276 Matching Annotations
  1. Dec 2021
    1. “VR Learn: Virtual Reality in Learning”

      report with data collection

    2. data collection to inform decision making is a much more prudent approach.

      data collection

    3. n regards to K12 and Higher Education, many of them are using immersive tech as part of the learning. However, budget is the real issue here. Many of these institutions are running on strict budgets that were planned a year ahead, so to now throw in VR/AR strategies, their budget is even more stretched.

      budget constrains

    1. Python

      Python

    2. Chongthanavanit, P., Kennedy , J. M., & Kheokao , J. | Thammasat Review | Vol. 23 No. 2 (July-December) 2020 287 Figure 5 A Screenshot of Automated Sentiment Analysis

      Automated Sentiment Analysis

    3. As Thailand is ranked as the third most favored country in the world for medical and dental tourism with cost savings of 50-75% compared to the US, it is a significant selling point for dental services in Thailand that it can compete with other countries

      medical and dental tourism

    1. idiosyncrasies of the Bulgarian national movement in the light of the general European model

      idiosyncrasies of the Bulgarian national movement in the light of the general European model

    1. We have suggested three key areas where immersive technologies in the form of low-cost, HMD-based VR could play a role in supporting autistic individuals and groups: education; employment; and anxiety. We suggest that the unique nature of HMD-based VR could help to remove individuals from the “real” and into a world they can feel comfortable, relaxed and happy to engage in a range of activities.

      education; employment; and anxiety.

    2. Autistic people can often work in unstable jobs that include “fixed-term contracts or in the gig economy, both of which are likely to be severely impacted by COVID-19” (Heasman, 2020). Heasman goes on to suggest that:

      employment for autistic people

    3. As described and developed by Riva and Wiederhold (2020) we suggest that the use of a low-cost spherical, video-based virtual reality mindfulness intervention could reduce the psychological burden of COVID-19 for autistic people, alongside a developed package of at-home educational and support materials to empower families/caregivers delivered via an online eLearning platform to support effective implementation.

      low-end approach, as we rally for it

    4. One specific form of technology that is poised to potentially impact autistic people is virtual reality (VR) used with head-mounted displays (HMDs) as an immersive technology. Indeed, research supports the use of VR for safe, predictable and effective interventions with autistic groups

      autism

  2. Nov 2021
    1. se of document cameras, also known as visual presenters, visualizers, or docucams, allowing us to write on a sheet of paper while students at diverse campuses watch. However, visualizers are not without drawbacks, e.g., their usage does not permit distant education students to raise questions online while we teach.

      interactivity

    2. PowerPoint, Word, YouTube, Canvas, Zoom, Padlet, Skype, Microsoft Teams, etc.), thereby enabling teachers to incorporate appropriate digital solutions into lectures and tutorials, given a number of subject-related factors and learning conditions.

      tools

    3. Besides all the bad news brought about by the COVID-19 pandemic, this crisis might become a tremendous opportunity for dramatic reshaping and implementing novel digital strategies in higher education.

      pandemic as a driver

    1. A second, and currently more important source of digital divisions are the skills to use technology (DiMaggio et al. 2004; Hargittai and Hinnant 2008). In the context of education, the distinction between access and skills is even more relevant as the two requirements are plausibly applicable to both the student and the school. Not only the student, but also the school needs the necessary equipment and skills to work with online education technology.

      A second, and currently more important source of digital divisions are the skills to use technology (DiMaggio et al. 2004; Hargittai and Hinnant 2008). In the context of education, the distinction between access and skills is even more relevant as the two requirements are plausibly applicable to both the student and the school. Not only the student, but also the school needs the necessary equipment and skills to work with online education technology.

    2. More important drivers for a digital divide in corona-times are the ICT skills students have

      ICT skills

    3. udents vary in their preparedness for digital education, but that school variation is not systematically related to the student composition by socioeconomic and migration background

      udents vary in their preparedness for digital education, but that school variation is not systematically related to the student composition by socioeconomic and migration background

    Tags

    Annotators

    1. Using data from theInternational Computer and Information Literacy Study (ICILS) on seven countries, and the

      ICT skills

    2. Politically and legally, the principle of subsidiarity ensures that education remains a nationalcompetence for EU Member States (Ertl, 2006), while, theoretically, scholarly research points tothe continued relevance of the state within a multi-scalar governance complex

      multi-scalar governance complex

    3. A study of French university studentsshowed that, in a course redesigned around appropriate onlinetools, distance learning achieved similar learning outcomesto a course taught in person

      S. Jacques, A. Ouahabi, and T. Lequeu. Remote Knowledge Acquisition and Assessment During the COVID-19 Pandemic. International Journal of Engineering Pedagogy (iJEP), 10(6):120, Dec. 2020.

    4. German secondary school students reported spendingmore time on school work if their school offered more digitallearning materials

      S. Anger, H. Dietrich, A. Patzina, M. Sandner, A. Lerche, S. Bernhard, and C. Toussaint. School closings during the COVID-19 pandemic: Findings from German high school students. Report, Institute for Employment Research, May 2020.

      S. Jacques, A. Ouahabi, and T. Lequeu. Remote Knowledge Acquisition and Assessment During the COVID-19 Pandemic. International Journal of Engineering Pedagogy (iJEP), 10(6):120, Dec. 2020.

    5. A study of French university studentsshowed that, in a course redesigned around appropriate onlinetools, distance learning achieved similar learning outcomesto a course taught in person

      french secondary school students

    6. the pitfalls of online proctoring

      the pitfalls of online proctoring

    7. Remote proctoring, or online proctoring, means to use either human proctors or

      Remote proctoring, or online proctoring, means to use either human proctors or automated processes to monitor the delivery of a digital assessment through microphone and web camera using the internet.

    8. A common solution was to deliver the test

      A common solution was to deliver the test

      through a locked digital assessment platform, and proctor the students via a mobile phone from which the students log in to a digital meeting room with video and a microphone to show what they are doing. Normally, one teacher proctored a whole class with 25 to 30 students, which is more than recommended

    9. cheating

      cheating

    10. 2018wave of ICILS (International Computer and Information Literacy Study)

      2018 wave of ICILS (International Computer and Information Literacy Study)

    11. Schools in disadvantaged, rural ordeprived areas are especially likely to lack the appropriate digital capacity andinfrastructure required to deliver teaching remotely. Significant differences in the provisionof online teaching and learning resources may also exist between private and publicschools.

      Schools in disadvantaged, rural or deprived areas are especially likely to lack the appropriate digital capacity and infrastructure required to deliver teaching remotely. Significant differences in the provision of online teaching and learning resources may also exist between private and public schools.

    12. Special EducationalNeeds and /or Disabilities (SEND):

      Special Educational Needs and /or Disabilities (SEND):

    13. Guarantee access to internet and availability of computers, laptops, or tablets:access to the internet at a decent speed and to proper ICT tools are basicprerequisites for any online teaching and learning strategy.

      ICT Information and Communication Technology

    14. TALIS(Teaching and Learning International Survey)

      TALIS

      (Teaching and Learning International Survey)

    15. Virtual Learning Environments50 (VLE):

      Virtual Learning Environments50 (VLE):

    16. tudents from more advantaged backgrounds may be morelikely to attend schools with better digital infrastructure and where teachers have higherlevels of digital skills.

      Students from more advantaged backgrounds may be more likely to attend schools with better digital infrastructure and where teachers have higher levels of digital skills. p. 19

    17. studentsreporting having a quiet place to study

      PISA 2018 students reporting having a quiet place to study at home

    18. The difference between high and low educationgroups is quite large in many countries, but especially in Slovakia, Romania, Bulgaria, andHungary.

      Bulgaria, p. 15

    19. PISA 2018 student questionnaire show that also as regards computer accessat home there are relevant socio-economic differences across European countries.

      PISA 2018

    20. ew Research Centre also in 2019shows that there are striking differenc

      access to broadband internet in US and Europe similar re socio-economic disparity

    21. OVID-19 is likely to further widen the socio-emotionaldisparities between children from more and less advantaged backgrounds.

      COVID-19 is likely to further widen the socio-emotional disparities between children from more and less advantaged backgrounds.

    22. Learning and inequality

      Learning and inequality

    23. Furthermore, there issignificant variability across countries. While Romania, Bulgaria and Slovakia consistently

      Furthermore, there is significant variability across countries. While Romania, Bulgaria and Slovakia consistently lag behind across all ISCED levels, in Finland, Denmark and Sweden almost all students across all ISCED levels are in schools offering a VLE outside school hours and outside school premises.

    24. technology devices in online English classroo

      effectiveness of using technology devices in online English classrooms.

    25. Distance learning, learning analytics, COVID-19, technology-enhanced learning

      Distance learning, learning analytics, COVID-19, technology- enhanced learning

    26. tool

      usage of the tool increased substantially at the start of lockdown, with the bulk of study activity occurring on weekday mornings.

    27. positive aspects of online education

      positive aspects of online education

    28. nline education had a negative effect on the quality of teaching.

      online education had a negative effect on the quality of teaching.

    29. motivationpersonalization

      motivation personalization

    30. stakeholders Supporting

      All stakeholder supporting

    31. ocus on the methods and activities that work in the virtual as inthe traditional classroom.

      focus on the methods and activities that work in the virtual as in the traditional classroom.

    32. The experience from EDT raises pedagogical and organizational questions.

      like in Finland, but technological

    33. Distant and Remote Communication

      Distant and Remote Communication

    34. Storytelling is acommunicative activity emphasizing how humans use
    35. analyse
    36. a series of online meetings(through the Zoom platform) to complement the written stories, and guide

      method

    37. Humanistic Learning Theory

      Humanistic Learning Theory

    38. What have been the decisive positive and negative changes andchallenges in the teachers

      What have been the decisive positive and negative changes and challenges in the teachers' professional roles and teacher-student relationship? • What tools and strategies have the teachers used to overcome difficulties and strengthen their ability to cope? • How has EDT affected teachers' health and well-being?

    39. vocational programs and students from low s

      similarly to FInland

      vocational programs and students from low socioeconomic backgrounds

    40. Remote and distance teaching will become increasingly
    41. ome students had benefitted from EDT and showed higher attendancethan befo

      some students had benefitted from EDT and showed higher attendance than before. The

    42. A qualitative narrative design

      A qualitative narrative design

    43. upper secondaryschool teachers' experiences of Emergency Distance Teaching

      The purpose of this study was to explore the Swedish upper secondary school teachers' experiences of Emergency Distance Teaching during the first year of the Covid-19 pandemic. Three research questions were considered sufficient to answer this aim.

    44. , school curricula have not changed,
    45. upcoming challenges

      upcoming challenges

    46. wedish schoolsremained open, except for upper

      exception in Sweden

    47. the Pandemic did not cause a reprioriti-zation of the national curriculum or new educational policies at the national level. All
      1. Налични нормативни и прагматични предпоставки за преминаване към дистанционно обучение, ускорено от пaндемията Covid19

      the Pandemic did not cause a reprioriti- zation of the national curriculum or new educational policies at the national level. All

      Norwegian municipalities (“school owners”) are responsible for ensuring that their school is managed in accordance with the Act relating to Primary and Secondary Education (the Education Act, 1998). During the Pandemic, these municipalities also became responsible for appropriate infection control measures (the Norwegian Directorate of Health, 2020).

    48. homeschooling = remote learningdeceptive, since homeschooling in the US is considered different

      homeschooling = remote learning deceptive, since homeschooling in the US is considered different

    49. homeschooling = remote learning deceptive, since homeschooling in the US is considered different

    50. strategies

      strategies

    51. 1.
      1. 1.Общ контекст и описание на ситуацията в началото на пандемията, включително готовност за преминаване към електронно обучение.
    52. homeschooling in Norway

      homeschooling Norway

    53. of quality teacher educa-tion.

      of quality teacher educa- tion.

    54. easy access to digi-tools.

      easy access to digi-tools.

    55. continue to follow a long-term education policy

      continue to follow a long- term education policy

    56. infrastructure, connectivity

    57. policies

      policies

    58. educational improvements

    59. the development of digi-

      the development of digi- pedagogy strategies beginning in the 1980s, the implementation of these strategies,

      and masters-level teacher education, which emphasizes the learning of competences needed in professional learning, have made it possible for teachers to transition to teaching online rather seamlessly.

    60. Google Meet5.a.

      Google Meet; 5.a.

    61. digital pedagogy or digi-pedagogical innovations.

      digital pedagogy or digi-pedagogical innovations.

    62. Finally, teachers’, principals’ andstudents’ engagement and well-being during the pandemic

      Finally, teachers’, principals’ and students’ engagement and well-being during the pandemic

    63. organization and experiences of teaching and learningduring this time are described based on representative surveys conducted during andafter the spring 2020 distance teaching period.

      organization and experiences of teaching and learning during this time are described based on representative surveys conducted during and after the spring 2020 distance teaching period.

    64. prior to pandemic

      pre conditions

    65. referring to the literature, most serous issues with online ed for students:Internet connectionand technolog

      referring to the literature, most serous issues with online ed for students: Internet connection and technology in other countries, but not the Netherlands in her school lack of interaction fear of failing exams lack of engagement and motivation

    66. er school did an eval re students' experience

      like the Finish school, this one also did an evaluation (survey?)

    67. assignments like in Finlandteachers not showing for online meetings, differently from Finland

      assignments like in Finland teachers not showing for online meetings, differently from Finland

      too much assignments lack of communication teacher student lack of motivation

    68. high school students learning of biology online in the Netherlands

      high school students learning of biology online in the Netherlands

    69. nternet errorssoftware malfunctionissues w webcams

      three issues re 1.

    70. students are skilled enough to successfully take part in online learning,but the downside was the inability of teachers to create online lessons and a lackingperception of technology usage in education

      students ready, but teacher's inability to generate learning material and use technology to the fullest 1.

    71. 5.a.1.

      5.a.

      1. preparedness
    72. 1. General background and description of the situation in the beginning of the pandemic, including the readiness to transition to online learning.

      General background and description of the situation in the beginning of the pandemic, including the readiness to transition to online learning.

    73. two groups of students:The groups could be labeled as (1) independentlearners and (2) more-support-needed learners.

      analysis of the quantitative data

      consistent with the findings in Australia Drane, C. F., Vernon, L., & O’Shea, S. (2021). Vulnerable learners in the age of COVID-19: A scoping review. The Australian Educational Researcher, 48(4), 585–604. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13384-020-00409-5

    74. olutions could include official platforms for sharingexperiences, unofficial virtual coffees for chatting, virtual gyms, and other social activities. A sense ofbelonging is very important when learning at a distance.

      most of these findings a repetition from the lessons from Walden, Capella

    75. advanced learning skills and motivation needed discusses only motivation, though 10.

    76. and evaluation methods

      methods for online ed differs from F2F

      1. this article reaffirms....
    77. role of school as a community

      According to teachers, distance learning should be based on a school's strategy where everyone is equally committed and responsible for students

      1. how to structure to resolve equality
      2. equality after overcoming disparities
      3. securing equality will remain a permanent concern
    78. ack of social relationships.
      1. indirectly
      2. directly lack of social relationships.
    79. conclusion, which educational administration globally is shoveling under the rug. 20 years ago, it was calculated an hour of F2F teaching equals 1 1/2 hour of online teaching. currently, with the influx of technology, it must be calculated more generously. 

      the value of online learning versus F2F

    80. two types: experienced online teachers and new online teachers
      1. Findings, solutions and good practices in regard of online learning during the pandemic.
    81. eams, but also other digital tools, such simulations, DVDs, Classroom,Kahoot, Google Sheets, and, e.g., WhatsApp

      5.a.

    Tags

    Annotators

    URL

    1. First, we explore state theories of governance and crisis and compare the pre-pandemic approaches to educational governance in Denmark, England and Italy. Following this, we examine the concept of ‘hybrid accountability’ and describe our own analytical framework. In the subsequent two sections, we outline our methodological approach before presenting our individual cases studies. Finally, we discuss the theoretical impli-cations of our findings for accountability and governance in times of crisis.
    2. On 11 March 2020, Mette Frederiksen, the Danish Prime Minister, announced a complete lock-down of Danish society and appealed to Danes’ ‘sense of society’ (samfundssind) in the face of an uncertain situation. The lockdown involved the immediate physical closure of all educational insti-tutions (Sundheds- og Ældreministeriet, 2020). On 19 March 2020, Parliament passed an executive order for ‘emergency education’ which granted Pernille Rosenkrantz-Theil, Minister for Children and Education, legislative powers over the framework and scope of educational provision, includ-ing remote learning, and the authority to cancel, postpone or replace examinations with continuous assessment grades (standpunktskarakterer), if the health crisis continued (Børne- og Undervisningsministeriet, 2020a). At that point, compulsory public school (folkeskoler) Year 9 leavers’ examinations were expected to take place in May and June 2020.

      т

    3. an empirical and theoretical contribution to research on education in crises with a qualitative study of policymaker and practitioner experiences during the COVID-19 pandemic in three European contexts: Denmark, England and Italy. These countries have distinc-tive educational governance arrangements which means that the mixes and layers of hybrid accountability are organised and experienced differently by school actors in each context.

      an empirical and theoretical contribution to research on education in crises with a qualitative study of policymaker and practitioner experiences during the COVID-19 pandemic in three European contexts: Denmark, England and Italy. These countries have distinc- tive educational governance arrangements which means that the mixes and layers of hybrid<br> accountability are organised and experienced differently by school actors in each context.

    4. how individual governments’ policy responses redefined the pre-existing mixes and layers of school accountabilities in different governance contexts.

      how individual governments’ policy responses redefined the pre-existing mixes and layers of school accountabilities in different governance contexts.

    5. During the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in Europe, the strategic interventions of national governments in public education were visible in two key emergency measures: (a) the full or partial closure of schools and subsequent shift to remote education; and (b) the cancellation, postponement or reconfiguration of national large-scale assessments

      During the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in Europe, the strategic interventions of<br> national governments in public education were visible in two key emergency measures: (a) the full or partial closure of schools and subsequent shift to remote education; and (b) the cancellation,<br> postponement or reconfiguration of national large-scale assessments

    6. Politically and legally, the principle of subsidiarity ensures that education remains a national competence for EU Member States (Ertl, 2006), while, theoretically, scholarly research points to the continued relevance of the state within a multi-scalar governance complex (Levinson et al., 2020; Tröhler, 2020).

      multi-scalar governance complex (Levinson et al.,<br> 2020; Tröhler, 2020).

    1. Turkish students were significantly more likely to be compliant with the pandemic related restrictions. Besides that, there were significant socio-economic disparities between Turkish and Danish students and also within Turkey between public and private school students. Turkish online education system was significantly less adequate and satisfactory compared to the Danish system. These were even worse for those who were attending public schools in Turkey. Regardless of the socio-economic differences, the majority of the students in both countries has been negatively affected by the pandemic and related restrictions and had a negative opinion about distance education.

      Turkey - more compliant Turkey - less in terms of socio economic disparities Turkey - less adequate online learning

    1. large cross-country differences as some countries exhibit relatively more uniform attitudes towards ICT, while at the same time are not characterized by severe inequalities in environmental factors (an example is Estonia). On the other hand, there are countries characterized by alarming levels of sources of educational inequality (examples are Bulgaria and Romania).

      Bulgraia

    2. Two sources of secondary data, namely the ICT in education survey and a set of EU-SILC derived indicators,

      sources

    3. theoretical framework of Sen-Bourdieu

      theoretical framework of Sen-Bourdieu

    4. The negative impact of loud noises on learning (i.e. impairing reading comprehension and memory, decreas-ing motivation, and other factors) is widely accepted in the literature (see e.g. Clark and Stansfeld, 2007). ‘Undoubtedly, it is a general hindrance to cognitive development in contem-porary urban environments, affecting any mode of learning, including home schooling. Therefore, the evidence presented in Figure 3 is alarming as it shows a high proportion of households suffering from noise, which appears to be more intense in many high-income coun-tries such as the Netherlands, Germany, France, Luxembourg and Denmark, while it is milder in Poland, Italy, Bulgaria, Estonia and Croatia. The data also show that noise pollution affects disproportionately low-income households. For example, in the Netherlands 37.4% of house-holds below the poverty line reported suffering from noise compared to 25.5% of households above the poverty line. In Denmark, the difference is even larger for poor and non-poor house-holds (32.3% vs 16.1%). Yet there are also a few cases defying the general pattern such as Greece, Romania and Lithuania, where the incidence of households suffering from noise is more frequent among non-poor households.0510152025303540NetherlandsGermanyDenmarkMaltaFranceLuxembourgBelgiumPortugalCyprusUnited KingdomEU28SwedenAustriaSpainFinlandCzechiaGreeceRomaniaLatviaIrelandSloveniaSlovakiaHungaryLithuaniaPolandItalyBulgaria

      noise pollution

    5. Finally, the last panel of Table 4 presents results regarding parents’ views on the usefulness of using ICT at school. This is an interesting variable as it can be understood to capture the degree to which the ends of the expressive order of digital schooling are accepted by parents. The results can be characterized as counterintuitive since they do not reveal differences in favour of highly edu-cated parents across countries as one might have anticipated. On the contrary, in Croatia, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Hungary, Latvia and Portugal, parents with a low level of education appear to be more favourably inclined towards digital technologies, while in many other countries the differ-ence in mean scores is negligible (for example, in Bulgaria, Italy, Romania, Slovakia), indicating a relatively similar attitude towards ICT, on average, between the two groups. This finding merits more investigation as it is open to various interpretations. It might imply the wider acceptance of ICT as an educational resource in modern digital societies or it might reflect a relative ‘conserva-tism’ of highly educated parents in regard to the educational benefits of new technologies that further implying a preference over more traditional forms of teaching, or even a more refined view of the conditions under which digital technologies can be productively deployed for teaching and learning purposes. These arguments are plausible, but, in order to test them, more refined empirical

      explanation of table 4

    6. Therefore, the expressive (or regulative) dimension of the pedagogic dis-course is currently globally dominant, regulating education policies and practices, as well as their evaluation (e.g. Muller and Hoadley, 2010).

      Therefore, the expressive (or regulative) dimension of the pedagogic discourse is currently globally dominant, regulating education policies and practices, as well as their evaluation (e.g. Muller and Hoadley, 2010).

    1. The benefits of deploying augmented reality solutions to provide digital adventures and disruptive advertising options along the consumer journey include driving purchase intent, high conversion rates, and more activatable data collection.

      The benefits of deploying augmented reality solutions to provide digital adventures and disruptive advertising options along the consumer journey include driving purchase intent, high conversion rates, and more activatable data collection.

    2. 360° AR platform

      360° AR platform

    3. The ARIA Network to offer augmented reality (AR) advertising inventory

      The ARIA Network to offer augmented reality (AR) advertising inventory

    4. ad inventory space within shopping centers across the country

      ad inventory space within shopping centers across the country

    1. The past few months have seen the growing appeal of an evolving system that has various names, including “blended synchronous” learning, “synchromodal” learning and “HyFlex” learning. In this style of learning, instructors blend in-person and online elements, aiming to integrate the best of asynchronous and synchronous instruction. In this format, students who seek an in-person classroom experience interact with remote students who prefer that same real-time experience, but from a distance.

      hyflex

    2. a team of researchers in the U.S. and Canada surveyed 4,789 undergraduate students across 95 countries, finding that 84 percent of those students (recruited via Instagram) preferred synchronous over asynchronous delivery for its immersive and social qualities. In contrast with nontraditional distance learners before COVID-19, who valued asynchronous courses for their flexibility, today’s students prioritize face-to-face instruction and connection with others.

      survey

    1. While many still see NFTs as a passing fad, industry leaders have realized that the incorporation of blockchain technology to NFTs and its integration into the Metaverse is the missing piece for the creation of a “Functional Metaverse.”

      it is here to stay

    2. It’s important to notice that NFTs existed before the first blockchain, but blockchain technology has transformed NFT markets by solving the double-spending problem and conferring scarcity, uniqueness and authenticity to a nonfungible token.

      NFTs and blockchain

    3. NFTs are the representation of a nonfungible asset in digital media. In a more technical definition, an NFT is a piece of software code that verifies that you hold ownership of a nonfungible digital asset, or the digital representation of the nonfungible physical asset in digital media.

      NFTs definition

    4. NASCAR

      NASCAR

    5. In July this year, Coca-Cola launched branded virtual clothing as nonfungible tokens,

      Coca-Cola

    6. what do blockchain technology and NFTs have to do with Metaverse?

      metaverse

    1. The report forecast China's growth in ed tech spending to be 15.6 percent over the same period, reaching $34.2 billion by 2026. Japan, Canada and Germany are all expected to see double-digit growht in ed tech spending over the report period as well: Japan at 14.5 percent, Canada at 14 percent and Germany at 11.9 percent CAGR.

      doubling

    1. Deterding (2011) argues that the use of gamification does not necessarily require software. Rather, gamification can be viewed as an approach in practice (e.g. teaching and learning) to create a game like experience.

      no software needed

    2. John Dewey

      theory

    3. a sense of agency, control and ownership for users.

      a sense of agency, controland ownership for users.

    4. Points and scoreboards are typical game elements

      Points and scoreboards are typical game elements

    1. iPads have come a long way since our initial investment in interactive whiteboards.

      alleluia. after 11 years, I finally saw it printed

    2. SAMR and TPACK models

      SAMR TPACK

    1. At the University of Wisconsin at Madison, officials renewed their contract with an automated proctor provider, even after more than 2,000 people on campus signed a petition calling to ban the technology on campus.

      petition to ban

    2. Respondus

      Respondus

    3. Despite all these efforts, a few students did use Chegg to cheat, posting questions from the test to the site and having a paid expert give an answer (the site guarantees answers in half an hour, according to Carpenter).

      Chegg

    4. One reason colleges are holding onto proctoring tools, Urdan adds, is that many colleges plan to expand their online course offerings even after campus activities return to normal. And the pandemic also saw rapid growth of another tech trend: students using websites to cheat on exams.

      online education growth

    1. “You can’t close the digital divide with just pipes and wires,” Huffman said. “You have to also address the human side of the equation.”

      The Scandinavian countries, for that matter the European Union does not have the monopoly issue with Internet access, which in the U.S. turned into the battle for “net neutrality.” However, a related fight in the U.S., regrading digital inclusion, is much better and successfully fought in the Scandinavian countries by not only effectively establishing awareness, but by enabling relative digital equity in their countries, something, which Biden’s plan is just starting to aim

    2. That number comes within a larger $65 billion sum going toward broadband connectivity. What makes the $2.75 billion within that significant is that it is aimed at digital inclusion, the work of giving people skills to use technology, affordable long-term access to it, and the devices they need to benefit from it in meaningful ways.

      broadband connectivity

    3. “You can’t close the digital divide with just pipes and wires,” Huffman said. “You have to also address the human side of the equation.”

      the human side

    4. Some federal policymakers had already been laying groundwork for this sort of investment, having introduced a digital equity act in 2019. In the wake of COVID-19, that legislation was essentially renewed this year with bipartisan support

      bipartisan

    1. Lukashenka’s regime are almost certainly profiting from the project

      and this is a complete copy of Erdogan's profiting from the Syrian refugees and threatening the West with them

    2. Whatever else Lukashenka’s scheme is, it’s ingenious:

      "Whatever else Lukashenka’s scheme is, it’s ingenious:" ingenious: 1. Having great inventive skill and imagination. 2. Marked by or exhibiting originality or inventiveness. 3. Having genius; brilliant. Lukashenko neither came wiith something genuine nor genius. The proxy to his "idea" is Putin, who, as former KGB was aware of Castro's attempts to blackmail three American administrations with refugee waves. https://blog.stcloudstate.edu/refugeesandmigrants/2017/01/07/weapons-of-mass-migration/: chapter 2, стр. 75 same author and her article: https://www.armyupress.army.mil/Portals/7/Hot%20Spots/Documents/Immigration/Greenhill-Migration.pdf p. 118: " Consider, for instance, that the now infamous 1980 Mariel boatlift had been underway for close to ten days before Victor Palmieri, then U.S. coordinator for refugee affairs, discovered that 1980 was not the first time Cuban President Fidel Castro had attempted to use a mass migration to force concessions by the United States; nor, moreover, did it prove to be the last."

    1. e Netherlands and analyzingtest scores on externally standardized tests, the studyreports a learning loss of 3.16 percentiles on a com-posite index of math, reading, and spelling, an effectthat varies in size by socioeconomic background andschool composition

      the Netherlands and analyzingtest scores on externally standardized tests, the studyreports a learning loss of 3.16 percentiles on a com-posite index of math, reading, and spelling, an effectthat varies in size by socioeconomic background andschool composition

    1. Born of the need to find alternatives to the frontal teaching of music, the Dutch Association of Music Teachers (VLS) called on its members (i.e. music teachers trained at a conservatory with a bachelor degree in music in education) to share lesson materials, links

      Born of the need to find alternatives to the frontal teaching of music, the Dutch Association of Music Teachers (VLS) called on its members (i.e. music teachers trained at a conservatory with a bachelor degree in music in education) to share lesson materials, links to online technologies, and assessments that they had used and liked for teaching music. These materials were collected on the VLS website (VLS, 2020) and are organized in six categories (translated from Dutch

    1. Increasing inequality

      Although remote work was not unfamiliar in the Netherlands (Bishop, 2020) and Dutch schools for social work already had gained some experience with online learning, the situation that arose was quite unfamiliar for most teachers and studen Less

      Increasing inequality

    2. Researchers of the Research Centre for Social Innovation at HU University of Applied Sciences Utrecht decided to monitor the developments resulting from the Dutch policy

      2.

    3. Individual choice, necessity and, above all, responsibility were initially regarded to be the ultimate criteria for private decisions concerning mobility and social activity. In contrast to most other European countries where people were virtually housebound, the Dutch authorities relied primarily on a moral appeal to its citizens to stay at home as much as possible, observe five feet of social distance and wash their hands regularly and carefully. All public spaces, from parks to beaches, remained accessible, unless there was a specific threat of becoming overcrowded. No written authorisation was required for outings or travel, and the police’s overall approach was more pedagogical than repressive.
      1. Налични нормативни и прагматични предпоставки за преминаване към дистанционно обучение, ускорено от пaндемията Covid19 The presence of policies and pragmatic conditions to transition to distance education, accelerate by COVID19
    1. A number of measureswere issued by the government, addressing the support of children, living in vulnerableenvironments, in primary and secondary education and providing them with laptops

      government measures

    2. The NetherlandsSchools in primary, secondary, vocational and higher education have been closed since March16 with the exception of children of parents with “essential jobs”(e.g. health care, education,public transport) (Rijksoverheid, 2020). It is anticipated that K-12 schools will have resumedorganising activities in schools before the start of the summer holidays, albeit in a customisedmanner in keeping with regulations issued by the National Institute for Public Health and theEnvironment (Algemene Vereniging Schoolleiders, 2020). It is expected that universities willorganise distance and online education until the end of the academic year, although somefacilities and buildings (library, research labs) are still accessible.As a result of the measures schools and universities faced decisions about how to continueteaching and learning and mandated that teachers and faculty move education online within amatter of days, requiring not only an enormous effort and flexibility from teachers andeducational support staff but also from students and their respective home-situation.The Netherlands has an advanced digital economy and the extent to which the internet isavailable to everyone is high (De Heij, 2019). The use of technology for teaching and learningis widely adopted in Dutch education (ten Brummelhuis and Binda, 2017; Bijleveld andHeuzels, 2020; SURF, Vereniging van Universiteiten and Vereniging van Hogescholen, 2018)Education inprecarioustimes
      1. Общ контекст и описание на ситуацията в началото на пандемията, включително готовност за преминаване към електронно обучение.
    3. K (coordinating), Australia,Belgium, Cyprus, Ireland and The Netherlands.
    1. hen social relations with friends diminish, the meaning of the social home undesirably changed forthe participants.

      When social relations with friends diminish, the meaning of the social home undesirably changed for the participants.

    2. the meaning of physical home
    3. the meaning of physical home

      the meaning of physical home

    4. “What is the meaning of home?

      “What is the meaning of home?”

    5. “How do Dutch adolescents aged 14-18 en

      “How do Dutch adolescents aged 14-18 engaging in online education experience the meaning of home

      during the Corona pandemic?”

    6. Online education at home is not developed for the corona crisis, it has been around for many years ona voluntary basis

      Online education at home is not developed for the corona crisis, it has been around for many years on a voluntary basis

    7. inductive codes were identified: loneliness, boredom and not enjoying being at home.

      inductive codes were identified: loneliness, boredom and not enjoying being at home.

    8. semi-structured in-depth interviews to collect the data. A totalof 8 participants were interviewed from 3 different schools. When analyzing the data in an inductivemanner the inductive code tree was developed.

      semi-structured in-depth interviews to collect the data. A total of 8 participants were interviewed from 3 different schools. When analyzing the data in an inductive manner the inductive code tree was developed.

    9. qualitative research method,

      qualitative research method,

    10. home, ‘physical home’ and ‘social home’

      home, ‘physical home’ and ‘social home’

  3. www.diva-portal.org www.diva-portal.org
    1. Researchers found that the inability to identify body language and gestures and the ability to see students’ reactions to questions caused teacher-student inter-actions to be hindered during online teaching. Online interaction differs from classroom interaction
    2. Resistance to new technology is not unique to Swede

      Resistance to new technology is not unique to Swede

    3. Information and Communication Technology (ICT)

      Information and Communication Technology (ICT)

    1. rofessional development was designed using the Adaptation of Blended Learning framework to meet the new requirements of online schooling. Twenty-six teachers participated in the intervention of professional development, spanning six months.

      rofessional development was designed using the Adaptation of Blended Learning framework to meet the new requirements of online schooling. Twenty-six teachers participated in the intervention of professional development, spanning six months.

    1. student’s motivation

      student’s motivation

    2. uizzes and assignments at theend of each section to track their performance

      quizzes and assignments at the end of each section to track their performance

    3. self-discipline is required by students in onlinecourses, compare to traditional classroom education

      self dsicipline

    4. overview ofthe asynchronous online engineering course entitled “Roboticsfor All-R006E” 1 at Lule ̊a University of Technology, whichis hosted at the Canvas Network 2

      asynchronous delivery of courses

    5. nvas platform

      LMS

    1. ara Sally Goza, the President of the American Academy of Pediatrics, stated that, as pediatricians, what children receive from school is much more than just education. Therefore, the neces-sary measures should be taken properly and face-to-face education should begin with students in schools (10). In the USA, the re-opening of schools in many states and regions is left to regional administrations, provided that priority is given to the approach of re-opening schools ac-cording to the availability of measures (42

      USA

    2. In Israel, an increase in the rate of cases was observed in high school students after schools were re-opened, probably due to insufficient protective measures (

      Israel,

    3. o difference in COVID-19 disease rates compared with Sweden where schools never closed, and in Finland, which initially closed and then re-opened schools

      Finland, Sweden

    4. When the pandemic started in the early pe-riod of 2020 in Denmark and Finland, schools were first closed and then re-opened. After the opening of schools, there was no change in the number of cases in school-age children (<16 years), the disease rates in the community were not affected by the re-opening of schools, and the expected increase in infections did not occur.

      Denmark Finland

    5. For example, in a developed Western country, Italy, 9 040 000 children and young people in kindergartens and early childhood education services have been out of school during the COVID 19 pandemic

      Italy

    6. the re-opening/closure of schools will be evaluated in terms of education and COVID-19 infection characteristics in children.

      the re-opening/closure of schools will be evaluated in terms of education and COVID-19 infection characteristics in children.

      1. Налични нормативни и прагматични предпоставки за преминаване към дистанционно обучение, ускорено от пaндемията Covid19 The presence of policies and pragmatic conditions to transition to distance education, accelerate by COVID19
    7. In Turkey, after the first COVID-19 patient announcement of March 11th, 2020, on March 16th, 2020 face-to-face ed-ucation in schools was interrupted and it was decided to complete the education online in all levels of education (2). Apart from families, more than 20 million students, teachers, school staff and ancillary services were affected by this decision.

      Turkey

      1. 1.Общ контекст и описание на ситуацията в началото на пандемията, включително готовност за преминаване към електронно обучение. General background and description of the situation in the beginning of the pandemic, including the readiness to transition to online learning.
    1. Qualitative content analysis
    2. he purpose of this study was to explore the Swedish upper secondary school teachers' experiences of Emergency Distance Teaching during the first year of the Covid-19 pandemic. Three research questions were considered sufficient to answer this aim.

      The purpose of this study was to explore the Swedish upper secondary school teachers' experiences of Emergency Distance Teaching during the first year of the Covid-19 pandemic. Three research questions were considered sufficient to answer this aim.

    3. chool curricula have not changed, and it has been up to the teachers to adapt their teaching to fulfil the curricula

      old curricula

    1. The transition to online teaching for secondary teachers and students was sudden and chaotic, given that online learning has been not clearly defined

      3.Организация на обучението в електронна среда по време на пандемията.

    2. an international questionnaire designed to capture teachers’ general teaching characteristics and experience, self-efficacy teaching online, fostering online presence and institutional support transitioning to online teaching as a result of Covid-19
      1. Намерени решения на проблеми и добри практики в областта на електронното обучение в условия на пандемия
    3. we argue that it is necessary to consider teachers’ perceptions of both their own readiness and that of their institution
    4. discussions, assessment, sharing and interaction

      discussions, assessment, sharing and interaction