265 Matching Annotations
  1. Jan 2020
    1. hyperphagia
    2. anteverted nares
    3. short nose
    4. low-set ears
    5. widely spaced eyes
    6. thick eyebrows
    7. flat face
    8. dolichocephaly
    9. speech impairment
    10. severe developmental delay
    1. aortic dilatation
    2. small patent ductus arteriosus
    3. ventricular septal defect
    4. atrial septal defect
    5. mitral valve regurgitation
    6. aggressive behaviors
    7. attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
    8. central obesity
    9. cryptorchidism
    10. Talipes equinovarus
    11. arachnodactyly
    12. scoliosis
    13. excavatum
    14. pectus carinatum
    15. short philtrum
    16. large ears
    17. midface hypoplasia
    18. open-mouth appearance
    19. long face
    20. hypotonia
    21. tall stature
    22. intellectual disability (ID)
    23. developmental delay
    1. Suppose the algorithm chooses a tree that splits on education but not on age. Conditional on this tree, the estimated coefficients are consistent. But that does not imply that treatment effects do not also vary by age, as education may well covary with age; on other draws of the data, in fact, the same procedure could have chosen a tree that split on age instead

      a caveat

    2. hese heterogenous treatment effects can be used to assign treatments; Misra and Dubé (2016) illustrate this on the problem of price targeting, applying Bayesian regularized methods to a large-scale experiment where prices were randomly assigned

      todo -- look into the implication for treatment assignment with heterogeneity

    3. Chernozhukov, Chetverikov, Demirer, Duflo, Hansen, and Newey (2016) take care of high-dimensional controls in treatment effect estimation by solving two simultaneous prediction problems, one in the outcome and one in the treatment equation.

      this seems similar to my idea of regularizing on only a subset of the variables

    4. These same techniques applied here result in split-sample instrumental variables (Angrist and Krueger 1995) and “jackknife” instrumental variables

      some classical solutions to IV bias are akin to ML solutions

    5. Understood this way, the finite-sample biases in instrumental variables are a consequence of overfitting.

      traditional 'finite sample bias of IV' is really overfitting

    6. Even when we are interested in a parameter β ˆ, the tool we use to recover that parameter may contain (often implicitly) a prediction component. Take the case of linear instrumental variables understood as a two-stage procedure: first regress x = γ′z + δ on the instrument z, then regress y = β′x + ε on the fitted values x ˆ. The first stage is typically handled as an estimation step. But this is effectively a prediction task: only the predictions x ˆ enter the second stage; the coefficients in the first stage are merely a means to these fitted values.

      first stage of IV -- handled as an estimation problem, but really it's a prediction problem!

    7. Prediction in the Service of Estimation

      This is especially relevant to economists across the board, even the ML skeptics

    8. New Data

      The first application: constructing variables and meaning from high-dimensional data, especially outcome variables

      • satellite images (of energy use, lights etc) --> economic activity
      • cell phone data, Google street view to measure wealth
      • extract similarity of firms from 10k reports
      • even traditional data .. matching individuals in historical censuses
    9. Zhao and Yu (2006) who establish asymptotic model-selection consistency for the LASSO. Besides assuming that the true model is “sparse”—only a few variables are relevant—they also require the “irrepresentable condition” between observables: loosely put, none of the irrelevant covariates can be even moderately related to the set of relevant ones.

      Basically unrealistic for microeconomic applications imho

    10. First, it encourages the choice of less complex, but wrong models. Even if the best model uses interactions of number of bathrooms with number of rooms, regularization may lead to a choice of a simpler (but worse) model that uses only number of fireplaces. Second, it can bring with it a cousin of omitted variable bias, where we are typically concerned with correlations between observed variables and unobserved ones. Here, when regular-ization excludes some variables, even a correlation between observed variables and other observed (but excluded) ones can create bias in the estimated coefficients.

      Is this equally a problem for procedures that do not assum sparsity, such as the Ridge model?

    11. 97the variables are correlated with each other (say the number of rooms of a house and its square-footage), then such variables are substitutes in predicting house prices. Similar predictions can be produced using very different variables. Which variables are actually chosen depends on the specific finite sample.

      Lasso-chosen variables are unstable because of what we usually call 'multicollinearity.'<br> This presents a problem for making inferences from estimated coefficients.

    12. Through its regularizer, LASSO produces a sparse prediction function, so that many coefficients are zero and are “not used”—in this example, we find that more than half the variables are unused in each run

      This is true but they fail to mention that LASSO also shrinks the coefficients on variables that it keeps towards zero (relative to OLS). I think this is commonly misunderstood (from people I've spoken with).

    13. One obvious problem that arises in making such inferences is the lack of stan-dard errors on the coefficients. Even when machine-learning predictors produce familiar output like linear functions, forming these standard errors can be more complicated than seems at first glance as they would have to account for the model selection itself. In fact, Leeb and Pötscher (2006, 2008) develop conditions under which it is impossible to obtain (uniformly) consistent estimates of the distribution of model parameters after data-driven selection.

      This is a very serious limitation for Economics academic work.

    14. First, econometrics can guide design choices, such as the number of folds or the function class.

      How would Econometrics guide us in this?

    15. These choices about how to represent the features will interact with the regularizer and function class: A linear model can reproduce the log base area per room from log base area and log room number easily, while a regression tree would require many splits to do so.

      The choice of 'how to represent the features' is consequential ... it's not just 'throw it all in' (kitchen sink approach)

    16. Ta b l e 2Some Machine Learning Algorithms

      This is a very helpful table!

    17. Picking the prediction func-tion then involves two steps: The first step is, conditional on a level of complexity, to pick the best in-sample loss-minimizing function.8 The second step is to estimate the optimal level of complexity using empirical tuning (as we saw in cross-validating the depth of the tree).

      ML explained while standing on one leg.

    18. egularization combines with the observability of predic-tion quality to allow us to fit flexible functional forms and still find generalizable structure.

      But we can't really make statistical inferences about the structure, can we?

    19. This procedure works because prediction quality is observable: both predic-tions y ˆ and outcomes y are observed. Contrast this with parameter estimation, where typically we must rely on assumptions about the data-generating process to ensure consistency.

      I'm not clear what the implication they are making here is. Does it in some sense 'not work' with respect to parameter estimation?

    20. In empirical tuning, we create an out-of-sample experiment inside the original sample.

      remember that tuning is done within the training sample

    21. Performance of Different Algorithms in Predicting House Values

      Any reason they didn't try a Ridge or an Elastic net model here? My instinct is that these will beat LASSO for most Economic applications.

    22. We consider 10,000 randomly selected owner-occupied units from the 2011 metropolitan sample of the American Housing Survey. In addition to the values of each unit, we also include 150 variables that contain information about the unit and its location, such as the number of rooms, the base area, and the census region within the United States. To compare different prediction tech-niques, we evaluate how well each approach predicts (log) unit value on a separate hold-out set of 41,808 units from the same sample. All details on the sample and our empirical exercise can be found in an online appendix available with this paper athttp://e-jep.org

      Seems a useful example for trying/testing/benchmarking. But the link didn't work for me. Can anyone find it? Is it interactive? (This is why I think papers should be html and not pdfs...)

    23. Making sense of complex data such as images and text often involves a prediction pre-processing step.

      In using 'new kinds of data' in Economics we often need to do a 'classification step' first

    24. The fundamental insight behind these breakthroughs is as much statis-tical as computational. Machine intelligence became possible once researchers stopped approaching intelligence tasks procedurally and began tackling them empirically.

      I hadn't thought about how this unites the 'statistics to learn stuff' part of ML and the 'build a tool to do a task' part. Well-phrased.

    25. In another category of applications, the key object of interest is actually a parameter β, but the inference procedures (often implicitly) contain a prediction task. For example, the first stage of a linear instrumental variables regres-sion is effectively prediction. The same is true when estimating heterogeneous treatment effects, testing for effects on multiple outcomes in experiments, and flexibly controlling for observed confounders.

      This is most relevant tool for me. Before I learned about ML I often thought about using 'stepwise selection' for such tasks... to find the best set of 'control variables' etc. But without regularisation this seemed problematic.

    26. Machine Learning: An Applied Econometric Approach

      Shall we use Hypothesis to have a discussion ?

  2. Dec 2019
    1. coagulopathy
    2. hyperammonemia
    3. Abnormal femoral head epiphysis
    4. Irregular vertebrae
    5. Hypoplastic vertebrae
    6. INR
    7. RALF
    8. Hepatomegaly
    9. Prothrombin time
    10. Total bilirubin
    11. AST
    12. ALT
    13. Glucose
  • Nov 2019
    1. The only place he could think of was the Trianon in mid-town

      Mapping Assignment Location - Emi and Ichiro go dancing

    2. Thinking that he heard a knocking on the front door, he remained still and listened. It came again, faintly, hesitantly. He went through the store, wondering who it could be.

      Emi coming to Ichiro's store to talk about his mother's passing - Mapping Assignment location

    3. He squirmed uneasily and wondered if Taro would acknowledge the telegram which he had sent the day before after finally having hunted down the information that he was taking basic training in a California camp

      Mapping Assignment Location - Taro's location during Ma's funeral

    4. HE FUNERAL WAS HELD SEVERAL DAYS LATER AT THE BUDDHIST church up on the hill next to a playground.

      Mapping Assignment Location - Ma's funeral

    5. They did not speak again until the car was beside the grocery store.

      Mapping assignment

    6. I went to Portland with him.”

      Mapping Assignment Location

    7. ‘Put my ashes in an orange crate and dump them in the Sound off Connecticut Street Dock where the sewer runs out,’

      Mapping Assignment Location

    8. It scared him to think that he might be sobering up.

      What scared him more, sobering up or facing reality?

    1. We can take any data set and put it into a pie chart, a continuous graph, a scatter plot, a tree map and so on.

      I have always questioned this because I feel that some information or data can not be put into any sort of visual representation.

    1. Which process is the leader of a group of processes? What is the set of processes in a group?

      questões importantes na gestão do grupo

    1. The use of a legend and symbols helps, but cartographers, artists, and designers have also introduced spatial distortions and warps that are unusual and imaginative.

      I never thought that mapping would be so complex!

    2. how we might expand the conventions of map-making to include the kinds of experiential aspects of human culture that are absent from many conventions.

      I am interested to see where the mapping industry goes, as everything is becoming digitalized, will paper maps still be used? What demographic still buys them now and who will buy them in the future?

    3. very projection is a distortion, but the nature of the distortions varies depending on the ways the images are constructed and the purpose they are meant to serve

      I find this to be so interesting. Every map of the globe that I look at I assumed was the same, but this is making me rethink that logic.

  • Oct 2019
    1. In their absence, some airports have had to close checkpoints, as Baltimore-Washington International did over the weekend

      Low staffing has caused airports to close certain checkpoints which jeopardizes the safety of air travelers.

    1. Eyewitness News has learned that the organisation that runs the Spar supermarket franchise has instructed that a human resources audit be conducted at all the Spars owned by Chris Giannakopoulos, who has been accused of assaulting staff and unfair labour practice.Giannakopoulos first started making headlines in October last year when he was accused of beating a female employee at the Food Lover's Market store in Hartebeespoort. He was scheduled to appear in court a week ago, but that the matter was struck from the role.The Giannakopoulos Group owns and operates more than two dozen Spars and also has interests in Food Lover's Market and OK Foods.Eyewitness News has seen a Spar guild letter to Giannakopoulos in which it states that he will no longer be allowed to play in role in the management and control of the Spars in the Giannakopoulos Group.The guild says that a human resources audit will be conducted at their Spars twice a year and the group is to dispose of its interests in Food Lover's Market and OK Food.The guild warns that if the Giannakopoulos Group fails to adhere to these instructions, it will remove all the Spars from the group.Spar’s Mandy Hogan declined to answer questions related to the content of the letter but says the company does not condone criminal behavior by any person and will take appropriate action where a person is found guilty.

      https://ewn.co.za/2019/01/14/spar-issues-ultimatum-to-franchise-owner-over-compliance-with-hr-audit Eyewitness News has learned that the organisation that runs the Spar supermarket franchise has instructed that a human resources audit be conducted at all the Spars owned by Chris Giannakopoulos, who has been accused of assaulting staff and unfair labour practice.

      Giannakopoulos first started making headlines in October last year when he was accused of beating a female employee at the Food Lover's Market store in Hartebeespoort. He was scheduled to appear in court a week ago, but that the matter was struck from the role.

      The Giannakopoulos Group owns and operates more than two dozen Spars and also has interests in Food Lover's Market and OK Foods.

      Eyewitness News has seen a Spar guild letter to Giannakopoulos in which it states that he will no longer be allowed to play in role in the management and control of the Spars in the Giannakopoulos Group.

      The guild says that a human resources audit will be conducted at their Spars twice a year and the group is to dispose of its interests in Food Lover's Market and OK Food.

      The guild warns that if the Giannakopoulos Group fails to adhere to these instructions, it will remove all the Spars from the group.

      Spar’s Mandy Hogan declined to answer questions related to the content of the letter but says the company does not condone criminal behavior by any person and will take appropriate action where a person is found guilty.

    1. https://citizen.co.za/news/south-africa/news-update/2192688/business-as-usual-for-spar-stores-closed-after-owners-accused-of-bringing-brand-into-disrepute/

      The 22 stores, which would have re-opened on Saturday under the control of the Spar Group South Africa, will revert to the control of the Giannacopoulos Group. It was business as usual for the Giannacopoulos Group after winning its High Court appeal late on Friday, reports Zululand Observer.

      The group appealed the closure of its 22 Spar stores and 21 Tops Bottle Stores, which was overturned. The stores, which would have re-opened on Saturday under the control of the Spar Group South Africa, will revert to the control of the Giannacopoulos Group.

      Shoppers at various Spar outlets in Richards Bay and Empangeni, as well as in Hartebeespoort, were greeted on Thursday morning by signs on the closed doors, after stores were sealed by the Sheriff’s office in accordance with a High Court application, Zululand Observer and Kormorant reported.

      A statement from the Spar Divisional Managing Director Desmond Borrageira, said a decision was taken by The Spar Guild of Southern Africa Limited “to terminate the membership of the stores which fall within the Giannacopoulos Group”, claiming it was “competing with businesses of retail members and bringing the Spar brand into disrepute”.

    2. Annotations

      https://ewn.co.za/2019/01/14/spar-issues-ultimatum-to-franchise-owner-over-compliance-with-hr-audit

      Eyewitness News has learned that the organisation that runs the Spar supermarket franchise has instructed that a human resources audit be conducted at all the Spars owned by Chris Giannakopoulos, who has been accused of assaulting staff and unfair labour practice.

      Giannakopoulos first started making headlines in October last year when he was accused of beating a female employee at the Food Lover's Market store in Hartebeespoort. He was scheduled to appear in court a week ago, but that the matter was struck from the role.

      The Giannakopoulos Group owns and operates more than two dozen Spars and also has interests in Food Lover's Market and OK Foods.

      Eyewitness News has seen a Spar guild letter to Giannakopoulos in which it states that he will no longer be allowed to play in role in the management and control of the Spars in the Giannakopoulos Group.

      The guild says that a human resources audit will be conducted at their Spars twice a year and the group is to dispose of its interests in Food Lover's Market and OK Food.

      The guild warns that if the Giannakopoulos Group fails to adhere to these instructions, it will remove all the Spars from the group.

      Spar’s Mandy Hogan declined to answer questions related to the content of the letter but says the company does not condone criminal behavior by any person and will take appropriate action where a person is found guilty.

    3. https://ewn.co.za/2019/01/14/spar-issues-ultimatum-to-franchise-owner-over-compliance-with-hr-audit

      EWN has learned that the organisation that runs the Spar supermarket franchise has instructed that a human resources audit be conducted at all the Spars owned by Chris Giannakopoulos, who has been accused of assaulting staff and unfair labour practice.

      Eyewitness News has learned that the organisation that runs the Spar supermarket franchise has instructed that a human resources audit be conducted at all the Spars owned by Chris Giannakopoulos, who has been accused of assaulting staff and unfair labour practice.

      Giannakopoulos first started making headlines in October last year when he was accused of beating a female employee at the Food Lover's Market store in Hartebeespoort. He was scheduled to appear in court a week ago, but that the matter was struck from the role.

      The Giannakopoulos Group owns and operates more than two dozen Spars and also has interests in Food Lover's Market and OK Foods.

      Eyewitness News has seen a Spar guild letter to Giannakopoulos in which it states that he will no longer be allowed to play in role in the management and control of the Spars in the Giannakopoulos Group.

      The guild says that a human resources audit will be conducted at their Spars twice a year and the group is to dispose of its interests in Food Lover's Market and OK Food.

      The guild warns that if the Giannakopoulos Group fails to adhere to these instructions, it will remove all the Spars from the group.

      Spar’s Mandy Hogan declined to answer questions related to the content of the letter but says the company does not condone criminal behavior by any person and will take appropriate action where a person is found guilty.

    1. https://ewn.co.za/2019/01/14/spar-issues-ultimatum-to-franchise-owner-over-compliance-with-hr-audit

      SPAR ISSUES ULTIMATUM TO FRANCHISE OWNER OVER COMPLIANCE WITH HR AUDIT EWN has learned that the organisation that runs the Spar supermarket franchise has instructed that a human resources audit be conducted at all the Spars owned by Chris Giannakopoulos, who has been accused of assaulting staff and unfair labour practice.

      Eyewitness News has learned that the organisation that runs the Spar supermarket franchise has instructed that a human resources audit be conducted at all the Spars owned by Chris Giannakopoulos, who has been accused of assaulting staff and unfair labour practice.

      Giannakopoulos first started making headlines in October last year when he was accused of beating a female employee at the Food Lover's Market store in Hartebeespoort. He was scheduled to appear in court a week ago, but that the matter was struck from the role.

      The Giannakopoulos Group owns and operates more than two dozen Spars and also has interests in Food Lover's Market and OK Foods.

      Eyewitness News has seen a Spar guild letter to Giannakopoulos in which it states that he will no longer be allowed to play in role in the management and control of the Spars in the Giannakopoulos Group.

      The guild says that a human resources audit will be conducted at their Spars twice a year and the group is to dispose of its interests in Food Lover's Market and OK Food.

      The guild warns that if the Giannakopoulos Group fails to adhere to these instructions, it will remove all the Spars from the group.

      Spar’s Mandy Hogan declined to answer questions related to the content of the letter but says the company does not condone criminal behavior by any person and will take appropriate action where a person is found guilty.

  • Sep 2019
    1. Plasmids (IncP/N/W)with 373short and rigid pili only transfer efficiently on solid surfaces, unlike those with longand flexible 374pili (IncF/H/T/J),capable of transferring equally well in liquidand on solid surfaces[35,36]

      Plasmid group vs pili length

    1. ATE introduced various kinds of lubrication pumps which can transfer liquids at high pressure without affecting its properties. Lubrication system helps to deliver a controlled amount of lubricant to multiple parts of the machine. ATE Group’s lubrication pumps have many benefits like reducing machinery and component maintenance cost, proper lubrication flow and increase productivity.

  • Aug 2019
  • Jul 2019
    1. Pretender in Spain

      The “Pretender in Spain” is a reference to James Francis Edward Stuart, who made a claim to the British throne in 1701. He was called "The Old Pretender" because, though he was son of King James II, he was a Catholic and, in 1701, the Act of Settlement was passed making it illegal to for the throne to be held by any non-protestant. He was recognized, however, as the King of England, Scotland and Ireland by the Pope and the King of France and he ultimately lived out his days in Rome where he established a court in exile. Most of the Irish were Catholic and viewed the English as oppressors. He was, therefore, a symbol of hope to the Irish and some left Ireland to enlist in support of him. More info here. Swift is suggesting that this large cohort of poor, Irish children are likely to be supporters of a figure who is a threat to the English monarch.

  • May 2019
    1. I can see how the drama of this moment is enticing. It offers a grandeur, a sweeping purity to our possibly flawed and fumbling and ambivalent selves. It justifies all our failings and setbacks and mediocrities; it wasn’t us, it was men, or the patriarchy, holding us back, objectifying us. It is easier to think, for instance, that we were discriminated against than that our story wasn’t good enough or original enough to be published in The Paris Review, or even that it did not meet the editor’s highly idiosyncratic yet widely revered tastes. Or that a man said something awful and sexual to us while we were working on a television show, and we got depressed and could never again achieve what we might have. And yet do we really in our hearts believe that is the whole story? Is this a complete and satisfying explanation? There is, of course, sexism, which looms and shadows us in all kinds of complicated and unmappable ways, but is it the totalizing force, the central organizing narrative, of our lives? This is where the movement veers from important and exhilarating correction into implausibility and rationalization. (One of the deeply anonymous says, “This seems like such a boring way to look at your life.”)

      I absolutely agree with this conclusion--mob mentality has always been more detrimental than beneficial if at all, and we should be able to see this clearly in the United States today. However, I feel like this point could have been made in a satisfactory manner halfway through this essay. I could see this conclusion coming from the beginning of the second page and the bits about Lorin Stein and Moira Donegan's hypocrisy could have been a separate essay by themselves. Otherwise a very sensible and interesting read.

    2. I have a feeling that if one met @yoloethics or the rest of her Twitter cohort in person, they would seem normal, funny, smart, well read. But the vicious energy and ugliness is there beneath the fervor of our new reckoning, adeptly disguised as exhilarating social change. It feels as if the feminist moment is, at times, providing cover for vindictiveness and personal vendettas and office politics and garden-variety disappointment, that what we think of as purely positive social change is also, for some, blood sport.

      I love the references to the Roman empire here--the description of twitter followers as cohorts and the twitter frenzy as a blood sport really hits home the disturbing and vindictive nature of this entire issue.

    3. It can be hard to disentangle one man and the things he may or may not have done from hundreds of years of sexist oppression.

      In terms of workplace harassment in particular, this statement is revealing of a larger issue--I was searching for a comprehensive analysis of the global incidence of workplace sexual harassment in the, but apparently as of 2015 there was no survey done since 1994. This is truly alarming to me, as there is a sincere lack of data and this is just helping to feed this twitter frenzy issue. This may be the main reason why company policies are slow to change.

      Source: https://wol.iza.org/uploads/articles/188/pdfs/sexual-harassment-in-workplace.pdf

    4. “I like Lorin,” she told me. “I don’t have a personal stake in this.” She then informed me that he had sexually harassed two interns at Farrar, Straus and Giroux, where he had worked before his Paris Review tenure, leading to hushed-up, sealed settlements. She delivered this piece of highly specific information so confidently that I did not stop and think, even though I teach in a journalism department: Is this factually correct?

      I understand that this feeds into Roiphe's argument that the twitter frenzy happens the same way, but it would have served her argument better to include an instance from twitter itself. This and the next few paragraphs make this and the twitter issue seem resigned to human nature. The final paragraph is a good objection to it, but here its treated too lightly in my opinion.

    5. The night the New York Times broke the news of Stein’s resignation, I was with one of the deeply anonymous women in a coffee shop, and after I left she ran out and caught up to me on the dark street to tell me about it. When I got home, I saw that @MegaMoira had tweeted a photo of the piece with the words, “champagne anyone.” I thought of the email Lorin had sent me when my book on writers’ deaths, The Violet Hour, came out. It was such a strange, private project, but in a few lines he made it vivid again to me, renewed and energized me on a long winter afternoon to sit down and start something new. However one feels about the end of an era at The Paris Review, it doesn’t seem like a time for celebration.

      While I believe that Stein's resignation needed to happen, Roiphe is correct in her sentiment that nobody really wins from this situation. The Paris Review is worse off as a company for not having him anymore and the fact that he would commit such offenses broke the hearts of everyone close to him.

    6. However, after the list came out but before Lorin Stein resigned as editor of The Paris Review, she tweeted: “every profile of Lorin Stein calls him ‘skinny and bespectacled’ but here’s the thing: he’s not that skinny.” She added: “I guess ‘bespectacled, bald, and busting out [of] the bespoke shirts he’s still having made with 15 year old measurements’ doesn’t have the same ring to it.” Later, these tweets were deleted. But if we could think in less gendered terms for a moment, one could reasonably ask: Who is harassing whom?

      I absolutely agree here--this does not venture beyond petty name-calling and is more crucially a demeaning of the person based on his appearance, which is one of the behaviors considered harassment by Donegan. This certainly puts renewed insight into her mindset when she says she wants a more respectful world.

    7. I feel blessed to live in a society where you are free to walk through the city at night. I just don’t think those of us who are privileged white women with careers are really that afraid.

      The question of safety at night is an interesting one and I don't think the answer is as simple as the society (especially in the city, where intimacy is not ambient but compartmentalized) in which one acts. Even the presence of streetlights (and by extension the invention and proliferation of electric lighting) has a large impact on safety at night. Money surely has a place in it as well.

    8. Here is what the last few days have reminded me: white men, even those on the left, are so safe, so insulated from the policies of a reactionary presidency, that many of them view politics as entertainment, a distraction without consequences, in which they get to indulge their vanity by fantasizing that they are on the side of good. . . . The morning after the election, I found the penis-shaped shot glass in my kitchen and threw it against the wall. I am not proud of this, but it felt good to destroy something a white man loved.

      And yet, the way you write those sentences, especially the one at the end, makes it look like you are indeed proud of that. It makes you seem pettier than you intended to be. Also I really don't understand the concept of penis shaped shot glasses--it seems like it would be more difficult to drink from than a wide glass.

    9. Every woman, every day, when she leaves her house, starts to think about safety. Can I go here? Should I go out there?. . . Do I need to find a taxi? Is the taxi driver going to rape me? You know, women are so hemmed in by fear of men, it profoundly limits our lives.

      It really does not help Solnit's cause to make statements like this that are unverifiable in nature.

    10. In 1996, a six-year-old boy with Coke-bottle glasses, Johnathan Prevette, was suspended from school for sexual harassment after kissing a little girl on the cheek.

      Below is the source for the fact and the following passage. I agree with the sentiments of Johnathan's father in the report--I have seen many boys kiss girls on the cheek when I was in elementary school and this was blown completely out of proportion. It was obvious that the boy did not intend to cause that kind of harm, nor even conceive of it.

      https://www.nytimes.com/1996/09/27/us/6-year-old-s-sex-crime-innocent-peck-on-cheek.html

    11. Can this possibly be a good thing?

      This bit seems unnecessary to me. The entire previous part of this paragraph is devoted to the portrayal of whisper networks as consequences of bad things, so this would have served Roiphe's point better if it was at the beginning of the paragraph.

    12. For years, women confined their complaints about sexual harassment to whisper networks for fear of reprisal from men.

      I wanted to find a source for this information that is not a news story, but have failed so far.

    13. Before the piece was even finished, let alone published, people were calling me “pro-rape,” “human scum,” a “harridan,” a “monster out of Stephen King’s ‘IT,’?” a “ghoul,” a “bitch,” and a “garbage person”—all because of a rumor that I was planning to name the creator of the so-called Shitty Media Men list.
    14. No one would talk to me for this piece. Or rather, more than twenty women talked to me, sometimes for hours at a time, but only after I promised to leave out their names, and give them what I began to call deep anonymity.

      An example of toxic shame (or rather a fear of toxic shame as a result of the twitter culture as described by Roiphe in the following paragraphs) that is not necessarily present from childhood, but is certainly imposed by others.

    15. I am not trying to suggest that the list makers don’t understand the difference in scale between leering and assault, but rather that the blurring of common (if a little sleazy) behavior and serious sexual harassment reveals a lot about how they think. For them, the world is overrun with leering monsters you have to steer around, as if in a video game.

      It is precisely, in my opinion, because the writers knew the difference between assault and leering that they wrote the list in such a manner (specifically, a spreadsheet to be presented). It seems as though at least some of them were trying to hit somebody with it and that makes it a particularly disturbing example of refined cruelty to me.

    16. To do a close reading of the list: some of the offenses on the spreadsheet (“creepy DMs,” “weird lunch ‘dates,’” “leering,” “flirting,” “violent language,” and “leading on multiple women online”) seem not quite substantial or rare enough to put into the category of sexual misconduct. I am not even sure they merit a warning to a hopeful young employee. I have graduate students who go on to work for these sorts of publications, and I am very mother-hen-ish about them. But I can’t imagine sitting with one of my smart, ambitious students in my office, lined with shelves of books like The Second Sex and A Room of One’s Own and I Love Dick and The Argonauts, saying, “Before you go work there, I just want to warn you, that guy might leer at you.” I would worry I was being condescending, treating her like a child who doesn’t know how to handle herself in the world

      This seems very sensible to me. Anybody, I think, with a reasonable mindset would agree that adults are capable of dealing with such minor transgressions as flirting, leering, and violent language (whatever that means). Whether or not they treat such behavior as serious harassment is ultimately dependent on the context and on their particular judgment of the situation. This list seems to throw all meaningful context out the window and is very difficult to take seriously as a result.

    17. (“It feels Maoist,” says one of the deeply anonymous, while others question whether the list was ever designed to remain clandestine in the first place.)

      In my personal experience, spreadsheets are meant to be easily readable and organized in such a way that their purpose is to be a presentation of information and data to others. In other words, if this list was a spreadsheet, then I believe it was meant to be shared with as many people as possible and not really intended to be clandestine.

    18. The Shitty Media Men list, the anonymously crowd-sourced spreadsheet chronicling sexual misconduct in the publishing world, is a good example. If we think of how we would feel about a secretly circulating, anonymously crowd-sourced list of Muslims who might blow up planes, the strangeness of the document snaps into focus.

      A very apt comparison. Writers of both documents would be susceptible to prosecution in the form of libel suits regardless of the degree of truth behind the allegations. In fact, one libel suit was filed by Stephen Elliott against Moira Donegan. Elliott also wrote a response to the Shitty Media Men List;

      Suit: https://www.latimes.com/books/la-et-jc-stephen-elliott-20181015-story.html

      Response: https://quillette.com/2018/09/25/how-an-anonymous-accusation-derailed-my-life/

    19. (One of the editors of n+1, Dayna Tortorici, tweets: “I get the queasiness of no due process. But . . . losing your job isn’t death or prison.”)

      Ironically, this impatience with due process would violate basic human rights as codified in the 1949 Geneva conventions and would doubly violate the United States bill of rights.

      https://ihl-databases.icrc.org/customary-ihl/eng/docs/v2_rul_rule100

    20. Can you see why some of us are whispering? It is the sense of viciousness lying in wait, of violent hate just waiting to be unfurled, that leads people to keep their opinions to themselves, or to share them only with close friends. I recently saw a startling reminder of this when Wesley Yang published an insightful and conflicted piece in Tablet called “Farewell to a Scoundrel,” about former Paris Review editor Lorin Stein and the feminist moment.

      When I read this part I could immediately agree with what Katie Roiphe is saying in regards to why some women are not willing to share openly about things that have been done to them in the work place. This is because when it's true and is spoken about many of them get immediately shut down. Which is like saying " what you experienced is not valid". If this isn't what happens sometimes when the women that do speak out they are attacked verbally. This is what reminds of the healing that was discussed in class. These negative reactions that many times are gut reactions from others sometimes will make the person feel like what happened to them was there fault.

    1. “It’s become like a thing people say when they can’t make their rent,” says Jenna, 22, a New York video-game designer. “ ‘Well, I could always just get a sugar daddy,’ ‘I guess I could just start camming,’ ” or doing sexual performances in front of a Webcam for money on sites like Chaturbate. “And it’s kind of a joke, but it’s also not because you actually could. It’s not like you need a pimp anymore. You just need a computer.”

      THIS is the epitome of being a college student living in NYC. When finals comes around, EVERY college student will have said "I'm dropping out to become a stripper" at least twice and posted as a caption 3 times. When the going gets tough, the tough gets going. I feel like this is a to-go-to common phrase because there is obviously the belief that these sort of work styles are thought to be an easy way to make money. No shame in working with what the lord gave you. I say LIVE AND LET LIVE!

  • Apr 2019
    1. There is the suggestion here that student evaluations may not evaluate what they propose to measure. That is not exactly new information. This university does use them, though, and argues that they can be a source of faculty evaluation. Note that this is a university that is making the argument.

    1. Student evaluations of teaching are not valid and should not be used in personnel decisions. That, simply, is the point of this article.

    1. The American Association of University Professors commissioned a survey that garnered over 9,000 responses. The use of student evaluations alone is not recommended. There are complaints of 'bullying' and also complaints of low response rates. They too recommend numerous data sources that could include (their words) peer review, classroom visits, and teaching portfolios.

    1. Here is another argument in the Chronicle that student ratings should not be used exclusively and that a holistic assessment that includes observation should be used. This is important because it comes from the Chronicle.

    1. Here is an op ed piece in the Chronicle in which they report on the results of a survey they commissioned. The argument is that student evaluations are heavily relied upon to the detriment of students and teachers alike.

    1. Here you can see that observations are available but seem optional at Vanderbilt. Survey style student evaluations appear routine.

    1. The main point of this is that there is a bulleted list of items on which teaching can be judged. See page 102. Examples are whether the instructor asks interesting and challenging questions. These are not items that we used to use.

    2. This book suggests (on page 84) that observing teaching can increase the teaching skill of the observer which constitutes another argument for the benefit to the university of observations.

    1. The main point here is that one form of teacher evaluation is by the use of trained observers. It is not clear who these people are but apparently they are NOT faculty in the same content area BECAUSE faculty within the same subject area tend to focus on content rather than teaching practices.

    1. The main point here is that white men are at the advantage when traditional student evaluations are used. So, the University of Southern California will no longer use them in P&T decisions.

    1. This page advocates for a "thoughtful and holistic approach" that includes "self-assessment," "peer review," and student evaluations. The point is that peer review has a place in the process, includng for P&T.

    1. The key piece of information here is that instructors themselves can collect some of the information. So can colleagues.

    1. The key point on this page is that "the most important consideration in teaching evaluation, both for improvement purposes and for personnel decisions, is the use of multiple methods of teaching evaluation using multiple sources of of data.

    1. In their absence, some airports have had to close checkpoints, as Baltimore-Washington International did over the weekend

      Low staffing has caused airports to close certain checkpoints which jeopardizes the safety of air travelers.

  • Mar 2019
    1. 2019 American Council on Education/Fidelity Investments Award for Institutional Transformation

      A prestigious award!

  • Jan 2019
    1. Chapter 1: THE NATURE OF SCIENCE

      Please review this article and comment /reply to at least 3 ideas that are new or which resonates with your experience.

  • Dec 2018
    1. Others make informal outlines that they revise as they draft. Some students find that sketching a paper works best for them: they start by writing down a possible thesis and then filling the page with related ideas, drawing arrows to establish possible connections, and using circles or stars or checkmarks to determine which ideas should be prioritized.

      I find this to be a very useful tactic. Often I start with ideas I wish to talk and/or research about and then generate realistic talking points that will convince and interest the reader.

  • Nov 2018
    1. Yammer is Web 2.0 software which integrates with Microsoft 360 and allows users to communicate together and across the organization. It essentially functions as social networking software for corporations with the ability to collaborate on projects, maintain task lists, store files, documents and pictures all within a private enterprise network. In addition Yammer allows for the sharing of feedback and the management of group projects. Yammer is freemium software with a variety of custom add-ons. Licenses are currently issued for all learner participants and at this time no custom add-ons are necessary.

      RATING: 5/5 (rating based upon a score system 1 to 5, 1= lowest 5=highest in terms of content, veracity, easiness of use etc.)

  • Oct 2018
  • Sep 2018
    1. eaders often are faced with making difficult decisions for their group, such as when a course of action preferred by group members c

      This is at est.

    1. ducators being conscious of power dynamicsin the classroom, as well as the importance of seeing oneself as group mem-ber and a group leader, just as a bass player contributes to the foundationof the music and plays a role as a one of the musicians

      See glossary of group member roles from week one reading.

  • Jul 2018
    1. Lev Vygotsky’s seminal work asserted that social interaction is a fundamental aspect of learning. And if he were alive today, he would most likely agree with the saying “two minds are better than one.” He might add, “Better yet, how about three or four?”

      Vygotsky- social interaction is fundamental in learning- group work is the perfect way to do this- 2 heads are better than one:)

  • Apr 2018
    1. If you need more information contact the Documentation Centre on the Bombing of Gernika dokumentaziozentrua@gernika-lumo.net.

      Cannot help but include a comment on this email address. The email address does not directly relate to the institute, which is rather interesting. As our group commented on throughout the presentation and in our individual comments, the website does not seem to have been properly updated in quite some time. I am wondering if the museum has to utilize a different agency to handle the documentation on the website, or if they have not updated the website in so long and the email address is old.

    2. Acknowledgement of German involvement in the bombing of Gernika did not come until 1997, when President Herzog sent a letter to the survivors in which he admitted that Germany had been involved in the attack in 1937.

      Initially reading this portion, I was wondering why Germany waited until 1997 to formally acknowledge their role in the bombings: however, upon further analysis, this actually makes more sense. Until roughly 1990, Germany was still a divided nation wherein each half was controlled by opposing sides of the war. The government could not have formally acknowledged their role in the bombing until reunification occurred. Germany, like Spain, then began working on the process of reconciling with the past, meaning it had to acknowledge their past atrocities committed both within their borders and outside them as well. Unlike Spain, Germany has made a more fervent effort to deal with their past, such as this gesture with formally acknowledging their involvement in the bombing of Guernica. Of course, it is 60 years after the fact, yet it is a very symbolic act, showing the advancement of the two nations towards dealing with their pasts in a constructive way.

    3. Today Gernika is an advanced example of reconciliation; the process has not yet been completed, but the journey embarked upon is a long one. Initially it proved necessary to cover serious deficits, since Germany delayed the first steps to repair the damage caused.

      Now this particular line was rather interesting. Spain, obviously, has had quite a long journey of reconciling with its past, and has not made the most valiant efforts in doing so: however, this museum asserts that Guernica has been a prime example of the country's effort towards reconciliation. It is rather quick to blame the Germans for slowing down the process of reconciliation, almost saying that the efforts towards reconciliation could not occur until the Germans acknowledged their role in the bombing. Of course, the museum does blame Franco for never fully acknowledging his role in the bombing, but couldn't efforts have been made without outside assistance? Particularly after the death of Franco? It just seems rather odd that reconciliation couldn't happen until other people did something too.

    4. The atmosphere in Gernika before the war was tense for a long time. Franco introduced tough repression of both ideology and culture. There were new regulations and codes of conduct; people were reported to the authorities and searches were carried out on a daily basis, and nothing escaped scrupulous examination by the Civil Guard. The people of Gernika were forced to confront fear, distrust and mutual suspicion. Nobody gave them back the happy, open town they had once known.

      Of course, a museum emphasizing how tragic the bombing of Guernica was would make it clear that the aftermath of the bombing forever altered how the town operated. Analyzing the quote specifically, Franco instituted a real authoritarian state over the entire town, turning the townspeople against one another. It reminds me very much so of how the Nazis treated the German citizenry through using the Gestapo to instill fear and distrust. Studying how the Gestapo turned German people against one another, Franco and his regime did very much so the same thing. Paraphrasing from the website, people basically had no rights, their rights as citizens were routinely violated by the regime, which is something that the website emphasizes repeatedly.

    5. Reconstruction took five long years and, paradoxically, the person who was ultimately responsible for the destruction of Gernika, Francisco Franco, was made an adopted son of the town.

      Now this struck me as rather peculiar. When Guernica is finally rebuilt, the town names Francisco Franco an honorary son of the town. It does not entirely make sense, because Guernica was destroyed by Franco in the first place. Since Guernica was destroyed so early into the reign of the regime, I wonder if Guernica was forced to acknowledge Franco in such a way as a sign of creating a prosthetic memory, going back to Landsberg. Franco was manipulating the media at the time, so by having the town make him an honorary son, this could have been a way of Franco working to cover his tracks. Having the government create this new memory of what actually happened, that Franco was not involved, and instead helped rebuild the town through providing political prisoners, it puts Franco into a more caring light.

      Of course, this was all an act by the government, in an attempt to make themselves look better to the rest of the world. As time went on however, it became increasingly apparent that Franco was behind the bombing, yet what this website wants to emphasize that people from an outside perspective understood off the bat that Franco definitely played a role in the bombing.

    6. "The statement released by Salamanca according to which Guernica was destroyed by the reds is completely untrue.

      I do wish that the website could have included sources from German and other Fascist news outlets, concerning their initial response to the bombing. Of course more liberal outlets would've taken sided against Franco, ensuring that everyone knew that Franco was behind the bombings. To provide a more balanced view of the bombing, it would have behooved the website to include some sources from countries which supported Franco. This is a private museum however, so they are much so allowed to promote their own political agenda.

    7. Franco's army never acknowledged responsibility - on the contrary, evidence was twisted, and his press service accused the Basque republicans (referred to as reds and separatists) of having set fire to the town during their retreat towards Bilbao.

      Backing up of the previously made point that the Franco regime denies any involvement in having an outside MILITARY force bomb civilians, civilians who are not in any way connected to the countries utilized for the bombing. What this website does seem to make rather apparent is that the Franco regime truly did not care about its citizens, because those on the opposing side of Franco were not considered true citizens. Franco's reaction to the bombing, denying it, relates well back to the Aguilar piece about how the government struggled greatly with reparations to those on the "losing" side of the war, or just acknowledging mistreatment, period. Aguilar describes how the government took quite a long time to come to term with the issues of the past, so it shouldn't be too surprising that Franco reacted in such a way.

    8. The news was published in the main European organs thanks to the rapid action taken by a number of journalists, of which the best-known is George Steer.

      Interesting how the governments of the Euzkadi and Basque areas were the ones to break the news to the rest of the world instead of Franco's regime. This points to the Franco's regime repeated denial of wrongdoing on any front.

    9. "Before God and History, which will eventually judge us all, I hereby state that for three and a half hours German planes bombed the defenceless civilian population of Gernika with unprecedented viciousness. They reduced the town to ashes and machine-gunned women and children, many of whom were killed, while the rest fled in terror." Jose Antonio Aguirre. President of the Basque Government. "Aguirre is lying. We respected Gernika in the same way as we respect everything Spanish." Francisco Franco.

      The juxtaposition of the two statements represent the two dueling sides on the issue of the bombings. With the Basque country being rather against the Franco regime, Aguirre ardently came out stating Franco organized the bombings on Guernica. Of course, Franco comes out in full force against Aguirre and the Basque county, saying 'the reds did it to themselves'. Each side worked to promote their own side of the story, yet Aguirre received far more support from outside of Spain. Furthermore, it would behoove the museum to continually paint Franco in a poor light. Since this is a private museum, it will only show one side of the story. It could have benefited from showing both sides of the bombing.

    1. music and art were important in helping those early modern humans forge a sense of group identity and mutual trust that enabled them to become so successful.

      Forging those group identities helped set up a strong base for creating different cultures.and also set up future pathways for ideas and theories among these groups.

  • Mar 2018
    1. acid HF,

      I remember discussing during lecture, but why is HF considered a weak acid? Despite the fact, that it has very high electronegative difference. Shouldn't the big electronegative difference cause it to be a stronger acid?

  • Feb 2018
    1. Academic essays, biology posters, statistical PowerPolnt presenta-tions, lolcats ... what do all of these texts have in common? They are all multimodal.

      The vinyl produced by David Pescovitz is multimodal. The Golden Record is multimodal of Carl Sagan. They are ways to communicate, for David it was to communicate with other people, for Carl i was for the alien civilization

    1. . Should African American Vernacular English (AAVE) be ac- ceptable to use in the classroom? Is AAVE a dialect or a language? Can AAVE be recognized as a second lan- guage that is accepted and validated within my classroom communi

      All dialects are rule governed, so there is no such thing as right or wrong forms of English (Silva/Lancia 2012) It is important to let a student use the dialect they are comfortable with as long as they are still being taught the literacy curriculum. This is an important element in an inclusive classroom.

    2. She asked if she might visit the classroom and talk to them the next day. Little did I know at the time how difficult it was for Aaron's mother to cross the threshold of the school. In future conversations, she revealed many of her own negative school experiences (including bully- ing and verbal abuse by both her peers and teachers) and how ner- vous it made her to step into a school building agai

      To create trustful connections with caregivers it is important for teachers to understand that a school environment for some, can be a place of great discomfort. Asking the parent how confortable they are coming in and reassuring them that as a teacher, you will help them as much as they need is helpful. Small steps like this would build trust and help communication between teacher and parents.

    3. This story was adapted from my teaching journal and represents a turning point in my teaching car

      To me, she makes it seem like everyone has a turning point and sometimes in life there is no going back, only moving on and you have to accept that.

    4. community literacy, the wide existence and use of print in the real world, and how our assump- tions about diversity and social practices, language and literacy, shape us as teachers and lear

      Just a good way to start off this strong article. She dove right into the main topics.

    5. . He had just exposed me to a whole new world that I am not representing in my classroom. He carries the classroom into his outside world but do I let him bring his world into the classroom? Do I allow any of the children to

      Aaron is a perfect example of a child who is able to apply what they are learning in school to the outside world. Although it is not common to find kindergarteners spending free time in a bar, his mother is doing the best she can for him. He is using people in the bar as his resources to better himself in his learning process.

    6. her. Daily we ask questions, make inquiries, and learn from each other. But there always seems to be a child . . . one child who comes along and shatters our thinking, shakes us to our c

      I think that as a teacher it is important to understand that although we are there to teach students the academic knowledge they need to know, the students are there to teach us so much more when we least expect it

    7. . Literature on theme studies and inquiry cycles Language Arts, Vol. 82 No. 5, March 2005 (Fisher, 1998; Gamberg, Kwak, Hutchings, 8t Altheim, 1988; Short 8t Burke, 1991) helped me transform my curriculum from themes about teddy bears and applesauce to in- quiry cycles where the children asked questions pertinent to their worlds. Questions surfaced about the house that was being demol- ished and rebuilt across from the school. When spring came, it rained and rained and eventually caused major flooding. Nature gave us in- credible reasons to investigate our world

      Connecting lessons and concepts to concrete things that children are familiar with helps them understand it better. It goes from feeling foreign to feeling understandable and important.

    8. On the following day during writing workshop, I pull my chair up along- side Aaron, and we decide to write a story together about our experience. When we share our story with the rest of the class, many more chil- dren are prompted to share stories from their worlds- stories of Sandra's next-door neighbor who raises 200 birds and of Manuel's grandma who had a runaway tamale!

      Students sharing their stories in the classroom is so important. It helps build a sense of community of learners who care about one another on a deeper level than just being classmates. They can understand what their life outside of school is like, and it expands their view of the world. It not only helps them get to know their classmates better, but it helps them learn about certain things that they may not even know were happening or existed. Not only this, but it provides students with an environment in which they feel safe and comfortable to share these stories about their life with everyone.

    9. "He is doomed to failure."

      This, as well as the others before it, is a phrase that should never be said about a student. No student is ever doomed to failure. Even if their home life is not perfect, they can still excel. If teachers have this mindset, then of course their students will not do well. They need to provide an environment for students where phrases like this do not exist. Aaron was demonstrating great literacy skills that his teacher did not even realize he had, so it is not fair to say that this home environment he was in makes him doomed to failure.

    10. Aaron comes over and whispers to me that it is a good thing that I am teaching him to read because they need him to read a lot here at the bar.

      Although she saw him as a struggling reader, in his environment, he is great at it. This is because he is able to apply it to things he knows. He is using reading in a way that he believes is useful and helpful, so it comes easily for him there. As teachers, we need to implement this in our classroom. We need to integrate their home life and community in our classroom.

    11. hat every child who comes through the classroom door becomes our tea

      This is so important! Teachers should learn from their students just as much as they learn from us. This is important for students to understand as well. Learning is a two way relationship.