155 Matching Annotations
  1. Last 7 days
    1. Gupta, R. K., Marks, M., Samuels, T. H. A., Luintel, A., Rampling, T., Chowdhury, H., Quartagno, M., Nair, A., Lipman, M., Abubakar, I., Smeden, M. van, Wong, W. K., Williams, B., & Noursadeghi, M. (2020). Systematic evaluation and external validation of 22 prognostic models among hospitalised adults with COVID-19: An observational cohort study. MedRxiv, 2020.07.24.20149815. https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.07.24.20149815

  2. Feb 2021
    1. So, where did J.C. Penney go wrong? Well, while we admire their attempt to change, they attempted to destroy over a century’s worth of price conditioning consumers have been through with department stores and pricing in general. They weren’t completely off base, as consumers with more and more access to information (comparison shopping engines, consumer reports, etc.), are beginning to realize that the value of products is determined much differently than a sticker would suggest. Yet, assuming that most soccer moms (and dads) wouldn’t fall prey to the colorful print ads tucked within the comics section in the Sunday paper, overlooks how much the majority of consumers value “winning” the retail game. Simply, deflating the perceived value causes customers to value the actual product less.
    2. Almost no one ever pays full price. In fact, studies show that people are much more inclined to pay $25 for an item valued at $50, than paying for the same item without a sale at $25. It’s all about the “price framing” of a product that creates a perceived value, which all leads to the excitement of getting a good deal
    1. Or you can use Maybe container! It consists of Some and Nothing types, representing existing state and empty (instead of None) state respectively.
    1. Let’s start with the same number dividing example, which returns 0 when the error happens. Maybe instead we can indicate that the result was not successful without any explicit numerical value?
    2. You can use container values, that wraps actual success or error value into a thin wrapper with utility methods to work with this value. That’s exactly why we have created @dry-python/returns project. So you can make your functions return something meaningful, typed, and safe.
    1. this implies direct work with nil-able values which may end up with errors.
    2. To get the final value you can use value_or which is a safe way to unwrap a nil-able value.
    1. In the telecommunications industry, on a conceptual level, value-added services add value to the standard service offering, spurring subscribers to use their phone more and allowing the operator to drive up their average revenue per user.
    2. For mobile phones, technologies like SMS, MMS and data access were historically usually considered value-added services, but in recent years SMS, MMS and data access have more and more become core services, and VAS therefore has begun to exclude those services.
    1. Blockchain is tackling value industries like financial services and supply chains. These are far larger than information industries like media and publishing, and so the impact of blockchain will be that much greater, and so potentially will the aggregate value. Sometimes the saying goes, "We need a little irrational exuberance to build the future."

      Blockchain is looking beyond information. Blockchain is looking for value

    1. Tools for determining the value of a keywordHow much value would a keyword add to your website? These tools can help you answer that question, so they’d make great additions to your keyword research arsenal:

      With so many tools to determine the value of a keyword, which one do you recommend is the most beneficial and accurate? I struggle with the trial and error aspect of audience acquisition and engagement. With so many great tools available at our fingertips, which I was unaware of until this course, how do we know which tool to use? Do these tools contradict each other?

  3. Jan 2021
  4. Dec 2020
  5. Nov 2020
    1. There are different schools of thought in the realm of productivity.

      The energy school focuses on optimizing your energy levels. The focus school is all about getting into and staying in flow. The efficiency school is obsessed with the logistics of work.

      Tiago positions his philosophy as the value school: Making sure you deliver value after every block of work by delivering, what Tiago calls, Intermediate Packets.

      He draws parallels to Just In Time production from Toyota and Continuous Integration in software development.

      Intermediate Packets is continuous integration for knowledge work.

  6. Oct 2020
    1. By default all content inside template strings is escaped. This is great for strings, but not ideal if you want to insert HTML that's been returned from another function (for example: a markdown renderer). Use nanohtml/raw for to interpolate HTML directly.
    1. Reversing the trend toward privatization will thus require not just massive public mobilization and demand of elected officials, but also a hard turn away from efficiency as a primary value, a recognition that the building of relationships and the cultivation of care is slow and difficult and of necessity inefficient. In fact, that its value lies in its inefficiency — but making the case for such inefficiency as a necessary value requires a lot of effort, and a lot of caution.

      There's a kernel here of something about the value of links (social, business, etc.) as put forward by Cesar Hidalgo in Why Information Grows. Where is the real value? How can it best be extracted? Built up? Having a more direct means of valuing these otherwise seeming intangibles will be important in the future.

    1. Gradually, we begin to conflate visibility with value. If something is being talked about and seen, we assume that it must be important in some way. – An Illustrated Guide to Guy Debord’s ‘The Society of the Spectacle’

      And in an over-saturated media space, this is exactly the sort of thing that lands us a narcissistic and incompetent president.

    1. Is it possible to avoid the public goods problem altogether?

      As Lynne Kelly indicates, knowledge is a broad public good, so it is kept by higher priests and only transferred in private ceremonies to the initiated in indigenous cultures. In many senses, we've brought the value of specific information down dramatically, but there's also so much of it now, even with writing and better dissemination, it's become more valuable again.

      I should revisit the economics of these ideas and create a model/graph of this idea over history with knowledge, value, and time on various axes.

    1. To get the best performance for my dollar, I restricted my search to used CPUs, released four to eight years ago.

      🙇 boom

      didn't realize that the modern era had expanded as such. this is way more modern than i knew was accessible.

    1. Returning null defers to other resolveId functions and eventually the default resolution behavior; returning false signals that source should be treated as an external module and not included in the bundle.

      I like how null and false, although both falsy, can be treated differently when a useful need for such distinction, such as this case, arises.

  7. Sep 2020
    1. Your problem is that you were returning the rejected loginDaoCall, not the promise where the error was already handled. loginApi.login(user, password) did indeed return a rejected promise, and even while that was handled in another branch, the promise returned by the further .then() does also get rejected and was not handled.
    1. Natalie E. Dean en Twitter: “VACCINE EFFICACY 101: A biostatistician's primer. Ten tweets to cover:- How is vaccine efficacy calculated?- Distinguishing between infection, disease, & severe disease.- Measuring reduced infectiousness.- Vaccine efficacy vs. effectiveness!n” / Twitter. (n.d.). Twitter. Retrieved September 30, 2020, from https://twitter.com/nataliexdean/status/1310613702476017666

    1. Mark the schema as required. All field values apart from undefined and null meet this requirement.
    2. The same as the mixed() schema required, except that empty strings are also considered 'missing' values.
    1. Customers care more about the value our application adds to their lives than the programming language or framework the application is built with. Visible Technical Debt such as bugs and missing features and poor performance takes precedence over Hidden Technical Debt such as poor test code coverage, modularity or removing dead code
  8. Aug 2020
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  12. Apr 2020
    1. You are qualified and responsible, but not everyone will see what you bring. Only the people who get you, deserve you. Why waste your time with the rest?
    1. From my perspective this would at least require a deep change in how we measure value, define labor and organize the financial system.

      Yes, and maybe more importantly in what we value - not just how we measure it.

  13. Mar 2020
    1. The equality of all sorts of human labour is expressed objectively by their products all being equally values; the measure of the expenditure of labour power by the duration of that expenditure, takes the form of the quantity of value of the products of labour; and finally the mutual relations of the producers, within which the social character of their labour affirms itself, take the form of a social relation between the products.

      Every form of particular, useful labor, that which directs physiological energy towards specific outcomes, is grouped under the category of "abstract labor" under capitalism. The magnitude and duration of "abstract labor" is expressed as exchange value in commodities, which brings products into reducible, quantifiable relation to each other. It is because commodities are all equal to each other insofar as they are bearers of quantifiable exchange value that so many forms of human labor are equated as different magnitudes and durations of "abstract labor" (many value-form theorists and value critics have argued that "labor" as such is not a transhistorical category, but only a category under capitalism by virtue of its being the source of exchange value). The distribution of value amongst commodities indexes and organizes the division and distribution of labor, and this is what Marx means when he writes that "the mutual relations of the producers, [...] take the form of a social relation between the products." That "social relation" is the relation between producers, which is determined by the relations of value between commodities produced for the market.

  14. Feb 2020
    1. The coat is a use value that satisfies a particular want

      Marx: "Yesterday I pawned a coat dating back to my Liverpool days in order to buy writing paper" (Karl Marx and Frederick Engels, Collected Works, vol. 38 [1852-55]: 221).

      On the significance of Marx's coat, see Peter Stallybrass, “Marx’s Coat,” in Border Fetishisms: Material Objects in Unstable Spaces, ed. Patricia Spyer (New York: Routledge, 1998): 183–207. [PDF].

    2. Exchange value

      Exchange value appears as the property of a commodity that is exchangeable for other commodities. It also presupposes societies who produce commodities and exchange them. While all societies have things with use values, exchange value is relative to a specific time and place.

      Additionally, exchanging commodities must also presupposes a way to determine proportionality between different commodities, so that they can be exchanged in the first place.

      Exchange therefore requires some other measure that stands above the two commodities meant to be exchanged. If there were no ways in which iron and corn were found similar to a society, for example, then we would not exchange them and they would have no exchange value.

      Marx will contend that what each commodity must contain crystalized within it is value (formally) and that the substance of value is labor (viz. the common factor of both iron and corn is labor). Marx will call this kind of labor abstract labor.

    3. Section 1. The Two Factors of a Commodity, Use-Value and Value

      Marx's analysis of a capitalist system begins by postulating that it's fundamentally composed of units called commodities.

      In the capitalist system commodities have two features.

      1. They are produced

      2. They are produced by capitalists

      Capitalists produce commodities by employing workers to produce them.

      In this section, Marx begins his analysis of the first feature of the capitalist system (viz. that it is commodity producing). Workers and capitalists will not appear in Marx's analysis for several more chapters.

    4. A commodity, such as iron, corn, or a diamond, is therefore, so far as it is a material thing, a use value, something useful

      What commodities are thought to be useful for or not is irrelevant to Marx at this very early stage of his analysis, even from a moral point of view. Diamonds satisfy a need in some societies at specific times and places the same as corn or iron.

  15. Jan 2020
    1. We tend to treat our knowledge as personal property to be protected and defended. It is an ornament that allows us to rise in the pecking order.
  16. Dec 2019
    1. Arguably, the rails-team's choice of raising ArgumentError instead of validation error is correct in the sense that we have full control over what options a user can select from a radio buttons group, or can select over a select field, so if a programmer happens to add a new radio button that has a typo for its value, then it is good to raise an error as it is an application error, and not a user error. However, for APIs, this will not work because we do not have any control anymore on what values get sent to the server.
    2. liberal_enum :kind
    1. When the controller creates the user, instead of adding a validation error to the record, it raises an exception. How to avoid this?
    2. I really dislike the reasoning as stated in the issue listed above. Since the value is coming over the wire, it should be treated the same as a freetext input where the expectation is to validate in the model and not the controller. This is especially true in APIs where the developers have even less of a say as far as expected input coming from form data (for example).
    3. In case anyone wants a hack, here is what I came up with.
  17. Nov 2019
    1. In the React rendering lifecycle, the value attribute on form elements will override the value in the DOM. With an uncontrolled component, you often want React to specify the initial value, but leave subsequent updates uncontrolled. To handle this case, you can specify a defaultValue attribute instead of value.
  18. Oct 2019
    1. But an idea, unfortunately, is worth nothing. Less, even, than the paper it’s written on (idea guys love restaurant napkins).

      It depends on the man with the idea, I think, and his influence over peers and colleagues.

  19. Sep 2019
    1. Estimated economic benefit of data linkage

      the potential value from linking Census data to administrative data sets is only beginning to be realised and holds immense potential.(In other work for the Population Health Research Network, Lateral Economics concluded that data linkage generated over $16 for every dollar invested).

    2. Economic benefit of the Census.

      Our estimates suggest the benefits of running the Census easily outweigh its costs in the order of$6 of economic value for each $1 it costs. On this reckoning, the cost of the Census would have to rise to six times its current cost –to around $3 billion every five years –before it startedto become cost ineffective

    1. One notable barrier that has prevented faculty from adopting OER is concerns about the quality of the materials. The present study extends upon a growing body of research indicating that OER are not perceived to be lower in quality than traditional textbooks.

      I have trouble believing many faculty members will be swayed by undergraduate students' perceptions of quality. There's a difference to be explored in "quality of disciplinary content in the abstract" vs. "quality as a study aid for this particular course."

      This is of course a broader concern for advocacy for OERs, not a critique of this particular study.

    2. One reason why the students assigned open textbooks may use those textbooks more is that they perceive a greater need for/relevance of their textbook relative to those assigned traditional textbooks

      The absence of the teacher here seems like an issue. To what extent may the students have come up with that perception on their own, or might they perceive it because the teacher told them about the work involved in vetting this particular textbook? What, if anything, did the traditional textbook teachers say?

      (Further down the paragraph it's made clear that the OERs were adapted to be more relevant, which I agree is part of the attraction of OERs and including that is fair. But I'd still like to know what the teachers said in class about it, if anything.)

    3. students taking classes in the classroom report significantly higher rates of underutilized textbooks than those taking classes online

      Seems to hint to me that on-campus students may be receiving (or perceiving) a superior level of instructor support (thereby making the textbook less relevant). Interesting responsibility for F2F faculty and interesting possible criticism of the level of instructor support provided to online students.

    4. and students assigned an open textbook reported a significantly higher percentage of underutilized textbooks (M = 52.20, SE = 1.38) than those assigned a traditional textbook (M = 48.44, SE = 1.21)

      Students who have been primed with the knowledge that this course uses a lower-cost OER text are more critical of textbook price vs use in other courses?

  20. Aug 2019
  21. Jul 2019
    1. might markets just not work?

      Same thing in publishing, too. Lots of people say journal costs are inflated & they can run one cheaper. They're right, but there are two considerations: a) in a market economy prices reflect more than just costs. They reflect the economic value, which includes things like brand value, prestige and also, as this & the other posts argue, an inflation due to productivity rising in adjacent market sectors. So the market failures seem to come from a) the difficulty knowing how much something should cost (having comparables and not having too much complexity to understand) and b) too high value ascribed to the status or prestige (which, if understood as a social consensus proxy that reduces the complexity of actually understanding the business & what it's value to the consumer should be, collapses b into a).

  22. Jun 2019
    1. his very first patient shocked him by refusing the moderately expensive but effective treatment he prescribed for her cancer—a choice that turns out to be common among patients in Singapore, who like to pass the money in their government-mandated health-care savings accounts on to their children
    2. “value-based care,” which rewards providers who keep costs down while achieving good outcomes, is not going well
  23. Mar 2019
    1. Simplicity is a state of mind. It dwells in the main intention of our lives. A man is simple when his chief care is the wish to be what he ought to be, that is, honestly and naturally human. And this is neither so easy nor so impossible as one might think. At bottom, it consists in putting our acts and aspirations in accordance with the law of our being, and consequently with the Eternal Intention which willed that we should be at all. Let a flower be a flower, a swallow a swallow, a rock a rock, and let a man be a man, and not a fox, a hare, a hog, or a bird of prey: this is the sum of the whole matter.
    2. I despair of ever describing simplicity in any worthy fashion. All the strength of the world and all its beauty, all true joy, everything that consoles, that feeds hope, or throws a ray of light along our dark paths, everything that makes us see across our poor lives a splendid goal and a boundless future, comes to us from people of simplicity, those who have made another object of their desires than the passing satisfaction of selfishness and vanity, and have understood that the art of living is to know how to give one’s life.
    3. Herein is summed up the experience of humanity, and this experience, which each man must remake for himself, is more precious in proportion as it costs more dear. Illumined by its light, he makes a moral advance more and more sure. Now he has his means of orientation, his internal norm to which he may lead everything back; and from the vacillating, confused, and complex being that he was, he becomes simple. By the ceaseless influence of this same law, which expands within him, and is day by day verified in fact, his opinions and habits become transformed . . . The necessary hierarchy of powers is organized within him: the essential commands, the secondary obeys, and order is born of simplicity. We may compare this organization of the interior life to that of an army. An army is strong by its discipline, and its discipline consists in respect of the inferior for the superior, and the concentration of all its energies toward a single end: discipline once relaxed, the army suffers. It will not do to let the corporal command the general. Examine carefully your life and the lives of others. Whenever something halts or jars, and complications and disorder follow, it is because the corporal has issued orders to the general. Where the natural law rules in the heart, disorder vanishes.
    4. Need we say that one does not rise to this point of view without a struggle? The spirit of simplicity is not an inherited gift, but the result of a laborious conquest . . . But by dint of action, and exacting from himself strict account of his deeds, man arrives at a better knowledge of life. Its law appears to him, and the law is this: Work out your mission. He who applies himself to aught else than the realization of this end, loses in living the raison d’etre of life. The egoist does so, the pleasure-seeker, the ambitious: he consumes existence as one eating the full corn in the blade — he prevents it from bearing its fruit; his life is lost. Whoever, on the contrary, makes his life serve a good higher than itself, saves it in giving it. Moral precepts, which to a superficial view appear arbitrary, and seem made to spoil our zest for life, have really but one object — to preserve us from the evil of having lived in vain. That is why they are constantly leading us back into the same paths; that is why they all have the same meaning: Do not waste your life, make it bear fruit; learn how to give it, in order that it may not consume itself!
    5. Art is the realization of a permanent idea in an ephemeral form. True life is the realization of the higher virtues — justice, love, truth, liberty, moral power — in our daily activities, whatever they may be. And this life is possible in social conditions the most diverse, and with natural gifts the most unequal. It is not fortune or personal advantage, but our turning them to account, that constitutes the value of life. Fame adds no more than does length of days: quality is the thing.
    6. confounding the secondary with the essential, substance with form. They are tempted to believe that simplicity presents certain external characteristics by which it may be recognized, and in which it really consists. Simplicity and lowly station, plain dress, a modest dwelling, slender means, poverty — these things seem to go together. Nevertheless, this is not the case . . . No class has the prerogative of simplicity; no dress, however humble in appearance, is its unfailing badge. Its dwelling need not be a garret, a hut, the cell of the ascetic nor the lowliest fisherman’s bark. Under all the forms in which life vests itself, in all social positions, at the top as at the bottom of the ladder, there are people who live simply, and others who do not.
    7. At no epoch have the exterior conditions which man has made for himself by his industry or his knowledge, been able to exempt him from care for the state of his inner life. The face of the world alters around us, its intellectual and material factors vary; and no one can arrest these changes, whose suddenness is sometimes not short of perilous. But the important thing is that at the center of shifting circumstance man should remain man, live his life, make toward his goal. And whatever be his road, to make toward his goal, the traveler must not lose himself in crossways, nor hamper his movements with useless burdens. Let him heed well his direction and forces, and keep good faith; and that he may the better devote himself to the essential — which is to progress — at whatever sacrifice, let him simplify his baggage.
    8. We must search out, set free, restore to honor the true life, assign things to their proper places, and remember that the center of human progress is moral growth. What is a good lamp? It is not the most elaborate, the finest wrought, that of the most precious metal. A good lamp is a lamp that gives good light. And so also we are men and citizens, not by reason of the number of our goods and the pleasures we procure for ourselves, not through our intellectual and artistic culture, nor because of the honors and independence we enjoy; but by virtue of the strength of our moral fiber. And this is not a truth of today but a truth of all times.
    9. we have in abundance that which, if must be, we can go without, and are infinitely poor in the one thing needful.
    10. When one passes in review the individual causes that disturb and complicate our life, by whatever names they are designated, and their list would be long, they all lead back to one general cause, which is this: the confusion of the secondary with the essential.
    1. What really matters is . . . what really matters.There are lots of reasons why people aren’t doing what they want to do. For one thing, many of us don’t know what that is. When I was still in real estate, I met with a career counselor. The counselor said, “Why don’t you take a year off and figure out what you really want to do?” The suggestion was mind-boggling. My schedule wouldn’t let me take a day off – let alone a year! But that suggestion, as crazy as it sounded at first, forced me to ask basic questions about my professional life. In fact, I did spend a year away from my job. And if I hadn’t taken that time, I would have been in real estate forever.If you’ve spent years not knowing what you want to do – in your career, in your family life, with your civic obligations – it can seem like an impossible challenge to figure it out. For many people, it’s easier to keep doing what they know they don’t want to do, or what they don’t mind doing. Simplifying your life frees up time for you to figure out what really matters.
  24. Jan 2019
    1. Values aren’t a birthright: you need to keep caring about them. Living in the west, however you define it, being western, provides no guarantee that you will care about western civilisation.

      The statement highlighted is very much true, and something people often forget. Values aren't something that is instinctual, or something that you have right out of the womb. What you value is based on the values of the people around you as you are being brought up, yet what you grow to value will be things that you choose to value. Values have no guarantee, it's the choice of the individual at hand, however there are many influences that can lead to what you value.

    1. Value Sensitive Design (VSD) emphasizes consideration of stakeholder values when making design decisions [5]. Applying this rationale to the goal of leveraging the capacity of digital workers during crisis events, we identify design solutions that fit the underlying community dynamics, including current work practices, organizational structures, and motivations of digital volunteer work.

      Description of developing the design agenda, values, and needs assessment

      Cites Value Sensitive Design