134 Matching Annotations
  1. Aug 2020
  2. Jul 2020
  3. Jun 2020
  4. May 2020
  5. Apr 2020
  6. Jan 2020
    1. Chemically, europium’s reactions are similar to calcium. It is used in some superconductor alloys and in television screens, where it produces the red color.

      europium has been popularly used for the red flash and light in smart phones.

    1. Europium is used in the printing of euro banknotes. It glows red under UV light, and forgeries can be detected by the lack of this red glow.

      When they scan a bill they are looking for the europium flash.

    2. In 1901, Eugène-Anatole Demarçay carried out a painstaking sequence of crystallisations of samarium magnesium nitrate, and separated yet another new element: europium.
    3. Low-energy light bulbs contain a little europium to give a more natural light, by balancing the blue (cold) light with a little red (warm) light.
    4. A soft, silvery metal that tarnishes quickly and reacts with water.
    1. White phosphorus is a waxy, transparent solid. Its melting point is 44.1°C (111°F) and its boiling point is 280°C (536°F). It has a density of 1.88 grams per cubic centimeter. If kept in a vacuum, it sublimes if exposed to light.

      the properties of Phosphorus.

    1. somewhere at the interfaces between the solder balls and the nickel-phosphorous pad. Solders are ductile tin-based materials, but during soldering they chemically react with the solid metals being soldered — such as the nickel-phosphorous alloy — to form intermetallic compounds.

      How Phosphorus is used in a smartphone.

    1. Alloys[edit] Antimony forms a highly useful alloy with lead, increasing its hardness and mechanical strength. For most applications involving lead, varying amounts of antimony are used as alloying metal. In lead–acid batteries, this addition improves plate strength and charging characteristics.[49][59] For sailboats, lead keels are used as counterweights, ranging from 600 lbs to over 8000 lbs; to improve hardness and tensile strength of the lead keel, antimony is mixed with lead between 2% and 5% by volume. Antimony is used in antifriction alloys (such as Babbitt metal),[60] in bullets and lead shot, electrical cable sheathing, type metal (for example, for linotype printing machines[61]), solder (some "lead-free" solders contain 5% Sb),[62] in pewter,[63] and in hardening alloys with low tin content in the manufacturing of organ pipes. Other applications[edit] Three other applications consume nearly all the rest of the world's supply.[48] One application is as a stabilizer and catalyst for the production of polyethylene terephthalate.[48] Another is as a fining agent to remove microscopic bubbles in glass, mostly for TV screens;[64] antimony ions interact with oxygen, suppressing the tendency of the latter to form bubbles.[65] The third application is pigments.[48] Antimony is increasingly being used in semiconductors as a dopant in n-type silicon wafers[66] for diodes, infrared detectors, and Hall-effect devices. In the 1950s, the emitters and collectors of n-p-n alloy junction transistors were doped with tiny beads of a lead-antimony alloy.[67] Indium antimonide is used as a material for mid-infrared detectors.[68][69][70]

      Potential uses in phone batteries and silicon wafers As semi conductors.

    1. this will eventually lead to increasing concentrations in humans, animals and soil particles.

      blood clots could be made in a human or animal.

    1. Lead isotopes are the end products of each of the three series of naturally occurring radioactive elements.

      lead is radioactive, so when you touch it, it can effect your body.

    1. Crushed minerals are extracted with hydrochloric acid or sulfuric acid, which converts the insoluble oxides into soluble chlorides or sulfates. The acidic filtrates are partially neutralized with caustic soda to pH 3–4. Thorium precipitates as its hydroxide, and is then removed. The remaining solution is treated with ammonium oxalate to convert rare earths into their insoluble oxalates. The oxalates are converted to oxides by heating. The oxides are dissolved in nitric acid that excludes one of the main components, cerium, whose oxide is insoluble in HNO3. The solution is treated with magnesium nitrate to produce a crystallized mixture of double salts of gadolinium, samarium and europium. The salts are separated by ion exchange chromatography. The rare-earth ions are then selectively washed out by a suitable complexing agent.[
    1. Most of the antimony mined each year comes from China, which supplies over three-quarters of the world’s total. The remainder is from Russia, South Africa, Tajikistan, Bolivia, and a few other countries, including the United States. Some antimony is produced as a by-product of smelting ores of other metals, mainly gold, copper and silver, in countries such as the United States, Canada, and Australia.

      Top antimony producing countries

    1. Antimony is rarely found in its native (as an element) state. Instead, it usually occurs as a compound. The most common minerals of antimony are stibnite, tetrahedrite, bournonite, boulangerite, and jamesonite.

      How antimony is found in nature

    2. Antimony is a moderately active element. It does not combine with oxygen in the air at room temperature. It also does not react with cold water or with most cold acids. It does dissolve in some hot acids, however, and in aqua regia. Aqua regia is a mixture of hydrochloric and nitric acids. It often reacts with materials that do not react with either acid separately.

      Chemical properties of antimony

    3. Antimony is a silvery-white, shiny element that looks like a metal. It has a scaly surface and is hard and brittle like a non-metal. It can also be prepared as a black powder with a shiny brilliance to it. The melting point of antimony is 630°C (1,170°F) and its boiling point is 1,635°C (2,980°F). It is a relatively soft material that can be scratched by glass. Its density is 6.68 grams per cubic centimeter.

      Physical properties of antimony

    1. Occupational exposure may cause respiratory irritation, pneumoconiosis, antimony spots on the skin and gastrointestinal symptoms. In addition antimony trioxide is possibly carcinogenic to humans.

      Negative health effects of repeated exposure to antimony

    1. Antimony is used in the electronics industry to make some semiconductor devices, such as infrared detectors and diodes. It is alloyed with lead or other metals to improve their hardness and strength. A lead-antimony alloy is used in batteries. Other uses of antimony alloys include type metal (in printing presses), bullets and cable sheathing. Antimony compounds are used to make flame-retardant materials, paints, enamels, glass and pottery.

      Uses of antimony in technology

    1. europium are crucial to your iPhone’s function – they’re used in the phone’s battery, as well as to help give the display screen colour and make the phone vibrate when you get a text,

      Needed for normal function in Iphone.

    1. Lanthanum mainly is obtained from lanthanum-rich monazite and bastnasite. Other lanthanum-bearing minerals include allanite and cerite. It is mined in the USA, China, Russia, Australia, and India.

      This is where Lanthanum is mined and where it comes from in the mines

    1. a relatively poor conductor of electricity

      lead is a poor electricity conductor but good and used in phone batteries.

    1. Drift mining utilizes horizontal access tunnels, slope mining uses diagonally sloping access shafts, and shaft mining utilizes vertical access shafts. Mining in hard and soft rock formations require different techniques.

      So different kinds of mining use different tunnel systems, how do we decide which kind is best in each situation?

    1. Environmental impacts of mining can occur at local, regional, and global scales through direct and indirect mining practices.
  7. Nov 2019
    1. A Timestamp parameter name, which is simply an identifier to access the trigger in code. A Schedule, which is a CRON expression that sets the interval for the timer.
    1. authorization level. By default, it's set to "Function", which requires a function-specific API key, but it can also be set to "Admin" to use a global "master" key, or "Anonymous" to indicate that no key is required. You can also change the authorization level through the function properties after creation. Since we specified "Function" when we created this function, we will need to supply the key when we send the HTTP request. You can send it as a query string parameter named code, or as an HTTP header (preferred) named x-functions-key.
    2. By default, functions have a timeout of 5 minutes. This timeout is configurable to a maximum of 10 minutes. If your function requires more than 10 minutes to execute, you can host it on a VM. Additionally, if your service is initiated through an HTTP request and you expect that value as an HTTP response, the timeout is further restricted to 2.5 minutes. Finally, there's also an option called Durable Functions that allows you to orchestrate the executions of multiple functions without any timeout.
  8. Oct 2019
    1. Social change hardly requires such self-flagellation by the ruling class. Similarly, black America needs no grand, magic End of Days in order to succeed. A compact program of on-the-ground policy changes could do vastly more than articulate yearnings for a hypothetical psychological revolution among whites that no one seriously imagines could ever happen in life as we know it.

      Author synthesizes his own course of action he thinks is correct

  9. Aug 2019
    1. Gymnosperms

      There are currently only around 1000 gymnosperm species in existence, meanwhile there are 250,000-350,000 species of angiosperms.

    2. ginkgos

      Ginkgos are really neat looking. I also found it interesting that their English name and scientific name are the same. They are very hardy trees and can grow almost anywhere in the US.

    3. plants have tissues that conduct food and water

      These plant tissues (vascular tissues) are also known as "TRACHEOPHYTES". These Vascular tissues are made up of two main tissues - The Xylem and Phloem.

    4. oxygen from photosynthesis

      Plants do not always carry "breathe'' out oxygen - sometimes they produce CO2. This is mostly at night as they need to break down carbohydrates to produce energy and also there is no sunlight during the night. With sunlight being one of the main components in the Photosynthesis process, plants cannot produce oxygen at night.

  10. May 2019
    1. the government reported the discovery of large gold deposits in Lege Dimbi, also in Sidamo.

      This shows that there was gold in Ethiopia!

    1. Developing economies’ copper demand has steadily grown over the last decades, fueling economic and social improvement. By 2011, China already represented 40% of the demand.

      Why does China need so much.

    2. Codelco is a state-owned Chilean mining company and the world’s largest copper producer. Based on their annual report and USGS statistics, they produced ~10% of the world’s copper in 2015 and own 8% of global reserves. They are also a large producer of greenhouse gas emissions. Last year, Codelco produced 3,2 t CO2e/millions tmf from both indirect and direct effects, and in 2011 it consumed 12% of the total national electricity supply.

      Goddamn they should start recylcling

    3. Copper is a key driver of growth and economic wealth for Chile.
    1. Neodymium is chiefly obtained from monazite and bastnasite, where it occurs as an impurity. It is mined in the USA, China, Russia, Australia, and India.

      some info about the ore and where it is mined

    1. The Neodymium metal element is initially separated from refined Rare Earth oxides in an electrolytic furnace. The "Rare Earth" elements are lanthanoids (also called lanthanides) and the term arises from the uncommon oxide minerals used to isolate the elements

      how neodymium is refined

    1. Although few in number, the multinational mining companies that are earning billion-dollar profits in Zambia have had a massive impact on its environment and people.
    1. The metal is a solid material and metallic gray in color. Furthermore, the metal possess high melting and boiling points. At standard temperature and pressure, cobalt is not readily oxidized, which means it does not easily lose electrons from its surface.

      A description of cobalt.

    2. cobalt can be found among the d-block elements, transition metals. It has the chemical abbreviation Co and atomic number 27.

      Where to find cobalt on periodic table and cobalt's atomic number.

    1. Monseigneur de Hemptinne watched Yeke people working at Dikuluwe as late as 1924. They worked in the dry season and stopped when the first rains arrived. The mining camp was near a stream where millet could be planted. Women and children collected malachite from the surface, while men used iron picks to excavate pits and shafts, using fire to crack the rocks when needed. The mines were between 10 metres (33 ft) and 15 metres (49 ft) deep with galleries up to 20 metres (66 ft) long. The ore would be sorted and then taken to a nearby stream for concentration before being smelted

      info about how mines work

    2. The Katanga, or Shaba, copperbelt in the DRC is a belt about 70 kilometres (43 mi) wide and 250 kilometres (160 mi) long

      how large the coperbelt is

    1. Xiamen Tungsten and Xiamen Sanhong Molybdenum would invest more than 2 billion yuan (US$314.13 million) in the surveying and subsequent exploitation of the tungsten ore mine.
    2. The proved reserve of the mine has exceeded Jiangxi's total amount of available tungsten reserves, and has a potential economic value of more than 300 billion yuan (US$47.13 billion).
  11. Apr 2019
    1. Scott's

      It is interesting that Austen repeatedly references Sir Walter Scott here. Scott was a fan of Austen's work and repeatedly praised her in his journal.

      Scott wrote of Austen: "Also read again, and for the third time at least, Miss Austen’s very finely written novel of Pride and Prejudice. That young lady had a talent for describing the involvements and feelings and characters of ordinary life, which is to me the most wonderful I ever met with. The Big Bow-wow strain I can do myself like any now going; but the exquisite touch, which renders ordinary commonplace things and characters interesting, from the truth of the description and the sentiment, is denied to me. What a pity such a gifted creature died so early!"

      Read more here

    1. Being a teenager is hard; there are constant social and emotional pressures that have just been introduced into the life of a middle or high schooler, which combines with puberty to create a ticking time bomb. By looking at the constant exposure to unreasonable expectations smartphones and social media create, we can see that smartphones are leading to an increased level of depression and anxiety in teenagers, an important issue because we need to find a safe way to use smartphones for the furture generations that are growing up with them. Social media is a large part of a majority of young adults life, whether it includes Instagram, Facebook, Snapchat, Twitter, or some combination of these platforms, most kids have some sort of presence online. Sites like Facebook and Instagram provide friends with a snapshot of an event that happened in your life, and people tend to share the positive events online, but this creates a dangerous impact on the person scrolling.​ When teens spend hours scrolling through excluisvely happy posts, it creates an unrealistic expectation for how real life should be. Without context, teenagers often feel as if their own life is not measuring up to all of their happy friends, but real-life will never measure up to the perfect ones expressed online. Picture Picture Furthermore, social media sites create a way for teenagers to seek external validation from likes and comments, but when the reactions online are not perceived as enough it dramatically alters a young adults self-confidence. This leads to the issue of cyberbullying. There are no restrictions on what you can say online, sometimes even annonimously, so often people choose to send negative messages online. Bullying is not a new concept, but with online bullying, there is little to no escape as a smartphone can be with a teenager everywhere, and wherever the smartphone goes the bullying follows.This makes cyberbullying a very effective way to decrease a youth's mental health, in fact, cyberbullying triples the risk of suicide in adolescents, which is already the third leading cause of death for this age group.

  12. Mar 2019
    1. When we burn these fossil fuels, the carbon combines with oxygen to make carbon dioxide. This extra carbon dioxide (and other GHGs like methane) traps more and more heat in our atmosphere.

      How we end up making carbon dioxide

  13. Feb 2019
  14. Sep 2018
    1. The recent claim by former France president Francois Hollande that it was the Indian Government which proposed the name of Anil Ambani-led Reliance Defence in the Rafale deal
  15. Jul 2018
    1. Instead, I would encourage the social platforms to include prominent features for filtering and flagging. They should work with journalists and social psychologists to invent a new visual grammar so that when content is fact-checked, debunked, corrected, or verified, those processes are transparent and available to anyone seeking to understand more about the origins of a story.
  16. Jun 2018
    1. The Digipo toolkit

      Perhaps I'm missing it, but is this not an open browser extension already? I'd love to have these pieces built as a WordPress or separate plugin. I've seen some of the pieces earlier today that look like they've been unbundled, but I'd love to have the rest...

    2. the event in Miami on Inauguration Day (site:www.sourcewatch.com OR site:www.factcheck.org OR site:hoax-slayer.com OR site:www.truthorfiction.com OR site:opensecrets.org OR site:www.politifact.com OR site:snopes.com OR site:www.washingtonpost.com/news/fact-checker/ OR site:digipo.io)

      just this piece makes this a powerful little tool!

  17. May 2018
    1. Biohackers will soon be able to forgo these companies altogether with an all-in-one desktop genome printer: a device much like an inkjet printer that employs the letters AGTC — genetic base pairs — instead of the color model CMYK.A similar device already exists for institutional labs, called BioXp 3200, which sells for about $65,000. But at-home biohackers can start with DNA Playground from Amino Labs, an Easy Bake genetic oven that costs less than an iPad, or The Odin’s Crispr gene-editing kit for $159.

      The BioXP does not have the DNA synthesis functionality mentioned in the former paragraph as a workaround for buying fragments of DNA. Instead this system seems to assemble smaller synthesized sequences into larger ones. Neither the DNA playground nor the CRISPR gene editing kit allow the automated construction of DNA and also do not have the ability to synthesize DNA from a digital sequence.

  18. Jan 2018
  19. Jul 2017
    1. The habit is simple. When you feel strong emotion — happiness, anger, pride, vindication — and that emotion pushes you to share a “fact” with others, STOP. Above all, it’s these things that you must fact-check. Why? Because you’re already likely to check things you know are important to get right, and you’re predisposed to analyze things that put you an intellectual frame of mind. But things that make you angry or overjoyed, well… our record as humans are not good with these things. As an example, we might cite this tweet which recently crossed my Twitter feed: You don’t need to know that much of the background here to see the emotionally charged nature of this. President Trump had insulted Chuck Schumer, a Democratic Senator from New York, saying tears that Schumer shed during a statement about refugees were “fake tears”.  This tweet reminds us that that Senator Schumer’s great grandmother died at the hands of the Nazis, which could explain Schumer’s emotional connection to the issue of refugees. Or does it? Do we actually know that Schumer’s great-grandmother died at the hands of the Nazis? And if we are not sure this is true, should we really be retweeting it?

      Example of importance of fact-check. How to spy lies based on a truthful story.

    1. Check for previous work: Look around to see if someone else has already fact-checked the claim or provided a synthesis of research. Go upstream to the source: Go “upstream” to the source of the claim. Most web content is not original. Get to the original source to understand the trustworthiness of the information. Read laterally: Read laterally.[1] Once you get to the source of a claim, read what other people say about the source (publication, author, etc.). The truth is in the network. Circle back: If you get lost, or hit dead ends, or find yourself going down an increasingly confusing rabbit hole, back up and start over knowing what you know now. You’re likely to take a more informed path with different search terms and better decisions.

      Some ideas for checking Facts in the web

  20. May 2017
  21. Apr 2017
  22. Feb 2017
    1. How to make vetting information easier for readers

      We have a factchecking toolkit currently being used by instructors across the country for just this purpose!

    1. The paper is launching “Decodex”: three fact-checking products powered by a database of 600 websites deemed unreliable as compiled by Le Monde’s fact-checking unit, Les Décodeurs over the last year

      Interesting initiative.

    2. One way of tackling the issue is by using First Draft’s platform called Check, a live, open-source site where organizations can add any disputed content, whether it’s a video, image or fake-news site, and the members will assign a verifiable status.

      Hypothes.is would make a great tool for this effort.

    1. We will continue to work with Tapper and NBCUniversal Owned Television Stations in 2017, which promises to be a busy year as the Republican president and Congress look to make major changes in U.S. policy on climate change, fracking, renewable energy and other issues that SciCheck has been following for over two years.

      Interesting.

  23. Dec 2016
    1. Fact-based journalism now competes with false information for our attention while our cities and citizens become both more connected by technology and more divided by ideology and income. The values reflected in lines of code, whether it be at the ATM, when we search on internet or drive a car, are already affecting what we think, what we do and what information we share with those around us.
    1. Muhammad Ali (1942-2016) was the only professional boxer to win the heavyweight championship three times. With his outspoken political and religious views, he provided leadership and inspiration for African American men and women and Muslims around the world.

      good fact

  24. Oct 2016
    1. In other words, Hillary Clinton herself has known for at least a year that her campaign and her entire party systematically incite violence at Trump rallies. This is hard evidence of direct collaboration between the DNC and the Hillary/Kaine campaign to terrorize every Trump or Pence event with paid, trained, and centrally organized agitators. Many of these agitators were homeless and/or mentally ill persons, as well as “rock ‘n’ roll” DNC union workers. Moreover, coordinating all these thugs involved daily calls to Robbie Mook and Hillary Clinton herself. This Bolshevik/Brownshirt “birddogging” campaign is way bigger than online “troll” tactics by the Correct The Record Super PAC. This campaign literally amounts to a paid, mobile army of about 500 agitators that can be anywhere in the USA as needed.
    1. Official records reveal Bob Creamer, the man exposed as being behind a tactic called “bird-dogging” in which homeless people, the elderly, and mentally ill individuals are paid to start violence at Trump rallies, has been to the White House many times since 2009.
    1. Democrats have used trained provocateurs to instigate violence at Republican events nationwide throughout the 2016 election cycle, including at several Donald Trump rallies, using a tactic called “bird-dogging,”
    1. In turn, the consultants are working with Democratic Super PACs and other groups to give maximum media exposure to the “bird dogging” violence, which they admit targets the elderly and disabled for maximum “shock value.”
    1. Democrats have used trained provocateurs to instigate violence at Republican events nationwide throughout the 2016 election cycle, including at several Donald Trump rallies, using a tactic called “bird-dogging,” according to a new video investigation released Monday by James O’Keefe’s Project Veritas.
    1. A new expression has emerged: "Bird-dogging."Democrats have used trained provocateurs to instigate violence at Republican events nationwide throughout the 2016 election cycle, including at several Donald Trump rallies, using a tactic called “bird-dogging,” according to a new video investigation released Monday by James O’Keefe’s Project Veritas.
  25. Sep 2016
    1. College coaches are receiving multi-million dollar salaries in this modern NCAA system. University of Texas Head Football Coach Mack Brown’s salary totals over $5 million. In comparison, scholarships for the entire Texas football team total just over $3 million.
    2. The three weeks of the NCAA Basketball Tournament, known as “March Madness,” generate over $770 million in TV rights deals alone.
    3. College football and basketball generate more than the National Basketball Association, a total of more than $6 billion yearly.
  26. Aug 2016
    1. Political office most often comes through compounding connections, where a more-than-middle-class family, influential college peers, work associates, and other social and religious communities all provide a network of resources that ensures the connected become the elected.

      FACT Statement of fact: describes some of the causes of the issue: connections, influence, communities, resources.

      • What conditions lead towards likelihood of election?
      • What factors are most important?
    2. only 13 out of 783 members of Congress from 1999 to 2008 came from a “blue-collar” upbringing

      FACT Statement identifying conditions of the problem and characteristics of congress members.

      • How significantly have politician's salaries increased?

      • When did the disparity become so glaring?

    3. The U.S. spends among the lowest on the poor per capita in the OECD, is the least effective at reducing poverty, and consequently, faces the largest poverty problem.

      FACT Statement of fact: describe conditions that allow the problem to persist.

    4. For the first time, more than half of the members of Congress are millionaires. Nearly 200 are multimillionaires. One hundred are worth more than $5 million; the top-10 deal in nine digits.

      FACT Statements describing current state of congress members incomes. Statement describing problem.

  27. Mar 2016
    1. The report found Afghanistan and Pakistan to be the countries with fewer girls in school: 71 girls for every 100 boys in the former and 82 girls for every 100 boys in the latter.

      Pakistan and Afghanistan are proved to be the country with fewer girls in school

  28. Feb 2016
  29. Jan 2016
    1. our economy is growing and creating jobs at the fastest pace since 1999.

      Politifact rated this claim "Mostly True.", though those that disagree with Obama would likely argue that this single statistic does not tell the whole story of the nation's economy.

    1. our economy is growing and creating jobs at the fastest pace since 1999. 

      Politifact rated this claim "Mostly True.", though those that disagree with Obama would likely argue that this single statistic does not tell the whole story of the nation's economy.

    1. spanning 5,000 years

      ->that has spanned 5,000 years...

      Given the tone, "that has spanned 5,000 glorious years" could also work.

  30. Nov 2015
    1. In the process of desiring to Awaken, keep in mind what we have been discussing about Substance. In fact, keep in mind everything we have discussed because these Facts are substantial and are constituted of the Substance which is Light. Allow this Light to illumine your way, no matter how abstract this may seem to you. Keep more in touch with the Fourth-dimensional Actuality of your family experience, and of any activity which you are involved in during the day. If necessary, remind yourself of the Facts of which we have spoken. Measure your daily experience according to these Facts, rather than the way the day seems to be appearing or what it seems to be claiming. The simple fact is that you need to proceed as though the divine Facts were Facts—which They are. And, on the basis of these Facts, you must be alert with a sense of active expectancy to see Them become apparent in and as your conscious experience.

      Raj says to keep in mind what they have been talking about regarding Being, Substance, Law, Love, etc - behave as though they are True (which they are but 3dref doesn't see it that way).

      Measure your experience relative to these Facts rather than 3d ideas of success.