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  1. Nov 2021
    1. The NetherlandsSchools in primary, secondary, vocational and higher education have been closed since March16 with the exception of children of parents with “essential jobs”(e.g. health care, education,public transport) (Rijksoverheid, 2020). It is anticipated that K-12 schools will have resumedorganising activities in schools before the start of the summer holidays, albeit in a customisedmanner in keeping with regulations issued by the National Institute for Public Health and theEnvironment (Algemene Vereniging Schoolleiders, 2020). It is expected that universities willorganise distance and online education until the end of the academic year, although somefacilities and buildings (library, research labs) are still accessible.As a result of the measures schools and universities faced decisions about how to continueteaching and learning and mandated that teachers and faculty move education online within amatter of days, requiring not only an enormous effort and flexibility from teachers andeducational support staff but also from students and their respective home-situation.The Netherlands has an advanced digital economy and the extent to which the internet isavailable to everyone is high (De Heij, 2019). The use of technology for teaching and learningis widely adopted in Dutch education (ten Brummelhuis and Binda, 2017; Bijleveld andHeuzels, 2020; SURF, Vereniging van Universiteiten and Vereniging van Hogescholen, 2018)Education inprecarioustimes
      1. Общ контекст и описание на ситуацията в началото на пандемията, включително готовност за преминаване към електронно обучение.