161 Matching Annotations
  1. Feb 2024
  2. Jan 2024
  3. Nov 2023
  4. Oct 2023
    1. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shmita

      During shmita, the land is left to lie fallow and all agricultural activity, including plowing, planting, pruning and harvesting, is forbidden by halakha (Jewish law).

      The sabbath year (shmita; Hebrew: שמיטה, literally "release"), also called the sabbatical year or shǝvi'it (שביעית‎, literally "seventh"), or "Sabbath of The Land", is the seventh year of the seven-year agricultural cycle mandated by the Torah in the Land of Israel and is observed in Judaism.

    1. Independent family farming used to be much more common [1] [2] [3] [4] [5]. But continued enclosures and increased centralization throughout the food markets have made it more difficult for farmers to survive without growing big. “Get big or get out,” said Earl Butz, Richard Nixon’s Secretary of Agriculture in 1973.
      • for: big ag, smallholding farmers, democratic agriculture, democratizing agriculture, democratizing farming
  5. Sep 2023
      • for: futures - food production, futures - water production, desalination, ocean solar farm, floating solar farm, floating city
      • title: An interfacial solar evaporation enabled autonomous double-layered vertical floating solar sea farm
      • author: Pan Wu, Xuan We, Huimin Yu, Jingyuan Zhao, Yida Wang, Kewu Pi, Gary Owens, Haolan Xu
      • date: Oct. 1, 2023
      • source: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1385894723041839?via%3Dihub#f0005
      • comment
        • Since this simple design integrates fresh water and food production, it can be integrated as a module for a floating city.
  6. Aug 2023
    1. Die französischen Obstbauern müssen ihre Produktion an die globale Erhitzung anpassen. Im Süden werden zunehmend Mandeln, Pistazien und Cashewnüsse angebaut. Dabei muss verhindert werden, dass durch zu viel industrielle Landwirtschaft die Ökosysteme weiter geschädigt werden. Der Agroökonom Serge Zaka fordert ein stärkeres Engagement des Staats bei der Umstellung und weist darauf hin, dass jetzt Entscheidungen getroffen werden, die die "weltweite Geopolitik der Ernährung" 2050 bestimmen werden.


    1. fertiliser, the challenge is more real, but there is still an important and obvious first step – eat less meat. A large part of the world’s agricultural system is dedicated to growing crops and vegetables to feed animals, which we then eat. Reduce the last part of this equation (i.e. eat less meat), and the huge inefficiencies in the system mean far less fertiliser is required.
      • for: energy diet, energy fast, degrowth, agriculture emissions, food system emissions
  7. Jan 2023
    1. it really all does 00:06:53 trace back to the start of our what we call civilization our civilization meaning Agriculture and then settlements and cities so prior to that we lived in approximate equilibrium with ecosystems

      !- Original source of : polycrisis - According to Prof. Tom Murphy, the original source of our current polycrisis is our collective, human need for control and mastery of our environment starting with civilization building itself, - and has its roots over 10,000 years ago in the beginnings of agriculture

      !- Tom Murphy : Comment His thesis is aligned with the work of: - Glenn Albrecht & Gavin Van Horn: Replacing the Anthropocene with the Symbiocene https://hyp.is/go?url=https%3A%2F%2Fhumansandnature.org%2Fexiting-the-anthropocene-and-entering-the-symbiocene%2F&group=world - Buddhist scholar David Loy: On the Emptiness at the heart of the human being that cannot be filled by consumerism & materialism https://hyp.is/go?url=http%3A%2F%2Fdocdrop.org%2Fvideo%2F1Gq4HhUIDDk%2F&group=world - Korean / German philosopher Byung-Chul Han: The Burnout Society https://hyp.is/go?url=http%3A%2F%2Fdocdrop.org%2Fvideo%2FbNkDeUApreo%2F&group=world - Cognitive Scientist, Buddhist scholar Jay Garfield: Losing the Self: https://hyp.is/go?url=http%3A%2F%2Fdocdrop.org%2Fvideo%2FE5lW5XedNGU%2F&group=world

  8. Aug 2022
    1. The population of Egypt grew from nomads who settled along the fertile Nile banks and transformed Egypt into a sedentary, agricultural society by 4795 B.C. Farmers sowed and harvested crops during seasons around the flooding.
  9. Jul 2022
    1. Oil, by the way, is a key ingredient in food. This is something a lot of people don't understand. There's this thing called the haber bosh process, which basically creates all of the nitrogen and all of the fertilizer that is used to grow food.

      Oil is a component of fertilizer

      The effect is that the oil price become a component of the price of food.

    1. Yet there were still many traps along the way. In what is now Iraq, the Sumerian civilization (one of the world’s first) withered and died as the irrigation systems it invented turned the fields into salty desert. Some two thousand years later, in the Mediterranean basin, chronic soil erosion steadily undermined the Classical World: first the Greeks, then the Romans at the height of their power. And a few centuries after Rome’s fall, the Classic Maya, one of only two high civilizations to thrive in tropical rainforest (the other being the Khmer), eventually wore out nature’s welcome at the heart of Central America.

      Progress traps through history: * 1. Sumerian civilization (Iraq) irrigation system turned fields into salty desert * Greek and Roman empire - chronic soil erosion also eroded these empires * Classic Mayan empire may have collapsed due to the last 2 of 7 megadroughts because it was over-urbanized and used up all water sources, leaving no buffer in case of drought: https://news.harvard.edu/gazette/story/2020/02/new-clues-about-how-and-why-the-maya-culture-collapsed/

    2. Most survivors of that progress trap became farmers — a largely unconscious revolution during which all the staple foods we eat today were developed from wild roots and seeds (yes, all: no new staples have been produced from scratch since prehistoric times). Farming brought dense human populations and centralized control, the defining ingredients of full-blown civilization for the last five thousand years.

      As per the last comment above, Tel Aviv researchers surmise that the progressive extirpation of all the large prey fauna over the course of 1.5 million years forced society in the Southern Levant to innovate agriculture as a means of survival. Our early ancestors did not have accurate records that could reveal the trend of resource depletion so continued short term resource depletion in each of their respective lifetimes.

    3. The first trap was hunting, the main way of life for about two million years in Palaeolithic times. As Stone Age people perfected the art of hunting, they began to kill the game more quickly than it could breed. They lived high for a while, then starved.

      Anthropology and Archelogy findings support the idea that humans began laying progress traps as early as two million years ago. Our great success at socialization and communication that harnessed the power of collaboration resulted in wiping out entire species upon which we depended. Short term success leading to long term failure is a central pattern of progress traps.

      Anthropology and Archelogy findings support the idea that humans began laying progress traps as early as two million years ago. Our great success at socialization and communication that harnessed the power of collaboration resulted in wiping out entire species upon which we depended. Short term success leading to long term failure is a central pattern of progress traps.

      A remarkable paper from Tel Aviv researchers studying early hunters in the Southern Levant as early as 1.5 million years ago revealed that our ancestors in this part of the world were poor resource managers and over many generations, continually hunted large game to extinction, forcing descendants to hunt progressively smaller game.

      Annotation of the 2021 source paper is here: https://hyp.is/go?url=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.sciencedirect.com%2Fscience%2Farticle%2Fabs%2Fpii%2FS0277379121005230&group=world Annotation of a science news interview with the researchers here: https://hyp.is/go?url=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.sciencedaily.com%2Freleases%2F2021%2F12%2F211221102708.htm&group=world

      The researchers even surmise that the extinction of game animals by around 10,000 B.C. is what gave rise to agriculture itself!

    1. Dr. Ben-Dor: "Our findings enable us to propose a fascinating hypothesis on the development of humankind: humans always preferred to hunt the largest animals available in their environment, until these became very rare or extinct, forcing the prehistoric hunters to seek the next in size. As a result, to obtain the same amount of food, every human species appearing in the Southern Levant was compelled to hunt smaller animals than its predecessor, and consequently had to develop more advanced and effective technologies. Thus, for example, while spears were sufficient for Homo erectus to kill elephants at close range, modern humans developed the bow and arrow to kill fast-running gazelles from a distance." Prof. Barkai concludes: "We believe that our model is relevant to human cultures everywhere. Moreover, for the first time, we argue that the driving force behind the constant improvement in human technology is the continual decline in the size of game. Ultimately, it may well be that 10,000 years ago in the Southern Levant, animals became too small or too rare to provide humans with sufficient food, and this could be related to the advent of agriculture. In addition, we confirmed the hypothesis that the extinction of large animals was caused by humans -- who time and time again destroyed their own livelihood through overhunting. We may therefore conclude that humans have always ravaged their environment but were usually clever enough to find solutions for the problems they had created -- from the bow and arrow to the agricultural revolution. The environment, however, always paid a devastating price."

      This is a fascinating claim with far reaching consequences for modern humans dealing with the Anthropocene polycrisis.

      Technological development seems to have been related to our resource overshoot. As we extirpated the larger prey fauna which were slower moving and able to be successfully hunted with crude weapons, our ancestors were forced to hunt smaller and more agile species, requiring better hunting technologies.

      Agriculture could have been the only option left to our ancestors when there was insufficient species left to support society. This is the most salient sentence:

      "we confirmed the hypothesis that the extinction of large animals was caused by humans -- who time and time again destroyed their own livelihood through overhunting. We may therefore conclude that humans have always ravaged their environment but were usually clever enough to find solutions for the problems they had created"

      This is a disturbing finding as technology has allowed humanity to be the apex species of the planet and we are now depleting resources not on a local scale, but a global one. There is no planet B to move to once we have decimated the environment globally.

      Have we progressed ourselves into a corner? Are we able to culturally pivot and correct such an entrenched cultural behavior of resource mismanagement?

    2. In this way, according to the researchers, early humans repeatedly overhunted large animals to extinction (or until they became so rare that they disappeared from the archaeological record) and then went on to the next in size -- improving their hunting technologies to meet the new challenge. The researchers also claim that about 10,000 years ago, when animals larger than deer became extinct, humans began to domesticate plants and animals to supply their needs, and this may be why the agricultural revolution began in the Levant at precisely that time.

      This is an extraordinary claim, that due to extirpation of fauna prey species, we resorted to agriculture. In other words, that we hunted the largest prey, and when they went extinct, went after the next largest species until all the large megafauna became extinct. According to this claim, agriculture became a necessity due to our poor intergenerational resource management skills.

  10. May 2022
  11. Feb 2022
  12. Jan 2022
  13. Dec 2021
    1. Possibility of linking (Verweisungsmöglichkeiten). Since all papers have fixed numbers, you can add as many references to them as you may want. Central concepts can have many links which show on which other contexts we can find materials relevant for them.

      Continuing on the analogy between addresses for zettels/index cards and for people, the differing contexts for cards and ideas is similar to the multiple different publics in which people operate (home, work, school, church, etc.)

      Having these multiple publics creates a variety of cross links within various networks for people which makes their internal knowledge and relationships more valuable.

      As societies grow the number of potential interconnections grows as well. Compounding things the society doesn't grow as a homogeneous whole but smaller sub-groups appear creating new and different publics for each member of the society. This is sure to create a much larger and much more complex system. Perhaps it's part of the beneficial piece of the human limit of memory of inter-personal connections (the Dunbar number) means that instead of spending time linearly with those physically closest to us, we travel further out into other spheres and by doing so, we dramatically increase the complexity of our societies.

      Does this level of complexity change for oral societies in pre-agrarian contexts?

      What would this look like mathematically and combinatorially? How does this effect the size and complexity of the system?

      How can we connect this to Stuart Kauffman's ideas on complexity? (Picking up a single thread creates a network by itself...)

    2. It is impossible to think without writing; at least it is impossible in any sophisticated or networked (anschlußfähig) fashion.

      The sentiment that it is impossible to think without writing is patently wrong. While it's an excellent tool, it takes an overly textual perspective and completely ignores the value of orality an memory in prehistory.

      Modern culture has lost so many of our valuable cultural resources that we have completely forgotten that they even existed.

      Oral cultures certainly had networked thought, Luhmann and others simply can't imagine how it may have worked. We're also blinded by the imagined size of societies in pre-agricultural contexts. The size and scope of cities and city networks makes the history of writing have an outsized appearance.

      Further, we don't have solid records of these older netowrks, a major drawback of oral cultures which aren't properly maintained, but this doesn't mean that they didn not exist.

    1. most people trained in our subjects are aware of is the 00:28:22 phenomenon of slavery among non farming populations and actually the classic example is precisely that of the the indigenous societies of the Northwest Coast who are known to have kept slaves 00:28:36 who were actually hereditary slaves in their households which were organized on these highly stratified aristocratic sort of lines what nobody seems to have 00:28:48 been interested up to now is why this practice of keeping slaves seems to sort of fizzle out and stop as you head south into what is now broadly speaking the 00:29:00 area of coastal California

      How many non-agricultural societies practiced slavery?

      Apparently some indigenous societies on the American Northwest Coast did down into coastal California.

    1. For Diamond and Fukuyama, as for Rousseau some centuriesearlier, what put an end to that equality – everywhere and forever –

      was the invention of agriculture, and the higher population levels it sustained.

      Graeber and Wengrow argue that many political theorists since Rousseau attribute the end of human equality to the rise of agriculture.

    1. OK, maybe the road was longer and more tortuous than the traditional narrative suggests, but didn’t all humans end up embracing agriculture, and a form of social life characterised by hierarchy and inequality with it, eventually?

      Another good question to look for clues in the text.

    2. This post is mainly about the book’s attempt to dismantle the myth of “agriculture as the source of social inequality.” The next post will be about Graeber’s and Wengrow’s startling claim that European Enlightenment can be seen, to a large extent, as the result of a conversation with Indigenous, non-western intellectuals and societies – indeed, as inspired by them.

      David Graeber and David Wengrow's book can be seen as having two broad arguments:

      1. Dismantling the myth of "agriculture as the source of social inequality"
      2. The Eurpoean Englightenment can be seen as being inspired by conversations with Indigenous, non-Western intellectuals and societies.

      Open question: Were we englightened only just a little bit, but not enough? How do we get the other part of the transmitted package?

  14. Nov 2021
    1. e.g. Idea from Yuval Harari’s Sapiens that Europe and Asia developed better civilisation than Americas because Americas span vertically lot of climates making it harder to share agriculture progress between different climates.

      Apparently Yuval Harari didn't footnote very well as this idea is directly from Jared Diamond's Guns, Germs, and Steel which predated Harari's book.

  15. Oct 2021
    1. Shiva exposes the 1%’s model of philanthrocapitalism, which is about deploying unaccountable money to bypass democratic structures, derail diversity, and impose totalitarian ideas based on One Science, One Agriculture, and One History.

      The same topic is covered by Anand Giridharadas in Winners Take All and by Amy Westervelt in her podcast Drilled exploring the history of public relations.

      We had the privilege of interacting with Vandana Shiva in the Trimtab Space Camp course, focused on regenerative agriculture, offered by the Buckminster Fuller Institute.

      Vandana Shiva, a world-renowned environmental thinker, activist, feminist, philosopher of science, writer, and science policy advocate, is the founder of Navdanya Research Foundation for Science, Technology, and Ecology in India and President of Navdanya International.

      The recipient of many awards, including the Right Livelihood Award, (the ‘Alternative Nobel Prize’) and the Sydney Peace Prize, she has been named among the top five “Most Important People in Asia” by AsiaWeek.

      She is a prolific writer and author of numerous books and serves on the board of the International Forum on Globalization, and a member of the executive committee of the World Future Council.

    1. Holistic Management of grasslands can result in the regeneration of soils, increased productivity and biological diversity, as well as economic and social well-being.
    1. The Brooksdale Environmental Centre is a place of transformation.

      Margaret Atwood & Leah Kostamo at the Green Gala

      Leah Kostamo (co-founder of A Rocha Canada & author of Planted) interviews Magaret Atwood about her latest MaddAddam Trilogy & her concern for the environment.

    1. Don’t Mow, Grow!

      “The Earthwise Don’t Mow, Grow! program utilizes the Society’s vast experience in organic growing and small-scale farming to transform lawns of any size into eco-friendly, organic food-growing spaces. By partnering with local residents to help them grow food at home, Earthwise replaces resource-hungry lawns with food gardens that will benefit both community and the environment.”

    2. Earthwise Society is a not-for-profit, charitable organization cultivating sustainable communities through environmental education and stewardship.

      I learned about this project through my mother, who is growing vegetables in her backyard with the help of the Earthwise Society in Tsawwassen.

  16. Sep 2021
  17. Jul 2021
    1. Anne: What did your dad do when he was working in Utah?Juan: From what my dad told me is, initially, he worked in a farm… I think it was strawberries, something to do with fruit. He would pick them out, but I think he was there for a year, a year and a half, he saw that he wasn't making much money so he started to get into the construction industry. That's where he was able to save up money so we can go with him, and after that, he's always been in the construction industry.

      Time in the US, Homelife, Parents, Jobs, Construction

  18. May 2021
  19. Jan 2021
    1. The Vertical Field setup retains many of the advantages of hydroponic vertical farms, but instead of the plants growing in a nutrient-packed liquid medium, the container-based pods treat their crops to real soil, supplemented by a proprietary mix of minerals and nutrients. The company says that it opted for geoponic production "because we found that it has far richer flavor, color, and quality."

      A richer and tastier alternative to hydroponics

  20. Dec 2020
  21. Oct 2020
    1. el Distrito tiene identificadas 432 huertas urbanas en la ciudad, que en patios, terrazas, jardines, balcones y el espacio público han tenido cabida, tras procesos comunitarios, y se han fortalecido a tal punto que su producción es comercializable.
  22. Aug 2020
  23. Jul 2020
  24. Jun 2020
  25. May 2020
    1. Kalau pembangunan ekonomi Bali dilaksanakan melalui pembangunan sektor sekunder, maka ‘’kaki’’ ekonomi Bali akan lebih kokoh. Maka, kalau sektor tersier (pariwisata) di Bali kolaps, pengaruhnya akan dapat ditopang oleh sektor primer dan sektor sekunder dengan sepadan.
    2. Selain itu, menurut Windia, pertanian yang perlu dilakukan tidak berhenti hanya menghasilkan produk untuk dijual mentah. Hasil pertanian mestinya diolah melalui proses produksi melalui industi pascapanen. Ini berarti Bali harus mengembangkan sektor sekunder berupa industri pengolahan.
    3. Normalnya, ekonomi bergerak dari sektor primer yakni pertanian ke sektor sekunder (industri pengolahan) baru ke sektor tersier (jasa, dalam konteks Bali adalah pariwisata). Pariwisata itu, kata Windia, sangat rapuh (fragile).
    4. Bali mulai dimanjakan oleh pariwisata, karena transformasi ekonomi Bali yang terlalu kencang. “Tiba-tiba saja melompat dari sektor primer ke sektor tersier. Sumbangannya pada PDRB Bali tiba-tiba saja melompat menjadi lebih dari 70 persen, dalam 25-30 tahun terakhir,”
    5. Guru Besar Fakultas Pertanian Unud Prof. Dr. I Wayan Windia mengatakan, Bali sangat mungkin tetap tangguh tanpa pariwisata karena sebelumnya sangat kuat pertaniannya. “Tiga puluh tahun lalu, 70 persen ekonomi Bali dipengaruhi oleh pertanian,”
  26. Apr 2020
  27. Feb 2020
    1. It can be easier to apply for farm subsidies than it is to get SNAP benefits, said Joel Berg, a former official with the Department of Agriculture, the agency that administers both programs.
  28. Nov 2019
  29. Oct 2019
  30. s3.us-west-2.amazonaws.com s3.us-west-2.amazonaws.com
    1. incipallyagriculturaltools,asanequivalent.Theypreferringprovisions,Mt_EgavethemaBarrelofFlourandsomethinginadditio

      Ojibwe prefer provisions

    2. hefollowingarethereasonsforcontinuingFond.duLa

      Reasons for staying at Fond du Lac

      • property
      • agriculture
      • school
      • less Catholicism than in past
    3. ncreoeverhereare5familiessettledbyuschemwe5333helpinagricultur

      Ayer argues that Pokegoma deserves a higher ration of money because they have more missionaries and more natives that need help with agriculture

    4. hysicalAspectofthegounu'y.Thisplace&theimmediateVicinityoffersveryfewinducementtoAgriculralists.Smallspotsofexcellentalluviallandaretobefoundhere,butnotsufnienttolocateanynumberoffamilies.Thereisgoodlandalso—a[t]variousdistncesintheVicinity.ASIhavetraveledverylittleinthesurroundingcountry,it'11notbeexpectedofmetoattemptadescriptio

      the land is good for several people to farm, but not for whole communities

    5. theywerenotunderthenecessityoftakingtheirfamilieswiththemtosubsistupontheChaseastheyfor-merlyhaddon

      because of an increase in long term agriculture, men spending fall and winter hunting is not necessary, but done almost out of habit according to Ayer

    1. Perhaps we ultimately need to be prepared to accept less standardised and slightly more expensive food in order to accommodate less intense and more diverse agriculture. You might never be quite sure what to expect when you peeled a banana, but the result could be a more robust and sustainable food system without a major crisis every few decades.
    1. heythereforelookedtotheirfarmertoplowforthem&nngnishseedatotheheaohertheylookedtoinstructtheirohildxen;ThisisthepresentpositionofthingsatPokegana—-peacezgragrtheyassuxedustheywoulddome,fortifythamselvea&plantm

      promise of 30-40 Native families at Pokegoma in the Spring



  31. Sep 2019
    1. OneweaidedinputtingupaloghousethisFall.Anotheriscommenced,andtwoorthreeotherswishtobuildassoonaswecanaidthe

      Natives are beginning to move into and around Pokegoma and build houses and farms



  32. Aug 2019
    1. hiscircumstancehastendedtoremovethemfromthetimebeingfromourintercourse&innuenc

      agricultural failures forced the Ojibwe to travel to deer land for food, so they are removed from the influence of the missionaries during the winter



    1. twillbeimpossible,atleastsofarasIcansee,tosustainasmallschooleven,withoutfeediecthechil.tosomeextent.IftheInds.zenhe‘nduoedbyexample&otherhelps,suchasEecd&preparingtheground,tocultivutcmorelargely,theyyould,Ihavenodoubtfurnishprovisionsfortheirohil.inp

      the school will have to feed children regardless, but parents can contribute more if they settle down and cultivate land



    1. sdesirousofaschoolatornearhisgoat,&lof£er§<$odéVall,inhispowertoaidinoaae.apersonissenthere

      Schoolcraft wants a school in this area and will work with Boutwell to make it happen (at Red Lake over Sandy Lake because of the land is better at Red Lake)

    2. lielandimmediatelyaboutthePostisforthemootpartlge,butofathemouthofaconsiderableetreamtogoodquality.Thecorn,peaspotatoeslook~wel3&squgheoalllook3e11,altoasmallyardoftobacco

      small farm near Trading Port

    3. dqrh.ismostlyobtainedatRedLakefromthelads.whotherecultivateittoconsiderableextent.

      some sort of food is obtained at Red Lake from the Natives there (I can't read what it is)

    4. HehasIamtolnrising[1}30headofhornedcattle,threehorses&15swine.Hehasfrom15to80acresoflandenclosed&underiprovement.Hecultivatespotatoesbarley&posse.Iamtoldheraised6or700buuhelaofpotatoeslastseason.Hisfieldsnotpromiseagoodcroporpotatoes.Hisgroundwhichhesowedwithpasse&barleyarenotflooded&thecrapmostlydestroyed.Hedependswhollyuponwildheyforhisstockinthewinter,&whichhemayetherhereinalmostanyquantit

      description of Mr. A's land/house, out of which he conducts trade and grows his own food

    5. he.principalpartofthebandarenotabsent,someattheirfishingeothersattheirhuntinggroun

      The majority of this Native band is either hunting or fishing

    6. hispost133oncetheheadquartersof.hatiscalledthe“onduLac;opurtment.MrMorisonthanconotedtheInd,trdointhisDepartment&madethisplaoohishomeforsomeyearsprevioustohisleavingtheind.country.Thebuildingsarenewinamiserablestutu,consistoftwodwollinghouses,onefortheclerk&theotherforthomen,a-zmlllstable,&alargestorehouaeforgoodq&furs.Allrrubuiltoflogs&coveredwithcedarbark.‘r‘orisonenclosedaboutisor30auraswhichheimproved,inraisingcorn,potatoes&othervegetables.The3011larioh%easyofcultivation.11dhayinanyquantitynaybeobtainedfromtheprairiebanksofthet.Louis.Kr.H.Iamtoldkeptalargestockofcattle.HrCote,aFrenchman,13thenrosontclerk.

      Mr. S comes to what was once Fon du Lao department where a Mr. Morison conducted trade with the Natives. it is now run down and run by Mr. Cote, a French man. The land is still good for agriculture.

  33. Jul 2019
    1. Onabluffaf’vyard;:3ourr1ht19asmallplatofroundwhichtheInds.h&v6plunntiwithpobtbosawhichaiojuqtmakingnheirappearancefromtherrmmd

      Natives planted potatoes which are now sprouting



  34. Jun 2019
    1. The value of organic imports during Jan.-Aug. was up 25 percent compared to the same period in 2016, the trade data showed, while the value of organic exports during the first eight months was up 14 percent. Last year, the U.S. organic products trade deficit hit nearly $1.2 billion, its highest level ever, with U.S. organic imports reaching $1.7 billion, while U.S. organic exports came in at $547.6 million. Check out the Top 10 U.S. organic imported and exported commodities for 2016.
    1. , demand for organic food is growing so fast that consumer demand is outstripping some domestic supplies. Once a net exporter of organic products, the United States now spends more than $1 billion a year to import organic food, according to the USDA, and the ratio of imported to exported products is now about 8-to-1.
    1. heoats,barloypeas&potatoeslookwell&ffordtheromioef1goodcrop.Earthofi£:§;e§r.hasplantedasmallpieceofcornforanexperiment.Idoubtzhother-it,illcometomuch.Thegroundwasnotwellprepared.Ithinkhoweverthesoil,which131mixtureofrodclayesand,ifwellmanurcd,canbemadetoproducecorn.Thegrazeiszuffoxingmuchfortherentofr.in.thinduatry&econ—omyIamsatixfiedthatmost,ifnot111,ofthevegetablesnecessaryforthesupportofafamily,canberaisedhere

      the writers notes how the cropland of Mr. W - with some "industry and economy" can be made to sustain a small mission family

    2. isonthisrivarabout3ms.fromthemouthofwhichtththeInds.tolongin‘toth.LaPointband,maketheirgarden
    3. PlacedbytheGovernmentasanAgenttothispeople,theiradvancementinthescaleofmoral&accountablebeings,istome,anobjectofhighimportance.AndIknownotwhatcouldhavesodirectaninnuenceinraisingthemtothedignityoflife,astheintroductionofChristianity[sic].Iamquitesatisnedthattheirpolitical,mustresultfromtheirmoralmelioration.Andthatallourattemptsinthewayofagriculture,schooling&themechanicarts,areliabletomiscarry&producenopermanentgood,unlesstheIndianmindcanbepurinedbygospeltruth,andcleansedfromthebesettingsinofabeliefinmagic,&fromidolatry&spirit-worship

      the only way to improve all aspects of Native life (agriculture and politics mentioned) is to Christianize them calls their current practices "the besetting sin of the belief in magic" and "idolatry & spirit-worship"

  35. Apr 2019
  36. Aug 2018
    1. David Dudenhoefer is a Lima-based freelance journalist and communications consultant who specializes in agriculture, forests, indigenous issues and the environment.

      Writer with a focus on agriculture and indigenous issues.

    2. millions of the country’s smallholders have missed out on that prosperity

      Growth in agribusiness not extending to smaller, Andean region famers.

    1. the same 15 crops that accounted for 85 percent of total harvested area in 1994 continued to account for approximately the same share of total harvested area in 2012

      15 crops account for 85% of harvested area

  37. Jul 2018
  38. Jun 2018
  39. ktakahata.github.io ktakahata.github.io
    1. coppers
    2. thy hoes The deep trough sink, and ridge alternate raise: If this from washes guard thy gemmy tops; [260] And that arrest the moisture these require.
  40. ktakahata.github.io ktakahata.github.io
    1. That yams improve the soil.
    2. With weeds, mould, dung, and stale, a compost form, Of force to fertilize the poorest soil.