100 Matching Annotations
  1. Last 7 days
    1. "Most of the structuring forms I'll show you stem from the simple capability of being able to establish arbitrary linkages between different substructures, and of directing the computer subsequently to display a set of linked substructures with any relative positioning we might designate among the different substructures. You can designate as many different kinds of links as you wish, so that you can specify different display or manipulative treatment for the different types."
    2. "You usually think of an argument as a serial sequence of steps of reason, beginning with known facts, assumptions, etc., and progressing toward a conclusion. Well, we do have to think through these steps serially, and we usually do list the steps serially when we write them out because that is pretty much the way our papers and books have to present them—they are pretty limiting in the symbol structuring they enable us to use. Have you even seen a 'scrambled-text' programmed instruction book? That is an interesting example of a deviation from straight serial presentation of steps.3b6b "Conceptually speaking, however, an argument is not a serial affair. It is sequential, I grant you, because some statements have to follow others, but this doesn't imply that its nature is necessarily serial. We usually string Statement B after Statement A, with Statements C, D, E, F, and so on following in that order—this is a serial structuring of our symbols. Perhaps each statement logically followed from all those which preceded it on the serial list, and if so, then the conceptual structuring would also be serial in nature, and it would be nicely matched for us by the symbol structuring.3b6c "But a more typical case might find A to be an independent statement, B dependent upon A, C and D independent, E depending upon D and B, E dependent upon C, and F dependent upon A, D, and E. See, sequential but not serial? A conceptual network but not a conceptual chain. The old paper and pencil methods of manipulating symbols just weren't very adaptable to making and using symbol structures to match the ways we make and use conceptual structures. With the new symbol-manipulating methods here, we have terrific flexibility for matching the two, and boy, it really pays off in the way you can tie into your work.3b6d This makes you recall dimly the generalizations you had heard previously about process structuring limiting symbol structuring, symbol structuring limiting concept structuring, and concept structuring limiting mental structuring.
  2. Nov 2019
    1. HGT typically adds new catabolic routes to microbial metabolic networks. This increases the chance of new metabolic interactions between bacteria
  3. Jul 2019
    1. Compared with neural networks configured by a pure grid search,we find that random search over the same domain is able to find models that are as good or betterwithin a small fraction of the computation time.
  4. Jun 2019
    1. Throughout the past two decades, he has been conducting research in the fields of psychology of learning and hybrid neural network (in particular, applying these models to research on human skill acquisition). Specifically, he has worked on the integrated effect of "top-down" and "bottom-up" learning in human skill acquisition,[1][2] in a variety of task domains, for example, navigation tasks,[3] reasoning tasks, and implicit learning tasks.[4] This inclusion of bottom-up learning processes has been revolutionary in cognitive psychology, because most previous models of learning had focused exclusively on top-down learning (whereas human learning clearly happens in both directions). This research has culminated with the development of an integrated cognitive architecture that can be used to provide a qualitative and quantitative explanation of empirical psychological learning data. The model, CLARION, is a hybrid neural network that can be used to simulate problem solving and social interactions as well. More importantly, CLARION was the first psychological model that proposed an explanation for the "bottom-up learning" mechanisms present in human skill acquisition: His numerous papers on the subject have brought attention to this neglected area in cognitive psychology.
    1. However, this doesn’t mean that Min-Max scaling is not useful at all! A popular application is image processing, where pixel intensities have to be normalized to fit within a certain range (i.e., 0 to 255 for the RGB color range). Also, typical neural network algorithm require data that on a 0-1 scale.

      Use min-max scaling for image processing & neural networks.

    1. That is to say: if the problem has not been the centralized, corporatized control of the individual voice, the individual’s data, but rather a deeper failure of sociality that precedes that control, then merely reclaiming ownership of our voices and our data isn’t enough. If the goal is creating more authentic, more productive forms of online sociality, we need to rethink our platforms, the ways they function, and our relationships to them from the ground up. It’s not just a matter of functionality, or privacy controls, or even of business models. It’s a matter of governance.
  5. Apr 2019
    1. Most of these near clones have and will fail. The reason that matching the basic proof of work hurdle of an Status as a Service incumbent fails is that it generally duplicates the status game that already exists. By definition, if the proof of work is the same, you're not really creating a new status ladder game, and so there isn't a real compelling reason to switch when the new network really has no one in it.

      This presumes that status is the only reason why people would join such a network. It also underlines the fact that the platform needs to be easy and simple to use, otherwise no one enters it and uses it as the tool first before the network exists.

  6. Mar 2019
  7. Feb 2019
    1. y, these occurrences –which 38arguablycan be considered the norm rather than the exception in related taxa –may 39provide useful evidence of relatednes

      This is very true.

      And one reason more why especially palaeontologists should stop ignoring distance-based networks (following the Farris'ian Dogma that "distance = phenetic", but see Felsenstein, 2004, Inferring Phylogenies) as a tool to explore the non-trivial signal in their data sets — some application examples posted at the Genealogical World of Phylogenetic Networks; see also Denk & Grimm, Rev. Pal. Pal. 2009, Bomfleur et al., BMC Evol. Biol. 2015, —, PeerJ, 2017. Even in the absence of reticulation, evolving morphologies do not provide tree-like signal, because synapomorphies, characters fully compatible with the true tree, are rare, homoiologies common, and convergences, characters incompatible with the true tree, inevitable.

      The less tree-like the signal and the more different the individual probabilities for change, the more misleading or ambiguous will be the parsimony tree reconstruction. Neighbour-nets may appear to be crude tools, but are quick-to-infer, designed to handle data incompatibility. Consensus networks are, in any possible aspect, more informative than a strict or majority rule consensus tree.

      Instead of trying to decide between equally and inevitable biased trees, we can just explore our data, using networks. See pic, depicting all potential synapomorphies, bold, symplesiomorphies, italics, and homoiologies that can be inferred directly from the crocodilian morphomatrix. Naturally including pseudo-synapomorphies (red) when compared to the provided molecular tree.

      PS That the way out of the dilemma is to embrace networks has been realised very early in evolutionary sciences (long before Hennig and Farris).

      Pic3

    1. “the true benefit of the academy is the interaction, the accessto the debate, to the negotiation of knowledge—not to the stale cataloging of content

      Once this particular light goes on in one's head, it may be impossible to turn it off. Yet we still need the so-called "stale" cataloging of content. We need foundational knowledge. Perhaps the academy has just made its function (again) more visible under connectivism? And we are in a creative tension of sorts with knowledge cataloging as an end in itself?

  8. Jan 2019
    1. Finally, a maincontribution of this research lies in the examination of the solicitation of expertise in a digitally-connected world, where widely distributed and diverse expertise must nevertheless be realized under highly localized conditions.

      Evokes crowdsourcing/peer production literature on expertise (Majchrzak et al, Faraj et al, Benkler et al, Kittur,et al.)

  9. Dec 2018
    1. Newport is an academic — he makes his primary living teaching computer science at a university, so he already has a built-in network and a self-contained world with clear moves towards achievement.

      This is one of the key reasons people look to social media--for the connections and the network they don't have via non-digital means. Most of the people I've seen with large blogs or well-traveled websites have simply done a much better job of connecting and interacting with their audience and personal networks. To a great extent this is because they've built up a large email list to send people content directly. Those people then read their material and comment on their blogs.

      This is something the IndieWeb can help people work toward in a better fashion, particularly with better independent functioning feed readers.

    1. It is based on reciprocity and a level of trust that each party is actively seeking value-added information for the other.

      Seems like this is a critical assumption to examine for current media literacy/misinformation discussions. As networks become very large and very flat, does this assumption of reciprocity and good faith hold? (I'm thinking, here, of people whose expertise I trust in one domain but perhaps not in another, or the fact that sometimes I'm talking to one part of my network and not really "actively seeking information" for other parts.)

    1. feed-forward network (also known as a multilayer perceptron)

      In the network, each layer has variety of cells, which connect to next layers cells.

  10. Nov 2018
    1. At Clark, we established networked communities to help professors from different disciplines share innovative pedagogies and ideas for leading student work on group projects.

      Specifically how is "networked communities" being used in this context? "Networked" how (technically, practically, and organizationally)?

  11. Oct 2018
    1. Do neural networks dream of semantics?

      Neural networks in visual analysis, linguistics Knowledge graph applications

      1. Data integration,
      2. Visualization
      3. Exploratory search
      4. Question answering

      Future goals: neuro-symbolic integration (symbolic reasoning and machine learning)

  12. Aug 2018
    1. To start you thinking, here’s a quote from lead educator Jean Burgess. Jean considers how Twitter has changed since 2006 and reflects on her own use of the platform in the context of changing patterns of use. In response to the suggestion that Twitter is a dying social media platform, Jean states that: the narratives of decline around the place at the moment […] have to do with a certain loss of sociability. And to those of us for whom Twitter’s pleasures were as much to do with ambient intimacy, personal connections and play as they were to do with professional success theatre, celebrity and breaking news, this is a real, felt loss: sociability matters.
    1. Historically,researchers in diverse fields such as communication, sociology, law, and eco-nomics have argued that effective human systems organize people through acombination of hierarchical structures (e.g., bureaucracies), completely dis-tributed coordination mechanisms (e.g., markets), and social institutions ofvarious kinds (e.g., cultural norms). However, the rise of networked systemsand online platforms for collective intelligence has upended many of the as-sumptions and findings from this earlier research.

      Benkler argues that the process, motives, and cultural norms of online network-driven knowledge work are different than systems previously studied and should be re-evaluated.

    1. the internet may not be the most effective means of bringing work to an audience, particularly if you don’t already have some sort of access to an audience that will allow your work to be discovered

      Traditional scholarly publishing has a huge benefit of momentum - everyone is already there.

    1. cyberinfrastructure is something more specific thanthe network itself, but it is something more general than a tool or a resource developed for a particular proj-ect, a range of projects, or, even more broadly, for a particular discipline.

      Mentioned in the video https://youtu.be/lelmXaSibrc?t=17m35s

  13. Jul 2018
    1. Then I used Gephi, another free data analysis tool, to visualize the data as an entity-relationship graph. The coloured circles—called Nodes—represent Twitter accounts, and the intersecting lines—known as Edges—refer to Follow/Follower connections between accounts. The accounts are grouped into colour-coded community clusters based on the Modularity algorithm, which detects tightly interconnected groups. The size of each node is based on the number of connections that account has with others in the network.
    2. Using the open-source NodeXL tool, I collected and imported a complete list of accounts tweeting that exact phrase into a spreadsheet. From that list, I also gathered and imported an extended community of Twitter users, comprised of the friends and followers of each account. It was going to be an interesting test: if the slurs against Nemtsov were just a minor case of rumour-spreading, they probably wouldn't be coming from more than a few dozen users.
    1. The New Yorker’s Sasha Frere-Jones called Twitter a “self-cleaning oven,” suggesting that false information could be flagged and self-corrected almost immediately. We no longer had to wait 24 hours for a newspaper to issue a correction.
    1. Dissemination MechanismsFinally, we need to think about how this content is being disseminated. Some of it is being shared unwittingly by people on social media, clicking retweet without checking. Some of it is being amplified by journalists who are now under more pressure than ever to try and make sense and accurately report information emerging on the social web in real time. Some of it is being pushed out by loosely connected groups who are deliberately attempting to influence public opinion, and some of it is being disseminated as part of sophisticated disinformation campaigns, through bot networks and troll factories.
    1. The team found that the number of friends that pairs of individual have in common is strongly correlated with the strength of the tie between them, as measured in other ways. That’s regardless of whether people are linked by mobile-phone records or by social ties in rural Indian villages.
  14. Nov 2017
    1. Rather than framing everything at the course level, we should be deploying these technologies for the individual.26

      Obvious question: what about groups, communities, networks, and other supra-individual entities apart from the course/cohort model?

    1. As they stand, and especially with algorithmic reinforcement, “reactions” and “likes” are like megaphones for echo chambers and news outrage.

      This is something that's been nagging at me for the last couple of weeks.

      Does it all matter? Does that tweet, share, thumbs up, like really matter at all? If you/we/I share out of tweet of support, outrage, or indifference, does it really matter on the grand scale.

      Yes, I might have some likeminded individuals value it, read it, use it, share it. But, ultimately aren't we really just shouting into the echo chambers that have been built up for us thanks to these algorithms and networks? We're preaching to the choir.

      I'd like to think that open can/will combat this...but unsure.

      I think this is a post for Hybrid Ped or elsewhere. Lemme know if this resonates with anyone and you want to write it out.

  15. Oct 2017
    1. Another significant finding is that efforts of the membersof religious networks—in spite of their relatively closedcharacteristics—in terms of being at the center of a net-work and taking the brokerage role are, contrary to theliterature, highly developed

      This is an important finding that can help researchers better understand how this and similar religious networks operate.

    1. health-minded individuals discuss health problems with their peers and seek support fromexperts

      Absolutely. There are hardly any topics that are not discussed on the Twitter. The networks are created when the like-minded twitter users retweet each other’s tweets, creating a unique social network.

    1. addictive behavior

      I think this week's readings by Yang et al were really helpful in understanding how addictive behavior can spread through the network. A study by Cohen and Lemay (2007) suggested that there is a link between having less diverse social networks and getting influenced into drinking and smoking. It will be really interesting to see the results of this study. Especially, how the network dynamics might change since this is a egocentric network.

  16. Sep 2017
    1. mphasize its normative, shared,inter-generationally transmitted characteristics rather than itsheterogeneity, emergence, and practical application.

      I wonder about weak vs strong ties. This strikes me as a difference, i.e. heterogeneity. I also wonder about knowledge network analysis...maybe this is about how knowledge travels.

    1. ccording to this blog,

      When I read this blog, I thought about how knowledge comes to mature academics. When we are junior, we spend a great deal of time reading the specifics of articles and texts. Do we do the same as senior academics? Or does knowledge come to us via our networks? We talk to people at conferences or exchange ideas via email or other digital means? Just wondering if knowledge networks change over the life course of an academic?

    1. how they influence our lives, and how individual behavior is shaped by these networks.

      Networks are what sociologists talk about all the time but our methods don't fully 'see' them. We find relationships between variables--i.e. race and class--and then discuss how this relationship is due to social forces. Networks are the way in which social forces exert power!

    1. t is possible to identify a wide variety of actors who have contributed to ashift towards, and/or reproduced, academic capitalism:

      Each of these could be a network. You could compare the networks to see if they are structured differently as a way of trying to understand who is most responsible for the push towards Academic Capitalism.

    1. networks are everywhere,

      I think this is why they are hard to analyze...it is like trying to see and understand air. It is everywhere so it feels so normal and invisible. Networks, particularly human networks are the same. Humans have always been embedded in networks; we live, thrive and die in networks. They are another form of 'air'. The difference is that today, social media has made them more visible. We can now see them and analyze them in new ways. Hence, why this class is online :-)

    1. new framework for understanding issues ranging from democracy on the web to the vulnerability of the internet and the spread of deadly viruses

      Sometimes this new framework feels a bit overwhelming to me because it asks me to 'see' the world differently. I am use to seeing through discreet categories containing individuals; i.e. race, class and gender. SNA is asking me to see it through interconnections and links--the stuff behind the categories. Sometimes it feels like I am being asked to see 'air'; I know it is there, but it is all around me--ubiquitous--which makes it harder, and more intellectually challenging, to see.

  17. Aug 2017
    1. This is a very easy paper to follow, but it looks like their methodology is a simple way to improve performance on limited data. I'm curious how well this is reproduced elsewhere.

    1. The takeaway is that you should not be using smaller networks because you are afraid of overfitting. Instead, you should use as big of a neural network as your computational budget allows, and use other regularization techniques to control overfitting

      What about the rule of thumb stating that you should have roughly 5-10 times as many data points as weights in order to not overfit?

  18. May 2017
    1. Rather than selecting a single organization to lead the network, consider a spoke-and-hub or constellation model that empowers teams of organizations to act as “network hubs” for different sectors of the network. The best candidates for these hubs are intermediary organizations that act in the best interests of the network, allowing other network members to focus on their core mission and programmatic activities. Hub organizations play several roles. As conveners, they bring people together and build the field. As catalysts, they invest money and resources to get new ideas off the ground or help exciting projects to develop. As communicators, hub organizations enhance networks members’ ability to tell their story effectively and efficiently, internally and externally. As champions, hubs lift up the accomplishments of network actors, regionally, nationally, and internationally. And, as coordinators, hub organizations connect the dots, recommend priorities for the network, and connect those priorities to national resources.

      This could describe BCcampus - a hub organization that connects networks

  19. Apr 2017
    1. connects

      The description of iLife seems to echo the point made by Charles Taylor (as qtd. by Rickert): "Webs and networks can no more exist without me than can I without them."

    1. networkculture.Everythingusesandisused,andthereisnoclearboundarybetweentheoneandtheother.

      Re: my microresponse from 3/11 regarding Perelman, Burke, networks, community, and social fabric

    1. If we write that out as equations, we get:

      It would be easier to understand what are x and y and W here if the actual numbers were used, like 784, 10, 55000, etc. In this simple example there are 3 x and 3 y, which is misleading. In reality there are 784 x elements (for each pixel) and 55,000 such x arrays and only 10 y elements (for each digit) and then 55,000 of them.

  20. Mar 2017
    1. I have a lot of questions about whether any of the web-based tools we are using actually fit the mold of System A. I don’t often feel those spaces as convivial and natural. Behind the artifice of interface lay the reality of code. Is that structure humane? Is it open, sustainable, and regenerative? Does it feel good? Does the whole idea behind code generate System A or System B? I really don’t know.

      This is a really good key question..

    1. Then it was Maha's Birthday, why don't we sing 'Happy Birthday' I thought, - well why not?

      Distant Presence Friends

    2. during the week we had students reading my blog, seeing their snow hat from last winter being commented on by people all around the world and retweeted by Rihanna (a robot - I kept that quiet not to spoil the effect) on Twitter.

      Modeling reflective practice.

      Narrative connected

    3. First day in class, we had students chatting with a friend of mine working on a Ski Resort in Australia,

      Porous walls. Hybridization. Change narrative

    1. I met with my friend Marcin Kleban. After a twenty minute discussion we started a project of 40 language teachers and learners, he trusted me.. I met with my friend Blaise Ngandeu, I was able to learn about Nexus Analysis from my friend Maritta Riekki.

      connections attachment identification

    2. I wrote about this experience here in Swings and Roundabouts.

      Learning the power of open.

    1. So with social networking graphs, we will be able to get a better view on connections and their movement in the #rhizo14 constellation.

      Different methodology for research.

  21. Jan 2017
  22. Nov 2016
    1. Softmax分类器所做的就是最小化在估计分类概率(就是 Li=efyi/∑jefjLi=efyi/∑jefjL_i =e^{f_{y_i}}/\sum_je^{f_j})和“真实”分布之间的交叉熵.

      而这样的好处,就是如果样本误分的话,就会有一个非常大的梯度。而如果使用逻辑回归误分的越严重,算法收敛越慢。比如,\(t_i=1\) 而 \(y_i=0.0000001\),cost function 为 \(E=\frac{1}{2}(t-y)^2\) 那么,\(\frac{dE}{dw_i}=-(t-y)y(1-y)x_i\).

  23. Sep 2016
    1. A network perspective not only lays bare the various stakeholders with a vested social, economic, and political interest in what happens within schools and colleges, but also the ways agency for what happens within classrooms at my institution extends beyond the students and educators charged with constructing learning.

      Useful approach (reminiscent of ANT), especially if paired with a community-based approach.

  24. Jul 2016
    1. Page 158

      George Barnett, Edward think, and Mary Beth debus constructed a mathematical model of citation age to test this ordering using large data sets from each of the science citation index, social sciences citation index, and arts and humanities citation index published by the isi. In each of these three sets, the citation age of an average article reaches its peak in less than two years, with the Arts and Humanities peeking soonest parentheses 1.164 years close parentheses comma and the social sciences speaking latest parentheses 1.752 years close parentheses, contrary to expectations. The maximum proportion of citations did have the predicted ordering, with science the highest, and the Arts and Humanities the lowest. While the models presume that citation rates were stable over time a close examination of the data revealed that citation for article increase substantially over the time period of the study parentheses in science, from 12.14 per article in 1961 to 16 in 1986 God semi colon in the social sciences, from 7.07 in 1970 to 15.6 in 1986 semi colon no Citation for article data were given for the Arts and Humanities close parentheses.

    2. Page 158

      Half-Life studies are used to identify temporal variations in the use of literature by discipline most such studies indicate that the humanities have the longest citation half life and the Sciences the shortest with the social sciences in between. In other words, scientific articles reference the most recent Publications and Humanities articles the least recent ones.

    3. Pages 36 and 37

      Boardman discusses Merton. Lots of references here to series of citation and networks of relationships among Scholars the other references they make to each other's work

  25. May 2016
    1. When students see adults actually listening to them with respect, that is when they begin to realize they have a voice and can make a difference in their world.

      I hope this is true. And I love the idea that adults are that important to students. Still I wonder how this fits with the connected-learning notion that youth want to be heard and recognized by their peers. I suppose it isn't an either/or: some youth seek peer approval, others want to be heard by adults. When you post on an open social network, you never know who will respond.

  26. Apr 2016
    1. If, at the dawn of the web, I was to take a list of things the web would bring about and show them to a researcher, they might disagree on the level of interest people would have in things (what’s with the cat pictures, spaceman?) but there’d be little there to surprise them except for one item: the most used reference work in the world will be collaboratively maintained by a group of anonymous and pseudonymous volunteers as part of a self-organizing network.

      It would be nice if on this day, as we marvel about the rise of Wikipedia, we could turn some of our attention to the Wikipedias of the future. Where are opportunities for this mode of collaboration that we’ve missed? Why are we not confronted by more impossible things? How can we move from the electronic dreams of the 1970s to visions informed by the lessons of wiki and Wikipedia? Some people might think we’ve already done that. But I’m pretty sure we’re barely getting started.

  27. Jan 2016
    1. In this regard, it’s interesting to note that the viewing of TV programs at the time of their broadcast went up 20% with the advent of Twitter, indicating a desire to consume collaboratively. My ten year experience with social reading suggests that we might see a similar increase if long-form texts began appearing in platforms enabling people to gather in the margins with trusted friends and colleagues.
    1. Meanwhile, in almost exactly the same decades that the Internet arose and eventually evolved social computing, literary scholarship followed similar principles of decentralization to evolve cultural criticism.7

      Wow. This is the most interesting statement that I've read in a while. Wish I could pin an annotation...

      Really helps me justify my career arc, turning from literary criticism as a career to software "development."

  28. Nov 2015
    1. Finally children do as we do, not as we say. That gives us incentive to bring play back into our adult lives. We can shut off the TVs and take our children with us on outdoor adventures. We should get less exercise in the gym and more on hiking trails and basketball courts. We can also make work more playful: Businesses that do this are among the most successful. Seattle’s Pike Fish Market is a case in point. Workers throw fish to one another, engage the customers in repartee, and appear to have a grand time. Some companies, such as Google, have made play an important part of their corporate culture. Study after study has shown that when workers enjoy what they do and are well-rewarded and recognized for their contributions, they like and respect their employers and produce higher quality work. For example, when the Rohm and Hass Chemical company in Kentucky reorganized its workplace into self- regulating and self-rewarding teams, one study found that worker grievances and turnover declined, while plant safety and productivity improved.
    1. Emmons proposes a series of questions to help people recover from difficult experiences, which I’ve adapted for the workplace: What lessons did the experience teach us? Can we find ways to be thankful for what happened to us now, even though we were not at the time it happened? What ability did the experience draw out of us that surprised us? Are there ways we have become a better workplace because of it? Has the experience removed an obstacle that previously prevented us from feeling grateful?
    2. Research points to the notion that gratitude might have positive effects on transforming conflicts, which can benefit the organization and working relationships. How do you do that? It starts with the one charged with mediating the conflict: For example, a supervisor with two bickering employees might open a meeting by expressing sincere appreciation of both parties. Throughout the process, that person should never miss an opportunity to say “thank you.” The research says this attitude of gratitude will have a positive feedback effect, even if results aren’t obvious right away.
    3. Giving creates gratitude, but giving can also be a good way to express gratitude, especially if the person in question is shy. You can say “thanks” by taking on scut work, lending a parking space, or giving a day off. These kinds of non-monetary gifts can lead to more trust in working relationships, if it’s reciprocal, sincere, and altruistically motivated.
    4. Employees need to hear “thank you” from the boss first. That’s because expressing gratitude can make some people feel unsafe, particularly in a workplace with a history of ingratitude.
    5. The benefits of gratitude go beyond a sense of self-worth, self-efficacy, and trust between employees. When Greater Good Science Center Science Director Emiliana Simon-Thomas analyzed data from our interactive gratitude journal Thnx4.org, she found the greater the number of gratitude experiences people had on a given day, the better they felt. People who kept at it for at least two weeks showed significantly increased happiness, greater satisfaction with life, and higher resilience to stress; this group even reported fewer headaches and illnesses.
    6. Gratitude is a non-monetary way to support those non-monetary motivations. “Thank you” doesn’t cost a dime, and it has measurably beneficial effects. In a series of four experiments, psychologists Adam Grant and Francesca Gino found that “thank you” from a supervisor gave people a strong sense of both self-worth and self-efficacy. The Grant and Gino study also reveals that the expression of gratitude has a spillover effect: Individuals become more trusting with each other, and more likely to help each other out.
    1. Mbembe points out that often thefunction of awarding infrastructural projects has far more to do with gaining access to governmentcontracts and rewarding patron-client networks than it has to do with their technical function.This is why roads disappear, factories are built but never operated, and bridges go to nowhere.

      Sounds like scheming for political gains.. This is easy to see in the work place or society when one befriends another or joins a certain group for political/hierarchal benefits rather than for the pure purpose of the action. African societies cannot be the only ones who follow these functional implementations of these infrastructural projects.

  29. Oct 2015
    1. when we set goals that are reallynon-zero that have to do with not only honoring our own interests, but also advancing thewelfare and interests of others, friends, family members, and social groups, that kindof a goal, that non-zero goal that really incorporates others interests with the greatergood is associated with greater success, career, and happiness.
    1. hospitable network means that information can flow relatively easily between nodes

      I like this definition. I am really interested in riffing on a Derridian notion of hospitality, this kind of networked hospitality, food networks, and the hospitality industry. There are a couple of things that I'm wondering at this point: what constitutes "information" and what constitutes "ease." I'm thinking about environments that are hospitable to certain microorganisms, but not others. So one kind of bacteria might move through with ease, while another might be killed off.

    1. a web so conceptually consistent, socially relevant and technically expandable

      We've done relatively well with the first two. "Technically expandable" is the one in danger.

      If we continue to build "social networks" as singular dead end cul-de-sacs, we leave no exit available to those who follow.

      The Web we want is expandable beyond the reaches of what we currently know, the economies we operate within, and the future we can currently conceive.

  30. Sep 2015
    1. A study by James Fowler of the University of California, San Diego, and Nicholas Christakis of Harvard, published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, shows that when one person behaves generously, it inspires observers to behave generously later, toward different people. In fact, the researchers found that altruism could spread by three degrees—from person to person to person to person. “As a result,” they write, “each person in a network can influence dozens or even hundreds of people, some of whom he or she does not know and has not met.”
    1. Beyond education, the big challenge is figuring out how social networking technology can harness the power of empathy to create mass political action. Twitter may have gotten people onto the streets for Occupy Wall Street and the Arab Spring, but can it convince us to care deeply about the suffering of distant strangers, whether they are drought-stricken farmers in Africa or future generations who will bear the brunt of our carbon-junkie lifestyles? This will only happen if social networks learn to spread not just information, but empathic connection.

      Empathy Habit 5: Inspire mass action and social change

    1. As important as close relationships are, weaker ties also have their place. Research suggests that people who have a broad range of different kinds of social roles tend to be healthier and more likely to attain professional success.
    2. Since support can often become unequal, thus creating ingratitude and resentment, sometimes the most effective support is invisible—meaning that it is not experienced as support per se, but rather as a gesture of caring that is not costly or burdensome to the giver. For example, a person might choose to sacrifice work time to spend a romantic evening with their partner who has had a rough week, but this form of support will likely be better received if the person does not emphasize their sacrifice, but rather communicates a genuine desire to spend time with their partner. At the same time, however, Greater Good contributor Amie Gordon’s research shows that appreciation is a critical ingredient in healthy relationships, so it’s not always a bad thing to notice your partner’s sacrifices or to make sure that they know that you’re putting them first.
    3. Stephanie Coontz, author of Marriage, a History has argued that the best way to maintain a strong, healthy marriage is to have a strong network of friends with whom we share common interests and can turn to when in need. While it might be tempting to be jealous of time your partner spends with friends, or possessive of his or her time, it’s healthier to see your partner’s friends as an asset to your relationship. They provide critical psychological support to your partner and an outlet for interests that you might not share. But your partner’s friendships are also a form of social capital for you—and it will pay to help your partner keep those networks going.
    4. Significant others can deepen and broaden our social worlds, but they also carry the risk of creating a sense of insularity and disconnection from other parts of our social life. Staying in and watching a movie with our significant other can seem a lot more relaxing after a long week of work than attending a social event, but if we do this week after week, our other relationships may start to erode, decreasing our overall social capital. No matter how much we love our significant others, it’s unlikely that they alone can meet all of our social needs, and expecting them to do so can be damaging to the relationship over time.
    5. Beyond the benefits we receive directly from our significant others in the form of support and comfort, our significant others also have the potential to introduce us to a whole new social network, the friendships and other connections that our partner has developed over the years. When we enter a partnership our networks double—our partner’s connections become ours as well, and vice versa.
    6. Support in times of need is one of the major benefits of what researchers call bonding capital. Bonding capital may not give us the breadth and diversity of looser bridging-focused ties, but it gives us the closeness and intimacy that even 10,000 Twitter followers might not provide.
    7. studies show that people with a large amount of bridging capital have a greater sense of connection to the broader community, a more open-minded attitude, and a greater ability to mobilize support for a cause.
    8. Professional contacts can play an integral role in helping us launch or advance our careers. You might learn that your dream employer is hiring through a post from a seemingly random LinkedIn contact, or meet your future business partner through a colleague at a conference. Researchers have referred to these kinds of ties, as well as other types of looser connections such as neighborhood acquaintances, as bridging capital. Bridging capital may involve weaker ties, but the breadth and diversity of these ties can expose us to new ideas and opportunities beyond what is available in our narrower inner circles.
    9. In short, it pays to be a giver on social media, not just a lurker or a taker.
    10. What are their limitations? Facebook is no cure for loneliness, and the positive feelings gained may be short-lived. Though online contacts can be great when it comes to sharing everyday joys and challenges, there are times when no sympathetic emoticons can replace the comfort of a loved one’s physical presence. Using social media effectively requires knowing its limitations, and, as with a flaky friend, not expecting more from it than it can give.
    11.  Studies suggest that online communication may especially benefit less extraverted individuals by giving them opportunities to provide support to others in a non-threatening environment, an experience that can in turn increase self-esteem and reduce depression. Contrary to popular opinion, research also shows that using Facebook can help satisfy our need for connection.
    1. A lifelong friendship usually feels different than a casual acquaintance you make at a networking event or a friend you acquire on Facebook. Yet according to research, we need both weak ties and strong ties in order to build “social capital,” which researchers define as the web of relationships in our life and the tangible and intangible benefits we derive from them.
    1. In our highly connected working world, we are hyper-exposed to other people. This means negative emotions and stress become even more contagious as we have high exposure to negative comments on news articles and social media; stressed body language of financial news shows; stressed out people on our subways and planes; and open office plans where you can see everyone’s nonverbals.
  31. Aug 2015
  32. Jul 2015
  33. Jun 2015
    1. Enter the Daily Mail website, MailOnline, and CNN online. These sites display news stories with the main points of the story displayed as bullet points that are written independently of the text. “Of key importance is that these summary points are abstractive and do not simply copy sentences from the documents,” say Hermann and co.

      Someday, maybe projects like Hypothesis will help teach computers to read, too.

  34. Feb 2014