176 Matching Annotations
  1. Nov 2019
    1. But the enemy, like brave soldiers, were not to be thus beaten back. Heated by the fight, five or six of the bravest junks attacked the Hector from all sides; whose warriors, in trying to save it, caused such a dense smoke by firing its cannon from below, above, front and behind, that neither the Hector nor the junks could be observed from the Castle, from which this battle could otherwise have been easily watched.

      Did tactics overwhelm technology in this instance? The Chinese may have had inferior cannons at the time (Andrade) but still blew up the Hector

  2. Sep 2019
    1. In matters of life and death, who gives a second thought to blood and kin?

      I took an English/POSC class about the effects of genocide and mass violence on human psyches and the literature that comes from survivors of trauma, and this line reminds me of the unimaginable devastation that people in Hiroshima felt after the Atomic Bomb. This loss of connection between kin was common as people tried to rebuild and put their lives back together; especially with the issue radiation poisoning. These types of poetry of witness are important accounts of the human reaction to mass trauma.

  3. Apr 2019
    1. a man with a microscope might scrutinise the transient creatures that swarm and multiply in a drop of water

      From DANAHAY 41: Wells was interested in the microscope to the point where he visited a microscope factory for his article "Through a Microscope."

      More information:

    2. idea of life upon them as impossible or improbable

      From DANAHAY 41: Reference to a Victorian debate regarding the existence of intelligent life on Mars. See Wells's article "Intelligence on Mars" in the Saturday Review 8 (1 April 4, 1896), p. 345-46.

      More information:

  4. Feb 2019
    1. Being part of such a batch naturally constrains the student tobehave, as best he can, as though he were prototypical; it is theeasiest way to fit into the collective activity he is part of

      Again, so connected to the root of critical and culturally responsive pedagogies that often begin with a critique of Euro-centric schooling (and heteronormative, patriarchical, Judeo-Christian- centered schooling).

  5. Jan 2019
    1. People’s lives and livelihoods also hang in the balance

      The difficulty here is that human benefits of environmental degradation are often immediate whereas the negative impacts take time to be seen. (one of the major difficulties with combating climate change)

    2. potential for cheating

      Similar to mutualistic relationships in the animal world - they occur most when cheating (one species getting the benefit from another without giving any benefit) is averted.

    3. damaging

      Ex: DDT on eagle and peregrine eggs.

    1. (Janz

      Dan Janzen was the leading scientist of the Guanacaste project I mentioned earlier.

    2. relatively het- erozygous individuals are frequently more fit than relatively homozygous

      Also known as overdominance!

    3. egalitarianism and equal rights among species

      Although I'm not vegetarian myself, I'm pretty sure that vegans, vegetarians, and animal rights activists have followed that same line of thought as well.

    4. culling, eradi- cation, wildlife immunization, habitat protection, and artificial transfers.

      Culling and other such means of neutralization have proven in many cases to be the most effective and cost efficient means of population control within many parks. They often result in public outcry though which causes parks to switch to less harmful and effective means, in turn this often leads to damaging of the ecosystem ironically.

    5. random disappearance of resources or habitats will occur fre- quently in small sites but rarely, if ever, in large ones

      Reminds me of the Single Large or Several Small/SLOSS debate on habitat patch size.

    6. about design and management before he or she is com- pletely comfortable with the theoreti- cal and empirical bases of the an

      I read "The Green Pheonix" last semester in Ecological Restoration which is an amazing story about the restoration of Guanacaste National Park in Costa Rica. It was the first large scale restoration effort and very much relates to what the author is saying here. It was lead by highly knowledgeable scientists, but it was the first time this sort of thing was ever tried and so there was a lot they had to do and plan without complete certainty of the outcomes.

    7. social science disciplines

      Hence why the conservation biology has a boatload of non-science requirements!

    8. crisis-oriented disci- plines

      One of my summer field station professors said something similar to this - he had the opinion that there's a great deal of knowledge we can gain from simply studying how species and communities and landscapes work, but even better is doing something with all that knowledge to actively help the wildlife that we study.

    9. s intuition as well as informatio

      With this wording, the author definitely makes it sound like experience is invaluable for accurately gauging and resolving conservation situations (as I've learned from the world of applying to science jobs, experience is a huge part of getting the job, or getting the job done, in this case)

    1. it also constitutes a certain way of manifesting oneself to oneself and to others.

      At the core of communication is the inherent need for connection.

  6. Sep 2018
    1. A bit of a personal connection here, but I participate in activities such as these! I recently started my own fanart blog and the feedback I've received boosted my confidence in my art! It also pushed me to improve my technique and learn new styles!

      There's a huge difference between drawing art for a blog and for education. When you're drawing for your blog, it's up to you to push yourself to learn and whatnot. In a way, it's easier to do because you get to choose what you learn, but it's also a nonlinear type of learning. While a professor will typically push you on a linear path on what skills to learn.

    1. lar biologists, and evolutionary biologists had an answer

      I remember reading "The Hot Zone" by Richard Preston several years ago about all of the symptoms of Ebola, and how they scanned every millimeter of a bat cave to find the origin of the virus, but ended up with nothing. Crazy to think a tiny little virus in such isolation has so much potential power.

    2. The mitochon-dria of both males and females are inherited from the mother;

      I didn't know that mitochondria is always inherited by the mother! In research, I found that only proteins expressed in the female eye mapped to the MT (mitochondrial genes) so this makes sense!

    3. ti-Darwinian

      Read a book in Genetics last semester (The Gene by Siddhartha Mukherjee). It had a lot of interesting info about Darwin and one thing that stood out to me was that his cousin was Sir Francis Galton, who actually conceived the idea of eugenics (creating a "better" human race by regulating procreation). Was amazed to hear that Darwin's cousin used his evolutionary theory to devise his own very extreme/scary theory.

    4. What about apparently useless or even potentially harmful charact

      I am interested to learn about this idea (what accounts for behavioral differences between men and women) as I just finished summer research that looked at a more genetic basis for differences between males and females. I am excited to view biology from an evolutionary standpoint and connect the genetic level to the broader picture

  7. Aug 2018
  8. Jun 2018
    1. Remark1.73.IfPandQare total orders andf:P!Qand1:Q!Pare drawn witharrows bending as in Exercise 1.72, we believe thatfis left adjoint to1iff the arrows donot cross. But we have not proved this, mainly because it is difficult to state precisely,and the total order case is not particularly general
    2. The preservation of meets and joins, and hence whether a monotone map sustainsgenerative effects, is tightly related to the concept of a Galois connection, or moregenerally an adjunction.
    3. Galois connections between posets were first considered by Évariste Galois—whodidn’t call them by that name—in the context of a connection he found between “fieldextensions” and “automorphism groups”. We will not discuss this further,
  9. Mar 2018
    1. . This internal event about teaching excellence at Warwick saw staff exploring physical and virtual spaces, connecting virtually with Marcin Klébin @makle1 in Poland; the doors to the EuroCALL conference were opened this year thanks to collaboration with Maha Bali +Maha Bali and Virtually Connecting, my students have created open educational resources and even contributed to online conferences, the WIHEA #knowhow project (see https://storify.com/WarwickLanguage/warwick-window-on-teaching) produced resources and connections to help others decide on a path to opening up their work.

      Connected events

    2. More stories of connection

      stories, connection, cogdog

    1. I reconnected with the EuroCALL community finding Graham Davies online (sadly now passed away but not before he agreed to deliver some staff training through his Second Life presence, a real highlight for me) and this inspired

      Connection with Eurocall

    2. the connected approach to learning and teaching has been overwhelmingly positive for me

      connection connected learning

    3. This serendipitous meeting on Steve Wheeler's blog back then was the spark that led to the creation of connected network at a point when I had recently developed an online space using moodle for supporting the teaching of languages at Warwick's Language Centre. The opportunity therefore to connect our student cohorts meant that we could set about creating a shared, large scale virtual exchange. 

      Connection, Unpredictability, Serendiptity, EDTECH developer MOODLE

  10. Jan 2018
    1. So it does not discriminate between the two.

      The initial objection raised here (against identity theory) seems to be similar to one that Smart considered in Monday's reading, the idea that you cannot ascribe the same property to a brain state that you can to an experience. Instead of relying on the distinction between language and metaphysics that Smart used, Lewis provides a new argument about the fact that experiences have the particular property of being unlocated is not "analytically necessary."

    1. The issue between the brain-process theory and epiphenomenal- ism seems to be of the above sort. (Assuming that a behavioristic reduction of introspective reports is not possible.) If it be agreed that there are no cogent philosophical arguments which force us into accepting dualism, and if the brain process theory and dualism are equally consistent with the facts, then the principles of parsimony and simplicity seem to me to decide overwhelmingly in favor of the brain-process theory. As I pointed out earlier, dualism involves a large number of irreducible psychophysical laws (whereby the "nomological danglers" dangle) of a queer sort, that just have to be taken on trust, and are just as difficult to swallow as the irreducible facts about the paleontology of the earth with which we are faced on Philip Gosse's theory.

      Smart closes by re-iterating that the argument in favor of identity theory is essentially an abductive one, and that it is not coverage of the data, but rather other theoretical virtues which explain why it is preferable to epiphenomenalism.

    2. The objection certainly proves that when we say "I have an after-image" we cannot mean something of the form "I have such and such a brain-proces

      Here Smart's distinction between identity theory as a metaphysical and as a semantic claim pays off. This means that I can talk about sensations even if our best theories for what brain processes are identical to them are wrong.

    3. y. When I say that a sensation is a brain process or that lightning is an electric discharge, I am using "is" in the sense of strict identity. (Just as in the-in this case necessary-proposition "7 is identical with the smallest prime number greater than 5.") When I say that a sensation is a brain process or that lightning is an electric discharge I do not mean just that the sensation is somehow spatially or temporally con- tinuous with the brain process or that the lightning is just spatially or temporally continuous with the discharge

      Once again stating his thesis: sensations just are brain states. This connects to his earlier remark about how sensations and brain states are not correlated - since they are the same thing, they cannot be correlated with each other.

    4. The suggestion I wish if possible to avoid is a different one, namely that "I am in pain" is a genuine report, and that what it reports is an irre- ducibly psychical something

      This links back to the Descartes passages we looked at on the first day. He wants to avoid an "irreducibly psychical something," or, some sort of mind-stuff that is non-physical.

    5. One answer to this question might be that I am not reporting anything, that when I say that it looks to me as though there is a roundish yellowy orange patch of light on the wall I am expressing some sort of temptation, the temptation to say that there is a roundish yellowy orange patch on the wall (though I may know that there is not such a patch on the wall).

      This looks like a behaviorist way of analyzing the remark. In this reading, I am not saying anything about any experience or mental state; rather, I am treating the remark as indicating a tendency to say things.

    1. The schoolsoften favor “covering the curriculum,” testing for isolated sets of skills andknowledge, and solo teaching, with limited use and understanding of newtechnologies

      It appear to me that as of 2018, Jacobs is ahead of this curve; to me, this curve has passed in teacher education. In terms of technology and new course material, I know we have had music education lectures and courses in the past on iPad ensembles, basic guitar performance, body percussion, and the pedagogy of pop music. In some other courses, we have networks of electric keyboards the instructor can listen to from their seat, and the Department of Bands has taken advantage of projectors and movies just like some major symphonies do.

    1. A common misconception regarding “constructivist” theories of know-ing (that existing knowledge is used to build new knowledge) is that teach-ers should never tell students anything directly but, instead, should alwaysallow them to construct knowledge for themselves.

      I'd say that this misconception can be falsified by simply stepping into a real teacher's classroom. I believe that there is a difference between pedagogy and execution, or an idea and its reality. I have had several of my own teachers fail to attempt this misguided approach with the students just more confused after the teacher prompts them. In all these cases, the instructor meant well and obviously intended for us to reach a certain conclusion, but nobody was able to get there on their own without direct instruction.

    2. help each student achieve a more mature under-standing.

      The importance of a teacher searching for incomplete understandings is to mature the student, not to brainwash them by replacing the students' understanding with their OWN incomplete understanding. How often does this happen via informal learning outlets (social media, for example) in today's society, and how does a teacher avoid this? More importantly, how do teachers teach their students to avoid misinformation via informal outlets on their own?

    3. sense-making, self-assessment, and reflection on what worked and what needsimproving

      This seems very similar to the concept of 'mindfulness' researched and taught by Dr. Frank Diaz. In what ways is active learning different from this? Is 'mindfulness' simply an application of active learning unto oneself?

  11. Nov 2017
    1. does notexistoutthere‘inreality’butisonly,sotospeak,‘inmyhead

      This is startlingly similar to the point Descartes makes in his "Second Meditation"

  12. Oct 2017
    1. Visual Mode

      The visual mode might be the most universal form of communication. Psychology and biology studies have proven that humans are hard-wired to react in certain ways depending on visuals. For example, the color red instinctively draws a human's attention since it is a sign of danger. That is why stop signs and traffic lights are red, they cause drivers to instantly be alert in order to avoid accidents. I think that because the visual mode is so universal, it could be used to solve the problem presented by James Conca in his article "Talking to the Future -- Hey, There's Nuclear Waste Buried Here!". Initially I considered a red sign with the classic skull and crossbones to signify a deadly threat. However the truth is that within human history the symbolism for death has been very different for each culture. For example, the Ancient Greeks never portrayed Death as a menacing or evil character, since they knew death was inevitable and sometimes even considered it the path to an honorable sacrifice or a peaceful end of suffering. Since we do not know if future generations will use a dark hooded figure, or a dirty old woman, or a skeleton wielding a scythe as their symbol for Death, we should probably stick to simpler design. I think red should be a main color (since it will evoke the human instinct for danger) along with black (since it has proved to be a basic color to represent evil in most cultures throughout time). Perhaps the simplest solution would be a depiction that would use the human empathy to communicate the hazard of nuclear waste, such as an exaggerated illustration of a suffering human.

      Sources: Conca, James. "Talking to the Future -- Hey, There's Nuclear Waste Buried Here!" Forbes, 17 Apr. 2015, https://www.forbes.com/sites/jamesconca/2015/04/17/talking-to-the-future-hey-theres-nuclear-waste-buried-here. Accessed 2 October 2017.

  13. Sep 2017
    1. few think it necessary to take any precautions against their own fallibility

      This connects to the very core value of philosophy, as we must always question what we take for truth, just as Descartes and Plato did.

    1. We are all storytellers

      As an English teacher, I know that pretty much anything can be looked at as a narrative--a story

  14. spring2018.robinwharton.net spring2018.robinwharton.net
    1. Srudents engaged in this process also confront their own point-of-view as discrete, distinguishable, and con-structed.

      As this text mentions, John Maguire also believes that approaching writing with a more physical aspect in minf can lead to the "discrete, distinguishable, and con-structed" point-of-view that Prowian Analysis aims to teach the student. He mentions that adding physical objects in their reasoning leads to the inclusion of examples, and that eventually the student's "thinking on paper is clearer" .

      Source: https://www.theatlantic.com/national/archive/2012/10/the-secret-to-good-writing-its-about-objects-not-ideas/263113/

    2. The method works because of the deceptively straightforward simplicity of freely choosing an object and describing it.

      In the article "The Secret to Good Writing: It's About Objects, Not Ideas", John Maguire also mentions the simplicity of dealing with objects. His advice for becoming more specific was to simply "put physical objects in" essays. Additionally, much like the "deceptively straightforward" style is mentioned here, Maquire states that the concept of including physical object in written works is "hard to get the idea across" since it disobeys the modern writing conventions.

      Source: https://www.theatlantic.com/national/archive/2012/10/the-secret-to-good-writing-its-about-objects-not-ideas/263113/

  15. Aug 2017
  16. spring2018.robinwharton.net spring2018.robinwharton.net
    1. that particular individual to uncover some significant meaning in that particular object.

      Objects can have "significant meaning" in different ways depending on the individual's point of view, their historical context, and their current everyday use. For example, in the article "What Is a Machete, Anyway?", John Cline outlines the variations in the interpretation of a machete. A child views it as a weapon, "a real sword", the authorities view it as a dangerous weapon, and the Illinois farmers view it as a "corn knife" tool. The object can even have political and cultural significance. It was a symbol for the Cuban rebels who used machetes in sugar plantation and the mistreated workers of the banana industry in Jamaica who used it for harvesting fruit.

      Source: https://www.theatlantic.com/technology/archive/2013/10/what-is-a-machete-anyway/280705/

    2. The fruits of one's research are not co he presented as some-how self-explanatory, but rather as evidence introduced in support of claims. The object, in other words, must not be seen as a good illustration of something outside of itself-an historical milieu, for instance, or maker's intent-but rather such contextual phenomena be introduced into evidence as illuminating some aspect of the object's own intrinsic interest or mean-ing.

      Providing proof to support claims is an important aspect of writing well. According to John Maguire, many of today's students are missing "the skill of giving specific concrete examples in an essay.' He also argues that being specific can be achieved by writing "with physical objects" since "abstract ideas derive from objects."

      Source: https://www.theatlantic.com/national/archive/2012/10/the-secret-to-good-writing-its-about-objects-not-ideas/263113/

  17. Apr 2017
    1. NorwouldIequaterhetoricalsituationwithpersuasivesituation

      I think Nathaniel would agree with this, as he says that many individuals who claim to engage rhetoric so as to persuade others do not actually want to persuade them, because then they would not have anyone with whom to argue, and would not feel like they were affecting change concerning a certain situation.

      I could just be putting words in his mouth, though.

    1. Repeated attacks on our native tongue diminish our sense of self.

      Again references the idea of language and identity, suggesting that one's language influences one's perception of who they are as individuals.

    1. But a distinct difference between black rhetoric and what we might call white rhetoric is the typical relationship between speaker and audience.

      For Make a Difference Day my sophomore year, part of our service brought us to a primarily African American church, I am not sure what denomination. I was struck by the communal aspect of rhetoric in the church. The audience was involved and invested in the rhetoric of the speaker and offered an openly supportive environment. Now that I am thinking back on this, the support and involvement of the audience completely changed my experience of the speaker's rhetoric and stressed the importance of community. As mentioned earlier, language and culture cannot be separated, and the rhetoric of African Americans reflects the value placed upon community and depending upon others as a result of the discrimination and challenges they have faced in a predominantly white culture.

  18. Mar 2017
    1. Today we were having synchronised breakfast with our partners in Warwick University. 

      colleagues connection collaboration

    2. I wandered out of the classroom into the nature on the campus.  I felt the warmth of the Indian Summer on my back, I sat down on the grass.  

      nature ecosystem

    3. I arrived in class to find our partner librarians ready to teach our students. 

      Colleagues. connection. mutualisation.

    4. Rather than learning from #ccourses to develop #clavier, I am beginning to understand that #clavier and #ccourses and #ds106 and the whole caboosh is actually the same thing.

      Personal learning network. Overlapping communities/networks

    5. Meeting new colleagues with whom I could have fun teaching was high up on my 'would love to' list.

      Network colleagues

    1. My idea of the consummate outsider is architect

      If he is an architect he is not really an outsider but he can be an outsider within a group - a possible point of connection to other groups....

    2. the best chance for legitimate change comes from outside the discipline

      Or from outside context - for better or for worse.

      What one introduces from the outside is always risky...

    1. I want to us to have all sorts of biographies, all sorts of photos of unknown urchins with whom we may connect.

      personal research local

      difficulty of frame - of readability - of length

    1. One minute left. Terry, Keith, Kevin, Susan, Maha, Mia, Jim, Maritta, Marcin, Paul, Teresa, Maxime, Alexis, Camille, Clarissa, Blaise, Leena, Jurgen, Jose, Alan, Howard, Alec, Laura, Christine, Marie Christine, Dave, Bonnie et al -

      time people connection

    2. He chose to live, to believe in himself after watching a short video on Youtube which somehow connected with him in his moment of despair.

      connection storyteller witness youtube

    3. An ex-student came to my class, he has become a successful manager in IKEA in Clermont Ferrand. He came to talk about his experience. We sat down in the comfy chairs in our learning space. His presence resulted in an extraordinary moment of connection. He told the story of how he had been at a cross-roads in his life. He had lived a crisis, he made a conscious decision to live, rather than to die.

      Storyteller connection

    4. The person is often only aware of feeling of constraint. We pick away at those constraints little by little. Meaningful time spent with one person has a viral effect on other students who are witnesses to the uniquely meaninful dialogue. Such moments of connection become virtuous, viral messages.

      meaningful connection

      constraint meaningless

      WHY

      KEY

      https://vimeo.com/195637079

    5. We attempt to make meaningful connection with each person.

      meaningful connection

    6. Marcin and Laura joined me on Thursday to talk about translating CLAVIER into their local cultures. They helped me, we are helping each other attempt to make that translation.

      translation respect of context finding common ground difficulty

    7. I decided that I would respond to Terry's bravery and speak to the world 'ad hoc' in my turn and have faith in whatever came out of my mouth accompanied by a picture on the wall.

      vulnerability open improvisation emotion

    8. I am just listening to Terry Elliott talking in a solitary #clavpicnic after having spent lunch with a friend of mine

      attachment connection

    9. I have lived it through exchanges of tweets, blog posts, emails, Twitter DM's, conversations with colleagues, students, ex-students, friends, my family online, offline around me and walking our dog Jazz.

      community offline online hybridity

    1. We are as if amputated from those that we attempt to communicate with.

      Amputation. Birth Connection

    2. Half a life later, I am investigating those elements which connect us to the other, which enable us to journey a while with a fellow learner.

      What connects us? What is the story?

    1. I am beginning to extend my circles of empathy, I am beginning to see that I am part of a much wider world.

      Reimagining connection.

    2. There was one of my best friends Blaise, in Cameroun who spent last Christmas with us.

      Attachment Friendship

    3. A light lit up on the Spaceship's dashboard. It was Susan. Could she connect too? I have no means of picturing Susan's space at the moment she asked that. I scrolled through Susans desperately seeking Susan.

      This space which allows distant people to connect.

      This space which is in between liminal

      Question. What enables people to be able to be at ease in these spaces?

    4. I am not at all sure where we can say we are? I have the impression that it is like being 3 spacemen in spaceships on journeys through the universe who are desperate for connection to others who have meaning for them.

      Attachment Connection Yearning Identification Friendship

    5. The picnic was clearly not in the Tribble Valley as the cockerels, (roosters  as Terry says) were calling in dawn, Keith was sun-tanned in Florida, Terry was all backlit Dutch painting.

      Yearning to reach out and be really present with the people on line.

    6. to my students (they are unaware of that for the moment unless the one Tweep has done his job for the masses and sent it viral in Clermont Ferrand STAPS).

      connection individual witness

    7. during the week we had students reading my blog, seeing their snow hat from last winter being commented on by people all around the world and retweeted by Rihanna (a robot - I kept that quiet not to spoil the effect) on Twitter.

      Modeling reflective practice.

      Narrative connected

    1. This theorem alleges that meanings, from the very beginning, have a primordial generality and abstractness;

      A more direct definition of "meaning," rather than the loosely applied, ambiguous idea that people apply to the word as referenced on page 1276.

    1. No first-hand expe-rience of war or seafaring or politics or business was possible for them.

      There seems to be a correlation between Woolf's use of "experience" in Woman and Fiction and Professions of Women; in both instances, she states that it is impossible, or at the very least, extremely difficult, for women to gain experience professional experience due to the patriarchal structure of society and the limitations this structure placed on a woman in all aspects of her life.

    1. Accordingly, what we want is not terms that avoid ambiguity, but terms that clearly reveal the strategic spots at which ambiguities necessarily arise.

      Especially in regards to ambiguity, I read most of this article as stretching the ideas of Richards and Ogden further.

  19. Feb 2017
    1. There are thirty or forty passages in favor of woman's public work for Christ, and only two against it, and these not really so when rightly understood.

      Would these two passages against "woman's public work for Christ" possibly be against it if read literally? Her point is that reading the bible literally is the incorrect way to read the bible, and it sounds like she is inferring this here. Willard just said a few passages before this that if men are to read the passage literally, then they: "should remember that this literalness of rendering makes it his personal duty, day by day, actually to 'eat his bread in the sweat of his face.' The argument is a two-edged sword, and cuts both ways" (1130).

    2. We need women commentators lo bring out the women's side of the book; we need the stereoscopic view of truth in general, which can only be had when woman's eye and man's together shall discern the perspec-tive of the Bible's full-orbed revelation.

      Willard is saying that women are necessary to discover truth, and that a reason that truth has not been realized so far is because women have been excluded from interpreting the bible in their own way and instead are told what is said in the bible by men. Reflects her earlier statement, which states that men generally interpret the bible in their self-interest and to ensure they maintain power and minimize competition (1124).

  20. Jan 2017
    1. if we attempt to infer, without further premisses, that the author ofWaverleyis the author ofWaverley

      Because these are descriptions not names

    2. “Scott is theauthor ofWaverley” is obviously a different proposition from “Scott is

      It seems like perhaps this distinction comes from the rhetorical dimension of each statement. They refer to the same "referent" (to use Frege's language) but "the author of Waverly" highlights a specific aspect or capacity of Scott the referent that isn't privileged above other capacities when he is referred to as "Scott."

  21. Sep 2016
    1. In our view, cross­cultural psychological research con­firms anthropological findings of the universality of basic cognitive capaci­ties. All culture groups thus far studied have demonstrated the capacity to remember, generalize, form concepts, operate with abstractions, and reason logically.

      Also, connecting to Chomsky, all culture groups have the capacity to learn language (innate linguistic ability), which is imperative for the ability to remember, think abstractly, reason logically, etc.

    1. When Piaget's first writings on children appeared, he was appalled that people evaluated them as though they were final statements on certain cognitive problems rather than the tentative solutions he intended them to be.

      Sounds like his work was "reified"

    1. Ama-zonian groups, such as the Piraha, whose languages do not include numerals above three, are worse at distinguishing large quan-tities digitally than groups using extensive counting systems, but are similar in their abil-ity to approximate quantities.

      This reminds me of a similar study on language with the Vai in Liberia (Scribner and Cole 1981) which suggests that formal literacy schooling in English does not give learners higher intelligence or better abstract reasoning skills, only the ability to talk about those skills in "contrived situations." So even though the numerical/literacy system one grows up with influences the way one thinks, it doesn't mean that one system can be prioritized over the other as "better" or "more intelligent."

  22. Jan 2016
    1. content as the center of learning

      vs. connection and creation as the center of learning. Of course, you deal with content as a teacher but it through the learner connections that we educe learning.

  23. Nov 2015
    1. rather than learning by ‘practicing’, ‘constructing’ or ‘appropriating’, learning is achieved by expandingfrom a current ‘knowledge location’ and building outwards onthe basis of that knowledge while simultaneouslysolving tensions inherent in it to create previously non-existent knowledge. This focus on the generation of the ‘new’ distinguishes expansive learning from the prevailing metaphors of learning, namelyacquisition and participation [22].

      is this possible with a teaching curriculum?

    1. a more dignified and humanizing analysis of young people, particularly those explicitly or implicitly framed from a cultural-deficit perspective

      I appreciate this awareness. Connects to Bell et al, too.

    2. within and across various social spaces and activity systems—particularly for non-dominant youth.

      this reminds me of our video game readings particularly Stevens et al "in game, in room, in world"

    3. At the same time, we believe that engaging with a small group of learn-ers across settings, or studying the learning experiences and encounters of one student across the lifespan, can afford its own kind of interpretive depth.

      Don't you miss any real, open-minded account of the learning in the field trips piece? I mean, a positive view on the 'ups' students could have learned, not just the 'downs'

    4. In coordinating with each other, people show themselves, to those who would look carefully, to be orderly, knowledgeable, and precise.

      Funds of Knowledge all over the place. I mean, you always look "carefully" to the ones around you...

    5. the opportunities for learning that emerge as people, tools, practices, and interests move across settings and across the social contexts or activity systems that constitute any given setting

      This resonates to me as a missing piece of the Arizona border communities/FoK piece, as it was clearly stated that they changed jobs frequently but no indication of the learning and the transfer of information associated was made.

    6. A view of learning as a cultural process, located in time and space, helps us to understand that people and their cultural practices both develop and transform through participation in the routine activi-ties of relevant communities of practice

      "LPP is the sea surrounding us" or something like that, citing Ma (2015, comment on the concept map developed last class)

    7. intellectual work involved in navigating modern borders and their myriad macro- and micro-political manifestations

      This sounds almost as speaking to the mathmoves and the field trips pieces, the navigation of borders in terms of the norms (remember the enforced "ideal participants" in the field trips piece or the instruction to behave like already being in the exhibit in the matmoves piece?)

    8. In this way, researchers can substantively trouble the common dichotomies of home/school and academic/everyday by studying, rather than presuming, points of continu-ity or rupture across social settings.

      This is like music to me. Learning happens everyday, everywhere, and sometimes it is more pleasant, seems more useful, is easier to remember, or any other advantages. But understanding the learning beyond/without those dichotomies, mostly the academic/everyday, could be really helpful to understand in a deeper way pieces as the field trips, mathmoves, or the countermapping.

    1. Playerscan also design their own homes in Myville, where land lots can be purchased andhouses can be built and furnished (see Figure 7). In 2002, we found over 8,000houses; their designs varied dramatically (Tynes & Kafai, 2003)

      Space editing - constructing a space to be a particular setting for the player and they can take on a particular identity in it

    2. Only the knowledge of an insider com-mand allows one to visit these more remote places (Fields & Kafai, 2009

      This makes me think about Lave and Wenger's midwives who, through continued participation, became not only more valued as participants but (and this is the part that connects directly to the highlight) took on more and more roles. In other words, got to do more (or in Whyville, knew there were more opportunities to do things)

    3. One might imagine that with over 30,000 faceparts for avatars, there would be no lack of diversity, but even virtual worlds are notthe color-blind utopia, they have often been portrayed to be in early media reports.Racial issues also come to the forefront in Whyville, as our article ‘‘‘Blacks deservebodies too!’ Diversity and Race in a Virtual World’’ illustrates (Kafai et al., 2010).

      This is so fascinating to me. Could it be due to the lack of wanting to look through all 30,000 faces? Although I think not, this is interesting when I think about figured worlds. When thinking of Whyville, you would think of it as its own figured world, but it is interesting to see how the Whyville avatar is created by the person. This would be influenced, I would think, by the real-life figured world. They are both overlapped.

    4. Forinstance, in the Solstice Safari, a group of players work together to collect data aboutthe sunrise and sunset at different locations around the world. This encourages col-laboration and social interactions among Whyvillians and teaches them about theEarth’s position in relation to the Sun, notions of time (days, years) and seasons,temperature, and geography (latitude and longitude).

      This is interesting. Reminds me of intent participation. The Whyvillians need to voluntarily sign up to work with basically strangers. Connecting it back with the earlier point about race, makes me wonder how Whyvillians determine if they want to sign up with a particular collaboration.

    5. Much less is known aboutyounger players who participate in equal, if not larger, numbers in virtual worlds

      Would a research expect to same similar trends as they see in World of Warcraft? Is that why it is not explored. When i think of this in the light of LPP i would see it as the same field of mastery (online life), just a different setting. In the end though, the same skills are learned in each setting.

    6. simulated experiences.
    7. All thesepartsarecreatedbyotherWhyvillianswhorentdesigntoolsandthenposttheircreationsat the mall or exchange them at the trading post to cover their costs and to generateadditional income.

      One thing I really like about Whyville is that while this space of course was originally produced by adults (I'm assuming anyway) the kids who use it are able to take control of it and make it their own. This is a lot different than Nespor's take on public spaces. Unlike with filed tirps or other visits to public spaces, the kids aat Whyville have much more fredom to intrepret the space as they please. It seems there are still rules, but the users themselves have much more control here.

    8. Our avatar looks and chat lingo were clearly different—most often not assophisticated—compared to those of other players on the site.

      Here is a very clear example of what it means to be an old-timer vs a new comer in this CoP. There is a language that comes with belonging. This importance of language has come up over and over again in our readings. It was important with AA, the hurdlers, the little leaguers, the skaters, and I'm sure more. I also really appreciate how the authors here refer to the children's language as "sophisticated". I think this opens up the possibility that children can teach adults, and maybe in other settings as well. Maybe even in a classroom??? I think it's really important for adults to give me respect and value to the knowledge that children have.

    9. access to resources, whether theyare economic or cultural, is key for participation to the fullest extent.

      Access to resources are crucial to full successful participation. This relates back to my questions about privilege and access earlier in the semester in relation to LPP. I'm interested in this aspect of privilege in gaining access to resources for learning (both economic and cultural)

    10. impossible to cre-ate clear boundaries between online and offline, and our participants did not seem tocare much about such a distinction in their interactions. Some of our observations inWhyville provided further evidence in support of merged realities

      I see this as related to multi-sited work. If virtual spaces are a real piece of a person's experiences, learning, understanding, and development - it seems inappropriate to dismiss it as "not real." Especially then if you start to consider who has the authority to dismiss it.

    11. ideo games—andby extension virtual worlds—offer freedom of movement that many children in theWestern hemisphere no longer have. Due to safety concerns, roaming the streets oftheir real-life neighborhoods is often no longer a welcome outlet. For that reason,researchers like Boyd (2006) have called places such as Whyville digital publicsbecause they provide a ‘‘youth space, a place to gather and see and be seen bypeers.’’

      This reminds me of Nespor's work on Field Trips. It seems that this argument is in alignment with Nespor's discussion of mediated experiences and spaces.

    1. In this case, Holly played the role of running commentator, seem-ingly in hopes that some of her narration would prove useful to Brandon, but she showedlittle distress or frustration when he failed to follow her suggestions. The reciprocal impas-sivity that we observed across them in this arrangement was interesting; it may have beendue to the fact that Brandon was the better player and both knew that he was assessing thevalue of her suggestions and deciding on the basis of the in-game situation whether it wassensible to act upon or disregard his sister’s help.

      It is interesting here to see when Brandon followed and did not follow the suggestions given to him by Holly. He intently participated to her comments when he wanted to and ignored when he wanted to. Interesting dynamic here.

    2. our view, her emphasison control meant that she sought out the learning resource that allowed her the greatestcontrol over the learning experience. In this case, the learning resource was her brother

      This straight up, 100% reminds me of lpp and the concept of apprenticeship. Rachel is becoming a part of a community, but using the expertise of her brother to also become an expert in the game. I wonder if she began being exposed to the video game by just observing her brother?

    3. with Maddy at the periphery observing,often commenting, and sometimes entering play under the watchful eyes of her brotherMikey

      Ok, pretty solid example of intent participation. Maddy remains in the periphery until she is ready to participate. She is observing and assessing what is going on before she decides to play. The existence of a third controller for Maddy shows that her brothers were anticipating that she would join the game at some point, but allow for her to begin at her own pace. (Why it is kept all the way int he basement is another question.)

    4. their relationshiparound video games as an apprenticeshi

      interesting.

    5. In this section, we move outward from in-game, beyond in-room, to connections we havefound in our ethnographic data between in-game play and young people’s wider fields ofexperience “in-world.”

      Almost the definition of multisited ethnography

    6. our goal isnotto provide causal explanations of transfer between videogame play and other life activities, but rather to provide a set of careful descriptions of how“in-game” activity is tangled up with activity “in-room,” and in the wider worlds of activitythat young people inhabit.

      I like thinking of this game play as "tangled up with other cultural practices." I see this as multisited work, and actually helps me understand the interconnectedness of multisited work better.

    1. Thescale-making project has also created new forms of expertise in the neighbor-hood exemplified in the practices of thepromotoras,who have developed a newlyvalued skill set, including how to design and grow gardens, communicate with amultilingual group of residents with a range of experiences with gardening, listenand respond to resident concerns, and organize for collective action

      It happened! Multisited ethnography providing evidence for multisited learning! Good for the promotoras, adding on top of the aforementioned grant!

    2. This expansion, fueled by the cofoundersof the nonprofit’s desire to improve food access for a broader population in theneighborhood, has been met with some frustration on the part of thepromotoras,who value the focus on the Mexican community

      This was the opportunity for a real multi-sited learning as the different practices accros cultures are to be shared, but then the researchers leave the place. Missed opportunity, sure.

    3. FreshRoots has also developed partnerships with local foundations to pay highschool and college students from the neighborhood to apprentice with them in thetechnical aspects of maintaining the hydrofarm

      This is just schooling with a tangible/narrow goal. One of the downsides of the learning in action is the situation-specific content and learning (Resnick), and this is now being attached to schooling. And they are also being trained to run equipment that, according to the description, is extremely expensive and delicate and is probably beyond the economic capital of most of the members of the community, even if grouped. Not that much social justice to me

  24. Oct 2015
    1. tourist performances as behaviors that,in coordination with a variety of semiotic resources, fundamentally shape a sense of place andidentity for tourists

      again I'm prompted to raise the question about tourism and authenticity even though this isn't the question we're supposed to be pondering...reminds me of Nespor's piece

    1. Now, youth .were drawn to dance, drama, and other forms of art as a means to form strong, safe group affiliations

      This is more about "art and identity", but for sure the argument of bodies-(1)->arts-(2)->identity-(3)->learning can be made. I mean, for the mentioned forms of art (1) is kind of obvious, (2) is their argument, and (3) came strong in previous readings.

    1. Iexaminetransformationsinthenatureofpublicspacesforchildren,andtheschool’sroleinproducingthosespaces.Spaceistreatedasaproductofsocialpractice,notsimplyaframeforit.Icontendthat,asyoungchildrenareincreasinglyimmobilizedinurbanlandscapes,school®eldtripsbecomecriticaloccasionsforintroducingthemto,andframingtheirparticipa-tionin,publicspaces

      There is a lot going on in these two sentences. Public spaced is produced through activity (like M&M) but here it is produced for students by teachers (contrasting M&M where space was produced by the primary users). So this brings up ideas of guided participation for me "occasions for introducing them to and framing their participation in"

      Post read edit: I still would comment as I did, but with the hindsight afforded by the full read I can see "framing participation in" leads more to limitation in participation than guided participation or in other words, the authors argue that field trips, and field trip spaces "guide" students to "participate" in only particular ways.

    2. Downtowns,museumsandhistoricalsites,thus,becameculturemallswherepurchasescouldhavelesstodowiththeimportanceattachedtotheitemsacquiredthanwiththepublicmeaningofbuyingasaperformanceofone’srighttobeinsuchspaces

      This reminds me of some analysis of picture-taking at the Whitney Museum one of you (Felipe?) did.

    3. theordinarylanguagetheybringtotheexperi-

      FoK!

    4. kidscouldbemovedaboutinorderly,controlledgroups,coordinatedintofestiveactivities(e.g.Halloweenparties),and,thus,transformedintoelementsofthenewaestheticlandscape.

      Colin and Raquel have both pointed this out already, but I think this line is worth adding to the conversation. The idea of transforming kids so they become "elements of the new aesthetic landscape". I want to make a direct (and maybe uncomfortable) reference here to schools. I think in a very similar way, schools work to mold students so they might become "elements of the school aesthetic". This not only edits some students out who they can't get to conform, but takes agency away from all students in deciding how school might best work for them.

    5. itstillremainstoteachpeopletoreaditthatway,oratleasttoteachthemthatthereisaparticularwaytolookatthingswhendowntown

      In terms of Ma & Munter (2014), is this to provide the arena and to try for people to create the expected setting?

    6. legitimateparticipation

      Welcome back LPP

    7. settings

      Is the word 'settings' here used for what Ma & Munter (2014) call 'arena' and not 'setting'?

    8. carefulplanningandcoordination,preparatoryactivitiesinwhichstudentscanlearnaboutthesettingsbeingvisitedandtheeventsorprocessestheysymbolize,andpost-tripactivitiesthatallowstudentstodrawontheirexperiencesatthesites

      does this help form islands of expertise amongst some students?

    9. Fieldtrips

      The "public spaces" visited by students on field trips seem a bit different from public spaces like a skate park because students are not only told how to move through the spaces but they are not given a choice about which spaces to visit. Students may have elected to visit other public spaces but they are taken on field trips to public spaces selected by a teacher or other administrator whereas people elect to go to skate parks.

    10. Spacesareoutcomesofcomplexactivities,someofwhichunfoldslowlyandproducerelativelystableforms(buildings,streets,landscapes),someofwhichemergerapidlyandleavefewobservabletraces(conversations,gazes,briefinspections)

      Can we compare to "arena v. setting" as in the Ma/Munter piece?

    1. The right to the city

      what if we included this idea as part of our understanding of "true public spaces"

    2. relations between lived activity andrepresentations of that activity in the city visible,

      making connections between lived experiences and representations of activity reminds me of field trips and skate parks but I feel like the countermapping allows the youth to participate in a more legitimate way in public spaces.

    3. learning to operate a bike safely and for collectivelydetecting and fixing kinks in the bicycle before the youth took them home. But the ridingformation was also something worth learning about (i.e., how to ride together in the city).

      the participants, much like skaters at a skatepark, learn by doing much more than from being told how to do something.

    1. describe the ideals that surrounded learning within team life and to capture—primarily through detailing the language of activities—manifestations of the environment of learning that the specialized domain of Little League baseball provided.

      do we consider little league a #communityofpractice?

    2. supported the notion that reasoning, problem-solving, arguing for a plan, and creating coherent narratives come naturally within many everyday activities.

      more evidence of valuable skills learned as result of "everyday activities"

    1. oice into a more excited and proud-sounding par-ent voice, implicitly praising the boy and asking how he knew what the ob-ject was

      the discussion about language and tone reminds me of what we read in #littleleague. The coach uses conversation to influence his players in particular ways, teach them certain skills, behaviors, attitudes, values.

    2. they trace these interests, looking for opportunities to collect and connect new experiences.

      similar to Azevedo's "lines of practice?"

    3. Thus, islands of expertise become platforms for families to practice learning habits and to develop, often for the first time, conversations about , L abstract and general ideas, concepts, or mechanisms.

      This sounds a lot like Bourdieu's "habitus."

    1. It follows that becausepeople learn (e.g.,observational skills) along theirlines of practice,intersectionsbetweenlinesshow knowledge and learning that cross line boundaries

      Learning is defined by lines of practice. This sounds a lot like LPP. Although, in some ways it provides nuance because it conceptualizes a possibility of boundary crossing and embraces difference in LPP for different contexts and different people in the same CoP.

    2. preferenceemerging in Mitchell’s narrative regarded hisdevelopingidentityin amateur astronomy

      Interesting that "preference" or "long term goal" of developing the identity of amatuer astronomer dialectically influences his other goals and preferences, which influence his practice, which help him achieve that goal.

    3. taking observational notes helps one tolearn about various celestial objects and their defining features and eventually tobetter see such objects (Levy, 1991). Note taking is also a requirement for receiv-ing certificates/awards for certain achievements.

      This is interesting to me because note taking works to do two distinct things. First, it is a resource for the person to go back to and learn more about astronomy as a practice after the night of star gazing. But more interestingly, it is "a requirement for receiving awards." Thus, the participate has to do a particular activity to be recognized as a participant and move towards becoming a fuller participant in the CoP. In that way, having a "sense of a future" is crucial - otherwise, why take the notes?

    4. the product of which he intendedto submit for the Astronomical League’s Sun Spotter Award. The project wasundoubtedly motivated by Mitchell’s growing curiosity about the Sun and theprospect of receiving the award.

      So would Nasir say this is an example of ideational identity resources? Mitchell has set a goal for himself, as well as established what he believes is worthy to be learned (what he will hone and apply).

    1. experts scaffold the participation of novices in settings outside ofschool: by fostering a sense of safety and belonging, making the domain visible,embodying trajectories of competence, and providing timely and flexible feedback

      would be interesting to research how this happens in adult educational institutions as well, ie, a university department (academic or not) -- I'm thinking about onboarding and training new employees, teaching new employees how to interact/collaborative with students, etc. how much is instructional and how much is on-the-job? how much is "intent participation" or apprenticeship?

    2. in apprenticeships, in which there is often a desig-nated expert, it can be challenging to discern what the master does to instruct orteach novices

      I imagine intent participation happens here, though, and might be effective.

    3. Apprenticeship,

      thinking about apprenticeship again it seems. excited to see where this goes.

    4. but that this was sometimes unproductive because youth need supportto develop certain skills necessary for political action

      Again, here is a connection to retaliation identity. For student to be connected with the CoP, and function within it, it is necessary for the leaders to be a relational resource in order to "sustain participation in different learning situations"

    5. Youth were those who were of high school age. Adults were those whowere older than 18 and worked as staff members for the organization. With the ex-ception of executive directors, most adults were younger than 24.

      This somewhat arbitrary cutoff is interesting to me in relation to identity (of course 18 is an arbitrary cutoff all over the country for various reasons). It makes me think of Holland and the idea of there being different roles and positions with in figured worlds, but in this kind of situation, all one needs to do is turn 18 (and probably graduate high school) to move up and acquire a different position. 18 and 24 is not a big age difference,, so what IS different between the youth and an adult? How does their identity vary that allows one to receive a higher /more prestigious role? Ans why are leaders typically close in age I think it has something to do with the fact that relational resources are stronger when the age gap is closer, especially in the opinion of youth.

    6. Monique’s comments reflect a strong sense of identification with the work

      The move from student who organizes to organizer, as I spoke of in a comment above

    7. how participants made sense of what they were doing

      This could be seen as asking students to describe their view of the figured world of the group.

    8. how participants made sense of what they were doing

      This could be seen as asking students to describe their view of the figured world of the group.

    9. Unlike accounts of out-of-school learning where-by newcomers begin by participating in a peripheral manner, in activism groupsyouth are often expected to lead the way.

      Earlier he states that the adults still give structures, and release them as students become larger leaders.

    1. n communities in which young children are involved in the mature activities oftheir family and community, it may be superfluous for adults to organize lessons andspecialized conversations to prepare young children with the skills of schooling, toprepare them for the “real” world.

      interesting to me that we still perceive schooling in America to prepare students for the "real" world. As we've seen in many of our readings, it is vital to learn so that we can exist productively within the real world and also I feel like we have also acknowledged that conventional schooling does not necessarily prepare us for that.

    2. 5 Dec 2002 15:28 AR AR178-PS54-07.tex AR178-PS54-07.sgm LaTeX2e(2002/01/18)P1: GJB180ROGOFF ET AL.Children in many communities begin to participate in work and other matureactivities from age 3 or 4 (Chamoux 1986, Martini & Kirkpatrick 1992). In afarming community in East Africa, 3- and 4-year-old children spent 25–35% oftheir time doing chores, whereas middle-class U.S. children of the same ages spentonly 0–1% of their time doing chores and 4–5% of their time accompanying othersin chores (Harkness & Super 1992).By 5–7 years of age, children in many communities have substantial responsi-bilities for child, animal, and household care, participating in most adult activities(Rogoff et al. 1975, Paradise 1987, Whiting & Edwards 1988). When young chil-dren are included in the social as well as the economic life of their community,they are participants in the adult world, not “in the way” (Nsamenang 1992).The opportunities of children in the United States and a number of other nationsto participate in a wide range of mature community activities have decreaseddramatically over the past century or so. These children are increasingly involved,instead, in specialized child-focused activities—especially schooling—designedto instruct them in skills to be employed in adulthood once they are allowed to beinvolved in mature activities.HISTORICAL CHANGESSEGREGATING U.S. CHILDRENFROM MATURE ACTIVITIES

      Aha, this whole section speaks to American children and their lack of learning by intent participation.

    3. Theyobserve and listen with intent concentration and initiative, and their collaborativeparticipation is expected when they are ready to help in shared endeavors. Thistradition, which we refer to asintent participation,

      Recalling LPP Chapter 4 conversation about Lainey, Heidi, and I were having about observation.

      Rogoff is already defining a specific kind of observation, one that is focused on what is going on, active in listening and watching, and that leads to participation at some point. To me this is in contrast to passive observing which might not lead to any kind of action/participation. I think LW would be using Rogoff's kind of observation in their discussion of its involvement with LPP

    1. Although Oppenheimer’s educational model was complex andnonprescriptive, the basis of his approach to exhibits was compatible with that of Dewey,giving central importance to the role of direct experience of phenomena, and trying to presentthe learner with a problematic experience from which he/she could conduct genuine inquiry.It is also compatible with the Piagetian notion of disequilibration as a driver for learningthrough change of existing knowledge schemas

      I wonder was this a consequence of his design or did these learning theories underpin what he put together?

  25. Sep 2015
    1. curiosity

      similar to Moll and Allen

    2. It should be added thatthis commitment to encouraging co-participation and collaboration inmuseums and galleries derives in part from developments in education, withits growing emphasis on situated cognition and informal learning

      Connections here to other literature we have read: Moll et al., Lave and Wegner, and more

    3. This achievement is produced in thecollaboration of the participants. They shape their own and each other’sexperience in and through the installation.

      Sounds very much like FW and LPP here.

    4. In a way, we are concerned with the ways in which visitors and viewersare, and can be seen to be, active and engaged spectators.

      Looking to both study and define what being an "active and engaged spectator." The participation across time of the artist/curator and spectators in interesting. It is a different way of seeing learning from an LPP perspective; the community of practice is shaped by the creator and the spectators across different times.

    1. Curiosity was used as the driving force that nudged visitors through-out this cycle a step at a time,

      using curiosity as a strategy to keep learners hooked is interesting - don't we see this outside of museum settings, too? I feel like we saw this in the Moll piece as well -- students were encouraged to pursue projects based on their own interests.

    2. Relevance: The label makes a connection to the everydayexperience

      again, relevance plays a role. We aren't learning for learning's sake, necessarily

    3. eacher can use a variety of strategies to regulate her students’progress, ensuring that they all arrive at the rewarding or significant climax of a lesson

      like we saw in the Moll piece -- teachers can use tact to steer students even if students have a lot of direction and independence

    4. Our studies on physical interactivity have shown that it is not a simple and universalprescription for effective learning

      Overall finding here. Effective learning can be a loaded term. What other pieces of the FoK are missing here?

    1. It is notjust an accumulation of skills and information, but a process of becoming-to become a certainperson or, conversely, to avoid becoming a certain person"

      I really like this quotation. It highlights for me a big part of the issue with schooling - the focus on skills, tools, tricks, and information as "objects" to be obtained. No where in there does there seem to be thoughtfulness about the student as a person, just as some empty vessel to be filled.

    2. The resources were made available to athletes by virtue oftheir presence in the physical space and through one-on-one interactions with CoachJ. Additionally, ideational resources were often conveyed as students were explicitlypositioned into particular roles with respect to the events at which they wouldcompete in meet

      Coach J is the gate keeper, the mentor, who needs to provide the resources for a student to engage in building the identity of a track athlete. Therefore, he is the identity gate keeper. Why, therefore, examine this through the lens of resources instead of merely habitus or "cultural toolkit?"

    3. Specifically, it makesthe case for a treatment of learning and identity that considers them to be intimatelyrelated to one another but also to be distinct processes. Thinking about learning andidentities in schools in this way might support a clearer conceptual understanding ofthe relation between learning and identity that does not conflate them or view themas unrelated.

      This article, as I understand it, provides arguments that identity and learning are intimately related, but not that they are distinct processes. While I agree with this statement that I highlighted, I wonder in what ways we can look to studies like this one to provide the nuance Nasir and Cook are looking for and claiming. It seems that Holland et al.'s description fits more with an understanding that identity and learning are not distinct processes.

    4. Coach J differentially distributed access to the specializedequipment, perhaps strengthening Gloria's track identity but not Harrell's

      Reminds me of the AA example. One cannot identity as a member of AA if the other members do not accept that person as a member. Similarly the track identity here is dependent on the coach.

    1. Because of its roots in Marxian analyses of capitalism and other historically specific modes of produc-tion, activity theory pays more attention to the articulation of activities within larger syste_ms_<.>f power and prlvilsge

      This connection is important. Figured worlds can also be viewed as produced by structural systems of power and privilege. Could this a view of figured worlds be grounded in Critical Theory as well as Marxist theory?

    2. happenings of a figured world

      (Highlight should continue to the end of the paragraph)

      Happenings, for Holland, are ways the figured world is reproduced, through the participants actions (such as learning to tell their story). In this too is LW idea that the same process of learning to tell your story is part of LPP and becoming a member in a CoP. These two uses of story telling highlight the interactive nature of the formation of both the CoP/Figured world and the participant's place in it as a member.

  26. Oct 2013
    1. A word taken singly is more often objectionable than faultless, for however we may express anything with propriety, elegance, and sublimity, none of these qualities arise from anything but the connection and order of the discourse, since we commend single words merely as being well suited to the matter.

      Importance of context. meaning only comes through connection