61 Matching Annotations
  1. Jun 2020
    1. James Tallmadge Jr. t acked an amendment onto a bill a dmitting Missouri t o the Union that would have barred the admission of enslaved Africans into the new state.
    2. Until 1 822—until Denmark Vesey—northerners h ad p roduced most of the racist books and tracts defending slavery. Writers l ike Charles Jared Ingersoll, J ames Kirke Paulding, and Robert Walsh—all f rom the North—defended slavery from British onslaughts i n the 1810s.
    3. “ I consider a woman who brings a child every two years as more profitable t han the best man on the f arm,” J efferson once explained to a friend.
    4. Cotton—more than anyone or anything else—economically freed American enslavers from England and tightened the chains of African people in American slavery.
    5. I n 1790, Haiti’s enslavers saw the Declaration of t he Rights of Man (Article 1: “Men are born and remain free and equal in rights”) as a green light f or t heir i ndependence drive and for t heir demands for new trade relations t o increase their wealth. F ree and affluent bira-cial activists numbering almost 3 0,000 (slightly less t han the White population) started driving for t heir civil r ights. Close to half a mil-lion enslaved Africans, who were producing about half t he world’s sugar and coffee i n the most profitable European colony in the world, heard these curious cries f or r ights and liberty among the i sland’s f ree people. On August 22, 1791, enslaved Africans revolted, i nspired in more ways t han one by Vodou priest Dutty Boukman. They emerged as t he fourth faction in the civil war between White royalists, White independence seekers, and free biracial a ctivist
    6. By September 17, 1787, delegates i n Philadelphia had extracted “slave” and “slavery” f rom the signed US Constitution to hide their racist e nslavement policies. These policies hardly fit with securing “the Blessing of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity.”
    7. Antislavery discussions were disallowed in drawing up what t he writers were pegging as humankind’s ultimate constitution of freedom.
    8. Rhode I sland pastor Samuel Hopkins, an antislavery Puritan, would have found Jefferson’s passage laughable. He had just sent t he con-gress A Dialogue c oncerning t he Slavery of t he Africans. Americans’ s o-called enslavement t o the British was “lighter than a feather” compared to Africans’ e nslavement t o Americans, Hopkins argued.

      A Dialogue concerning the Slavery of the Africans available on archive.org

      Hopkins became the first major Christian leader outside of t he Society of Friends to forcefully oppose slavery

    9. I n South Carolina, t here emerged a three-sided conflict, with as many as 20,000 Africans a sserting t heir o wn i nterests. An e stimated t wo-thirds o f enslaved Africans i n Georgia ran away. According to Jefferson’s own calculations, Virginia l ost a s many as 30,000 enslaved Africans i n a sin-gle year.

      These are some impressive numbers!

    10. Thomas Jefferson disagreed. At t he beginning of t he Declaration of Independence, he paraphrased the Virginia constitution, i ndelibly penning: “ all Men are created equal.”It is impossible to know for s ure whether J efferson meant t o include his enslaved laborers ( or women) in his “all Men.” Was he merely emphasizing the equality of White Americans and the English? Later i n the document, he did scold the British for “ exciting those very people to rise in arms among us”—those “people” being resisting Afri-cans. Did Jefferson insert “created equal” a s a nod to the swirling debate between monogenesis and polygenesis? Even if J efferson believed all groups to be “created equal,” he never believed the antiracist creed that all human groups are e qual. But his “ all Men are created equal” was revolutionary n onetheless; i t even propelled Vermont and Mas-sachusetts to abolish slavery.
  2. Mar 2020
    1. I was struck, for example, by his extensive discussion of the evolution of slavery and serfdom, which made no mention of the classic work of Evsey Domar of M.I.T., who argued that the more or less simultaneous rise of serfdom in Russia and slavery in the New World were driven by the opening of new land, which made labor scarce and would have led to rising wages in the absence of coercion.
    1. Beginning in the last quarter of the 20th century, historians like Gary Nash, Ira Berlin and Alfred Young built on the earlier work of Carter G. Woodson, Benjamin Quarles, John Hope Franklin and others, writing histories of the Colonial and Revolutionary eras that included African Americans, slavery and race. A standout from this time is Edmund Morgan’s American Slavery, American Freedom, which addresses explicitly how the intertwined histories of Native American, African American and English residents of Virginia are foundational to understanding the ideas of freedom we still struggle with today.

      These could be interesting to read.

  3. Jan 2020
    1. prevails

      In the original German, 'prevails' is rendered "herrscht." Herrscht shares a common root with the ordinary German word Herr (Mister, or, more evocatively, Master). 'Lordship' (as, in the chapter of Hegel's Phenomenology of Spirit, on 'Lordship and Bondage' is rendered Herrschaft.)

      My own reading of Capital tends to center upon the question of domination in capitalist societies, and throughout chapter 1 (in particular, in The Fetishism of Commodities and the Secret Thereof) Marx is especially attuned to the distinguishing how the forms of domination that are prevalent in capitalist societies are distinct from the relations of "personal dependence" that characterize pre-capitalist modes of production.

      It seems prudent, therefore, to take note of the way that the seemingly innocuous notion of 'prevalence' is, for Marx, in his original formulation, already evocative of the language of mastery, domination, perhaps even something like 'hegemony'.

      Furthermore, the capitalist mode of production prevails--it predominates. Yet, as Louis Althusser observes in his discussion of the concept of the 'mode of production' in On the Reproduction of Capitalism, every concrete social formation can be classified according to the mode of production that is dominant (that prevails--herrscht). In order to dominate, something must implicitly be dominated, or subordinate. "In every social formation," Althusser writes, "there exists more than one mode of production: at least two and often many more." Althusser cites Lenin, who in his analysis of the late 19th c. Russian social formation, observes that four modes of production can be distinguished (Louis Althusser, On the Reproduction of Capitalism, Verso 2014, p. 19.)

      In our analysis of social formations, the concrete specificity of each can be articulated by carefully examining the multiplicity of modes of production that coincide within it, and examine the way in which capitalism tends to dominate a multiplicity of subordinate modes of production that, on the one hand, survive from past modes of production but which may also, on the other, be emerging in the present (i.e. communism). Thus even if capitalism tends towards the formation of a contiguous world-system dominated by its particular imperatives, this does not mean that this process is homogenous or unfolds in the same way in each instance.

      For some commentators, capitalism is defined by the prevalence of wage labor and the specific dynamics that obtain therefrom. Yet this has often led to confusion over, whether, in analyzing the North American social formation prior to 1865, in which slavery coexists with wage-labor, the mode of production based on slave-labor is pre-capitalist. Yet as we find here in ch. 1, what determines the commodity as a commodity is not that it is the product of wage labor, rather that it is produced for exchange. As Marx writes on p. 131, "He who satisfies his own need with the product of his own labor admittedly creates use-values, but not commodities. Insofar as the slave-system in North America produced commodities (cotton, tobacco, etc.) for exchange on the world market, the fact that these commodities were produced under direct conditions of domination does not have any bearing on whether or not we identify this system of production as 'capitalist'. Wage-labor is therefore not likely the determinative factor; the determinative factor is the production of commodities for exchange. It is only insofar as commodities confront one another as exchange-values that the various modes of useful labor appear as expressions of a homogenous common substance, labor in the abstract

      It is in this sense that we can observe one of the ways that the capitalist mode of production prevails over other modes of production, as it subordinates these modes of production to production for exchange, and thus the law of value, regardless of whether wage-labor represents the dominant form of this relation. Moreover, it provides a clue to how we can examine, for example, the persistence of unwaged work within the family, which has important consequences for Social Reproduction Theory.

      Nonetheless, we can say that insofar as commodities confront each other on the market in a scene of exchange that they implicitly contain some 'third thing' which enables us to compare them as bearers of a magnitude of value. This 'third thing', as Marx's demonstration shows, is 'socially necessary labour time', which anticipates the way that wage-labor will become a dominant feature of capitalist society.

  4. Dec 2019
    1. claim the gratitude of his child so completely

      Rather than entertain the negative consequences of his creation, Victor imagines creating a race that will worship him.

    2. seized and made a slave by the Turks

      When Mary wrote Frankenstein slavery was still pervasive in Europe and the Americas, and slavery persisted in England until the 1834 Slavery Abolition Act. Mary's father, William Godwin, wrote against slavery in An Enquiry Concerning Political Justice (1793).

    3. Greece had not been enslaved

      In ancient Greece it was common practice to enslave entire populations of a conquered nation. Greece was conquered by the Romans in 146 CE.

  5. Nov 2019
    1. it becomes our duty, by legislation, whenever such legislation is necessary, to maintain this provision of the Constitution against all attempts to violate it; and we deny the authority of Congress, of a territorial legislature, or of any individuals, to givelegal existence to slavery in any territory of the United States.

      The notes at the top of this page claim that, "nothing in the document claimed that the government had the power to eliminate slavery where it already existed." However, this quote and many others claim that the republican party thought that slavery was abhorrent and ought not to exist in the first place. The practice is utterly unconstitutional. This quote explicitly states that congress should, by any legislation necessary, end slavery in the United states and prevent new territories from joining the union as slave states.

  6. Sep 2019
    1. and that this assemblage of horrors might want no fact of distinguished die, he is now exciting those very people to rise in arms among us, and to purchase that liberty of which he has deprived them, by murdering the people upon whom he also obtruded them; thus paying off former crimes committed against the liberties of one people, with crimes which he urges them to commit against the lives of another.
    2. he has waged cruel war against human nature itself, violating it’s most sacred rights of life & liberty in the persons of a distant people who never offended him, captivating & carrying them into slavery in another hemisphere, or to incur miserable death in their transportation thither.

      and yet slavery was allowed to flourish after this...

  7. Aug 2019
    1. As Prince told Rolling Stone in 1996, “People think I’m a crazy fool for writing ‘slave’ on my face. But if I can’t do what I want to do, what am I? When you stop a man from dreaming, he becomes a slave.”
  8. Sep 2018
  9. Mar 2018
    1. Largely from this fact, have arisen their cultural gifts to America

      I find the word choice in this section amusing, to say the least. The fact that the contributions that a group of people with roots in slavery and dehumanization are described as a "gift" to America seems wrong to me. Maybe could be phrased differently?

  10. Jan 2018
    1. That nothing in this act contained shall be construed to inhibit the government of the United States from dividing said Territory into two or more Territories, in such manner and at such times as Congress shall deem convenient and proper, or from attaching any portion of said Territory to any other State or Territory of the United State

      Meliora students, this clause gave the US government the right to divide the Kansas territory into multiple territories or states. Based on the statements in Sec. 14 of this document, what would each territory/state have the right to do in regards to slavery?

    1. enslaved

      Enslavement here does not refer to physical bondage, but is a rhetorical tool used to describe political oppression.

    1. (Of course, there were plenty of other things happening between the sixteenth and twenty-first centuries that changed the shape of the world we live in. I've skipped changes in agricultural productivity due to energy economics, which finally broke the Malthusian trap our predecessors lived in. This in turn broke the long term cap on economic growth of around 0.1% per year in the absence of famine, plagues, and wars depopulating territories and making way for colonial invaders. I've skipped the germ theory of diseases, and the development of trade empires in the age of sail and gunpowder that were made possible by advances in accurate time-measurement. I've skipped the rise and—hopefully—decline of the pernicious theory of scientific racism that underpinned western colonialism and the slave trade. I've skipped the rise of feminism, the ideological position that women are human beings rather than property, and the decline of patriarchy. I've skipped the whole of the Enlightenment and the age of revolutions! But this is a technocentric congress, so I want to frame this talk in terms of AI, which we all like to think we understand.)
  11. Dec 2017
    1. Also the whole of his Slaves amounting to 57 in number.

      Among the list of offerings that John Robinson of Rockbridge County is willing to make to the President of the University and the Directors of the Literary fund for locating the University in Lexington, are slaves. Moreover, he is willing to offer all 57 of his slaves. The fact that one individual would own 57 slaves in mind-baffling. 57 slaves are more humans than students in some of my larger classes here at UVA. This line of the Rockbridge Gap Report is cringe inducing for a 21st century reader. Perhaps back in 1818 when the document was written ownership of that large a number of slaves was the norm. It is completely dehumanizing to think that slaves, real humans, could be offered as a trade for a favor. However, the progress that society has made regarding equality of mankind is noteworthy, although much progress remains.

  12. Nov 2017
    1. And, in general, to observe with intelligence & faithfulness all the social relations under which he shall be placed.

      Again, I find it important to note the emphasis placed by the founders on encouraging social intelligence as well as academic intelligence. The University was not meant solely as an institution of book-learnin', but also one of character development. Still, this sentiment is rather ironic in the face of UVA's history, but I prefer to look at it from the perspective of self-betterment. The social relations of the university are certainly included in "all the social situations under which [the student] shall be placed," so change can be made from the inside, especially with the advent of student self-governance.

    2. To develope the reasoning faculties of our youth, enlarge their minds cultivate their morals, & instil into them the precepts of virtue & order.

      I do not think this goal was possible with the existence of slaves at UVA. No one can accept the most immoral institution and remain moral. I find excerpts like this extremely interesting, as these men apparently valued virtue but still supported the university’s ownership of slaves. The existence of slaves also cultivated a racist mindset among the students, not a "virtuous" one, which was counterproductive to the founders’ goal.

    1. Also the whole of his Slaves amounting to 57 in number.

      I had previous knowledge that the University has a unique history with slavery, yet I found it interesting how the author chose to list the slaves mentioned here as property alongside the other land acquisitions. The 57 slaves noted in this line were dehumanized and treated as property to be bought and sold. The evidence of slavery literally being in the founding document of this University demonstrates how although the school has a racist past, we can move forward today by recognizing, addressing, and recontextualizing the past dehumanization of individuals. -Komal Kamdar

  13. Oct 2017
    1. Also the whole of his Slaves amounting to 57 in number.

      This is the only time slaves are mentioned outright in this document. Jefferson and the other founders obviously view them as property, listing them between acres of land and placing them low on the list. This is interesting to me as without slaves the university likely never would have been founded, built, or maintained. It's disheartening that they provided so much to this university, unwilling as well, and yet seem to be almost an afterthought in this document. According to Encyclopedia Virginia, these slaves cleared land, cut and hauled lumber, made bricks, and transported stone in the beginning. Most were rented from their owners, likely causing them to be separated from their homes and loved ones. It also gives the name of a few slaves such as Carpenter Sam, who helped to build pavilions, Elijah who hauled stone, and William Green working as a blacksmith. It's important we recognize not just the labor they provided to the University, but also them as people and human beings who are apart of the University's complex history.

      • Maddie S.
  14. Aug 2017
    1. wholly destitute of all education but what he received in common with other domesticated animals, enjoying no advantages that could lead him to suppose himself superior to the beasts, his fellow servants.

      This is an accurate description of chattel slavery. Slaves were dehumanized to justify treating them inhumanely. They could be bought, sold, traded, and inherited just as livestock.

  15. Jun 2017
    1. If the purchasing a Negroe for a slave be an infringement of devine and human laws, in God's name, why is such a trade permitted?

      If the purchasing of a slave is against divine and human laws, why are we allowing such thing?

  16. Apr 2017
    1. Great Slave Lake

      The Great Slave Lake was found in 1771 by Samuel Hearne (Ernst). Many others passed through during the Klondike Gold Rush in 1896-1899, but the region surrounding the Great Slave Lake remained greatly unoccupied. In 1930, a radioactive uranium mineral called pitchblende, or uraninite, was discovered on the shore of the Great Slave Lake and incentivized colonizers. 1934, gold was discovered on Yellowknife Bay, which led to a Yellowknife community settlement. Today, additional communities in this region include Hay River, Fort Resolution, Fort Providence, and Behchoko. The Great Slave Lake is the fifth largest lake is North America and is part of the Mackenzie River System. The Lake gets its name from a tribe of Native Americans called Slavery First Nations (National Geographic). This tribe fished for sustenance and did not explore farther than their immediate surroundings. Their neighbors, the Cree, thought the tribe was weak and often called them awonak, which means slaves. Explorer Peter Pond named the lake the Slave Lake in 1785 and then the Great Slave Lake in 1790. The Lake is known for its variety of types of fish, including trout, pike, and Arctic grayling. The Great Slave Lake is covered in snow and ice 8 months out of the year. The Great Slave Lake region is also the home to the largest intact forest in the world, the Boreal Forest, which contains evergreens, bogs, shallow lakes, and ponds (Pala). This Great Slave Lake cove is the habitat for caribou, waterfowl, beavers, and many fish species.

      Ernst, Chloe. "The History and Sites of Great Slave Lake: A Visitor's Guide.” PlanetWare.com. Accessed April 06, 2017. http://www.planetware.com/northwest-territories/great-slave-lake-cdn-nt-ntgs.htm.

      National Geographic, February 2002, 1. Global Reference on the Environment, Energy, and Natural Resources (accessed April 5, 2017). http://find.galegroup.com/grnr/infomark.do?&source=gale&idigest=6f8f4a3faafd67e66fa023866730b0a1&prodId=GRNR&userGroupName=bucknell_it&tabID=T003&docId=A83374988&type=retrieve&PDFRange=%5B%5D&contentSet=IAC-Documents&version=1.0.

      Pala, Christopher. "Forests forever. (Forest conservation in Canada)." Earth Island Journal, September 22, 2010.

  17. Feb 2017
  18. Oct 2016
    1. Oklahoma Correctional Industries; workers scan the original photos and prepare metadata

      We can make the argument here that the University of North Texas, the Oklahoma Historical Society, and the Ethics in Journalism Foundation support de facto slave labor. Let's be honest here: "workers" = "prisoners"

  19. Dec 2015
    1. while in the process shattering the longstanding assumption that African slaves could not also be rulers.

      This should have proved that slaves are capable of governing their selves.

  20. Nov 2015
    1. [“Intellect,” whispered someone near.] That’s it, honey. What’s that got to do with women’s rights or negro rights?

      Very good point.

    2. I have borne thirteen children, and seen them most all sold off to slavery, and when I cried out with my mother’s grief, none but Jesus heard me! And aren’t I a woman?

      I can't imagine a woman going through this today and it wasn't uncommon a little over 150 years ago.

    3. I could work as much and eat as much as a man—when I could get it—and bear the lash as well! And arn’t I a woman?

      She could take anything a man could take and works hard. How come she is not given rights?

    1. The reports of Peace, Temperance, and Anti-Slavery conventions were examined, but all alike seemed too tame and pacific for the inauguration of a rebellion such as the world had never before seen.

      They are saying that the world was not ready for these causes to go into action.

    1. Moral suasionists, led most prominently by William Lloyd Garrison, felt that the United States Constitution was a fundamentally pro-slavery document, and that the present political system was irredeemable.

      The nation was set up to maintain slavery

    2. colonization was an inherently racist project and that African Americans possessed a hard-won right to the fruits of American liberty.

      African Americans deserved the fruits of American liberty just as much as anyone else.

    1. they are not permitted to be a moment idle until it is too dark to see

      There would be consequences otherwise.

    1. First, and most immediate, was the fear and risk of rebellion.

      Slave owners constantly feared rebellion

    2. In many cases, cotton growers, especially planters with large lots and enslaved workforces, put up slaves as collateral for funds dedicated to buying more land.

      Slaves were in demand.

    3. Perhaps the most important aspect of Southern slavery during this so-called “Cotton Revolution” was the value placed upon both the work and the body of the slaves themselves.

      The slaves were an in-demand object but the lives of the Africans were not valued at all.

    4. The free population of the South also nearly doubled over that period—from around 1.3 million in 1790 to more than 2.3 million in 1810.

      Does this free population include Africans? How were Africans capable of being free at this time?

    5. Although slavery arrived in the Americas long before cotton became a profitable commodity, the use and purchase of slaves, the moralistic and economic justifications for the continuation of slavery, even the urgency to protect the practice from extinction before the Civil War all received new life from the rise of cotton and the economic, social, and culture growth spurt that accompanied its success.

      Americans were looking for an excuse to keep slavery alive and the rise of cotton gave them their reason.

    6. III. Cotton and Slavery
  21. Oct 2015
    1. “Any contemplation of compensated emancipation must grapple with how several counties, and some states in the South, would react to finding themselves suddenly outnumbered by free black people.”

      It's easy to imagine the white men being outnumbered by the amount of enslaved african americans.. now let's think about the white men's fear if suddenly all those african americans were set free..

  22. Sep 2015
    1. II. Slavery and the Making of Race

      Week 6 Video Lecture

      Study Questions for this section:

      What change occurs in the 1660s that dramatically affects the nature of slavery?

      What was the Middle Passage?

      How does the idea of race evolve with the evolution of slavery?

    1. First Hand Accounts Case Study

      Study Questions:

      How do these descriptions of the “Middle Passage” from slave narratives confirm your understanding of the previous readings of this week?

      How do these conditions lead to rebellion?

    1. When the Spaniards saw that some of these had escaped, they sent a ship to find them, and it voyaged for three years among the islands searching for those who had escaped being slaughtered

      Seems like a waste of time to be searching for them, but I can only think that they were viewed as valuable slaves.

    1. High mortality rates on sugar plantations required a steady influx of new slaves

      Were the slaves worked to death? Was the work grueling? What was it that caused the high mortality rate?

  23. Aug 2015
    1. coming.

      Study questions for this section:

      What roles do sugar and slavery play in the expansion of European empires?

      What diseases devastate Native American peoples?

  24. Feb 2014
    1. Its purpose was to give them, the lords and masters, the freedom to do as they pleased with their property, their servants and their slaves. Echoes of Magna Carta could be heard even in post-revolutionary America and they may resolve the puzzle of how, in the US, the loudest voices for liberty came from slave-owners.

      Wish I could remember ref now: apparently there's evidence that more capricious government officials meant less capricious slavemasters -- even random actions by capricious officials would sometimes protect slaves, while restrained officials never would.