic value for each $1 it costs. On this reckoning, the cost of the Census would have to rise to six times its current cost –to around $3 billion every five years –before it startedto become cost ineffective

    1. One notable barrier that has prevented faculty from adopting OER is concerns about the quality of the materials. The present study extends upon a growing body of research indicating that OER are not perceived to be lower in quality than traditional textbooks.

      I have trouble believing many faculty members will be swayed by undergraduate students' perceptions of quality. There's a difference to be explored in "quality of disciplinary content in the abstract" vs. "quality as a study aid for this particular course."

      This is of course a broader concern for advocacy for OERs, not a critique of this particular study.

    2. One reason why the students assigned open textbooks may use those textbooks more is that they perceive a greater need for/relevance of their textbook relative to those assigned traditional textbooks

      The absence of the teacher here seems like an issue. To what extent may the students have come up with that perception on their own, or might they perceive it because the teacher told them about the work involved in vetting this particular textbook? What, if anything, did the traditional textbook teachers say?

      (Further down the paragraph it's made clear that the OERs were adapted to be more relevant, which I agree is part of the attraction of OERs and including that is fair. But I'd still like to know what the teachers said in class about it, if anything.)

    3. students taking classes in the classroom report significantly higher rates of underutilized textbooks than those taking classes online

      Seems to hint to me that on-campus students may be receiving (or perceiving) a superior level of instructor support (thereby making the textbook less relevant). Interesting responsibility for F2F faculty and interesting possible criticism of the level of instructor support provided to online students.

    4. and students assigned an open textbook reported a significantly higher percentage of underutilized textbooks (M = 52.20, SE = 1.38) than those assigned a traditional textbook (M = 48.44, SE = 1.21)

      Students who have been primed with the knowledge that this course uses a lower-cost OER text are more critical of textbook price vs use in other courses?

  24. Aug 2019