176 Matching Annotations
  1. Mar 2021
    1. By way of example, this can take the shape of written word or a video or short, audio file or any other digital medium or practic

      Yes, good. It's important to invite 'proposals' since this leaves things open. It means that contributors don't have to have their contribution completed in order to say they are interested (that will mean you get no takers). Rather you need to invite ideas and proposals and see if you are able to host/support them properly. This way you can be realistic about what you are able to actually support and you can start to work with the proposers to help them realise their proposal.

    2. Open Call

      cut this

    3. Cooperation

      Partnered with

    4. and a brief, 300-word (max) explainer of what you have submitted, along with a short, 200-word (max) artist bio.

      Please keep your proposal brief (300 word max) and include images if relevant. If you have a website, please provide the URL.

    5. or submission


    6. submission


    7. works


    8. with the presentation taking place throughout April.

      The platform will be launched in the latter half of April and will remain online thereafter.

    9. Submissions for the R-Lab Open Call open on 9th March 2021 and close on 28th March 2021,

      The call is now open. Proposals for R-Lab should be submitted by 28th March 2021 (23:00 CET).

    10. centred around care and respect for your experience and your art.

      caring for and respecting your contribution.

    11. Our space will be safe

      Our online platform will be a safe space,

    12. partnered

      change to


    13. online space


    14. which is closely associated with the

      supported by The University of Edinburgh

    15. platformed

      ^ hosted

    16. Chinese and European art and creative practitioners (curators, artists, organisations) or those who have been based in China or Europe

      change to:

      Artists, curators, and art organisations based in China or Europe....

    17. The R-Lab Open Call is an invitation to Chinese and European art practitioners or those based in China and Europe to share with us their experiences, stories and/or artworks which document how they have pivoted – in one way or another – to cope with the pandemic period (2020 - March 2021).
      • change to

      The R-Lab Open Call is an invitation to artists based in China and Europe to openly share their experiences of how they have pivoted their working practices – in one way or another –during the pandemic (March 2020-March 2021).

    18. However, we want to hear your ideas and proposals!

      We are open to supporting as wide a range of media as possible. We want to hear your ideas and proposals!

    19. this

      change to

      your contribution can take the form of a written narrative, a video, an audio recording...

    20. This will then be presented as a networked collection on our safe, online platform in April 2021.

      We will curate and present the most vibrant responses as part of our online platform, launching in the latter half of April 2021.

    21. The R-Lab is an organisation associated with the University of Edinburgh.

      (What does R-Lab stand for - what's the 'R'? and why is it a 'laboratory')?

      For clarity, change this to

      R-Lab is a contemporary art organisation led by postgraduate students in Edinburgh College of Art, The University of Edinburgh.

    22. The R-Lab

      Not 'the R-Lab' just


    23. We believe that within the context of ‘de-territorialisation’ - a ‘Pivot’ in its own right - the pandemic gives us different visions and possibilities for cultural exchanges and fusions that can have long-lasting impacts post-pandemic.

      We hope that exchanging Chinese and European visions of post-pandemic possibilities can have a long-lasting impact.

    24. Simultaneously, we value the communication and fusion of cultures from different geographical places, with a view to mixing Chinese and European cultural experiences during the pandemic in order to reflect the cultural make-up of our organisation.

      Reflecting the membership of our R-Lab, we seek to reflect upon Chinese and European cultural experiences during the pandemic.

    25. We aim to find new directions and potentials for Contemporary Art by researching and engaging with the Art World‘s changes and pivots during the pandemic.

      Change to:

      We seek to explore how different artworlds have adapted and survived during the pandemic.

    26. Our mission is to think of the pandemic as a multitude of ‘Pivots’ which could enact societal and artistic change post-pandemic.

      Change to:

      We aim to collect and present a multitude of ‘pivots’ that might enact societal and artistic change post-pandemic.

  2. Feb 2021
    1. Portfolio You must submit a portfolio as part of your application. You won't be able to submit your portfolio immediately, but you'll receive an email prompt within a few days of submitting your application that will explain how to upload your portfolio.

      This needs to be removed completely since we no longer require a portfolio

    2. Portfolio You must submit a portfolio as part of your application. You won't be able to submit your portfolio immediately, but you'll receive an email prompt within a few days of submitting your application that will explain how to upload your portfolio.

      This section needs to be removed entirely

    3. You must submit a portfolio as part of your application. Your application and portfolio should demonstrate: evidence of practical and theoretical knowledge of, and experimentation with, a variety of formal, aesthetic and conceptual approaches to the production and distribution of contemporary art evidence of practical or theoretical work that addresses key thematic areas in contemporary art and theoretical discourse evidence of collaborative working practices, either in a capacity as an artist or working curatorially evidence of independent working practices, as an artist or curator If you do not meet the academic entry requirements, we may still consider your application on the basis of your portfolio and/or relevant professional experience.

      Should be reworded as so:

      If you do not meet the academic entry requirements, we may still consider your application on the basis of your relevant professional experience.

      Your application should demonstrate:

      good evidence of practical and theoretical knowledge of, and experimentation with, a variety of formal, aesthetic and conceptual approaches to the production and distribution of contemporary art

      good evidence of practical or theoretical work that addresses key thematic areas in contemporary art and theoretical discourse

      some evidence of collaborative working practices, either in a capacity as an artist or working curatorially

      some evidence of independent working practices, as an artist, writer, scholar or curator

    4. interview via Skype

      post-offer interview via Skype, Zoom or MS Teams.

  3. parsejournal.com parsejournal.com
    1. ntra-action with the world rather than in the head of the autonomous subject, and as a sensuous and sensory practice in which mind and body are indistinguishable.
    2. Their modes of operating present an image of how thinking takes shape in and through material and embodied practice
    3. ost-humanist perspective that foregrounds the apparatuses within which possibilities for action and judgement take shape, and confront visitors with the complex ways in which they are part of these systems and networks. How to be a responsible node in an Actor-Network?
    4. potential of mise en scène for exploring thinking as something that happens in the world and in a situation of entanglement with the world
    5. he pop-up store plays with the ways in which companies of all kinds use ethical responsibility and sustainability as part of their branding of consumer goods.
    6. our ways of seeing, making sense and understanding are implicated within the real-life apparatuses that we are part of
    7. the creative process itself can be considered a thinking through material practice. These material compositions do not set the stage for the appearance of actors, but are themselves performers. If human performers are part of the creation, they appear as one type of material among others.
    8. short prose texts that aim to evoke mental images as a result of how they engage their readers.
    9. Knowles, however, does not make this point by means of an argument expressed in language, like Barad does, but by means of a material discursive formation
    10. To what extend does that what is perceived as human agency actually emerge from what is afforded by the ecologies in which humans operate?

      key question here so far

    11. agency as distributed
    12. technology can no longer be understood as a set of tools used by humans, and instead has become an ecology in which humans participate
    13. spectators enact their engagement
    14. non-representationalist understanding of thinking as proposed by Gilles Deleuze and Félix Guattari in their What is Philosophy? (1994). Point of connection is the notion of mise en scène
    15. contemporary performances and installations as examples of thinking understood as a distributed practice
    1. science was a sort of wayfaring

      wayfaring, wanderjahre

    2. the field rather than the laboratory
    3. Research as correspondence, in this sense, is not just what we do but what we undergo. It is a form of experience.
    4. Research, then, becomes a practice of correspondence.[7] It is through corresponding with things that we care for them
    5. methodological arms race,

      See: Weaver, J. A. and N. Snaza (2017). "Against Methodocentrism in Educational Research." Educational Philosophy and Theory 49(11): 1055-1065.

    6. both words share the same etymological root (from the Latin, curar
    7. Heraclitus, to step twice into the running waters of the same river. In short, nothing is ever new, since nothing ever repeats.
    8. research is a process not of iteration but of itineration.[2] It carries on, as life does, not closing in on solutions but ever opening to new horizons.

      itineration not iteration

    9. “Explore” is a word that both scientists and artists often use.

      Explore / exploration

    10. when artists speak of research, they are for the most part implicitly comparing their practice to the explorations of hillwalkers

      Artists-as-hillwalkers; Scientists-as-mountaineers

    11. How could it be, I wondered as I listened to his speech, that while the hillwalkers and artists could keep on exploring, without end, the mountaineer was convinced that it was all over?

      The walker vs the mountaineer

  4. Nov 2020
    1. Ending

      More gastro is - dessert, or 'after dinner'.

    2. Contact our Artists

      Change to

      Contact us

    3. Encountering Problems?

      Change to


    4. Open Learning Project created by MA students of The Edinburgh College of Art (ECA)

      Change to

      Open Learning Project created by Masters of Contemporary Art students at Edinburgh College of Art

    5. leave comments?

      Please comment

    6. Have technical problems?

      Having technical problems?

    7. The Contents

      Change to


      move left so that it's the first thing on the menu; first thing you see

    8. Encountering Problems?

      Change this to


    1. Audience Guide

      This is akin to a table d'hôte; i.e. a set menu that you follow for the best results. Why not call it table d'hôte?

      You could also call booking something more gastro like 'Reservations'?

    2. -Have technical problems with our web page? –Want to contact our Artists and find more details of their works? –How to add comments?

      I'd cut this, and just have a link that takes you to the troubleshooting page

    3. What is this Fair about?

      Change to

      What is this project?

    4. Therefore, this task may require you to one of them before or after the Fair.

      Therefore, this task may require you to do one of them before or after the Fair.

    5. Thurseday


    6. How to have a best experience of the Fair ?

      Change to

      How to experience our project

    7. The Contents

      Change this to


    1. Menu!

      Is 'Menu' the title of the project? If so, that's not clear yet.

      You need to make that clear in the way you present the title and the info that follows (it should all be in a cafe/restaurant menu format).

      The thing about a menu in the gastronomic sense is that it sometimes offers choice, but always within specific limits/a framework (e.g. it might offer several courses - anything from 1-16 is normal in Europe - or it might just feature dim sum/hors d'oeuvres to graze or snack on). Some menus do not offer a choice at all: table d'hôte.See https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Full_course_dinner The 'order anything you want' is a specific structure (a la carte? a buffet?); figure out what it is called and call it that.

  5. Sep 2020
    1. open education need not, strictly speaking, be electronic in form

      No, it need not be.

    2. unnecessary and arbitrary barriers

      This is an interesting idea. How do we identify when a barrier is arbitrary/unnecessary and when it's valid? Most 'masters' will hold that what others think is arbitrary/unnecessary is nothing of the kind. The 'masters' deftly wield their expertise to hold back accusations of the arbitrary/unnecessary.

    3. it is now regarded as necessary to social and personal development

      Why? Where has this idea developed and where/how has it become a necessity?

    4. revolutionary moments in human history

      another protestant rebellion

    5. this paradigm shift

      It it is para-academic, then it's not a paradigm shift, it's a parallel development, or a parasite.

    6. The abundance model represents an emerging paradigm shift from knowledge that is owned and controlled by knowledge elites to knowledge that is accessible to anyone.

      Guttenberg 4.0, 5.0, 6.0.... ad infinatum. The knowledge is accessible, but accessing it still requires a degree of info literacy and an ability to determine what to do with the 'info'.

    7. work alongside

      i.e. they are para-academic

    8. open education should not only be a personal meaning-making experience but also a social one. As such, the open education model moves away from the knowledge scarcity model and toward a knowledge abundance model (McGrath, 2008; Batson, Paharia, and Kumar, 2008).

      Okay, so the abundance model we find in peer production (e.g. P2P Foundation) is here too.

    9. unfettered, anytime, anywhere access to educational resources

      How does an CoP emerge if everyone just accesses a resource async? How does the CoP form around the resource?

    10. A key distinction between traditional and open education is that traditional higher education institutions provide services (e.g., accredited degrees, extensive instructional and support staff, research output) that some open education services may not, nor necessarily intend to.

      +Services vs. content-only Clusters of services = experience economy

    11. Lawrence Lessig, Hal Abelson, and Eric Eldred received funding to establish a new non-profit called Creative Commons

      CC Creative Commons

    12. Concerning respect, it puts the responsibility primarily on the service provider to define the policies and rules to cultivate an environment of mutual respect

      This is a conventional linear, top-down model of governace. The court of the university establishes these rules of conduct. But what if the 'service provider' is P2P? Who establishes the rules for a peer network? What governs moderation?

    13. “4 R” framework, which includes the rights to reuse, revise, redistribute, and remix

      4 R Framework

    14. licensed in such a way that users can both modify and retain the resource in perpetuity

      Adapt the source.

    15. it is designed for the agency of students and teachers and affords them increased control of content and technology

      Another important distinction - OERs are concerned with empowering both students and teachers (horiztonalisation).

    16. Design for access Design for agency Design for ownership Design for participation Design for experience

      These are important markers of what makes something an OER by design/practice rather than just in principle.

    17. Students are free to select those courses and other educational resources that they believe will be most beneficial to them (i.e., it is a voluntary system to satisfy the learning needs of the students).

      Yes, but students often ask for advice on what's most beneficial to them. In OL, where do they get that diagnostic advice if they seek it?

    18. Subject-matter experts (i.e., professors, scholars, teachers, educators) create the content.

      Why can't the 'content' be peer generated? P2P generated content can still be a valid research-based learning resource surely?

    19. asynchronous form of learning and communication

      Async is essential when working across large time zones. How can it be leveraged to make time-shifting an advantage over sync? e.g. Imagine a relay of learning orbiting the world from East to West. The East works on an OER and passes it on to the West before sleeping>The West works on an OER and passes it on to the East before sleeping>verbatim....

    20. allow more people to overcome physical and geographical barriers and constraints.

      What are the limits here?

      Verso: what can we learn from profitably that is constrained by geographic and physical barriers?

    21. spatial, temporal, and process

      Is the source also open? Can we openly access the research that generates an OER?

  6. Aug 2020
  7. www.e-flux.com www.e-flux.com
    1. the Academy project (2006) at the Van Abbemuseum in Eindhoven

      This is now cannonical in this sub-field. A.C.A.D.E.M.Y is a catalogue that doubles as a primer; a primer-catalogue tends to establish an archive that surpasses the event. A good primer-catalogue seals a place in art history.

    2. is being said.

      The problem with the kind of formats mentioned here is that they were always dialogual. There were few formats that focused on tacit knowlege, or making. Talking was never banned but making was frequently absent.

      What Rogoff writes from this point on, takes the dialogual for granted. What about the non-verbal? Art includes talking, but it's also a lot more than talking.

    3. By not being subject to the twin authorities of governing institutions or authoritative academic knowledge

      ??? Documenta is an authority, a governing global art institution, and one that aims to produce authoritative artistic and scholarly knowledge. Lacking self-awareness here!

    4. representational strategies

      Rugoff points out that this sort of work is representational. It isn't an educational process or institution in its own right, rather it looks and feels like one. Rugoff doesn't suggest why artists should be driven to such an aesthetic. Why do they want to reproduce the kind of study-space they are likely to have occupied earlier in their life? Is such work an opportunity to recreate an increasingly hazy environment in ways that idealise it? Perhaps it's a way to improve on something that was less than perfect (following some of Rogoff's earlier suggestions)?

    5. the ability to formulate one’s own questions

      Education certainly is concerned with how we learn to formulate very good questions as well as how we might learn to answer them.

    6. endless demands that are foisted on both culture and education to be accessible

      This needs qualification. Culture and education are very different in term of how they might answer to any 'demands'. Making education accessible is, on the whole, progressive. Education is not openly or easily accessible. We need to widen participation in education rather than close it off. Accessibility in culture can mean something similar, but it can also mean (as Rogoff seems to have it) 'dumbing-down. But even this is problematic - not all culture is 'complex' the way Rogoff wants it. It doesn't have to be complex to be valued/valuable.

    7. Could they become an instrument of liberation, as in the Inverted Research Tool (Edgar Schmitz and Liam Gillick)?

      This could be interesting. Rogoff doesn't tell us what it actually is. We can follow it up, but why not get into more here? A case study can go a long way to making something vague much more interesting and engaging.

    8. What are legitimate questions, and under what conditions are they produced?

      And there were also legitimate questions about who produces questions about the legitimacy of questions, and questions about how we understand the conditions under which questions we choose to question. 💤💤💤💤💤

    9. can never be understood as being enabled simply by a set of skills or opportunities, it must be dependent on a will and a drive.

      The will/drive conclusion here doesn't logically follow on from the oversimplification thesis (vis a vis skills/opps). We could just as easily say that acting is enabled by skills/opps/will/drive combined. Rogoff hasn't demonstrated that they are mutually exclusive.

    10. privatization of academies that result from the Bologna reforms

      Bologna was not concerned with privitising academies. This is something that national governments have pursued. In Europe, the only government that has pursued this is the English one (not Scotland). Across the EU, Higher Education remains free (or close to free) at the point of access. Rogoff was based in Goldsmiths, London when writing this in 2008. The privitisation experience then and there was wholly out of kilter with the rest of Europe.

    11. their reach could be wider, that they might provide sites for doing so much more than they ever thought they could.

      Who is 'we' refering to here? Surely any institution worth its salt is always trying to extend their reach and do more? This is why institutions form and continue to exist (remit/mission). This seems to be off-point though. Education as it's framed here is a practice, not an institution (although education can be hosted by institutions).

    12. vital principles

      This is confusing - Rogoff is calling the 'academy' a 'space' at the start of this sentence, and then a set of 'vital principles'. Which is it? A space or a set of vital principles? They aren't the same thing. So which is it?

    13. the “linguistic turn” in the 1970s

      The linguistic turn was a reading strategy in most disciplines for sure. In art, however, it was somewhat more literal. Analytical Conceptualism, for example, became focused on the language games of analytical philosophy. Semiotics very directly informed Photoconceptualism. So, while I think this is true of the linguistic turn generally, it's not taking it's impact on art into consideration.

    14. is actually descriptive of the drives

      Rogoff is suggesting that a there are desires manifest in art/the artworld that are driving art in a particular direction. Rogoff's not sure if calling it a 'turn' in a broad (umbrella) fashion is very helpful. Perhaps it's missing something? Does it really capture desire?

    15. turn

      Turn is in "scare quotes". This places it in parenthesis - Rogoff isn't taking it as read at all. She's wary of identifying a paradigm shift here. Academia and art are full of 'turns'; this term is loaded. The cultural turn, the material turn, the sensual turn, the nonmodern turn, the culinary turn, the linguistic turn, the historical turn.....etc. In some ways, such 'turns' are intellectual fashions that travel between academia and art. In other senses, 'turns' describe cultural phenomena that already exist but that are becoming increasingly visible or influential. Curating in particular tends to cannibalise academia - so there's an affinity here.

    16. perceived

      Rogoff is careful to qualify this 'percieved'. Rogoff's not jumping to side with this perception, but simply noting that it's a way of seeing.

    17. Or, did we privilege the coming-together of people in space and trust that formats and substances would emerge from these?


    18. But did we put any value on what was actually being said?

      Was there always value in what was being said?

    19. artists, scientists, philosophers, critics, economists, architects, planners

      important professionals, like us

    20. and so on

      i.e. nobody else.

    21. Yet on the other hand, it has led all too easily into the emergence of a mode of “pedagogical aesthetics” in which a table in the middle of the room

      Yes, this was, and remains, a meme.

    22. In education, when we challenge an idea, we suggest that there is room for imagining another way of thinking. By doing so in a way that does not overcome the original idea, we don’t expend energy forming opposition, but reserve it for imagining alternatives


    23. a discussion

      A discussion? Not exactly charged with urgency - what about action?

    24. “the crisis in education.”

      Crisis criticism generates the crisis to then offer a cure. Doctors and Patients.

    25. Emergency is always reactive to a set of state imperatives that produce an endless chain of crises, mostly of our own making.

      Yes. It's also the well established routine of disaster capitalism.

    26. might instead encompass fallibility

      Repeating the 'fail again, fail better' mantra. This is already gospel in art academies.

    27. never be able to bring to successful fruition

      This is likely because education is underfunded!

    28. endless

      They could be finite, due to human finitude?

    29. might

      might (more qualification)

    30. might


    31. At its best, education forms collectivities—many fleeting collectivities that ebb and flow, converge and fall apart.

      Education can be the grounds to collectivise, but you can learn well atomised too (desert monks). There's a normative praise for fleeting collectives here (= lasting collective are bad). This was something of an unwritten artworld rule by the 00s.

    32. unexpected and momentary conjunctions

      How was it 'unexpected'? It was, literally, called Summit! 😂

    33. academics, art world citizens, union organizers, activists

      i.e. 'people like me'

    34. the broadly defined field of “education.”

      I don't think this is a broad definition of education. The list of people here have an active stake in education either as professional teachers (academics) or as consciousness-raisers (citizens, trade unionists, activists). A broad definition would need to include people with no idea of what their stake in education might be.

    35. and many others

      in practice (since they are unnamed) meaning, no others.

    36. is by definition

      By what definition? Education hasn't been defined in this text. Nor have we been referred to any such definitions.

    37. shared curiosities, shared subjectivities, shared sufferings, and shared passions

      It's good to share, but the list of things that are shared here is perhaps unrealistic (shared subjectivities)? You can be a paragogue, pool resources and support your peers without having to all do and feel and suffer the same way.

    38. Because, with Bologna and all its discontents

      It's interesting that in Europe, Bologna is pitched as the driving force behind the turn - the DIT movement. In the USA the driver of the DIT movement is not Bologna (no political jurisdiction or academic influence there) but the cost of higher education, specifically graduate education. It's just too costly. Viewed from the US, the EU Bologna system - free education and financial support for mobility - is a garden of roses.

    39. the site of shrinkage and disappointment

      These are good words to describe how a lot of educationalists feel - this is clearly based in lived experience, but it needs to be a bit more fleshed out to engage those who haven't known or felt this.

    40. etc.

      etc. lazy, says it all. None of this is really worked out. It's a 'voice of endless complaint' that isn't backed up with why the complaints are legit. The problem here is that Rogoff is assuming the reader knows and shares this view. While this is likely (e-flux) it still needs to be fleshed out more.

    41. If education is forever reacting to the woes of the world

      Is education forevcer reacting to the woes of the world? How so?

    42. its constant commoditization, its over-bureaucratization, its ever-increasing emphasis on predictable outcomes, etc

      Repeating the same accusations, again, sans evidence.

    43. self-organized, activist initiatives

      False dichotomy. Such initiatives are still forms of institutional practice. See Mary Douglas - How Institutions Think

    44. questions

      Does anybody have any questions?

    45. The seminar class, the think tank, the government department, the statistician’s bureau are sites for the production of questions, but we were suggesting others born of fleeting, arbitrary conversations between strangers, of convivial loitering and of unexpected lines of flight in and out of the museum as in the Ambulator project (Susan Kelly, Janna Graham, Valeria Graziano)

      I gotta lotta questions for you people! It's all questions so far. It's easy to ask questions. What about some answers? (see, that was really easy).

    46. “What can we learn from the museum?”

      Not a very good question (surely)?

    47. aimed at eliciting the unseen and unmarked possibilities that already exist within these spaces

      So, this is really about allowing the museum to breathe, to pause it's routine of generating a display/spectacle, and dig deeper. This is a valuable exercise for any institution.

    48. Similarly, they allow us to think of “learning” as taking place in situations or sites that don’t necessarily intend or prescribe such activity.

      Yes, good point. Learning can happen anywhere.

    49. such processes

      such processes ... suggests that education is a process contined within spaces/activities. This needs to be fleshed out. Is education is a process? How so? (It could be, but this is simply asserted here).

    50. individual subjectivities

      ? calling subjectivity 'individual subjectivities' tends to distinguish it from 'social processes'

    51. More importantly, it must always include within it an element of fallibility—the possibility that acting will end in failure

      Why does it have to include this? Rogoff here is, unwittingly, advocating Jean Piaget’s principle of accommodation, one that underpins constructivist educational theory: wherein pre-existing knowledge schema no longer function and have to be reframed to accommodate new learning. (Piaget 1952) Accommodation requires the partial unlearning of schema that have “failed” us. This is a mantra repeated constantly in art education - fail again, fail better. etc. It is possible that Piaget is wrong and that all of the Piaget influence (which Rogoff has absorbed here) is fallacious too.

    52. such official assessments of how learning can be evaluated and appreciated

      Bologna? Still hasn't told us what Bologna was, or how it would prevent potentiality and actualization.

    53. monitoring and outcome-based culture

      Again, where's the evidence that this is the culture? There are two cultures in academies. The quality assurance culture (which is imposed upon academies) and the scholarly culture which tends to shrug its shoulders at at the quality assurance culture and get on with what actually interests it.

    54. professionalization

      Professionalization is what academies have always been concerned with. They codify practices, teach them to students, and accredit students to certify their professional competence. This is why we can trust our dentist to give us a filling.

    55. activities and principles you can take with you and which can be applied beyond its walls to become a mode of life-long learning

      Now this could have been lifted verbatim from the Bologna Accord (lifelong learning is a key EU educational objective). The idea that learning has to be applied is utilitarianism - something that most educationalists would reject.

      Of course it is completely ludicrous to suggest - as this does - that academies haven't thought that what they teaching might relate to what goes on outside of the academy.

    56. vital principles and activities

      What are these 'vital principles' we are hearing about in this essay? All sounds like an empty promise; a tagline.

    57. cademies often focus on what it is that people need to know

      Really (evidence)? How do academies know what it is that people need to know?

    58. tension between the question of what one needs to know

      ??? tension between what one needs to know...

    59. a generative moment in which a new horizon emerges in the process—leaving behind the practice that was its originating point?

      The various turns in academe and art are often turns against, rather than away from, a dominant paradigm. For example, the material turn is a turn against many of the cherished ideas associated with the social turn.

    60. the museum to open a place for people to engage ideas differently

      Differently to what?

      Museums - in 2008 - were open places for people to engage ideas (at least those that did not charge entrance fees).

    61. beyond what it sets out to teach us

      Again, this seems to really misrepresent museums. It's a caricature of the museum. Museums aren't didactic (at least not in 2008), they do not 'set out to teach us'. Museums care for the things that they host; they conserve. Museums also do significant research.

    62. producing perfectly trained, efficient, and informed workers for the cultural sector

      Not really what Bologna was aiming for - it was actually about enabling students and scholars to learn from their Wanderjahre. This really is something deeply routed in European learning, it dates back to the early middle ages, to before the era of nation/states. Bologna was trying to rekindle this.

    63. actualization

      actualization - vague

    64. actualization

      Lots of actualization here. Not much actualization of clarity.

    65. Let’s really politicize education.

      Again, it already was politicised and can't really not be.

    66. a broader range of institutional activities

      Very vague. Institutional activities sounds a bit sinister!

    67. the principles we cherish in the education process

      What exactly are the principles we cherish in the education process? Doesn't tell us what they are. Assumes that we all cherish the same principles.

    68. unexpected politicization of the discussion around education

      This is telling. Since when has the discussion of education been anything other than politicised?! Education is fundamental to the class structure for staters.

    69. with their emphasis on quantifiable and comparable outcomes

      This is testimony to a lack of engagement with educational research in Europe. Firstly, the general approach to learning outcomes in Bologna (constructivism) was very very well established in K-12 schooling (pedagogy) and FE/HE (andragogy) globally. The EU was really catching up here. Secondly, the EU was aiming to improve the Erasmus+ exchange programme with the goal of ensuring mobility in each cycle (UG>PGT>PhD). The Erasmus+ exchange programme has been one of the great success stories of the EU and the attempt to create a very basic linga franca to enable it was a highly ambitious grand project that challenged the kind of neorealist educational politics that hindered Europe for so many centuries.

    70. can surpass their current functions

      What vital current functions? We need to know what they are before we know if they can surpass them (or if they are worth surpassing, they might be okay as they are.)

    71. these questions ask

      This is the pathetic fallacy. Questions don't ask anything, people ask questions.

    72. How might we also perhaps apply them to our institutions?

      Apply the vital principles? But the academy is an institution. This is circular.

    73. speculation, expansion, and reflexivity without the constant demand for proven results

      This is pitching 'speculation, expansion, and reflexivity' against a straw man. The straw man is the idea that academia is constantly demanding proven results. Academia is preoccupied with speculation, expansion, and reflexivity. Proven results = completed research. Academia isn't interested so much in that. The demand for proven results is thus more likely a sideways swipe at educational constructivism, specifically the Bologna Process an oven-ready Bogey Man in discussions about education in Europe. In art/education discourse, the Bologna Process is a bit like neoliberalism; it's blamed for all ills but never defined or elucidated.

    74. as a moment of learning within the safe space of an academic institution

      This is a bit confused. If an academy is time-based (a moment of learning) why does it have to be in an academic institution? A moment of learning could happen anywhere. It doesn't have to occur in an instition at all, never mind an academy. It's also not the case that academic institutions are safe spaces; the battle to make them safe spaces still rages.

    75. the museum sets out to show or teach

      This begs the question... what exactly is it that the museum sets out to show or teach? There are lots of museums doing different things with different things, many modalities. This is quite a vague question that seems to suggest museums are monolithic entities that can only support a limited range of learning styles. Most museum curators (and educational officers) would contest this!

    76. threaten to harden into a recognizable “style,”

      Art criticism, since the end of the '70s at least, is always suspicious of style. Style = bad. Style without substance. It's true that there are lots of examples of artworks that have an edu-style, much as, say, there were lots of art works that had an 'administrative aesthetic' during the heyday of Conceptual Art in the '60s and '70s. But I don't buy the idea that style = bad. It seems to be bias that design theory and cult studs got over long long ago.

    77. “knowledge economies”

      Yup. This is the kind of flattening language of management culture that imagines knowledge to be just another a commodity that's produced and 'delivered' (deliver a programme; post content).

    78. Although quite different in their genesis, methodology, and protocols

      Yes, they are different disciplines and have their own practices and ways of seeing.

    79. address education

      It didn't really address organised education (K-12, FE, HE) since that wasn't artistic or sexy enough. Nor did it tend to have any enagement with educational research (beyond fairly dated radical pedagogy). It was more concerned with platforming something akin to consciousness raising.

    80. an active movement

      Of course, there has been an active movement to engage with education by activists per se (e.g. Workers' Ed Movement, Consciousness Raising, Ragged Schools, etc.). So it's likely that there is going to be something tangible here.

    81. an aesthetics of pedagogy

      This would be producing works of art or curating exhibitions that are representations of what 'teaching' looks like/of how it is practised. They remain representations of learning rather than learning practices.

    82. reading one system—a pedagogical one

      This is an interesting idea - we take a method from one discipline and use it to read, or gain a different insight into, another. This is called 'extradisciplinarity'. Art is notoriously extradisciplinary.