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  1. Last 7 days
    1. Some examples of deficiencies: new employees being unable to navigate in the organization, or unaware of protocols or company guidelines. A good onboarding process can reduce “Team Debt” and ensure that new employees are additive rather than subtractive.

      this can be especially important in remote environments, when a lot of the physical cultural broadcast signals are not as present - and takes a lot more intention

    2. It’s the idea that when employees aren’t properly trained, integrated, or managed, they are operating at less than optimal efficiency and “team debt” is accrued. Each new employee that is added without being sufficiently trained and integrated increases that debt. If unchecked, team debt can reach a point where expansion must be halted in order to address the deficiencies of the existing system.

      really like the idea of Team Debt

      this also connects a bit to the talk that Rehana gave on how adding people to a team doesn't always increase velocity.

  2. May 2021
    1. Purpose for the Mentor:Develop leadership skills‍Being put in the position of a role model can help mentors become better leaders and instill confidence in their leadership ability. The responsibility of helping guide someone’s career and goals requires the senior employee to teach, to motivate and to offer honest feedback in difficult conversations. All these skills are at the top of the required list for a leader.

      This is something that I've been thinking about in terms of career growth, and how one of the things we expect of engineers as they become more senior - is that they can take on leadership roles, level up other people, etc - but we often don't provide them with the tools or opportunity to work on these skills, or go into what skills are required to go into this tk.

    2. Being recognized as an advisor‍After a good mentoring session, mentees are likely to mention it to others in the organization. In little time, people will come to you for advice and doors will open for you to be inserted into leadership positions or projects. 
      • the upskilling imperative - think like a marketer - how can this be used?
      • this can help surface who the SME's are over time as well
    3. An important point to note is that there's a difference between coaching and mentoring. A coach's job is to improve a particular skill, but a mentor plays a more holistic role in helping a mentee improve

      Mentoring and Coaching are different, and being able to identify the differences between the two is important.

      For managers, sometimes they need to wear a coaches hat, or a mentors hat - but these are roles that a manager can have but not their only job.

      Considerations for L&D programs

      • how can mentoring fit in with L&D?
      • how can coaching fit in with L&D?
    1. Collaborative exams allow students the opportunities to learn from and teach each other. Open-book and self-graded exams are not as good at sorting or ranking students, but they are often just as good (if not better) tools for learning.

      I like the use of [[collaborative exams to enable peer-to-peer learning]].

      One of the challenges with L&D at work is the knowledge / skills transfer if someone does a course on their own, or if people are taking the same course at their own times.

      wondering how this idea could translate to professional learning & development

    2. I know quite a few STEM folks who ungrade in various ways. Some specific stuff I’ve seen work in STEM classes: project-based learning with self-assessment, process notebooks (like a lab notebook but with an emphasis on metacognition), and collaborative exams.

      to help grow a learning culture / learning environment / peer-to-peer-learning - things like process-note-books could be used as a light-weight way to capture information as people are working.

      same with better tracking of work that people do for projects, etc.

      • [[collaborative exams]]
      • [[metacognition]]
    3. I haven’t seen a college mission statement with any of these:• Pit students and teachers against one another• Rank students competitively• Reduce the humanity of students to a single low-resolution standardized metric• Frustrate learning with approaches that discourage intrinsic motivation• Reinforce bias against marginalized students• Fail to trust students’ knowledge of their own learningMost assessment mechanisms in higher education simply do not assess what we say we value most.

      I really like the idea of how we assess should reflect what we value.

    4. Learning is not linear, and meaningful learning resists being quantified. Our assessment approaches should create space for learning not arbitrarily delimit it.
      • how does this relate to how companies approach learning and development?
      • often, companies get caught up in linear training, compliance based, top-down
      • L&D can then be 'take X, then Y, then Z' - but does not account for the fact that [[learning is not linear]]
    5. I'm increasingly struck by the degree to which we approach grades and grading as inevitable. If we can’t “imagine the world as though it might be otherwise,” as Maxine Greene would say, we are stuck with the bizarre customs and habits our institutions have adopted.

      We are so conditioned to the idea of grading, report cards, the 'one and done' transactional approach - that for many, trying to imagine another way is difficult, or people say "can't be done"

    1. The best course of action is to be intentional and systematic from the get-go. That is, rather than seeing the development, communication, and management of knowledge as “nice-to-haves” within your organization, start building these processes into your organization’s standard routine: Include knowledge management in your project descriptions and timelines. Set a “shelf life” for your knowledge documents (the maximum amount of time that can pass before revisiting said documents in some way). Perform scheduled maintenance to your knowledge documentation on a monthly, quarterly, and yearly basis.

      This is basically Knowledge Management in The Flow Of Work, similar to Learning in the Flow of Work

    2. The knowledge coursing through your organization today can—and often will—become outdated, and even obsolete, as time goes on. This can happen for a variety of reasons: The development and release of a new product A shift within your organization’s processes A change in overall trends throughout your industry That being the case, you’ll want to remain absolutely vigilant in terms of keeping your knowledge as robust and up-to-date as possible.

      thinking of things like Guru that had a way to flag out of date content.

      • spaced repetition - naturally surface stuff for review?
      • make it easy for people to flag things as out of date
      • in the 360 Learning demo - it showed how they let people flag things
      • GitBook - allowed comments (although our follow through on that was kinda poor)
    3. One of the first issues you’re likely to face when spearheading a new (or improving your current) knowledge-management initiative is that some of your employees may not be so open to the change. In some cases, you’ll have employees who can’t see why they need to teach other people in the organization how to do their job. In other cases, you’ll have people who don’t understand why they need to learn how to do other people’s jobs. And, of course, you’ll have some employees who fit into both categories.

      Thinking about how this relates to what I'm reading in The Upskilling Imperative, and the advice to "Think Like a Marketer to Drive Learning and Development"

      Like L&D - Knowledge Management at organizations has it's own hurdles, and things like Notion, Confluence, Jira, Sharepoint, Google Drive, etc --

      L&D and KM are closely related - what are the similarities / differences in

      • Think like a Marketer to Drive KM
      • Better explain how KM and L&D are related
  3. Apr 2021
    1. Executive summary The fast-changing and unpredictable challenges of work may seem unsurmountable. But the learning behaviors of thousands of international businesses on the Udemy for Business platform and a survey of over 500 global professionals offer a glimpse of the bright future that lies ahead. In this report, you'll learn: Why your organization needs to think beyond job-related skills How your workforce can “crack the code on collaboration” Why data science isn't just for data scientists anymore What skills will reshape software engineering and IT roles
    1. But decentralized learning goes farther than that: in a decentralized, Collaborative Learning environment, each team member participates in the learning process. They can identify their learning needs, request courses, give feedback on existing courses, and create courses themselves. We call this a bottom-up approach
      • push vs pull for learning - create an environment that enables learning to happen, and let the people doing the work surface what they need to learn, and then help facilitate and amplify that process
    2. 1. Embrace decentralized learningCentralized learning flows out from a single point: instructors teach and employees learn. But many businesses are shifting towards a more decentralized approach, making this system obsolete. More employees are working remotely and asynchronously, and they need to break learning into small chunks that fit into their daily work schedule. The first step in decentralizing learning is to shift to online classes that can be completed in micro-sessions throughout the week.
      • with remote work, more and more learning is being done async - having the instructor lead / cohort based learning, while still an option - we need to expand beyond that, and find ways to create async learning opportunities, and create the ability to learn in the flow of work
    1. Here are the economics: The cost of recruiting a midcareer software engineer (who earns $150,000- 200,000 per year) can be $30,000 or more including recruitment fees, advertising, and recruiting technology. This new hire also requires onboarding and has a potential turnover of two to three times higher than an internal recruit. By contrast, the cost to train and reskill an internal employee may be $20,000 or less, saving as much as $116,000 per person over three years.  The net savings: it can cost as much as 6-times more to hire from the outside than to build from within.
      • the cost of hiring talent vs upskilling talent
    1. Leaders from Accenture and DBS Bank told Harvard Business Review that encouraging employees to teach newly-acquired skills to their colleagues expanded and deepened learning for all. The training of a single employee results in learning opportunities for dozens of others. Collaborative approaches to training ripple through an organization, where ideas and methodologies cross-pollinate from one part of the business to another

      by investing in a learning organization, and learning eco-systems, we can turn learning into an active, social collaborative activity - which can benefit everyone, adn help break down silos between departments and teams.

    2. Losing highly skilled employees can be a significant drain on company resources. Gallup estimatesa 100-person company with average attrition rates spends between $660,000-$2.6 million per year on turnover and replacement

      skills gap comes at a real cost, and being able to show the ROI / value on it can help get buy-in from buisness leaders

    1. To transform L&D into a key strategic partner, it’s not enough to simply oversee learning operations; you need to integrate them with the organization’s goals.

      Strategic CLO vs CLO

    2. Many companies view L&D as a service provider for employees instead of a strategic partner for growth

      I've talked about this before when brain storming on how to teach companies to become teaching organizations, and partnering more closely than one-off training that is very off the shelf.

    1. You can’t force learners to participate in your training courses (and if you can, they are likely rebelling internally), but you can help them see the benefits of the learning experience you are providing by sharing the big-picture vision and purposes driving the need for the training. When you strategically align your training and techniques to the company goals and core values, you reinforce the purpose and culture of the company while transferring the knowledge that employees need to be successful.

      When I was doing the training for Ceridian - there started to be word of mouth about the sessions, and people asking their managers if/when they could join.

      While some people were forced to be there, and didn't want to be - there was enough people that wanted to be there and were engaged.

    2. I’m not saying that SMART goals are wrong; I just want to help you think bigger and dig deeper into your vision of what you’re building. Look at your goals again. Which mindset do they fit into? Is there a variation of your goals that better explains why you want to achieve them? Document not only the goals that you want to achieve but the reasons you want to achieve them.

      there was a varation on SMART goals that was talked about in the raw signal training

      • Significant
      • Measurable
      • Agreed
      • Time bound

      Instead of 'Attainable' - who do I need to get in agreement with to make this happen?

    1. Learning Organization Learning organizations invest in and facilitate the ongoing growth of their employees

      [[learning organizations invest in facilitating the growth of employees]]

    2. Any organization can begin the journey to a continuous learning culture by focusing its transformation along three critical dimensions, as shown in Figure 1.

    1. Enable Continuous Learning Employees at every level are lifelong learners. Changes in technology, as well as changes to method and practice, are routine; opportunities for continuing education, however, are far less frequent. Also, the initial move to Lean-Agile requires many new techniques and skills, including: Feature and Story writing Building in quality Automated testing Collective ownership Agile Architecture Continuous Integration Pair work Mastering Product Owner and Scrum Master roles Team building

      having an innovation iteration can be one of the ways to help enable a learning organization / enable continuous learning

    1. Organizing a Community of Practice CoPs are highly organic, and like most living organisms they have a natural life cycle, beginning with an idea for a new community and ending when the community members feel the group has achieved its objectives or is no longer providing value. Figure 4 shows the typical life cycle of a CoP.

      CoPs have a lifecycle - and a winding down / shutting down phase is normal - how does this relate to guilds? should guilds take more of a CoP approach?

    2. That is what drives craftsmanship and continuous learning (see the Continuous Learning Culture competency article), facilitating the adoption of new methods and techniques

      continuous learning culture - learning organizations - learning maturity

    1. Types of communities of practice Today, communities of practices are increasingly being used to improve knowledge management and connect people within business, government, education, and other organizations.

      Community of Pratice can be a bit of an umbrella term, and can also include

      • Helping Communities
      • Best Practice Communities
      • Knowledge Stewarding Communities

      • question - what is the difference between Knowledge Sharing and Knowledge Stewarding?

  4. Mar 2021
    1. trying to get there before the 6pm start to establish ourselves in our preferred place in the hall means leaving ours around 5:20pm… it should not take half an hour to travel 6.5 miles, but it does and it just takes any energy I had out of me. You know The Spoon Theory? Let’s say by 5pm I have about 3 spoons left for the day; 30 minutes of rush hour traffic can easily take away all 3 of those spoons, leaving me susceptible to meltdown.

      even knowing that something isn't that much time, or 'effort', or that hard - but it still drains the spoons. Even things I know that should only take 30 minutes, like default allocate a day in my head at times in terms of energy cost.

    2. Another area of regression is going shopping at the grocery store or being out in town. It’s not like I particularly enjoy either of these things, but I could certainly just about cope for enough time to get done what I need to and then leave without incident. Now, I will actively wait to go grocery shopping until a guaranteed quiet time (usually around 7pm Friday or Saturday and either 10am or 2pm on a Sunday) and sometimes have had to resort to putting in my earplugs or headphones in order to minimise sensory overload (noisy kids or the rickety stock trolleys staff drag along with squeaking wheels and rattling metal!). The only time we go into town now is when we get haircuts. Whereas before we would wander amongst the shops and look around for a while, our routine now is to go for an early lunch at Jane’s Pantry, maybe nip into Boots first to pick up a few items, then go home.

      i relate to this so much

    1. physically shutting down, including the loss of speech.  

      I've had days where words are hard, gone non-verbal, or stutter gets alot worse.

    1. had access to computers for almost as long as I can remember. When my parents got an IBM Aptiva when I was in grade school, they


  5. Feb 2021
    1. Books and videos rarely deliver here: Mass mediums are typically bad at helping people translate ideas to practice.
      • question - how does this relate to the learning hub ⁉️
      • how does this relate to peer to peer teaching and learning ecosystems ⁉️
    1. Their self-evaluations (which I sometimes call “process letters”), and my responses to them, become a space of dialogue,

      I really like the idea of this form of self-evaluation, I think people are so used to feedback being a one-way street and not a conversation.

      From a young age, we are usually trained to have this "hand it in, get a grade, move on" type of mindset - instead of having a dialog, and how to improve.

      This mindset can then carry over into the workplace - both in the expectations of how to receive feedback from managers, and how managers approach giving feedback - as some sort of quarterly grade and not much dialog in between.

    1. In his review in 2014, his manager said that the company had already bumped him up 14 percent, and “with bonuses, company-paid health insurance and other perks the total compensation package easily puts Angelo well on the way, if not already in excess of, his $80K/year long term goal.” He refused to further increase Ragin’s pay. Ragin was then chided for advocating for himself.

      we encourage people to speak up, advocate for themselves - but depending on our privilege, and the other person - what can be seem normal for a white person, can be seen as greedy, self serving, etc if asked by other groups

    2. One of the key metrics on the IT team was how many tickets agents solved. Mailchimp employees would write in with technical issues, and it was up to the team to resolve them as quickly as possible.

      measure the wrong metrics for the wrong things - get results you don't want. Don't confuse metrics for goals

    3. “The support team was treated like the custodians,” a former staffer says. “Everyone loves and respects the custodian. They’re a friendly face when you walk in the door. But no one has any interest in promoting the custodian.” “It feels like you’re the lowest rung on the ladder,” a current employee adds. “When you see people of color, women, LGBTQ people in this department it feels really shitty. We’re hidden away.”
      • hiring people / inviting people in is one thing
      • that does not mean that they feel included, or that they belong
    4. In response to this allegation, Mailchimp said no formal HR complaints have been filed against the manager in question.

      if people fear that raising issues will impact their growth, lack of reporting does not mean lack of a problem

    5. Dale remembers that once, a manager shushed her when she responded to a question she’d been asked directly during a meeting with him and another male colleague. He then asked her male counterpart to answer the question. She says that when she went to HR to tell them about the behavior, nothing seemed to change. “Leadership at Mailchimp clearly knows about this and doesn’t do anything about it,” she says.
      • being aware, but not caring, or not believing it's a problem
      • can lead to people not reporting if they feel nothing will be done
    6. Group chats and Slack groups filled with former Mailchimp employees were set ablaze by the news. Workers began discussing their own experiences with alleged discrimination and unequal pay, wondering whether what they viewed as the open secret of Mailchimp’s company culture would finally be brought into the open. “They’re going to have to acknowledge the problems that are being raised, and respond with something other than, ‘we have investigated ourselves and found we did nothing wrong,’” one said in an alumni Slack. “I wish more people would speak out but I wont for the same reasons (NDA, fear of retaliation),” another responded.

      often the people not being harmed, are not aware that there is a problem - operating from a position of privilege, and then gaslighting victims

    7. Mailchimp told employees that it had investigated Ellis’ claims and found them to be unsubstantiated. But CEO Ben Chestnut also said that he knew the company needed to do better. “I’m hearing loud and clear that we have work to do, including needing greater transparency around pay equity and an intentional focus on inclusion,” he wrote in a letter to staffers, which was first reported in Business Insider. “I want to address these issues head-on, and I know we’ll be stronger for it. I’m asking our leadership team to prioritize these issues and work with me to fix them. What we do needs to match what we say.”

      saying and doing are different things.

    8. In a statement emailed to The Verge, a Mailchimp spokesperson said: “We’ve always wanted Mailchimp to be a place where everyone feels included, respected, and empowered to do their best work. But that hasn’t been the experience for all of our employees. Over the past four years we’ve doubled in size, and while we worked hard to foster an inclusive culture as we grew, we fell short in some important areas.” The company declined to comment on The Verge’s questions about individual personnel matters.

      Guiding Principles - Lack of Inclusion is a Risk / Crisis Management issue

    9. Employees say the company’s position as one of the premier startups in Atlanta allows it to view workers as disposable, as there are fewer tech jobs to choose from than if the company were located in San Francisco or New York City. They also say that because the organization is private and has never taken on outside investment, executives can operate without the specter of more public accountability. Many feel they’ve exhausted every option internally and are only speaking to the press as a last resort.

      "If you don't like it, just leave" is something I'll hear people say - being unaware that

      • leaving may not be a valid option
      • other opportunities may not be there
      • just leaving allows the toxic culture to continue
    10. After they returned to Atlanta, Oliver sent her a message saying he’d thought they were going to hook up on the trip. Luaces responded that she didn’t think it was a good idea. Shortly after, the offer to move to his team seemingly evaporated. Luaces’ role was being eliminated in the reorg, and she was told she could either take a lower-level position or leave the company.

      power dynamic and imbalance - give into sexual advances, or be penalized for it - neither are appropriate.

    11. AlejandraAlejandra Luaces had only worked at Mailchimp for four months when she got a surprising anonymous email. “Oliver* is in an open marriage and is fair game,” the message read, referring to a senior engineering manager. “Serena* also knows so you can ask her to confirm.”

      when we encourage to bring their 'whole selves to work' - but then gets weaponized against them in a rumour mill - people don't feel safe

    1. The teacher was the Brazilian educator and thinker Paulo Freire. As Raff Carmen, a scholar and practitioner of adult education, would write decades later in an obituary of Freire, the confrontation “stood out as the cathartic moment shaping Freire’s thinking about progressive education: even when one must speak to people, one must convert the ‘to’ into a ‘with’ the people.” The moment captured something vital about knowledge: it comes from lived experience

      The moment captured something vital about knowledge: it comes from lived experience

    1. All hallmarks of a disability frequently written off as over-exaggeration or attention-seeking

      this can make it challenging for people to self advocate, be open about it - for fear that we will be dismissed as wanting to make excuses.

    2. The greatest insistence that I can somehow power through my disability comes from the people that claim that my brain would simply work if capitalism was eradicated.CW/TW: Ableist language, eugenicsI don’t know who decided that “Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder” was an accurate or effective description of what ADHD does to a person, but I think they should be stripped of all medical credentials, even if it’s posthumously. It is a woefully insufficient title, incapable of fully describing the laundry list of physical, emotional, and mental symptoms that come with some quirk of brain chemistry. Issues with attention span and regulation of one’s limbs are certainly on that list, but there’s so much more.

      This is why I've come to appreciate the term DREAD Pirate

      D - Difficulty R - Regulating E - Emotion & A - Attention D - Divergence

    1. Microsoft’s LinkedIn said it avoids gendered pronouns in its year-old predictive messaging tool, Smart Replies, to ward off potential blunders.

      other companies are already making considerations like this

    2. Agolo, a New York startup that has received investment from Thomson Reuters, uses AI to summarize business documents.

      this type of bias appears in other places.

      There are other problematic tools that try and guess gender like

    3. A system shown billions of human sentences becomes adept at completing common phrases but is limited by generalities. Men have long dominated fields such as finance and science, for example, so the technology would conclude from the data that an investor or engineer is “he” or “him.” The issue trips up nearly every major tech company.

      based on the informationw e provide, and who is providing it - we cans start to encode biases, and if we train it on data that generally assumes that an engineer is "he", that is where the potential harm in features like Smart Compose canc ome from

    1. Your ability to change your Environment variables is dependent on where you sit in the org. If you are a manager, you have a higher ability to change things like resources and team culture.But if you are an individual contributor, you have less ability to change these things. Your manager is typically the one in control. That is why when all else is equal, you should always choose a situation with the best manager.

      as an IC - learning to manage up, advocate for yourself - and a manager that can then control and work in your favour is something to consider

    2. Making a decision isn't just about where the variable is today, but what you are able to do about it. Your ability to change each variable is not evenly distributed. Some are harder to change than others.Your Ability To Change Environment Variables
      • some things you can control, some you can't, some youc an influence - be aware of your sphere of control / influence
    3. These variables work in concert with each other so you need to dig to the root cause.

      don't look at them as discrete independent things, they are impacted by other things - get curious and dig into the why and the root cause

    4. Evaluating The Manager Variable

      evaluating the manager

    5. Major Amplifier = A manager that is a major amplifier is a sponsor for you. They have a fundamental belief in you and are actively investing in getting you to the next level. They seek out opportunities for you internally and externally,

      a good manager is a major amplifier of effort, not a friction and reduction

    6. Slightly Hurting = Your manager is creating some light friction to getting your work done. They may be sharing context, light feedback, but not helping unblock constraints.

      role of a manager - helping unblock can be a big part of things

      • who / what needs help unblocking?
      • what support do I need in helping get things unblocked?
    7. Hurting A Lot = ****Your manager might be doing one of the thing (context, feedback, tradeoffs, unblocking constraints) but none of the others.

      manager is doing one or two, but missing many of the others

    8. Major Bottleneck = Your manager isn't sharing the proper context you need to do your best work. They also aren't recognizing tradeoffs, and just keep piling work on. Not helping to unblock constraints. No useful feedback or conditions of satisfaction. You don't feel like they believe in you or are actively investing in your success.
      • examples of how a manager can be a bottleneck
    9. What is happening with this variable?Which ones are in flux?Where are there weaknesses?Which ones are most important?

      Step 1 - spell out your variables,

    10. Step by Step On How To Use The FrameworkLets walk through a step-by-step of how to use the framework. We'll go through 6 steps:Spell Out Your VariablesGive Each Variable A ScoreIdentify What Matters MostEvaluate Your Ability To Change The VariableUnderstand The Time Horizon Of ChangeMap Your Variables to Decisions and Areas of Development
      • what are the steps in the framework
      • explain in your own words
    11. Strategic Thinking - Strategic thinking is your ability to see the forest through the trees. As an IC you learn to do the work. As you grow in your career, you need to learn how you anticipate the work. You need to understand the bigger system, the needs of the system, and where you and your team align with that system.

      challenge I can find at times - is shifting between strategic thinking and execution.

      Being able to understand the bigger picture is important, and as a manager - being able to convey that to the team, and to the individual is important as well.

    12. Influence/Leadership - As an IC, you are responsible for influencing your peers on your direct team. As you become a manager, you need to influence the people you directly manage, but also indirectly influence people you don't manage. Then as you move up in management, you do less direct downward influencing and more indirect influencing across the company. Influence is the hardest skill, because it depends on the characters around you. You can be great at it, but perhaps the people around you aren't.

      reminds me a bit of managing up / managing across.

      I also remember before I became a manager, I was in a spot where it felt like I had 'lots of influence, but little authority' - which was an interesting but useful spot to be in. expand on tk

    13. Communication - In any function, a key part of progression is your ability to get better at what you convey, how you convey it, and whom you convey it to.

      communication is a very broad skill - question: what are the sub skills that make this up?

    14. The exact skills will vary from function to function and role to role. But there tend to be four common areas of skills:
      • question: What are the four areas of skills
      • question: Why do they matter?
      • question: How can you improve them?
      • question: Where am I at with them?
    15. Skills are the things that are within your direct control that enable your success.

      things that are in your control: skills

    16. Company Culture - The culture of the company needs to align with your beliefs and working style. Things like work-life balance are included in culture. The more misaligned the working culture is, the less motivated or enthusiastic you will be about the work.

      each team within a company can have it's own subculture - how does that fit in?

    17. Scope - Your scope is the runway you have to do your best work. You need to evaluate how your scope aligns to what the company needs and what you are capable of handling. You want scope that is a little bigger than what you are currently capable of, but not so big that you have a hard time executing. You want to look for situations where the immediate scope is clear, with more on the horizon.

      scope - increase it a bit, but not so much that you can't handle it.

    18. Manager - Your manager isn't just someone you report to. It is the person responsible for growing your career and shaping your output. This person should be invested in helping you do your best work. This variable can only be evaluated by talking to the people they currently and formerly managed.

      Your manager is responsible for growing your career, and helping shape your output - talk to other people managed by them, what do they say?

      • question: How am I effectively growing peoples careers, shaping their output - what could I be doing better or differently?
    19. What I'd like to do for the rest of this post is break down the following:The variables in the frameworkWhy the variables are importantStep-by-step on how to evaluate each variableCommon scenarios and situations

      what are the variables in the framework? expand on each

      • The variables in the framework
      • Why the variables are important
      • Step-by-step on how to evaluate each variable
      • Common scenarios and situations
    20. It's Not About A Spreadsheet of InputsThe goal of the framework is not to try and boil a decision like this down to a set of spreadsheet inputs that spits out a "right" answer. Instead, the goal of the framework is to:Be able to name the individual variables that are inputs into the decision.Evaluate each individual variable in a structured way.Understand the relationship between each variable.Narrow the decision down to the true problem (or most important variable) so that you can focus your energy on grappling with that piece.

      Don't confuse this with a checklist, it's an analysis

    21. The framework I’ve used is Impact = Environment x Skills. What this means is: We need to solve for is Impact. Impact is the product of our Environment and our Skills. If our skills are great, but the environment is wrong (or vice versa), then we aren't set up for success.

      impact framework equation

    22. “After a few years of working on the Ads & Pages team at Facebook, I had the opportunity to interview with other teams as I looked for a new role. The best advice I received was to think about the kind of environment I wanted to work in - who I wanted to work with, what I wanted to work on, and what I wanted to learn from that experience. It helped me realize that the skills I wanted to learn would be a lot harder to cultivate in that environment because the teams were so large that I needed to play a specific role, one that only accounted for a fraction of what I wanted to learn. Ultimately, it helped me realize that the best thing for me was to leave Facebook and join a company that had a better environment for what I was looking for at the time.” - Behzod Sirjani (Reforge Partner, ex-Slack, FB)

      consider - what does the best environment look like for you? can you describe it? - can you communicate it?

    23. Leaving this out of the equation when making career decisions leads to navigating yourself to very frustrating situations where you feel like you are getting better but that isn't translating to impact and career progression. Remember, the variables of your environment are just as important as the variables of you.

      Remember, the variables of your environment are just as important as the variables of you.

    24. A second trap is thinking that you just need to work on yourself in order to grow your career. For example, "To progress, I just need to get better at [insert skill.]" But you are only one part of the equation.There is a whole other part of the equation, which is your environment. Your environment either limits or amplifies your own ability to get better at a skill.
      • Trap: "I just need to work on myself more"
      • Assumption: You need to focus on improving X
      • Impact: You need to consider the environment. if you don't, you could end up in a place that limits your ability to work on that skill instead of amplify it.
    25. Evaluating impact isn't easy. It is complicated by a few factors:Impact is the result of multiple other variables.Those variables are interrelated and have confounding factors.Impact can be subjective to the individual.A lot of times you aren't even aware of what is holding you back, or what to evaluate on.

      If impact is the input that powers career progression, what are the complicating factors and why?

    26. When thinking through these situations, people often solve for the wrong things. Most often, people think about career advancement as increases in compensation. Compensation and career advancement are correlated, but not the same.

      compensation is not the main motivator, they are related but not the same. You can progress without it being directly tied to a promotion or raise - even though they are closely related.

    27. Impact Powers Career Progression

      🔍 Impact Powers Career Progression

    28. "Should I leave my current role?""How do I compare or choose between two or more opportunities?""What is preventing me from moving forward?"
      • do we switch projects?
      • teams?
      • career paths?
      • what projects do we take on, vs not, and why?
    29. At the end of their rotation, I would always initiate the same conversation:"How are you going to choose your next rotation?""How are you thinking about full-time placement after you finish your rotations?"After a number of these conversations, I realized that many struggled with the decision. But it is a key one to understand how to make. We all face this type of decision multiple times throughout our careers.

      Figuring out what you want to do next in your career can always be tricky - even if it's not within the context of an RPM cycle.

      Everyone faces similar choices multiple times.

    30. During my time at Facebook, I was fortunate to manage a lot of Rotational Product Managers (RPMs). RPMs would do multiple 6-month stints in different parts of the org, then at the end of the rotation, they would choose a full-time placement.

      Haven't heard the term Rotational Project Manager (RPMs) before - but I have talked about having people rotate between teams, and also having that process be smoother - can this apply to more than RPMs?

    1. Lead Time includes analysis and design phases, whose duration can vary a lot based on the breadth of the initiative.

      lead time includes the design phase, which can be unpredictable. Ideally, once the design phase is done - we should have a good enough understanding, shared context, etc - that once we execute, that the delivery lead time should be smaller.

      If there is a lot of rework during the delivery time - it could be a sign of unclear requirements, skill gaps, scope creep, hitting road blocks, etc.

      • question - how to ensure a smooth design phase to delivery phase hand over?
      • question - how to still allow for iteration, feedback and incorporating it in a smooth way
    1. Cycle Time hits the sweet spot by covering Coding, Review and Deploy.Cycle Time is defined as the time that goes from the first commit to the release in production.

      don't forget the time to review, and make changes based on review as part of cycle time.

      • PR / code review
      • testing
      • design review

      If there is rework that's needed - why? and what can we do to improve those.

      Simply pushing for faster may not get the results that we want.

    2. The time that goes from Design to Deploy is called Lead Time.Agile's main teaching, with respect to Waterfall, is to keep Lead Time short.Lead Time, however, is an all-in-one metric — it includes everything. It's not easily actionable, because it's the sum of very different steps.

      lead time is from design to deploy, cycle time focuses in on the coding - first commit, to deploy.

      • what are some of the things that can impact cycle time?
    3. Over the last couple of years, several analytics tools rose to support a data-driven approach to Software Engineering.You may (or may not) know a few of them: LinearB, Code Climate, Waydev, Flow.

      I've briefly looked into a few of these, but none super in depth. Been wondering if they are worth further investigation.

    4. Last week we explored software delivery metrics and how they predict overall engineering efficiency.This week I follow up, with a broader scope, to discuss my favorite metric of all: Cycle Time.

      there are quite a few metrics that we can use, but cycle time can be pretty revealing. Although, need to consider the why behind that number - pushing for faster but lower quality. isn't a good trade off.

    1. Interviewer training: There are scenarios specific to hiring within each set. Pick those out to review with your interview panel prior to your recruitment process. This can help you accomplish a more equitable hiring process.

      I think this is an important part to look at.

      I find that we often focus DEI training on people in leadership roles, however often when doing interviews - people outside of leadership / management roles are also involved in the process.

    2. When hiring managers believed a woman had children because “Parent-Teacher Association coordinator appeared on her resume, she was 79% less likely to be hired. If she was hired, she would be offered an average of $11,000 less in salary.

      I recall when learning how to do interviews once, the person who was helping me made a comment along the lines of -

      one of the things I look for is an engagement ring, as it's a sign that they are getting married soon - and want the job just to get mat leave

      I remember being rather shocked by that statement, and I didn't speak up about it at that time directly - although did push back against it a bit, but it's one of those memories that really stood out as 'wow, that is kind of messed up'

    3. When a woman’s name was replaced with a man’s name on a resume, evaluators were 60% more likely to say they would hire the applicant. 

      note to self: I recall reading a twitter thread recently of someone that had an interesting way to try and combat bias with reviewing candidates, look this up again.

    4. A woman of color will often experience more discrimination in the workplace than a white woman.

      when considering DEI efforts, we need to consider race - I've read a few things before on how if focusing on Women, it tends to default to white women, and can end up implementing things that exclude Black women - even if it's not intentional, it can undermine DEI efforts

    5. A colleague asks a woman to pick up food for an office gathering, even though that’s not her job. Suggest a solution that distributes the work more fairly, like a potluck or a team rotation.

      a common challenge can be women getting assigned 'non-promotable work', stuff that is additional work/effort that take away the time from their main responsabilities.

      This can also include note taking during meetings, being asked to plan social events, etc ---

    6. Your hiring committee rules out a woman of color because she’s not a good culture fit. Ask them to be more specific, and point out that “different” can be a culture add.

      culture fit is a bit of a red flag, and digging into why can be revealing.

      Looking for culture add, and what we hope they can bring to the team is important. Culture fit is often a way that URM get excluded from the hiring process

    7. Someone from another department incorrectly assumes that the man on your team is the leader. Gently correct the assumption and underscore your leader’s accomplishments. For example, “[Name] is our team lead. She heads all our biggest sales efforts.”

      I've seen this happen before - assuming that the male is the leader, or the one that had the idea - and can diminish the recognition of the right people.

      Correcting this on the spot can be done quickly

    8. “Gender bias holds women back from being hired and advancing in their careers. It’s important to be aware of how that manifests,” says Raena Saddler from Lean In. That’s why Lean In created an activity that helps you combat gender bias at work. It’s called 50 Ways to Fight Bias, and the digital versions are free. Raena explains, “This activity is an engaging way to think through your own biases and call out and navigate bias when you see it in the wild.”

      we all have biases, conscious and unconscious - being aware of these, and knowing at what points to look out for them is important.

    1. Each of these incorrect answers is a plausible distractor with diagnostic power. A distractor is a wrong or less-than-best answer; “plausible” means that it looks like it could be right, while “diagnostic power” means that each of the distractors helps the teacher figure out what to explain next to that particular learner.

      this has been such useful advice when considering lesson design, and even designing interview questions, etc.

      This has also made me consider how I setup questions - if they get something wrong, is it because of a wrong answer, or something in the setup got in their way?

      are they getting stuck on the rigth problems

    1. In practice it was not uncommon to see import chains dozens of files long, with thousands of nodes rendered, but with options like exclude, focus, and doNotFollow you can prune the tree into something legible. An unexpected benefit of this exercise was trimming the size of our JS bundles (particularly the preload, which runs on every page navigation) by relocating unexpected code or removing unused code.

      execution time can be a big performance impact, especially if there are full page reloads.

      I've seen the webpack bundle analyzer used to help sort some of this out - but another tool in the performance toolbox could be useful.

    2. Breaking the Chain In making the move to sandbox, the first area we stumbled on was the organization of our code. Although we weren’t often referencing Node in our renderer bundles, we had a common folder of utilities that, theoretically, could be shared across main and renderer processes. Over the years, that folder had accumulated all kinds of methods: not just ones that were genuinely reusable. They were often grouped into overly large and ambiguous files: e.g., a logging-helpers file with both (reusable) string utilities and (non-reusable) fs utilities. Renderer code might import one of those files to get at a string utility and take a dependency on fs as a side effect. Untangling this web of dependencies was no small feat, but one tool that made it more manageable was dependency-cruiser.⁷ It let us visualize import chains to see how code was getting pulled in, and, once rearranged, prevented similar imports with validation rules: like a linter for code organization.

      I want to look into dependency-cruiser more,

      common 'util' libraries can quickly become a catch-all mess, and any tool that can help untangle them would be useful.

    3. But if a bad actor has control of the webpage, via something like a cross-site scripting (XSS) vulnerability, its Node powers can be co-opted for evil: // Example of XSS in a naïve notifications window window.store.dispatch({ type: 'NEW_NOTIFICATION', payload: { content: `<img src=x onerror="${getPayload()}" />` } }); // Since nodeIntegration is enabled, this escalates any XSS // to remote code execution (RCE)! function getPayload() { return `require('child_process').exec(${ 'open /Applications/Calculator.app' })`; }

      haven't thought much before about XSS vulnerabilities in electron apps - TIL

    1. Try to only break items into components where it makes sense rather than creating a lot of smaller components.

      I've noticed a trend with components, depending on the team where they can fall onto two extremes

      • page-like thinking, and everything is a page
      • trying to break things down too small

      there isn't a fast set rule on when to break things up, but can consider - is this component doing too much? what are the logical boundaries? etc

    2. This allows us to provide context for our selectors so they aren’t impacted by JS/CSS changes

      when tests fail for reasons that have nothing to do with the thing you are testing, confidence drops - tests should pass, or fail for expected and related reasons.

    3. To make it easier to read, write, and maintain our end-to-end tests, we created a number of Slack-specific methods and bundled them up in a library.

      start building a common language, a domain specific language for your tests that makes sense to you and others, and be able to communicate that.

    4. But where there is a problem, there is always an opportunity! The QE team decided to look for a better way to solve some of the pain points we were having within cypress. Our solution is a variation of the Page Object Model: We created a layer of abstraction between user interface and the actual test. We time-boxed the effort to one month and worked on using the proof of concept on a set of tests.

      the pain point needs to be felt at times to better understand what the correct abstraction is.

      Too often people try and abstract too much too soon in the name of staying DRY - and end up fighting their own abstractions.

    5. Since there were no guardrails on how to add these tests, the framework ended up with a lot of duplicate code and flaky tests. This led to random test failures and longer triage shifts.

      test suites can accumulate technical debt also, as they start to become flakey - confidence in the test suite drops, and can start to become a pain point and something that people think is slowing them down, instead of enabling faster and more reliable delivery.

    1. The Quality Engineering team is focused on creating a culture of testing, increasing test coverage, and helping the company ship high-quality features faster. We encourage all our developers to write and own end-to-end (E2E) tests. In turn, Quality Engineering (QE) is responsible for the frameworks used and provides best practices for writing reusable, scalable, and maintainable tests.

      I like this idea of "creating a culture of x", and think it helps lead to more autonomy within teams

    1. If you want to create a healthy learning ecosystem, you need to facilitate a continuous, autonomous flow of learning. Otherwise, you won’t have a learning ecosystem at all, but a regular, L&D-dependent structure. How do you achieve that flow of learning? Peer-driven tools, which give employees the power to learn from one another.

      we want to facilitate and enable learning, not be barriers to it.

    2. The major responsibility of employees in a learning ecosystem is to learn. But they can’t just aimlessly surf through learning content; they must pursue measurable learning goals that align with personal and business OKRs. And they must pay attention to gaps in their learning content and communicate them to managers and L&D — this kind of communication helps L&D perpetually assess and fulfill training needs.

      I've seen learning courses in a way, that is 'here is a budget, and go watch some video's

      and when it's not suited to their needs, or able to apply it to what they are working on right now, it's more like edutainment - learned a thing, but now back to my real work.

    3. Creating harmony and balance in workplace learning takes an organized, concerted effort. In order to achieve the learning ecosystem vision, you must build, implement, and maintain it.

      At a smaller scale, a-lot of this can happen organically - but it needs dedicated effort to maintain and scale, we can't just hope it happens.

    1. To do this, you’ll need to introduce new technology and learning methods that help the L&D department work more efficiently. For example, adopting Collaborative Learning can help you decentralize the learning process by allowing employees to use their unique institutional knowledge to create training courses.

      This is kind of what I've meant when I've been saying having a culture of teaching, instead of a culture of learning.

      and/or - needing to invest in helping people learn how to teach better.

    2. As CLO, you’ll need to develop a method for rapidly assessing gaps in employee knowledge and a mechanism for quickly providing employees with the content they need to improve their performance and build new skills.

      I've done a bit of this before, and tailored learning towards what I learned.

      Being able to find those gaps, mental model differences, and have education account for things like that.

      these gaps can also be within the specific context of work, and needing to address it like that.

      this is where relying on 'off the shelf' learning all the time isn't going to work.

    3. Most L&D teams operate reactively. They respond to training needs as they arise, but they don’t proactively plan strategic learning initiatives. Emerald Works’ study shows that fewer than 50% of L&Ds believe their team’s goals align with larger company business objectives

      need to understand the roadmap, the skills the current teams have, the current trends - and be able to get ahead of things.

    4. L&D teams that don’t tie their departmental goals to large company initiatives and strategies will find it almost impossible to obtain the C-suite buy-in they need to grow.
      • have learning engrained
      • align with org goals / KPI's
      • metrics like retention, etc
      • talent brand - how can it impact that?
    5. For too long, Learning and Development teams have been seen as extraneous. Nice to have, but not vital. Many companies view L&D as a service provider for employees instead of a strategic partner for growth.

      I think this is because of the way that it seems to be more HR lead usually, and not as integrated with how teams work.

    1. Microaggressions strain those insecurities, and contribute to a culture where not everyone feels included.

      If we are trying to build a culture of inclusiveness, belonging, and safety - we need to take microaggressions seriously and not dismiss them.

    2. Microaggressions—subtle, indirect, and sometimes unintentional acts of prejudice

      the fact that they are unintentional, does not reduce the harm that they can cause.

    3. “A senior partner asked to ‘touch my hair’ in order to confirm it was ‘all mine.’”“An older male colleague interrupted me in a meeting and said, ‘now young lady…’ and then told me how I was incorrect in his opinion.”“My hearing disability was described in a written evaluation by the board of trustees as ‘making communication difficult for my co-workers.’”

      Micoaggressions can surface in many ways, and have an impact both on the person, but also in how they are perceived by others.

    1. Good intentions are important, but the impacts of people’s actions are the true measure of goodness. By channeling intentions into learning about biases and the ways that they manifest into microaggressions, work relationships can be strengthened and harm to marginalized groups can be reduced.

      we can challenge each other, and grow to be more understanding - and work to reduce harm

    2. If someone holds a bias that a given population is not articulate, they might “compliment” a person for being well spoken.

      I have a stutter, and there is so much ableism around fluent speech.

    1. Marginalized people already know that we’re supposed to “assume good intent” in others. We are told every day that we’re “paranoid,” “overreacting,” or just plain “crazy” if we don’t feel good about being treated badly. This process is called ‘gaslighting,’ and it’s a way of making marginalized people distrust our own perceptions so we won’t object to being mistreated.

      assume good intentions plays into corporate gaslighting

  6. Dec 2020
    1. Two-way Computed Property Admittedly, the above is quite a bit more verbose than v-model + local state, and we lose some of the useful features from v-model as well. An alternative approach is using a two-way computed property with a setter: <input v-model="message"> // ... computed: { message: { get () { return this.$store.state.obj.message }, set (value) { this.$store.commit('updateMessage', value) } } }

      Handling forms in vuex - use computed properties with a getter and a setter,

      the getter - pulls the value from the store the setter - commits the value to the store

    2. Components Can Still Have Local State Using Vuex doesn't mean you should put all the state in Vuex. Although putting more state into Vuex makes your state mutations more explicit and debuggable, sometimes it could also make the code more verbose and indirect. If a piece of state strictly belongs to a single component, it could be just fine leaving it as local state. You should weigh the trade-offs and make decisions that fit the development needs of your app.

      This is a common pattern I've seen with people adopting tools like [[redux]] or [[Vuex]] for [[state management]] without understanding the [[problems that state management tools aim to solve]]

      • [[Its ok to have local state]]
      • [[Not all state needs to be app state]]

      Not only does putting all of the state into the store cause extra indirection, it can make things complicated if you are putting in state that is tied to the lifecycle of a component - needing to clear / reset the state the next time it loads.

      It can also add complications when you have multiple instances of a component - and trying to make all of it's state got into Vuex - for example, if you had multiple carousel components on a screen - would there be value in trying to manage that state in vuex?

    1. As we advocate in our Agile Product Management overview, the more involved that a product manager is with the development team, the better. That involvement should be along the lines of a product owner who champions customer needs, the "why" of the product. When the involvement blurs into tasking, the "how" for a team, then there is a problem. Even with the best of intentions, this kind of utilization mindset tends to hide problems: defects, hand-offs, and unknowns. Interleaving scope and process tends toward locking scope, schedule, and quality. That's a recipe for failure.
      • The [[Product Manager answers the why]]
      • The [[Scrum Master answers the how]]
    2. Scrum Master vs Product Manager

      [[Scrum Master vs Product Manager]]

    3. When starting out with scrum, it can be a huge help to have someone in the role who has seen scrum working before. Better yet, has seen many examples of it working. For this reason, scrum masters are often hired as consultants, rather than as full-time employees.

      some companies are not able to afford a full time scrum master, but having someone that knows the process well and can provide agile coaching can be important to adopting scrum properly.

    4. As facilitators, scrum masters act as coaches to the rest of the team. “Servant leaders” as the Scrum Guide puts it. Good scrum masters are committed to the scrum foundation and values, but remain flexible and open to opportunities for the team to improve their workflow.

      [[scrum masters are facilitators and coaches]], they understand

      • [[scrum fundamentals]]
      • [[scrum values]]

      While [[agile is a mindset]], [[scrum is a framework for getting things done]]

    5. Scrum has a clearly defined set of roles and rituals that should be followed
      • What are the [[scrum roles]]
      • What are the [[scrum rituals]]
    6. Summary: The scrum master helps to facilitate scrum to the larger team by ensuring the scrum framework is followed. He/she is committed to the scrum values and practices, but should also remain flexible and open to opportunities for the team to improve their workflow.

      the scrum master is someone that facilitates the team, and helps ensure that the scrum framework is followed, and values adhered to.

    1. Functional consistency makes your product more predictable. Users know how an element behaves, and therefore will also feel more safe and secure to interact with it even on a page/screen they visit for the first time.Visual consistency includes the colors, fonts, sizes, positions and other visual aspects of your UI which help your users cognitively identify and classify UI elements. A certain font color, for example, could be strategically used to help your users understand what they will get if they push a specific button.

      some of the goals of a design system, and a component based design system is to have [[functional consistency]] and [[visual consistency]]

    2. The core of the problem lies in the words “as code and design tools”.Designers need to collaborate with developers to build UX/UIs together. Yet, they work on different sources of truth, using different tools. Instead of a mutual dialog, their joint workflow becomes a broken conversation.

      even though designers and developers work together, we are still in the mindset of thinking about design tools and development tools - instead of developers and designers working from the same source of truth, we are playing a game of broken telephone.

    3. Sometimes, systems just scale the problemA UI design system is more than the code of a component library. It’s more than the colors, styles, and margins of your elements. It’s an ever-growing and ever-evolving creature that entails your brand and your user’s feelings.

      If you don't understand the problem - you can [[scale the problem instead of solve the problem]], and it's important to remember that a [[design system is more than a component library]]

    4. Getting placed in the middle of this workflow can be challenging. Designers and developers don’t work using the same tools, don’t see the same things, don’t share the same concerns, and don’t even always use the same words.

      even though designers and developers are working towards the same vision - our concerns, how we get there, and the things we tend to care about can be very different.

      When we don't have a common shared language either - it can make it difficult to have a good workflow, and collaboration between designers and developers.

    1. Instead of publishing a single one-size-fits package for components, we create an ecosystem where everyone works together yet deliver independently. The design system’s team role is to facilitate and regulate, not block or enforce.

      I think this is a really important point - the design system's team is to facilitate, not gatekeep.

    2. The marketing team, however, needs some more concrete components like a marketing “heading” or “action-button”. These are not a part of the base-ui design system but are a part of another Scope called “Evangelist”. They belong autonomously to the marketing team in this GitHub repo. Since they use components from base-ui, they get updates from the base-ui team.

      the most generic, reusable pieces are part of the base design system, however for bit - they have an "Evangelist" design system.

      If you look at their package.json in their github repo - you can see the dependencies on their base ui

    3. At Bit, we have more than just one design system. We have different teams that build and share their components, in a UI component ecosystem.

      a design system doesn't need to be the responsibility of a team, but can be considered an ecosystem.

    4. What you see here is a page composed of shared components. However, these are independent components developed and owned by different teams and published from different projects, which are mixed and integrated together.

      the move towards single page applications, component centric frameworks, etc has shifted how we view building webpages.

      It is not so much that we are building a page, but we are building components that we assemble into a page.

      We’re not designing pages, we’re designing systems of components.—Stephen Hay via atomic design

    5. The design of your system is not ready until you have two assets:a) A style-guide that defines the styling and implementation of your UI. This is usually a rather long document with a lot of text and typography.b) A set of reusable visual elements that bring together both visual (UI) and functional (UX) consistency through components. This is usually a rather large canvas with elements drawn on Figma or Sketch etc (we use both).

      there are two [[primary assets of a design system[[

      • the style guide
      • the reusable elements - an implementation of the style guide
    6. Visual consistency means creating a unified style-guide standard for colors, fonts, sizes, positions, and every other part of your visual language. Aspects such as typefaces, typography, primary and secondary colors can still be specified as part of the design system.

      Design systems are more than components, but a design language that brings consistency across your application.

      Instead of having to ask 'what font', 'what size', 'what color' should things be - you follow the rules of the design system.

    7. Instead, we had to audit and turn our existing visual language into an organized system.

      There are a few approaches to starting a design system, however starting it as a new greenfield project may not be possible depending on your company / team / etc.

      At times, you need to [[audit then order]] what you have

    8. The benefits of our system go way beyond UI/UX consistency. We greatly accelerated and scaled our development, improved our product quality, and greatly improved work between developers, designers, and everyone else.

      Design systems enable faster development and delivery, and help teams scale - and have value beyond UI/UX consistency.

    1. Unlike data scientists — and inspired by our more mature parent, software engineering — data engineers build tools, infrastructure, frameworks, and services. In fact, it’s arguable that data engineering is much closer to software engineering than it is to a data science

      while Data Engineering has it's origins in Business Intelligence and Data Science - it is also closer to software engineering in some ways - as data engineers build tools, infrastructure and frameworks to support data needs.

      They are building the tools to enable the Data Scientists, and other consumers of the data (BI,etc)

  7. Nov 2020
    1. Identify, classify, and apply protective measures to sensitive data. Data discovery and data classification solutions help to identify sensitive data and assign classification tags dictating the level of protection required. Data loss prevention solutions apply policy-based protections to sensitive data, such as encryption or blocking unauthorized actions, based on data classification and contextual factors including file type, user, intended recipient/destination, applications, and more. The combination of data discovery, classification, and DLP enable organizations to know what sensitive data they hold and where while ensuring that it's protected against unauthorized loss or exposure.


    2. Implement firewall rules to block egress to malicious or unauthorized destinations. A network firewall is one of several lines of defense against threats. This is a starting point where you can ensure that data egress does not occur without explicit permission.


    3. Create an acceptable use and data egress traffic enforcement policy. Include stakeholders to define your acceptable use policy. It should be a thorough policy that protects your company's resources, including a list of approved Internet-accessible services and guidelines for accessing and handling sensitive data.


    4. Best Practices for Data Egress Management and Preventing Sensitive Data Loss


    5. Threats Involving Data Egress

      [[Threats Involving Data Egress]]

    6. Egress filtering involves monitoring egress traffic to detect signs of malicious activity. If malicious activity is suspected or detected, transfers can be blocked to prevent sensitive data loss. Egress filtering can also limit egress traffic and block attempts at high volume data egress.
    7. Data Egress vs. Data IngressWhile data egress describes the outbound traffic originating from within a network, data ingress, in contrast, refers to the reverse: traffic that originates outside the network that is traveling into the network. Egress traffic is a term used to describe the volume and substance of traffic transferred from a host network to an outside network.


    8. Data Egress MeaningData egress refers to data leaving a network in transit to an external location. Outbound email messages, cloud uploads, or files being moved to external storage are simple examples of data egress. Data egress is a regular part of network activity, but can pose a threat to organizations when sensitive data is egressed to unauthorized recipients.Examples of common channels for data egress include:EmailWeb uploadsCloud storageRemovable media (USB, CD/DVD, external hard drives)FTP/HTTP transfers

      [[Definition/Data Egress]]

    9. What is Data Egress? Managing Data Egress to Prevent Sensitive Data Loss

      [[What is Data Egress? Managing Data Egress to Prevent Sensitive Data Loss]]

    1. How can I create Internet ingress and egress security patterns for AWS

      [[How can I create Internet ingress and egress security patterns]]

    2. Egress in the world of networking implies traffic that exits an entity or a network boundary, while Ingress is traffic that enters the boundary of a network.
      • [[egress]] is the data, or traffic that [[exits a boundary]]
      • [[ingress]] is data or traffic that [[enters a boundary]]
    3. What do Egress and Ingress Mean in the Cloud?

      [[What do Egress and Ingress Mean in the Cloud?]]

    1. So far, all the grouping we've done is according to the unique values within a column or set of columns (using PARTITION BY). However, you can do even fancier things by making the group relative to each row. In other words, as SQL runs through each row, it will perform a calculation for the surrounding rows. This allows you to do things like get a sum for only the 5 previous rows. Here is a diagram that demonstrates which rows SQL will consider (in purple) when it reaches a given row (in aqua), if we tell it to look at the 5 previous rows:

    2. Though we have covered a lot, there is one more feature of window functions that can give you even more analytical power. It's called the "frame clause," and it allows you to calculate things like rolling averages, cumulative sums, and many other interesting values.
    1. Psychologists have found that units—also referred to as schemas—of information are stored in our long-term memory.2 These schemas can be activated by sights, smells, and sounds. When these schemas are activated, our memories become easier to access. Priming suggests that certain schemas are activated in unison, which in turn leads related or connected units of information to be activated at the same time. Once related schemas are activated and more accessible, it becomes easier for us to draw related information into memory more quickly, and we can thus respond faster when the need arises. For example, the schemas related to rainstorms and slick roads may be linked in our memories. As a result, when we drive and it is raining, the memory of slick roads comes to mind, leading us to slow down and take precaution.There are numerous types of priming that can occur. Each one works in a specific way that produces different effects.

      [[units of information]] or [[schemas]] - stored in long term memory.

      Once these schemas are activated - memories associated to them are easier to access. Like having a smell remind you of a place - once that schema is activated, other things attached to it are easier to remember.

    1. What is the STAR interview method?The STAR interview method is a technique you can use to prepare for behavioral and situational interview questions. STAR stands for: situation, task, action and result.This method will help you prepare clear and concise responses using real-life examples.Hiring managers ask behavioral interview questions to determine whether you are the right fit for a job. By using the STAR strategy, you can make sure you’re fully addressing the interviewer’s question while also demonstrating how you were able to overcome previous challenges and be successful.

      The [[STAR method]] can help people prepare for [[behavioural interview]] questions

    1. 6. What is the biggest professional challenge you have overcome as a data engineer?Hiring managers often ask this question to learn how you address difficulties at work. Rather than learning about the details of these difficulties, they typically want to determine how resilient you are and how you process what you learn from challenging situations. When you answer, try using the STAR method, which involves stating the situation, task, action and result of the circumstances.Example: “Last year, I served as the lead data engineer for a project that had insufficient internal support. As a result, my portion of project fell behind schedule and I risked disciplinary measures. After my team missed the first deadline, I took the initiative to meet with the project manager and proposed possible solutions. Based on my suggestions, the company assigned additional personnel to my team and we were able to complete the project successfully within the original timeline.”

      never heard of the [[STAR method]] before

      • situation
      • task
      • action
      • result
    2. 5. Do you consider yourself database- or pipeline-centric?Interviewers frequently bring this question up to determine whether you have a focus area and if it matches with the needs of the company. In your response, provide an honest assessment of your specialization. Try your best to reflect the whole scope of your technical knowledge and experience, especially if you have the skills for both data engineering specialties.Example: “Because I usually opt to work for smaller companies, I am a generalist who is equally comfortable with a database or pipeline focus. Since I specialize in both components, I have comprehensive knowledge of distributed systems and data warehouses.”

      with data engineers -

      • [[Data Engineer - Generalist]]
      • [[database-centric]]
      • [[pipeline-centric]]
    3. 4. Can you explain the design schemas relevant to data modeling?Hiring teams may question you about design schemas as a way to test your knowledge of the fundamentals of data engineering. When you respond, do your best to explain the concept clearly and concisely.Example: “Data modeling involves two schemas, star and snowflake. Star schema includes dimension tables that are connected to a fact table. Snowflake schema includes a similar fact table and dimension tables with snowflake-like layers.”
      • [[data modeling]]
      • ability to explain schemas and schema types, [[star schema]] [[snowflake schema]]
    4. In-depth questionsThe following interview questions enable the hiring manager to gain a comprehensive understanding of your competencies and assess how you would respond to issues that may arise at work:What are the most important skills for a data engineer to have?What data engineering platforms and software are you familiar with?Which computer languages can you use fluently?Do you tend to focus on pipelines, databases or both?How do you create reliable data pipelines?Tell us about a distributed system you've built. How did you engineer it?Tell us about a time you found a new use case for an existing database. How did your discovery impact the company positively?Do you have any experience with data modeling?What common data engineering maxim do you disagree with?Do you have a data engineering philosophy?What is a data-first mindset?How do you handle conflict with coworkers? Can you give us an example?Can you recall a time when you disagreed with your supervisor? How did you handle it?

      deeper dive into [[Data Engineer]] [[Interview Questions]]

    1. Step 6: "Align Resources" The final step translates the selected, developed solution into an action plan that may include, among other things: to do lists time-lines and milestones lists of people who need to get involved lists of issues that need further work

      [[productive thinking model/Align resources]].

    2. Step 3: "What's the Question?" The third step frames the challenge by turning it into a question. This is accomplished through brainstorm-like techniques eliciting as many questions as possible, and then clustering, combining, and choosing the question or questions that seem most stimulating.

      [[productive thinking model/Ask "What is the question?"]]

    3. Step 1: "What's Going On? Establishes a context for the problems or opportunities being addressed, exploring different ways of stating the so-called "itch", exploring what factors, circumstances, and entities are involved, and what a solution might look like. There are actually five sub-steps to this phase: "What's the Itch?", generating a long list of perceived problems or opportunities, often re-stating similar ones in several different ways, and then looking for patterns and clusters with the mass in order to select one key "problem" to address "What's the Impact?", digging deeper into the issue and identifying how it affects the world "What's the Information?", describing various aspects of the problem in detail "Who's Involved?", identifying other stakeholders in the issue "What's the Vision?", identifying what would be different if the issue were resolved, in the form of a "wish" statement (e.g., "If only my dog didn't run away when I let him outside.")

      [[productive thinking model/Ask "What is going on?"]]

    1. Step 6 – Align Resources In this last step you determine which actions and resources are necessary to implement the definitive idea. You also identify the people who will be responsible for the implementation of the specific parts of the idea and what other resources are required. This part of the process will have to be fleshed out in detail and is therefore relatively time consuming.

      [[productive thinking model/Align resources]].

    2. Step 4 – Generate Answers At this stage many ideas are generated. By getting as many answers to the catalytic questions as possible, stakeholders will come up with promising and intriguing ideas that can be developed. At this stage long lists of ideas and answers are created from which the best ones are chosen. This stage is not yet about definitive solutions, but it establishes a basis.

      [[productive thinking model/Generate answers.]]

    3. Step 3 – What´s the question? This step addresses the order in which essential questions must be answered to achieve the Target Future. These are the so-called catalytic questions that put the wheels in motion. It is about trying to ask the right questions in which it is important to identify each problem with respect to the central subject. From this the catalytic questions are distilled to achieve the Future Target.

      [[productive thinking model/Ask "What is the question?"]]

    4. Step 2 – What´s success? In this second step it is about developing the Target Future into a concrete, desired situation. What could eventually lead to success? Using this step specific and observable success criteria can be defined which enable you to imagine how this objective can be met in the best possible way. You are allowed to use your senses and questions like ‘how does it feel, what will it look like and “what are your thoughts on this” can direct the brainstorm more concretely towards the desired output. By defining success criteria in advance, the ideas that stakeholders come up with can be assessed more effectively. The success criteria are described using DRIVE, which is an acronym for Do – Restrictions – Investment – Values – Essential outcomes; what do you want the solution to do – what are the restrictions, what resources are available to achieve your objective, what values must this objective deliver – what outcome must it have? The outcome of this step makes that the vision of what you want to achieve is not only clear but highly motivating.

      [[productive thinking model/Ask "What is success?"]]

    5. Step 1 – What´s going on? By answering the five questions (with multiple sub questions), the subject is tackled in the broadest possible way. The following questions are considered in the first step: What is the problem? / What is the question? What is the impact of this possible problem? What information do we already have? What information do we need in relation to the problem and/or question? Who is already involved in the problem or question? What is the vision of the situation and what does the Target Future look like?

      [[productive thinking model/Ask "What is going on?"]]

    1. The Productive Thinking Model was developed by author and creativity theorist, Tim Hurson, and was published in his 2007 book, "Think Better." The model presents a structured framework for solving problems creatively. You can use it on your own or in a group. The model consists of six steps, as follows: Ask "What is going on?" Ask "What is success?" Ask "What is the question?" Generate answers. Forge the solution. Align resources.

      [[productive thinking model]]

    1. LinkedIn, via the New York Times, reported these ‘soft skills’ as the most in demand in 2016. Communication Curiosity Adaptability Teamwork Empathy Time Management Open-Mindedness

      [[soft skills]]

    2. Workplace Skills In 2011 the Institute for the Future identified 10 Future of Work Skills for 2020. Sense-making Social Intelligence Novel & Adaptive Thinking Cross-cultural Competency Computational Thinking New Media Literacy Transdisciplinarity Design Mindset Cognitive Load Management Virtual Collaboration

      [[workplace skills]] [[future of work skills]]

    1. Self-Actualization Self-actualization refers to feeling fulfilled, or feeling that we are living up to our potential. One unique feature of self-actualization is that it looks different for everyone. For one person, self-actualization might involve helping others; for another person, it might involve achievements in an artistic or creative field. Essentially, self-actualization means feeling that we are doing what we believe we are meant to do. According to Maslow, achieving self-actualization is relatively rare, and his examples of famous self-actualized individuals include Abraham Lincoln, Albert Einstein, and Mother Teresa.

      [[self-actualization]] - this can fit in with [[[Intrinsic Motivation]] - the feeling of "living up-to your potential" can also align with [[motivation]] and [[Perceived abilities]]

    2. Esteem Our esteem needs involve the desire to feel good about ourselves. According to Maslow, esteem needs include two components. The first involves feeling self-confidence and feeling good about oneself. The second component involves feeling valued by others; that is, feeling that our achievements and contributions have been recognized by other people.

      first aspect is self-confidence, the second is feeling valued by others - feedback, recognition, etc

    1. Examples of external extrinsic rewards include:competing in sports for trophiescompleting work for moneycustomer loyalty discountsbuy one, get one free salesfrequent flyer rewardsExamples of psychological extrinsic rewards include: helping people for praise from friends or family doing work for attention, either positive or negative doing tasks for public acclaim or fame doing tasks to avoid judgment completing coursework for grades Is it effective?Extrinsic motivation may be more effective for some people than it is for others. Certain situations may also be better suited for this form of motivation. For some people, the benefits of external rewards are enough to motivate high-quality continuous work. For others, value-based benefits are more motivating. Extrinsic motivation is best used in circumstances when the reward is used sparingly enough so it doesn’t lose its impact. The value of the reward can decrease if the reward is given too much. This is sometimes referred to as the overjustification effect.The overjustification effect happens when an activity you already enjoy is rewarded so often that you lose interest. In one study, researchers looked at the way 20-month-olds responded to material rewards compared to their response to social praise or no reward. Researchers found that the group that received material rewards was less likely to engage in the same helpful behaviors in the future. This suggests that the overjustification effect can start at an early age. There’s some evidence that an excessive amount of extrinsic rewards can lead to a decrease in intrinsic motivation. Not all researchers agree, however. The idea was first explored in a study published in 1973. During the study, some children were rewarded for playing with felt-tip pens. This was an activity they already enjoyed. Other children weren’t rewarded for this activity. After continued reward, the reward group no longer wanted to play with the pens. The study participants who weren’t rewarded continued to enjoy playing with the pens.A meta-analysis from 1994 found little evidence to support the conclusions from the 1973 study. Instead, they determined that extrinsic motivation didn’t affect long-term enjoyment of activities. However, a follow-up meta-analysis published in 2001 found evidence to support the original theory from 1973. Finally, a more recent meta-analysis from 2014 determined that extrinsic motivation only has negative outcomes in very specific situations. But for the most part, it can be an effective form of motivation. Depending on how it’s used, it’s possible that extrinsic motivation could have negative long-term effects. It’s likely an effective method when used in addition to other forms of motivation. ADVERTISEMENTTry a top-rated app for meditation and sleepExperience 100+ guided meditations with Calm’s award-winning meditation app. Designed for all experience levels, and available when you need it most in your day. Start your free trial today.START FREE TRIAL What are some of the cons to using extrinsic motivation?A major drawback to using extrinsic motivation is knowing what to do when the reward is gone or its value is exhausted. There’s also the possibility of dependency on the reward. The usefulness of extrinsic motivators should be evaluated on a case-by-case and person-by-person basis. Extrinsic motivation and parentingVery few studies have explored the long-term effects of continuous extrinsic motivation use with children. Extrinsic motivation can be a useful tool for parents to teach children tasks and responsibilities. Certain extrinsic motivators, like support and encouragement, may be healthy additions to parenting practices. Some rewards are often discouraged because it may lead to unhealthy associations with the rewards later in life. For example, using food as a reward may lead to unhealthy eating habits. For small developmental tasks, extrinsic motivators like praise can be very helpful. For instance, using praise can help with toilet training. If you use external rewards, try phasing them out over time so that your child doesn’t become dependent on the reward. TakeawayExtrinsic motivation can be useful for persuading someone to complete a task. Before assigning a reward-based task, it’s important to know if the person doing the task is motivated by the reward being offered. Extrinsic motivators may be a useful tool to help children learn new skills when used in moderation. For some people, psychological extrinsic motivators are more appealing. For others, external rewards are more attractive. It’s important to remember, however, that extrinsic motivation isn’t always effective.ADVERTISEMENTTalking will helpLife can be more manageable. Use Babylon by TELUS Health to see a mental health counsellor on your phone. A receipt will be provided for claim reimbursement, if applicable.GET THE APP Last medically reviewed on September 25, 2017 7 sourcescollapsedHealthline has strict sourcing guidelines and relies on peer-reviewed studies, academic research institutions, and medical associations. We avoid using tertiary references. You can learn more about how we ensure our content is accurate and current by reading our editorial policy.Cameron J, et al. (1994). Reinforcement, reward, and intrinsic motivation: A meta-analysis. DOI:10.3102/00346543064003363Jovanovic D, et al. (2014). Relationship between rewards and intrinsic motivation for learning – researches review. DOI:10.1016/j.sbspro.2014.08.287Lepper MR, et al. (1973). Undermining children’s intrinsic interest with extrinsic reward: A test of the “overjustification” hypothesis. DOI:10.1037/h0035519Sheppard DP, et al. (2015). The role of extrinsic rewards and cue-intention association in prospective memory in young children.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0140987Theodotou E. (2014). Early year education: Are young students intrinsically or extrinsically motivated towards school activities? A discussion about the effects of rewards on young children learning.roar.uel.ac.uk/3632/Warneken F, et al. (2008). Extrinsic rewards undermine altruistic tendencies in 20-month-olds. DOI:10.1037/a0013860Why parents shouldn’t use food as reward or punishment. (n.d.)urmc.rochester.edu/encyclopedia/content.aspx?ContentTypeID=160&ContentID=32FEEDBACK:Medically reviewed by Timothy J. Legg, Ph.D., CRNP — Written by A. Rochaun Meadows-Fernandez — Updated on September 18, 2018related storiesUnderstanding Negative ReinforcementAuthoritarian Parenting: The Right Way To Raise My Kids?Should You Practice Permissive Parenting?Is Twirling Your Hair as a Habit a Symptom of an Underlying Condition?9 Deceptively Simple Things I Can’t Do Because Anxiety

      [[Examples of [[extrinsic motivation]]]]

    2. Examples of extrinsic motivation

      [[Examples of [[extrinsic motivation]]]]

    3. DefinitionExtrinsic motivation is reward-driven behavior. It’s a type of operant conditioning. Operant conditioning is a form of behavior modification that uses rewards or punishments to increase or decrease the likelihood that specific behaviors will recur. In extrinsic motivation, rewards or other incentives — like praise, fame, or money — are used as motivation for specific activities. Unlike intrinsic motivation, external factors drive this form of motivation.

      [[extrinsic motivation]] is [[reward-driven behaviour]].

      expandOn [[operant conditioning]] - unlike [[intrinsic motivation]] - external factors drive [[extrinsic motivation]]

    4. What Is Extrinsic Motivation and Is It Effective?
    1. The overjustification effect has inspired an entire field of study that focuses on students and how to help them reach their full potential. Though experts are divided on whether extrinsic rewards have a beneficial or negative effect on intrinsic motivation, a recent study showed that rewards may actually encourage intrinsic motivation when given early in a task.

      [[question]] What is the [[over-justification effect]]

    2. Understanding the factors that promote intrinsic motivation can help you see how it works and why it can be beneficial. These factors include:Curiosity. Curiosity pushes us to explore and learn for the sole pleasure of learning and mastering.Challenge. Being challenged helps us work at a continuously optimal level work toward meaningful goals.Control. This comes from our basic desire to control what happens and make decisions that affect the outcome.Recognition. We have an innate need to be appreciated and satisfaction when our efforts are recognized and appreciated by others.Cooperation. Cooperating with others satisfies our need for belonging. We also feel personal satisfaction when we help others and work together to achieve a shared goal.Competition. Competition poses a challenge and increases the importance we place on doing well.Fantasy. Fantasy involves using mental or virtual images to stimulate your behavior. An example is a virtual game that requires you to answer a question or solve a problem to move to the next level. Some motivation apps use a similar approach

      factors that [[promote [[intrinsic motivation]]]]

    3. Researchers examined how reward timing influenced intrinsic motivation. They found that giving an immediate bonus for working on a task, rather than waiting until the task was completed, increased interest and enjoyment in it. Getting an earlier bonus increased motivation and persistence in the activity that continued even after the award was removed.

      by having a reward/bonus earlier on when working on a task can improve the enjoyment of working on it, and the enjoyment of 'working on the task for the enjoyment of it' is an element of [[intrinsic motivation]]

      When working on software and building teams - the rewards that can help motivate people, could be positive feedback, even critical feedback if there is trust there -

    4. Both can be effective, but research suggests that extrinsic rewards should be used sparingly because of the overjustification effect. Extrinsic rewards can undermine intrinsic motivation when used in certain situations or used too often

      while both [[intrinsic motivation]] and [[extrinsic motivation]] ca be useful, [[extrinsic motivation]] tends to rely on [[extrinsic rewards]]

      [[extrinsic rewards]] should be used sparingly - they can undermine the effectiveness off [[intrinsic motivation]], they can also lose value over time if used too often - and at times, relying too heavily on [[extrinsic rewards]] can be seen as coercion or bribery

    5. Intrinsic motivation factors

      [[Intrinsic motivation factors]]

    6. participating in a sport because it’s fun and you enjoy it rather than doing it to win an awardlearning a new language because you like experiencing new things, not because your job requires itspending time with someone because you enjoy their company and not because they can further your social standingcleaning because you enjoy a tidy space rather than doing it to avoid making your spouse angryplaying cards because you enjoy the challenge instead of playing to win moneyexercising because you enjoy physically challenging your body instead of doing it to lose weight or fit into an outfitvolunteering because you feel content and fulfilled rather than needing it to meet a school or work requirementgoing for a run because you find it relaxing or are trying to beat a personal record, not to win a competitiontaking on more responsibility at work because you enjoy being challenged and feeling accomplished, rather than to get a raise or promotionpainting a picture because you feel calm and happy when you paint rather than selling your art to make money

      [[Intrinsic motivation examples]]

    7. Intrinsic motivation examples

      [[Intrinsic motivation examples]]

    8. ExtrinsicYou do the activity in order to get an external reward in return.Goals are focused on an outcome and don’t satisfy your basic psychological needs. Goals involve external gains, such as money, fame, power, or avoiding consequences

      [[extrinsic motivation]]

    9. Intrinsic motivation vs. extrinsic motivation

      [[[[Intrinsic motivation]] vs. [[extrinsic motivation]]]]

    10. Along with satisfying these underlying psychological needs, intrinsic motivation also involves seeking out and engaging in activities that we find challenging, interesting, and internally rewarding without the prospect of any external reward.

      moving up [[Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs]] - [[Self Actualization]], [[Esteem]], [[Love and Belonging]] - and these are also factors that can influence [[Intrinsic Motivation]]

    11. The most recognized theory of intrinsic motivation was first based on people’s needs and drives. Hunger, thirst, and sex are biological needs that we’re driven to pursue in order to live and be healthy.

      these examples of [[intrinsic motivation]] line up with the [[Physiological needs]] in [[Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs]]

    12. Intrinsic motivation is the act of doing something without any obvious external rewards. You do it because it’s enjoyable and interesting, rather than because of an outside incentive or pressure to do it, such as a reward or deadline. An example of intrinsic motivation would be reading a book because you enjoy reading and have an interest in the story or subject, rather than reading because you have to write a report on it to pass a class.

      In my prompt for What are the [[components of motivation]] - which is a prompt that came from [[The 3 Components of Motivation (highlights)]] I had initially put down

      • [[Intrinsic Motivation]]
      • [[Extrinsic Motives]]
      • Abilities, or [[Perceived abilities]]
    1. The Hierarchy of AnalyticsAmong the many advocates who pointed out the discrepancy between the grinding aspect of data science and the rosier depictions that media sometimes portrayed, I especially enjoyed Monica Rogati’s call out, in which she warned against companies who are eager to adopt AI:Think of Artificial Intelligence as the top of a pyramid of needs. Yes, self-actualization (AI) is great, but you first need food, water, and shelter (data literacy, collection, and infrastructure).This framework puts things into perspective.

      [[the hierarchy of analytics]]

    1. "Disabled person" vs. "person with a disability" Example: "He is a disabled person" vs. "He is a person with a disability." Impact: This is one of the most debated areas of disability language, particularly between North Americans and Europeans. "Disabled person" is sometimes seen as putting the disability first, and describing the person according to it. However, proponents point out that "disabled" is a description of society and its treatment of disability; in other words, one is "disabled" by society's problems with access, inclusion, and so forth. This is often related to the social model of disability, emphasizing the experience of disability rather than the condition itself. This idea is most prevalent in Europe, especially in the United Kingdom. In North America, "person with a disability" prevails because of person-first language, which tries to put the person at the forefront above everything else; in other words, the person is not defined by his/her disability. It has a smaller emphasis on society's role in the experience of having a disability.

      This reminds me of the tedx talk Why everything you know about autism is wrong by [[Jac den Houting]] and the differences between the [[medical model of disability]] and the [[social model of disability]]

      but the idea with the [[social model of disability]] - is that the person is being disabled by the environment,

    2. Examples: "John suffers from cerebral palsy." "John is inflicted with cerebral palsy." "John is physically challenged." Impact: These terms immediately suggest that the person with the condition has a poor quality of life. While having a disability may have an impact on one's well-being, many people have still managed to live productive and fulfilling lives. Some have even turned their situations into a positive, such as Rick Hansen, Christopher Reeve, Temple Grandin, and more. With this in mind, it makes little sense to automatically generalize all people with disabilities as "suffering." Instead, saying something simple like "John has cerebral palsy" or "John uses a wheelchair" would be a drastic improvement. It treats the person's condition as-is, without any judgment or assumptions about quality of life.

      the language that we use to describe disabilities can influence both how others see people with disabilities, but also impact how people view themselves.

    1. These kind of heuristics “provide guidance by creating if/then scenarios in a vivid, memorable way” and function “as a conceptual beacon.” These kinds of clearly articulated catch phrases make it easier to make decisions in support of specific team goals, such as “You can’t prevent mistakes but you can solve problems graciously” or “If someone is rude make a charitable assumption.”

      [[[conceptual beacon]]

    2. Finally, the section on “Establish Purpose” is really fun to read — as he goes to lengths to repeat, a lot of the slogans and catch phrases seem hokey or corny or obvious but the fact is that teams who create compelling, clear goals and articulate them like that are described as “high purpose environments” because they know what they are doing as a team. These catchphrases establish a link between a goal or behavior and “consistently create engagement around it.”He also talks about how positive feedback can create a “virtuous spiral” of success (and no need to mention how the opposite happens as well!).

      [[Creating the Culture Code/Establish Purpose]] and building the [[virtuous spiral]]

    3. To create safety, Coyle offers a few tips, including:Over-communicate Your Listening (and avoid interruptions)Spotlight your Fallibility Early On — Especially if you are a leaderEmbrace the MessengerPreview Future Connection — connecting the dots between where we are now and where we plan to beOverdo Thank-Yous — that includes “thanks for letting me coach you” — as a way of affirming the relationship and “igniting cooperative behavior.”Be Painstaking in the Hiring ProcessEliminate Bad ApplesCreate Safe, Collision-Rich SpacesMake Sure Everyone Has a VoicePick up the trash — make sure leaders are helping with tasks that are “menial” — rolling up their sleeves goes a long way to creating that safetyCapitalize on Threshold MomentsAvoid Giving Sandwich Feedback — handle negative and positive feedback as two different processesEmbrace Fun — “it’s the most fundamental sign of safety and connection.”

      [[Creating the Culture Code/Build Safety]]

    4. Coyle also addresses a popular conception that highly successful cultures are happy places: “They are energized and engaged, but at their core their members are oriented less around achieving happiness than around solving hard problems together.”This goes back to “this is a safe place (to give effort” — creating connection, giving feedback, and communicating the big picture are important. But with the negative (say, giving feedback on poor performance) there is reward (belonging).

      While happiness can be important, it's more of a "[[is this a safe place to give effort]]"

    5. In building safety, there are some real physical patterns of interaction that help create a bond in a group, these include:Close physical proximityProfuse amounts of eye contactPhysical touch (handshakes, fist bumps, hugs)Lots of short, energetic exchanges (no long speeches)High levels of mixingFew interruptionsLots of questionsIntensive, active listeningHumor, laughterSmall, attentive courtesies

      [[Creating the Culture Code/Build Safety]]