120 Matching Annotations
  1. Jun 2022
    1. The ban on a black slave tradetook effect in 1808, but in reality, clandestine trading continued for afew decades (particularly to Brazil).
    2. Sven Beckert’s research on the “cotton empire” has also shown thecrucial importance of slave labor in the extraction of cotton when theBritish and Europeans seized control over worldwide textile pro-duction between 1750 and 1860.
    3. Had their colonies not allowed European countries totranscend their territorial limits, it would have been necessary to findthese sources of supply elsewhere.

      Colonial exploitation between 1500 and 1800 allowed European countries to dramatically expand beyond their own dwindling natural resources and territorial limits. Had they been trapped in a closed system, the world would have seen a very different arc of history.

    4. Those who are born today are not individu-ally responsible for this burdensome heritage, but we are all respon-sible for the way in which we choose or fail to take it into account inanalyzing the world economic system, its injustices, and the needfor change.

      burdensome heritage [of slavery and colonialism]

    5. How did Europe and the United States attain such a dominant posi-tion on the global level, at least until recently? Although no single ex-planation exists, we shall see that slavery and colonialism played acentral role in the Western world’s acquisition of wealth.

      Slavery and colonialism likely played the most outsized roles in global positioning for the United States and Europe, but how might we also comparatively measure these effects separately and also include other broad effects like the industrial revolution?

    1. Our situation will be deplorable indeed: nor can we ever expect to get this government amended, since I have already shown that a very small minority may prevent it, and that small minority interested in the continuance of the oppression.

      The definition of "freemen" to Patrick Henry here is ultimate as otherwise all of his words are folly since they don't include exactly those people who are most oppressed within his own country.

    1. Professor Carl Bogus: Carl T. Bogus, “Was Slavery a Factor in the SecondAmendment?” e New York Times, May 24, 2018.

      Professor Carl Bogus: Carl T. Bogus, “Was Slavery a Factor in the Second Amendment?” The New York Times, May 24, 2018. https://www.nytimes.com/2018/05/24/opinion/second-amendment-slavery-james-madison.html

    1. General Daniel E. Sickles, the commanding Union officer enforcing Reconstruction in South Carolina, ordered in January 1866 that “the constitutional rights of all loyal and well-disposed inhabitants to bear arms will not be infringed.” When South Carolinians ignored Sickles’s order and others like it, Congress passed the Freedmen’s Bureau Act of July 1866, which assured ex-slaves the “full and equal benefit of all laws and proceedings concerning personal liberty … including the constitutional right to bear arms.”
    1. Elie Mystal writes in Allow Me to Retort: A Black Guy's Guide to the Constitution:

      There was an original purpose to the Second Amendment, but it wasn't to keep people safe. It was to preserve white supremacy and slavery. (p36)

      He indicates that there are quotes from Patrick Henry and George Mason, governor of Virginia. They needed the ability to raise an armed militia to put down slave revolts and didn't want to rely on the federal government to do it.


      • [ ] Allow Me to Retort: A Black Guy's Guide to the Constitution by Elie Mystal #wanttoread

      link to 1967 Mulford Act signed by Ronald Reagan see also: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mulford_Act

  2. May 2022
    1. https://hardhistoriesjhu.substack.com/p/a-ritual-of-remembrance-on-the-jhu

      Dr. Martha S. Jones reflects on the recent Ritual of Remembrance at the Homewood Museum at Johns Hopkins University.

      Given the root word for museum, I'm reminded that the mother of the nine muses was Mnemosyne ("Memory"). I'm glad that there's a re-memory held there for those who history has conspired to erase.

  3. Apr 2022
    1. In his illuminated bookJerusalem, Los—Blake’s alter ego—voiced a sentiment that might have servedas the Romantics’ motto. “I must create a system,” Blake’s character declared, orelse “be enslav’d by another man’s.”

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    1. As Professor Thuesen explained, the key proponent of naming Archdale Hall for the state’s one-time colonial governor was Johns Hopkins University’s own Francis T. King. King was a business associate to Johns Hopkins and personally chosen by Hopkins to serve as a founding trustee of our university. As librarian and Professor of English Dorothy Lloyd Gilbert reported, students at Guilford advocated naming the new building Phoenix Hall; it was erected literally out of the ashes after a fire destroyed the school’s meeting house. King, who headed the Baltimore Association to Advise and Assist Friends in the Southern States, saw things otherwise and managed to prevail. Named in the 1880s, Archdale Hall still stands today and is the oldest building on the Guilford College campus.2
      1. For more on Francis T. King’s influence at Guilford College, see Damon D. Hickey, “Pioneers of the New South: The Baltimore Association and North Carolina Friends in Reconstruction,” Quaker History 74, no. 1 (Spring 1975): 1-17.

      Francis King was a Quaker and a business associate to Johns Hopkins and personally chosen by Hopkins to serve as a founding trustee of the university.

      King headed headed the Baltimore Association to Advise and Assist Friends in the Southern States. He influenced Guilford College to name a building there Archdale Hall after John Archdale, a 17th century colonial governor of the Carolinas and a Quaker who oversaw the enactment of their early and exceedingly harsh slave codes.

    2. We headed to the recent meeting of the Universities Studying Slavery (USS) consortium eager to learn about the work of others. We returned with valuable lessons about ourselves. At USS meetings, research teams like Hard Histories compare notes with colleagues across the country engaged in similar projects. In late March, Guilford College and Wake Forest University hosted a two-day-long deep dive into research underway in North Carolina and beyond.

      There are now enough colleges and universities looking into the overlap of their own histories and that of slavery and its effects on their development that there is now a consortium of them (the Universities Studying Slavery (USS)) and two day long conference.

  4. Mar 2022
  5. learn-us-east-1-prod-fleet02-xythos.content.blackboardcdn.com learn-us-east-1-prod-fleet02-xythos.content.blackboardcdn.com
    1. insidious declamations should have no effect upon the wise legislators who have decreed liberty to humanity. The attacks the colonists propose against this liberty must be feared all the more insofar as they hide their detestable projects under the veil of patriotism. We know that illusory and specious descriptions have been made to you of the renewal of terrible violence. Already, perfidious emissaries have crept among us to foment destruction at the hands ofliberticides. They will not succeed, this 1 swear by all that is most sacred in liberty. My attachment to France, the gratitude that all the blacks conserve for her, make it my duty to hide from you neither the plans being fomented nor the oath that we renew to bury ourselves beneath the ruins of a country revived by liberty rather than suffer the return of slavery.

      Here Toussaint states that he refuses to let Vaublanc convince 'property' owners in St. Domingue to regress back to the use of enslavement. Toussaint also says that it he and other Blacks have gratitude to France and will not try to hide the fact they will all fight should, the "enemy of liberty" slavery return.

  6. Feb 2022
    1. https://hub.jhu.edu/2018/05/16/enslaved-homewood-difficult-history/

      "Enslaved at Homewood" is a project to better visualize and center the stories of those who had been enslaved at one point on the Johns Hopkins University Homewood campus.

    2. the telling of oppressive history can make people uncomfortable. One common argument against incorporating the history of enslaved people, she says, is that, due to the scarcity of primary sources, the history is difficult to tell meaningfully and accurately. But, Rose explains, "resistance to interpreting slavery is not about scarcity of documentation." Rather, using the supposed scarcity of documentation to excuse engagement is a form of resistance, as are denial, sarcasm, and apathy.

      The scarcity of primary sources making it difficult to tell meaningful and accurate history is a common argument against incorporating the history of enslaved people. These excuses as well as denial, sarcasm, and apathy are used to erase the value of these people and our shared history.

    1. When I did, I tried to see beyond the museum’s opulence to appreciate the nearly invisible hands of the Black laborers who made the Carroll family’s comfort and prosperity possible.

      It would be interesting to commission a sculpture of several human forms, perhaps fashioned in clear acrylic, glass, or some other translucent material, to represent the invisible nature of these slaves in an effort to make them visible in the present and while still making a dramatic and more visible statement about their (and millions of others') invisible nature with respect to the historical record.

  7. Jan 2022
    1. Explore the Origins and Forced Relocations of Enslaved Africans Across the Atlantic World The SlaveVoyages website is a collaborative digital initiative that compiles and makes publicly accessible records of the largest slave trades in history. Search these records to learn about the broad origins and forced relocations of more than 12 million African people who were sent across the Atlantic in slave ships, and hundreds of thousands more who were trafficked within the Americas. Explore where they were taken, the numerous rebellions that occurred, the horrific loss of life during the voyages, the identities and nationalities of the perpetrators, and much more.
    1. When I think back to the creation of that infographic, I wonder whether we had shown the care demanded of the data. Whether we had, in creating this abstraction, re-enacted — however inadvertently — some of the objectification of the slave trade.

      This sort of objectification seems very similar to the type of erasure that Poland is doing with the Holocaust as they begin honoring Poles who helped Jews while simultaneously ignoring Poland's part in collaborating with the Nazis in creating the Holocaust.

      How can we as a society and humanity add more care to these sorts of acts so as not to continue erasing the harm and better heal past wrongs?

      Cross reference: https://www.nytimes.com/2022/01/29/opinion/holocaust-poland-europe.html and https://hyp.is/hrsb9oIOEey8sEObTYhk0A/www.nytimes.com/2022/01/29/opinion/holocaust-poland-europe.html

    2. Consider, as well, the extent to which the tools of abstraction are themselves tied up in the history of the trans-Atlantic slave trade. As the historian Jennifer L. Morgan notes in “Reckoning With Slavery: Gender, Kinship, and Capitalism in the Early Black Atlantic,” the fathers of modern demography, the 17th-century English writers and mathematicians William Petty and John Graunt, were “thinking through problems of population and mobility at precisely the moment when England had solidified its commitment to the slave trade.”Their questions were ones of statecraft: How could England increase its wealth? How could it handle its surplus population? And what would it do with “excessive populations that did not consume” in the formal market? Petty was concerned with Ireland — Britain’s first colony, of sorts — and the Irish. He thought that if they could be forcibly transferred to England, then they could, in Morgan’s words, become “something valuable because of their ability to augment the population and labor power of the English.”This conceptual breakthrough, Morgan told me in an interview, cannot be disentangled from the slave trade. The English, she said, “are learning to think about people as ‘abstractable.’

      This deserves to be delved into more deeply. This sounds like a bizarre stop on the creation of institutional racism.

      How do these sorts of abstraction hurt the move towards equality?

    3. And there are, again, ethical questions that must be asked and answered when dealing with the quantitative study of human atrocity, which is what we’re ultimately doing when we bring statistical and mathematical methods to the study of slavery.
    4. From 1787 to 1788, Americans would write and ratify a new Constitution that, in a concession to Lower South planters who demanded access to the trans-Atlantic trade, forbade a ban on the foreign slave trade for at least the next 20 years. But Congress could — and, in 1794, did — prohibit American ships from participating. In 1807, right on schedule, Congress passed — and President Thomas Jefferson, a slave-owning Virginian, signed — a measure to abolish the importation of enslaved Africans to the United States, effective Jan. 1, 1808.

      As a concession to the south, the Constitution provided a 20 year clause before allowing a ban on the foreign slave trade. In 1807, Congress passed a measure to abolish the importation of enslaved Africans to the united states, which went into effect on January 1, 1808. Of course this didn't stop illegal trade which continued until at least the start of the Civil War.

    5. It is thanks to decades of painstaking, difficult work that we know a great deal about the scale of human trafficking across the Atlantic Ocean and about the people aboard each ship. Much of that research is available to the public in the form of the SlaveVoyages database. A detailed repository of information on individual ships, individual voyages and even individual people, it is a groundbreaking tool for scholars of slavery, the slave trade and the Atlantic world. And it continues to grow. Last year, the team behind SlaveVoyages introduced a new data set with information on the domestic slave trade within the United States, titled “Oceans of Kinfolk.”
  8. Dec 2021
    1. we found this extraordinary paper from 1951 I think by Goldschmidt Walter Goldschmidt which nobody's read it has 00:29:14 got a very strange title something like a contribution to ethical and philosophical sociology or something which tells you very little about its content but it's about these Californian foragers who live next door to the 00:29:27 highly aristocratic slave keeping fishermen of the northwest coast and what Goldschmidt who was a student of Alfred Kroeber I believe the great sort of Dayan of 00:29:40 California anthropology what he argues there point four point is that these Californian hunter-gatherers actually had a kind of work ethic which is remarkably similar to what Max Weber 00:29:54 classically described as the Protestant work ethic of central and northern Europe

      Walter Goldschmidt had a 1951 paper about coastal Californian foragers next to aristocratic slave keeping fishermen. These hunter-gatherers apparently had a work ethic similar to that of Max Weber's Protestant work ethic.

      Did these fishermen have totem poles (aka decorated wood


      Goldschmidt was a student of Alfred Kroeber. Would he have known or worked with Milman Parry?


      Kroeber received his PhD under Franz Boas at Columbia University in 1901, the first doctorate in anthropology awarded by Columbia.

    2. most people trained in our subjects are aware of is the 00:28:22 phenomenon of slavery among non farming populations and actually the classic example is precisely that of the the indigenous societies of the Northwest Coast who are known to have kept slaves 00:28:36 who were actually hereditary slaves in their households which were organized on these highly stratified aristocratic sort of lines what nobody seems to have 00:28:48 been interested up to now is why this practice of keeping slaves seems to sort of fizzle out and stop as you head south into what is now broadly speaking the 00:29:00 area of coastal California

      How many non-agricultural societies practiced slavery?

      Apparently some indigenous societies on the American Northwest Coast did down into coastal California.

  9. Nov 2021
    1. Is Agile/SCRUM Modern Slavery? https://en.itpedia.nl/2021/11/30/is-agile-scrum-moderne-slavernij/ What do you say Modern Slavery? Yes, when I first read the Agile Manifesto, I felt an unease. Especially when I also read the 12 accompanying principles. I realize that I am making extreme statements in this article, but they are intended as a mirror and to reflect for ourselves what we are actually doing.

  10. Oct 2021
    1. Would conscripted workers produce as strong an economy as those who could act of their own free will?

      A fascinating economic question.

      What happens if we extend from one or two countries against each other to multiple countries? What happens when we expand this to the entire world?

      As Charles Eliot says in the end:

      A precious lesson of the war will be this: Toward every kind of national efficiency discipline is good, and cooperation is good; but for the highest efficiency both should be consented to in liberty.

    1. We see now a complex web of historical threads to ensnare blacks forslavery in America: the desperation of starving settlers, the specialhelplessness of the displaced African, the powerful incentive of profit forslave trader and planter, the temptation of superior status for poor whites, the

      elaborate controls against escape and rebellion, the legal and social punishment of black and white collaboration.

      The point is that the elements of this web are historical, not "natural."

    2. As Morgan says, masters, “initially at least, perceived slaves in much the sameway they had always perceived servants . . . shiftless, irresponsible, unfaithful,ungrateful, dishonest. . . .”

      Interestingly, this is still all-too-often how business owners, entrepreneurs, and corporations view their own workers.

    3. terrifyingothers from the like practices. . .

      Legalized terrorism written into the Virginia slave code in the 1700s.

    1. At the University of Virginia — founded and designed by Thomas Jefferson — slaves cooked and cleaned for the sons of the Southern gentry.

      As a species, as we progress ethically to more inclusive social norms, those considered the enlightened leaders of their time, like Jefferson can be seen from two contrasting perspectives, the norms of their time and the norms of our times.

      As we judge others in the past for failures to recognize unjust social norms prevalent in their time, so too will we be judged by our descendants for social norms they will recognize as unjust, but which we collectively haven’t yet.

      How long it takes to shake off the shackles that prevent the recognition of the dignity of each and every human INTERbeing. Each living person of modernity owes his or her existence to all our ancestors, whose social dynamics, for better or worse, shaped the world we inhabit today.

      As we evolve, we are engaged in a constant cultural evolutionary process, as we incrementally recognize unjust social norms and attempt to stop their further indulgence, reset our behavior and go towards new, more just ones.

  11. Sep 2021
    1. in 1637 the first American slave ship, the Desire, sailed fromMarblehead
    2. Under these conditions, perhaps one of every three blacks transportedoverseas died, but the huge profits (often double the investment on one trip)made it worthwhile for the slave trader, and so the blacks were packed into theholds like fish

      With the earlier death rate of two of every five dying on the death marches to the slave markets and one in every three dying on the ships, this means that 9/15 or a full 60% were dying before they even arrived in America.

      This is certainly a disgusting indictment of capitalistic frenzy.

    3. On one occasion, hearing a great noise from belowdecks where the blackswere chained together, the sailors opened the hatches and found the slaves indifferent stages of suffocation, many dead, some having killed others indesperate attempts to breathe. Slaves often jumped overboard to drown ratherthan continue their suffering. To one observer a slave-deck was “so coveredwith blood and mucus that it resembled a slaughter house.”

      Here I feel compelled to revisit an earlier quote:

      One slave trader, John Newton (who later became an antislavery leader), wrote about the people of what is now Sierra Leone:

      The state of slavery, among these wild barbarous people, as we esteem them, is much milder than in our colonies

      Which was really the more barbarous culture?

    4. Documents of the time

      This would be a good place to have one or two illustrative primary documents inserted.

      One of the most well known is:

      Description of a Slave Ship. London: Printed by James Phillips [for the London Committee of the Society for Effecting the Abolition of the Slave Trade], 1789. Two broadsides.

      A digitized copy of the original can be found here: https://dpul.princeton.edu/wa/catalog/qj72p788s

      along with some additional context here: https://blogs.princeton.edu/notabilia/2020/05/28/teaching-the-slave-ship/

    5. Slavery existed in the African states, and it was sometimes used byEuropeans to justify their own slave trade. But, as Davidson points out, the“slaves” of Africa were more like the serfs of Europe—in other words, likemost of the population of Europe. It was a harsh servitude, but they had rightswhich slaves brought to America did not have, and they were “altogetherdifferent from the human cattle of the slave ships and the Americanplantations.”

      I like the framing of this.

      While Europeans used the fact that slavery existed in Africa to justify their own use of Africans as slaves, the concept of slavery in Africa was akin to the idea of serfs in Europe. These slaves/serfs in Africa certainly had hard and difficult lives, but they did have some rights and freedoms not granted to American slaves in any form.

    6. The Virginians needed labor, to grow corn for subsistence, to grow tobaccofor export. They had just figured out how to grow tobacco, and in 1617 theysent off the first cargo to England. Finding that, like all pleasurable drugstainted with moral disapproval, it brought a high price, the planters, despitetheir high religious talk, were not going to ask questions about something soprofitable.

      Told from this perspective and with the knowledge of the importance of the theory of First Effective Settlement, is it any wonder that America has grown up to be so heavily influenced by moral and mental depravity, over-influenced by capitalism and religion, ready to enslave others, and push vice and drugs? The founding Virginians are truly America in miniature.

      Cross reference: Theory of First Effective Settlement

      “Whenever an empty territory undergoes settlement, or an earlier population is dislodged by invaders, the specific characteristics of the first group able to effect a viable, self-perpetuating society are of crucial significance for the later social and cultural geography of the area, no matter how tiny the initial band of settlers may have been.” “Thus, in terms of lasting impact, the activities of a few hundred, or even a few score, initial colonizers can mean much more for the cultural geography of a place than the contributions of tens of thousands of new immigrants a few generations later.” — Wilbur Zelinsky, The Cultural Geography of the United States, Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1973, pp. 13–14.

  12. Jul 2021
  13. May 2021
    1. I allow nothing for losses by death, but on the contrary shall presently take credit 4. pr. cent pr. annum for their increase over & above keepg. up their own numbers.

      Perhaps one of the most telling annotations in history: Where Jefferson annotates his own 1792 letter to Washington to herald the profit in breeding enslaved people.

      You can also see an image of the actual letter on page 4/5: Thomas Jefferson to George Washington, Notes. -06-18, 1792. Manuscript/Mixed Material. https://www.loc.gov/item/mtjbib006309/.

      Hat tip to Stuart Pace and Henry Wiencek's Smithsonian article, "The Dark Side of Thomas Jefferson".

  14. Mar 2021
  15. Feb 2021
    1. Researchers do the actual work: they invent the hypothesis, do the experiments and write the articles describing the results of these experiments. Then they publish this article in an academic journal. They cannot simply put this article online on their blog: to be recognised as research work, it must be published in a respectable peer-reviewed journal. So they send their articles to publishers like Elsevier, Wiley or Springer. Publishers send articles they have received to other scientists for peer-review. Reviewers give their opinion on whether the work should be accepted in a journal or not, or if some additional work must be done. Based on these reviews, the article is published or rejected. Both reviewers and scientists work for free. They do not earn any compensation from the academic publisher. Here, academic publishers work as organisers of the academic community, but not as creators. The work of the academic publisher is organisational and not creative.

      These few paragraphs do a great job of outlining the idea of slavery in an academic setting.

  16. Jan 2021
    1. Slavery

      First mention of slavery.

      It may be useful to remember while reading the following how mad Trump is about the 1619 Project, and that the 1776 Commission emerged from that anger.

  17. Dec 2020
    1. In adjudicating the status ofAfricans and their descendants, such as Fernando, the English colonistscould follow the lead of the Iberians and conclude that slavery was apermanent condition, and apply the principle ofpartus sequitur ventrem,according to which slave status passed from mother to child.

      L. “That which is brought forth follows the belly”

    2. Anthony Johnson may have arrived in Virginia in thefirstshipment of“negars”in 1620, but by midcentury he owned propertyand slaves in Northampton County, on the Eastern Shore in Virginia.He appears frequently in court records, trading cattle, mares, land, andtobacco with other free people of color and white men.
    3. Militias of free men of color never took hold inVirginia and they died out in Louisiana by 1834. Communities of freepeople of color were also key to the expansion of freedom, as theycould provide resources and legal knowledge to enslaved people.Perhaps most important, their members made claims on citizenshipthat made it difficult to argue that only white people could be citizens.
    4. rbecame increasingly anomalous, and even dangerous, to the polity. Tomany, slaveholders and nonslaveholders alike, the extension of citizen-ship rights to all white men required the removal of free black peoplefrom their midst. That is why colonization efforts that sought to removefree blacks to a distant location in Africa prospered in Virginia andLouisiana but not in Cuba. And that is also why Virginia and Louisianaacted in the nineteenth century, especially in the 1850s, to end thepossibility of manumission, self-purchase, or freedom suits.
    5. The key to these divergent trajectories of racial differentiation was thelaw of freedom. It began with legal traditions: in Cuba, the right tomanumission wasfirmly entrenched in the Iberian law of slavery andwas not tied to race, a key difference from the law in both Louisiana andVirginia.
    6. rough the lawsuits they brought when sucharrangements fell through. Enslaved people who found their way to anotary’soffice or a courtroom to claim freedom were exceptional incertain ways. The majority of men and women born in bondage remainedenslaved their entire lives. Yet those who became free were key to theconstruction of race in the Americas.
    7. Ariela had written a book about the history of theeveryday law of slavery in the U.S. Deep South that emphasized localculture and law,

      2019-12-30 12:12:53 AM

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    Annotators

    1. Supreme Court Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes said there were "phrases that serve as an excuse for not thinking." One of these phrases that substitute for thought today is one that depicts the current problems of blacks in America as "a legacy of slavery."

      Thought and slogans.

  18. Oct 2020
    1. I n 1790, Haiti’s enslavers saw the Declaration of t he Rights of Man (Article 1: “Men are born and remain free and equal in rights”) as a green light f or t heir i ndependence drive and for t heir demands for new trade relations t o increase their wealth. F ree and affluent bira-cial activists numbering almost 3 0,000 (slightly less t han the White population) started driving for t heir civil r ights. Close to half a mil-lion enslaved Africans, who were producing about half t he world’s sugar and coffee i n the most profitable European colony in the world, heard these curious cries f or r ights and liberty among the i sland’s f ree people. On August 22, 1791, enslaved Africans revolted, i nspired in more ways t han one by Vodou priest Dutty Boukman. They emerged as t he fourth faction in the civil war between White royalists, White independence seekers, and free biracial a ctivist
    2. I n South Carolina, t here emerged a three-sided conflict, with as many as 20,000 Africans a sserting t heir o wn i nterests. An e stimated t wo-thirds o f enslaved Africans i n Georgia ran away. According to Jefferson’s own calculations, Virginia l ost a s many as 30,000 enslaved Africans i n a sin-gle year.

      These are some impressive numbers!

    3. Cotton—more than anyone or anything else—economically freed American enslavers from England and tightened the chains of African people in American slavery.
    1. Beginning in the last quarter of the 20th century, historians like Gary Nash, Ira Berlin and Alfred Young built on the earlier work of Carter G. Woodson, Benjamin Quarles, John Hope Franklin and others, writing histories of the Colonial and Revolutionary eras that included African Americans, slavery and race. A standout from this time is Edmund Morgan’s American Slavery, American Freedom, which addresses explicitly how the intertwined histories of Native American, African American and English residents of Virginia are foundational to understanding the ideas of freedom we still struggle with today.

      These could be interesting to read.

    1. I was struck, for example, by his extensive discussion of the evolution of slavery and serfdom, which made no mention of the classic work of Evsey Domar of M.I.T., who argued that the more or less simultaneous rise of serfdom in Russia and slavery in the New World were driven by the opening of new land, which made labor scarce and would have led to rising wages in the absence of coercion.
  19. Jul 2020
  20. Jun 2020
    1. James Tallmadge Jr. t acked an amendment onto a bill a dmitting Missouri t o the Union that would have barred the admission of enslaved Africans into the new state.
    2. Until 1 822—until Denmark Vesey—northerners h ad p roduced most of the racist books and tracts defending slavery. Writers l ike Charles Jared Ingersoll, J ames Kirke Paulding, and Robert Walsh—all f rom the North—defended slavery from British onslaughts i n the 1810s.
    3. “ I consider a woman who brings a child every two years as more profitable t han the best man on the f arm,” J efferson once explained to a friend.
    4. By September 17, 1787, delegates i n Philadelphia had extracted “slave” and “slavery” f rom the signed US Constitution to hide their racist e nslavement policies. These policies hardly fit with securing “the Blessing of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity.”
    5. Antislavery discussions were disallowed in drawing up what t he writers were pegging as humankind’s ultimate constitution of freedom.
    6. Rhode I sland pastor Samuel Hopkins, an antislavery Puritan, would have found Jefferson’s passage laughable. He had just sent t he con-gress A Dialogue c oncerning t he Slavery of t he Africans. Americans’ s o-called enslavement t o the British was “lighter than a feather” compared to Africans’ e nslavement t o Americans, Hopkins argued.

      A Dialogue concerning the Slavery of the Africans available on archive.org

      Hopkins became the first major Christian leader outside of t he Society of Friends to forcefully oppose slavery

    7. Thomas Jefferson disagreed. At t he beginning of t he Declaration of Independence, he paraphrased the Virginia constitution, i ndelibly penning: “ all Men are created equal.”It is impossible to know for s ure whether J efferson meant t o include his enslaved laborers ( or women) in his “all Men.” Was he merely emphasizing the equality of White Americans and the English? Later i n the document, he did scold the British for “ exciting those very people to rise in arms among us”—those “people” being resisting Afri-cans. Did Jefferson insert “created equal” a s a nod to the swirling debate between monogenesis and polygenesis? Even if J efferson believed all groups to be “created equal,” he never believed the antiracist creed that all human groups are e qual. But his “ all Men are created equal” was revolutionary n onetheless; i t even propelled Vermont and Mas-sachusetts to abolish slavery.
  21. Jan 2020
    1. prevails

      In the original German, 'prevails' is rendered "herrscht." Herrscht shares a common root with the ordinary German word Herr (Mister, or, more evocatively, Master). 'Lordship' (as, in the chapter of Hegel's Phenomenology of Spirit, on 'Lordship and Bondage' is rendered Herrschaft.)

      My own reading of Capital tends to center upon the question of domination in capitalist societies, and throughout chapter 1 (in particular, in The Fetishism of Commodities and the Secret Thereof) Marx is especially attuned to the distinguishing how the forms of domination that are prevalent in capitalist societies are distinct from the relations of "personal dependence" that characterize pre-capitalist modes of production.

      It seems prudent, therefore, to take note of the way that the seemingly innocuous notion of 'prevalence' is, for Marx, in his original formulation, already evocative of the language of mastery, domination, perhaps even something like 'hegemony'.

      Furthermore, the capitalist mode of production prevails--it predominates. Yet, as Louis Althusser observes in his discussion of the concept of the 'mode of production' in On the Reproduction of Capitalism, every concrete social formation can be classified according to the mode of production that is dominant (that prevails--herrscht). In order to dominate, something must implicitly be dominated, or subordinate. "In every social formation," Althusser writes, "there exists more than one mode of production: at least two and often many more." Althusser cites Lenin, who in his analysis of the late 19th c. Russian social formation, observes that four modes of production can be distinguished (Louis Althusser, On the Reproduction of Capitalism, Verso 2014, p. 19.)

      In our analysis of social formations, the concrete specificity of each can be articulated by carefully examining the multiplicity of modes of production that coincide within it, and examine the way in which capitalism tends to dominate a multiplicity of subordinate modes of production that, on the one hand, survive from past modes of production but which may also, on the other, be emerging in the present (i.e. communism). Thus even if capitalism tends towards the formation of a contiguous world-system dominated by its particular imperatives, this does not mean that this process is homogenous or unfolds in the same way in each instance.

      For some commentators, capitalism is defined by the prevalence of wage labor and the specific dynamics that obtain therefrom. Yet this has often led to confusion over, whether, in analyzing the North American social formation prior to 1865, in which slavery coexists with wage-labor, the mode of production based on slave-labor is pre-capitalist. Yet as we find here in ch. 1, what determines the commodity as a commodity is not that it is the product of wage labor, rather that it is produced for exchange. As Marx writes on p. 131, "He who satisfies his own need with the product of his own labor admittedly creates use-values, but not commodities. Insofar as the slave-system in North America produced commodities (cotton, tobacco, etc.) for exchange on the world market, the fact that these commodities were produced under direct conditions of domination does not have any bearing on whether or not we identify this system of production as 'capitalist'. Wage-labor is therefore not likely the determinative factor; the determinative factor is the production of commodities for exchange. It is only insofar as commodities confront one another as exchange-values that the various modes of useful labor appear as expressions of a homogenous common substance, labor in the abstract

      It is in this sense that we can observe one of the ways that the capitalist mode of production prevails over other modes of production, as it subordinates these modes of production to production for exchange, and thus the law of value, regardless of whether wage-labor represents the dominant form of this relation. Moreover, it provides a clue to how we can examine, for example, the persistence of unwaged work within the family, which has important consequences for Social Reproduction Theory.

      Nonetheless, we can say that insofar as commodities confront each other on the market in a scene of exchange that they implicitly contain some 'third thing' which enables us to compare them as bearers of a magnitude of value. This 'third thing', as Marx's demonstration shows, is 'socially necessary labour time', which anticipates the way that wage-labor will become a dominant feature of capitalist society.

  22. Dec 2019
    1. claim the gratitude of his child so completely

      Rather than entertain the negative consequences of his creation, Victor imagines creating a race that will worship him.

    2. seized and made a slave by the Turks

      When Mary wrote Frankenstein slavery was still pervasive in Europe and the Americas, and slavery persisted in England until the 1834 Slavery Abolition Act. Mary's father, William Godwin, wrote against slavery in An Enquiry Concerning Political Justice (1793).

    3. Greece had not been enslaved

      In ancient Greece it was common practice to enslave entire populations of a conquered nation. Greece was conquered by the Romans in 146 CE.

  23. Nov 2019
    1. it becomes our duty, by legislation, whenever such legislation is necessary, to maintain this provision of the Constitution against all attempts to violate it; and we deny the authority of Congress, of a territorial legislature, or of any individuals, to givelegal existence to slavery in any territory of the United States.

      The notes at the top of this page claim that, "nothing in the document claimed that the government had the power to eliminate slavery where it already existed." However, this quote and many others claim that the republican party thought that slavery was abhorrent and ought not to exist in the first place. The practice is utterly unconstitutional. This quote explicitly states that congress should, by any legislation necessary, end slavery in the United states and prevent new territories from joining the union as slave states.

  24. Sep 2019
    1. and that this assemblage of horrors might want no fact of distinguished die, he is now exciting those very people to rise in arms among us, and to purchase that liberty of which he has deprived them, by murdering the people upon whom he also obtruded them; thus paying off former crimes committed against the liberties of one people, with crimes which he urges them to commit against the lives of another.
    2. he has waged cruel war against human nature itself, violating it’s most sacred rights of life & liberty in the persons of a distant people who never offended him, captivating & carrying them into slavery in another hemisphere, or to incur miserable death in their transportation thither.

      and yet slavery was allowed to flourish after this...

  25. Aug 2019
    1. As Prince told Rolling Stone in 1996, “People think I’m a crazy fool for writing ‘slave’ on my face. But if I can’t do what I want to do, what am I? When you stop a man from dreaming, he becomes a slave.”
  26. Sep 2018
  27. Mar 2018
    1. Largely from this fact, have arisen their cultural gifts to America

      I find the word choice in this section amusing, to say the least. The fact that the contributions that a group of people with roots in slavery and dehumanization are described as a "gift" to America seems wrong to me. Maybe could be phrased differently?

  28. Jan 2018
    1. That nothing in this act contained shall be construed to inhibit the government of the United States from dividing said Territory into two or more Territories, in such manner and at such times as Congress shall deem convenient and proper, or from attaching any portion of said Territory to any other State or Territory of the United State

      Meliora students, this clause gave the US government the right to divide the Kansas territory into multiple territories or states. Based on the statements in Sec. 14 of this document, what would each territory/state have the right to do in regards to slavery?

    1. enslaved

      Enslavement here does not refer to physical bondage, but is a rhetorical tool used to describe political oppression.

    1. (Of course, there were plenty of other things happening between the sixteenth and twenty-first centuries that changed the shape of the world we live in. I've skipped changes in agricultural productivity due to energy economics, which finally broke the Malthusian trap our predecessors lived in. This in turn broke the long term cap on economic growth of around 0.1% per year in the absence of famine, plagues, and wars depopulating territories and making way for colonial invaders. I've skipped the germ theory of diseases, and the development of trade empires in the age of sail and gunpowder that were made possible by advances in accurate time-measurement. I've skipped the rise and—hopefully—decline of the pernicious theory of scientific racism that underpinned western colonialism and the slave trade. I've skipped the rise of feminism, the ideological position that women are human beings rather than property, and the decline of patriarchy. I've skipped the whole of the Enlightenment and the age of revolutions! But this is a technocentric congress, so I want to frame this talk in terms of AI, which we all like to think we understand.)
  29. Dec 2017
    1. Also the whole of his Slaves amounting to 57 in number.

      Among the list of offerings that John Robinson of Rockbridge County is willing to make to the President of the University and the Directors of the Literary fund for locating the University in Lexington, are slaves. Moreover, he is willing to offer all 57 of his slaves. The fact that one individual would own 57 slaves in mind-baffling. 57 slaves are more humans than students in some of my larger classes here at UVA. This line of the Rockbridge Gap Report is cringe inducing for a 21st century reader. Perhaps back in 1818 when the document was written ownership of that large a number of slaves was the norm. It is completely dehumanizing to think that slaves, real humans, could be offered as a trade for a favor. However, the progress that society has made regarding equality of mankind is noteworthy, although much progress remains.

  30. Nov 2017
    1. And, in general, to observe with intelligence & faithfulness all the social relations under which he shall be placed.

      Again, I find it important to note the emphasis placed by the founders on encouraging social intelligence as well as academic intelligence. The University was not meant solely as an institution of book-learnin', but also one of character development. Still, this sentiment is rather ironic in the face of UVA's history, but I prefer to look at it from the perspective of self-betterment. The social relations of the university are certainly included in "all the social situations under which [the student] shall be placed," so change can be made from the inside, especially with the advent of student self-governance.

    2. To develope the reasoning faculties of our youth, enlarge their minds cultivate their morals, & instil into them the precepts of virtue & order.

      I do not think this goal was possible with the existence of slaves at UVA. No one can accept the most immoral institution and remain moral. I find excerpts like this extremely interesting, as these men apparently valued virtue but still supported the university’s ownership of slaves. The existence of slaves also cultivated a racist mindset among the students, not a "virtuous" one, which was counterproductive to the founders’ goal.

    1. Also the whole of his Slaves amounting to 57 in number.

      I had previous knowledge that the University has a unique history with slavery, yet I found it interesting how the author chose to list the slaves mentioned here as property alongside the other land acquisitions. The 57 slaves noted in this line were dehumanized and treated as property to be bought and sold. The evidence of slavery literally being in the founding document of this University demonstrates how although the school has a racist past, we can move forward today by recognizing, addressing, and recontextualizing the past dehumanization of individuals. -Komal Kamdar

  31. Oct 2017
    1. Also the whole of his Slaves amounting to 57 in number.

      This is the only time slaves are mentioned outright in this document. Jefferson and the other founders obviously view them as property, listing them between acres of land and placing them low on the list. This is interesting to me as without slaves the university likely never would have been founded, built, or maintained. It's disheartening that they provided so much to this university, unwilling as well, and yet seem to be almost an afterthought in this document. According to Encyclopedia Virginia, these slaves cleared land, cut and hauled lumber, made bricks, and transported stone in the beginning. Most were rented from their owners, likely causing them to be separated from their homes and loved ones. It also gives the name of a few slaves such as Carpenter Sam, who helped to build pavilions, Elijah who hauled stone, and William Green working as a blacksmith. It's important we recognize not just the labor they provided to the University, but also them as people and human beings who are apart of the University's complex history.

      • Maddie S.
  32. Aug 2017
    1. wholly destitute of all education but what he received in common with other domesticated animals, enjoying no advantages that could lead him to suppose himself superior to the beasts, his fellow servants.

      This is an accurate description of chattel slavery. Slaves were dehumanized to justify treating them inhumanely. They could be bought, sold, traded, and inherited just as livestock.

  33. Jun 2017
    1. If the purchasing a Negroe for a slave be an infringement of devine and human laws, in God's name, why is such a trade permitted?

      If the purchasing of a slave is against divine and human laws, why are we allowing such thing?

  34. Apr 2017
    1. Great Slave Lake

      The Great Slave Lake was found in 1771 by Samuel Hearne (Ernst). Many others passed through during the Klondike Gold Rush in 1896-1899, but the region surrounding the Great Slave Lake remained greatly unoccupied. In 1930, a radioactive uranium mineral called pitchblende, or uraninite, was discovered on the shore of the Great Slave Lake and incentivized colonizers. 1934, gold was discovered on Yellowknife Bay, which led to a Yellowknife community settlement. Today, additional communities in this region include Hay River, Fort Resolution, Fort Providence, and Behchoko. The Great Slave Lake is the fifth largest lake is North America and is part of the Mackenzie River System. The Lake gets its name from a tribe of Native Americans called Slavery First Nations (National Geographic). This tribe fished for sustenance and did not explore farther than their immediate surroundings. Their neighbors, the Cree, thought the tribe was weak and often called them awonak, which means slaves. Explorer Peter Pond named the lake the Slave Lake in 1785 and then the Great Slave Lake in 1790. The Lake is known for its variety of types of fish, including trout, pike, and Arctic grayling. The Great Slave Lake is covered in snow and ice 8 months out of the year. The Great Slave Lake region is also the home to the largest intact forest in the world, the Boreal Forest, which contains evergreens, bogs, shallow lakes, and ponds (Pala). This Great Slave Lake cove is the habitat for caribou, waterfowl, beavers, and many fish species.

      Ernst, Chloe. "The History and Sites of Great Slave Lake: A Visitor's Guide.” PlanetWare.com. Accessed April 06, 2017. http://www.planetware.com/northwest-territories/great-slave-lake-cdn-nt-ntgs.htm.

      National Geographic, February 2002, 1. Global Reference on the Environment, Energy, and Natural Resources (accessed April 5, 2017). http://find.galegroup.com/grnr/infomark.do?&source=gale&idigest=6f8f4a3faafd67e66fa023866730b0a1&prodId=GRNR&userGroupName=bucknell_it&tabID=T003&docId=A83374988&type=retrieve&PDFRange=%5B%5D&contentSet=IAC-Documents&version=1.0.

      Pala, Christopher. "Forests forever. (Forest conservation in Canada)." Earth Island Journal, September 22, 2010.

  35. Feb 2017
  36. Oct 2016
    1. Oklahoma Correctional Industries; workers scan the original photos and prepare metadata

      We can make the argument here that the University of North Texas, the Oklahoma Historical Society, and the Ethics in Journalism Foundation support de facto slave labor. Let's be honest here: "workers" = "prisoners"

  37. Dec 2015
    1. while in the process shattering the longstanding assumption that African slaves could not also be rulers.

      This should have proved that slaves are capable of governing their selves.

  38. Nov 2015
    1. [“Intellect,” whispered someone near.] That’s it, honey. What’s that got to do with women’s rights or negro rights?

      Very good point.

    2. I have borne thirteen children, and seen them most all sold off to slavery, and when I cried out with my mother’s grief, none but Jesus heard me! And aren’t I a woman?

      I can't imagine a woman going through this today and it wasn't uncommon a little over 150 years ago.

    3. I could work as much and eat as much as a man—when I could get it—and bear the lash as well! And arn’t I a woman?

      She could take anything a man could take and works hard. How come she is not given rights?

    1. The reports of Peace, Temperance, and Anti-Slavery conventions were examined, but all alike seemed too tame and pacific for the inauguration of a rebellion such as the world had never before seen.

      They are saying that the world was not ready for these causes to go into action.

    1. Moral suasionists, led most prominently by William Lloyd Garrison, felt that the United States Constitution was a fundamentally pro-slavery document, and that the present political system was irredeemable.

      The nation was set up to maintain slavery

    2. colonization was an inherently racist project and that African Americans possessed a hard-won right to the fruits of American liberty.

      African Americans deserved the fruits of American liberty just as much as anyone else.

    1. they are not permitted to be a moment idle until it is too dark to see

      There would be consequences otherwise.

    1. First, and most immediate, was the fear and risk of rebellion.

      Slave owners constantly feared rebellion

    2. In many cases, cotton growers, especially planters with large lots and enslaved workforces, put up slaves as collateral for funds dedicated to buying more land.

      Slaves were in demand.

    3. Perhaps the most important aspect of Southern slavery during this so-called “Cotton Revolution” was the value placed upon both the work and the body of the slaves themselves.

      The slaves were an in-demand object but the lives of the Africans were not valued at all.

    4. The free population of the South also nearly doubled over that period—from around 1.3 million in 1790 to more than 2.3 million in 1810.

      Does this free population include Africans? How were Africans capable of being free at this time?

    5. Although slavery arrived in the Americas long before cotton became a profitable commodity, the use and purchase of slaves, the moralistic and economic justifications for the continuation of slavery, even the urgency to protect the practice from extinction before the Civil War all received new life from the rise of cotton and the economic, social, and culture growth spurt that accompanied its success.

      Americans were looking for an excuse to keep slavery alive and the rise of cotton gave them their reason.

    6. III. Cotton and Slavery
  39. Oct 2015
    1. “Any contemplation of compensated emancipation must grapple with how several counties, and some states in the South, would react to finding themselves suddenly outnumbered by free black people.”

      It's easy to imagine the white men being outnumbered by the amount of enslaved african americans.. now let's think about the white men's fear if suddenly all those african americans were set free..

  40. Sep 2015
    1. II. Slavery and the Making of Race

      Week 6 Video Lecture

      Study Questions for this section:

      What change occurs in the 1660s that dramatically affects the nature of slavery?

      What was the Middle Passage?

      How does the idea of race evolve with the evolution of slavery?

    1. First Hand Accounts Case Study

      Study Questions:

      How do these descriptions of the “Middle Passage” from slave narratives confirm your understanding of the previous readings of this week?

      How do these conditions lead to rebellion?

    1. When the Spaniards saw that some of these had escaped, they sent a ship to find them, and it voyaged for three years among the islands searching for those who had escaped being slaughtered

      Seems like a waste of time to be searching for them, but I can only think that they were viewed as valuable slaves.

    1. High mortality rates on sugar plantations required a steady influx of new slaves

      Were the slaves worked to death? Was the work grueling? What was it that caused the high mortality rate?

  41. Aug 2015
    1. coming.

      Study questions for this section:

      What roles do sugar and slavery play in the expansion of European empires?

      What diseases devastate Native American peoples?

  42. Feb 2014
    1. Its purpose was to give them, the lords and masters, the freedom to do as they pleased with their property, their servants and their slaves. Echoes of Magna Carta could be heard even in post-revolutionary America and they may resolve the puzzle of how, in the US, the loudest voices for liberty came from slave-owners.

      Wish I could remember ref now: apparently there's evidence that more capricious government officials meant less capricious slavemasters -- even random actions by capricious officials would sometimes protect slaves, while restrained officials never would.