168 Matching Annotations
  1. Oct 2019
  2. Sep 2019
    1. Plasmids (IncP/N/W)with 373short and rigid pili only transfer efficiently on solid surfaces, unlike those with longand flexible 374pili (IncF/H/T/J),capable of transferring equally well in liquidand on solid surfaces[35,36]

      Plasmid group vs pili length

    1. ATE introduced various kinds of lubrication pumps which can transfer liquids at high pressure without affecting its properties. Lubrication system helps to deliver a controlled amount of lubricant to multiple parts of the machine. ATE Group’s lubrication pumps have many benefits like reducing machinery and component maintenance cost, proper lubrication flow and increase productivity.

  3. Aug 2019
  4. Jul 2019
    1. Pretender in Spain

      The “Pretender in Spain” is a reference to James Francis Edward Stuart, who made a claim to the British throne in 1701. He was called "The Old Pretender" because, though he was son of King James II, he was a Catholic and, in 1701, the Act of Settlement was passed making it illegal to for the throne to be held by any non-protestant. He was recognized, however, as the King of England, Scotland and Ireland by the Pope and the King of France and he ultimately lived out his days in Rome where he established a court in exile. Most of the Irish were Catholic and viewed the English as oppressors. He was, therefore, a symbol of hope to the Irish and some left Ireland to enlist in support of him. More info here. Swift is suggesting that this large cohort of poor, Irish children are likely to be supporters of a figure who is a threat to the English monarch.

  5. May 2019
    1. I can see how the drama of this moment is enticing. It offers a grandeur, a sweeping purity to our possibly flawed and fumbling and ambivalent selves. It justifies all our failings and setbacks and mediocrities; it wasn’t us, it was men, or the patriarchy, holding us back, objectifying us. It is easier to think, for instance, that we were discriminated against than that our story wasn’t good enough or original enough to be published in The Paris Review, or even that it did not meet the editor’s highly idiosyncratic yet widely revered tastes. Or that a man said something awful and sexual to us while we were working on a television show, and we got depressed and could never again achieve what we might have. And yet do we really in our hearts believe that is the whole story? Is this a complete and satisfying explanation? There is, of course, sexism, which looms and shadows us in all kinds of complicated and unmappable ways, but is it the totalizing force, the central organizing narrative, of our lives? This is where the movement veers from important and exhilarating correction into implausibility and rationalization. (One of the deeply anonymous says, “This seems like such a boring way to look at your life.”)

      I absolutely agree with this conclusion--mob mentality has always been more detrimental than beneficial if at all, and we should be able to see this clearly in the United States today. However, I feel like this point could have been made in a satisfactory manner halfway through this essay. I could see this conclusion coming from the beginning of the second page and the bits about Lorin Stein and Moira Donegan's hypocrisy could have been a separate essay by themselves. Otherwise a very sensible and interesting read.

    2. I have a feeling that if one met @yoloethics or the rest of her Twitter cohort in person, they would seem normal, funny, smart, well read. But the vicious energy and ugliness is there beneath the fervor of our new reckoning, adeptly disguised as exhilarating social change. It feels as if the feminist moment is, at times, providing cover for vindictiveness and personal vendettas and office politics and garden-variety disappointment, that what we think of as purely positive social change is also, for some, blood sport.

      I love the references to the Roman empire here--the description of twitter followers as cohorts and the twitter frenzy as a blood sport really hits home the disturbing and vindictive nature of this entire issue.

    3. It can be hard to disentangle one man and the things he may or may not have done from hundreds of years of sexist oppression.

      In terms of workplace harassment in particular, this statement is revealing of a larger issue--I was searching for a comprehensive analysis of the global incidence of workplace sexual harassment in the, but apparently as of 2015 there was no survey done since 1994. This is truly alarming to me, as there is a sincere lack of data and this is just helping to feed this twitter frenzy issue. This may be the main reason why company policies are slow to change.

      Source: https://wol.iza.org/uploads/articles/188/pdfs/sexual-harassment-in-workplace.pdf

    4. “I like Lorin,” she told me. “I don’t have a personal stake in this.” She then informed me that he had sexually harassed two interns at Farrar, Straus and Giroux, where he had worked before his Paris Review tenure, leading to hushed-up, sealed settlements. She delivered this piece of highly specific information so confidently that I did not stop and think, even though I teach in a journalism department: Is this factually correct?

      I understand that this feeds into Roiphe's argument that the twitter frenzy happens the same way, but it would have served her argument better to include an instance from twitter itself. This and the next few paragraphs make this and the twitter issue seem resigned to human nature. The final paragraph is a good objection to it, but here its treated too lightly in my opinion.

    5. The night the New York Times broke the news of Stein’s resignation, I was with one of the deeply anonymous women in a coffee shop, and after I left she ran out and caught up to me on the dark street to tell me about it. When I got home, I saw that @MegaMoira had tweeted a photo of the piece with the words, “champagne anyone.” I thought of the email Lorin had sent me when my book on writers’ deaths, The Violet Hour, came out. It was such a strange, private project, but in a few lines he made it vivid again to me, renewed and energized me on a long winter afternoon to sit down and start something new. However one feels about the end of an era at The Paris Review, it doesn’t seem like a time for celebration.

      While I believe that Stein's resignation needed to happen, Roiphe is correct in her sentiment that nobody really wins from this situation. The Paris Review is worse off as a company for not having him anymore and the fact that he would commit such offenses broke the hearts of everyone close to him.

    6. However, after the list came out but before Lorin Stein resigned as editor of The Paris Review, she tweeted: “every profile of Lorin Stein calls him ‘skinny and bespectacled’ but here’s the thing: he’s not that skinny.” She added: “I guess ‘bespectacled, bald, and busting out [of] the bespoke shirts he’s still having made with 15 year old measurements’ doesn’t have the same ring to it.” Later, these tweets were deleted. But if we could think in less gendered terms for a moment, one could reasonably ask: Who is harassing whom?

      I absolutely agree here--this does not venture beyond petty name-calling and is more crucially a demeaning of the person based on his appearance, which is one of the behaviors considered harassment by Donegan. This certainly puts renewed insight into her mindset when she says she wants a more respectful world.

    7. I feel blessed to live in a society where you are free to walk through the city at night. I just don’t think those of us who are privileged white women with careers are really that afraid.

      The question of safety at night is an interesting one and I don't think the answer is as simple as the society (especially in the city, where intimacy is not ambient but compartmentalized) in which one acts. Even the presence of streetlights (and by extension the invention and proliferation of electric lighting) has a large impact on safety at night. Money surely has a place in it as well.

    8. Here is what the last few days have reminded me: white men, even those on the left, are so safe, so insulated from the policies of a reactionary presidency, that many of them view politics as entertainment, a distraction without consequences, in which they get to indulge their vanity by fantasizing that they are on the side of good. . . . The morning after the election, I found the penis-shaped shot glass in my kitchen and threw it against the wall. I am not proud of this, but it felt good to destroy something a white man loved.

      And yet, the way you write those sentences, especially the one at the end, makes it look like you are indeed proud of that. It makes you seem pettier than you intended to be. Also I really don't understand the concept of penis shaped shot glasses--it seems like it would be more difficult to drink from than a wide glass.

    9. Every woman, every day, when she leaves her house, starts to think about safety. Can I go here? Should I go out there?. . . Do I need to find a taxi? Is the taxi driver going to rape me? You know, women are so hemmed in by fear of men, it profoundly limits our lives.

      It really does not help Solnit's cause to make statements like this that are unverifiable in nature.

    10. In 1996, a six-year-old boy with Coke-bottle glasses, Johnathan Prevette, was suspended from school for sexual harassment after kissing a little girl on the cheek.

      Below is the source for the fact and the following passage. I agree with the sentiments of Johnathan's father in the report--I have seen many boys kiss girls on the cheek when I was in elementary school and this was blown completely out of proportion. It was obvious that the boy did not intend to cause that kind of harm, nor even conceive of it.

      https://www.nytimes.com/1996/09/27/us/6-year-old-s-sex-crime-innocent-peck-on-cheek.html

    11. Can this possibly be a good thing?

      This bit seems unnecessary to me. The entire previous part of this paragraph is devoted to the portrayal of whisper networks as consequences of bad things, so this would have served Roiphe's point better if it was at the beginning of the paragraph.

    12. For years, women confined their complaints about sexual harassment to whisper networks for fear of reprisal from men.

      I wanted to find a source for this information that is not a news story, but have failed so far.

    13. Before the piece was even finished, let alone published, people were calling me “pro-rape,” “human scum,” a “harridan,” a “monster out of Stephen King’s ‘IT,’?” a “ghoul,” a “bitch,” and a “garbage person”—all because of a rumor that I was planning to name the creator of the so-called Shitty Media Men list.
    14. No one would talk to me for this piece. Or rather, more than twenty women talked to me, sometimes for hours at a time, but only after I promised to leave out their names, and give them what I began to call deep anonymity.

      An example of toxic shame (or rather a fear of toxic shame as a result of the twitter culture as described by Roiphe in the following paragraphs) that is not necessarily present from childhood, but is certainly imposed by others.

    15. I am not trying to suggest that the list makers don’t understand the difference in scale between leering and assault, but rather that the blurring of common (if a little sleazy) behavior and serious sexual harassment reveals a lot about how they think. For them, the world is overrun with leering monsters you have to steer around, as if in a video game.

      It is precisely, in my opinion, because the writers knew the difference between assault and leering that they wrote the list in such a manner (specifically, a spreadsheet to be presented). It seems as though at least some of them were trying to hit somebody with it and that makes it a particularly disturbing example of refined cruelty to me.

    16. To do a close reading of the list: some of the offenses on the spreadsheet (“creepy DMs,” “weird lunch ‘dates,’” “leering,” “flirting,” “violent language,” and “leading on multiple women online”) seem not quite substantial or rare enough to put into the category of sexual misconduct. I am not even sure they merit a warning to a hopeful young employee. I have graduate students who go on to work for these sorts of publications, and I am very mother-hen-ish about them. But I can’t imagine sitting with one of my smart, ambitious students in my office, lined with shelves of books like The Second Sex and A Room of One’s Own and I Love Dick and The Argonauts, saying, “Before you go work there, I just want to warn you, that guy might leer at you.” I would worry I was being condescending, treating her like a child who doesn’t know how to handle herself in the world

      This seems very sensible to me. Anybody, I think, with a reasonable mindset would agree that adults are capable of dealing with such minor transgressions as flirting, leering, and violent language (whatever that means). Whether or not they treat such behavior as serious harassment is ultimately dependent on the context and on their particular judgment of the situation. This list seems to throw all meaningful context out the window and is very difficult to take seriously as a result.

    17. (“It feels Maoist,” says one of the deeply anonymous, while others question whether the list was ever designed to remain clandestine in the first place.)

      In my personal experience, spreadsheets are meant to be easily readable and organized in such a way that their purpose is to be a presentation of information and data to others. In other words, if this list was a spreadsheet, then I believe it was meant to be shared with as many people as possible and not really intended to be clandestine.

    18. The Shitty Media Men list, the anonymously crowd-sourced spreadsheet chronicling sexual misconduct in the publishing world, is a good example. If we think of how we would feel about a secretly circulating, anonymously crowd-sourced list of Muslims who might blow up planes, the strangeness of the document snaps into focus.

      A very apt comparison. Writers of both documents would be susceptible to prosecution in the form of libel suits regardless of the degree of truth behind the allegations. In fact, one libel suit was filed by Stephen Elliott against Moira Donegan. Elliott also wrote a response to the Shitty Media Men List;

      Suit: https://www.latimes.com/books/la-et-jc-stephen-elliott-20181015-story.html

      Response: https://quillette.com/2018/09/25/how-an-anonymous-accusation-derailed-my-life/

    19. (One of the editors of n+1, Dayna Tortorici, tweets: “I get the queasiness of no due process. But . . . losing your job isn’t death or prison.”)

      Ironically, this impatience with due process would violate basic human rights as codified in the 1949 Geneva conventions and would doubly violate the United States bill of rights.

      https://ihl-databases.icrc.org/customary-ihl/eng/docs/v2_rul_rule100

    20. Can you see why some of us are whispering? It is the sense of viciousness lying in wait, of violent hate just waiting to be unfurled, that leads people to keep their opinions to themselves, or to share them only with close friends. I recently saw a startling reminder of this when Wesley Yang published an insightful and conflicted piece in Tablet called “Farewell to a Scoundrel,” about former Paris Review editor Lorin Stein and the feminist moment.

      When I read this part I could immediately agree with what Katie Roiphe is saying in regards to why some women are not willing to share openly about things that have been done to them in the work place. This is because when it's true and is spoken about many of them get immediately shut down. Which is like saying " what you experienced is not valid". If this isn't what happens sometimes when the women that do speak out they are attacked verbally. This is what reminds of the healing that was discussed in class. These negative reactions that many times are gut reactions from others sometimes will make the person feel like what happened to them was there fault.

    1. “It’s become like a thing people say when they can’t make their rent,” says Jenna, 22, a New York video-game designer. “ ‘Well, I could always just get a sugar daddy,’ ‘I guess I could just start camming,’ ” or doing sexual performances in front of a Webcam for money on sites like Chaturbate. “And it’s kind of a joke, but it’s also not because you actually could. It’s not like you need a pimp anymore. You just need a computer.”

      THIS is the epitome of being a college student living in NYC. When finals comes around, EVERY college student will have said "I'm dropping out to become a stripper" at least twice and posted as a caption 3 times. When the going gets tough, the tough gets going. I feel like this is a to-go-to common phrase because there is obviously the belief that these sort of work styles are thought to be an easy way to make money. No shame in working with what the lord gave you. I say LIVE AND LET LIVE!

  6. Apr 2019
    1. There is the suggestion here that student evaluations may not evaluate what they propose to measure. That is not exactly new information. This university does use them, though, and argues that they can be a source of faculty evaluation. Note that this is a university that is making the argument.

    1. Student evaluations of teaching are not valid and should not be used in personnel decisions. That, simply, is the point of this article.

    1. The American Association of University Professors commissioned a survey that garnered over 9,000 responses. The use of student evaluations alone is not recommended. There are complaints of 'bullying' and also complaints of low response rates. They too recommend numerous data sources that could include (their words) peer review, classroom visits, and teaching portfolios.

    1. Here is another argument in the Chronicle that student ratings should not be used exclusively and that a holistic assessment that includes observation should be used. This is important because it comes from the Chronicle.

    1. Here is an op ed piece in the Chronicle in which they report on the results of a survey they commissioned. The argument is that student evaluations are heavily relied upon to the detriment of students and teachers alike.

    1. Here you can see that observations are available but seem optional at Vanderbilt. Survey style student evaluations appear routine.

    1. The main point of this is that there is a bulleted list of items on which teaching can be judged. See page 102. Examples are whether the instructor asks interesting and challenging questions. These are not items that we used to use.

    2. This book suggests (on page 84) that observing teaching can increase the teaching skill of the observer which constitutes another argument for the benefit to the university of observations.

    1. The main point here is that one form of teacher evaluation is by the use of trained observers. It is not clear who these people are but apparently they are NOT faculty in the same content area BECAUSE faculty within the same subject area tend to focus on content rather than teaching practices.

    1. The main point here is that white men are at the advantage when traditional student evaluations are used. So, the University of Southern California will no longer use them in P&T decisions.

    1. This page advocates for a "thoughtful and holistic approach" that includes "self-assessment," "peer review," and student evaluations. The point is that peer review has a place in the process, includng for P&T.

    1. The key piece of information here is that instructors themselves can collect some of the information. So can colleagues.

    1. The key point on this page is that "the most important consideration in teaching evaluation, both for improvement purposes and for personnel decisions, is the use of multiple methods of teaching evaluation using multiple sources of of data.

    1. In their absence, some airports have had to close checkpoints, as Baltimore-Washington International did over the weekend

      Low staffing has caused airports to close certain checkpoints which jeopardizes the safety of air travelers.

  7. Mar 2019
    1. 2019 American Council on Education/Fidelity Investments Award for Institutional Transformation

      A prestigious award!

  8. Jan 2019
    1. Chapter 1: THE NATURE OF SCIENCE

      Please review this article and comment /reply to at least 3 ideas that are new or which resonates with your experience.

  9. Dec 2018
    1. Others make informal outlines that they revise as they draft. Some students find that sketching a paper works best for them: they start by writing down a possible thesis and then filling the page with related ideas, drawing arrows to establish possible connections, and using circles or stars or checkmarks to determine which ideas should be prioritized.

      I find this to be a very useful tactic. Often I start with ideas I wish to talk and/or research about and then generate realistic talking points that will convince and interest the reader.

  10. Nov 2018
    1. Yammer is Web 2.0 software which integrates with Microsoft 360 and allows users to communicate together and across the organization. It essentially functions as social networking software for corporations with the ability to collaborate on projects, maintain task lists, store files, documents and pictures all within a private enterprise network. In addition Yammer allows for the sharing of feedback and the management of group projects. Yammer is freemium software with a variety of custom add-ons. Licenses are currently issued for all learner participants and at this time no custom add-ons are necessary.

      RATING: 5/5 (rating based upon a score system 1 to 5, 1= lowest 5=highest in terms of content, veracity, easiness of use etc.)

  11. Oct 2018
  12. Sep 2018
    1. eaders often are faced with making difficult decisions for their group, such as when a course of action preferred by group members c

      This is at est.

    1. ducators being conscious of power dynamicsin the classroom, as well as the importance of seeing oneself as group mem-ber and a group leader, just as a bass player contributes to the foundationof the music and plays a role as a one of the musicians

      See glossary of group member roles from week one reading.

  13. Jul 2018
    1. Lev Vygotsky’s seminal work asserted that social interaction is a fundamental aspect of learning. And if he were alive today, he would most likely agree with the saying “two minds are better than one.” He might add, “Better yet, how about three or four?”

      Vygotsky- social interaction is fundamental in learning- group work is the perfect way to do this- 2 heads are better than one:)

  14. Apr 2018
    1. If you need more information contact the Documentation Centre on the Bombing of Gernika dokumentaziozentrua@gernika-lumo.net.

      Cannot help but include a comment on this email address. The email address does not directly relate to the institute, which is rather interesting. As our group commented on throughout the presentation and in our individual comments, the website does not seem to have been properly updated in quite some time. I am wondering if the museum has to utilize a different agency to handle the documentation on the website, or if they have not updated the website in so long and the email address is old.

    2. Acknowledgement of German involvement in the bombing of Gernika did not come until 1997, when President Herzog sent a letter to the survivors in which he admitted that Germany had been involved in the attack in 1937.

      Initially reading this portion, I was wondering why Germany waited until 1997 to formally acknowledge their role in the bombings: however, upon further analysis, this actually makes more sense. Until roughly 1990, Germany was still a divided nation wherein each half was controlled by opposing sides of the war. The government could not have formally acknowledged their role in the bombing until reunification occurred. Germany, like Spain, then began working on the process of reconciling with the past, meaning it had to acknowledge their past atrocities committed both within their borders and outside them as well. Unlike Spain, Germany has made a more fervent effort to deal with their past, such as this gesture with formally acknowledging their involvement in the bombing of Guernica. Of course, it is 60 years after the fact, yet it is a very symbolic act, showing the advancement of the two nations towards dealing with their pasts in a constructive way.

    3. Today Gernika is an advanced example of reconciliation; the process has not yet been completed, but the journey embarked upon is a long one. Initially it proved necessary to cover serious deficits, since Germany delayed the first steps to repair the damage caused.

      Now this particular line was rather interesting. Spain, obviously, has had quite a long journey of reconciling with its past, and has not made the most valiant efforts in doing so: however, this museum asserts that Guernica has been a prime example of the country's effort towards reconciliation. It is rather quick to blame the Germans for slowing down the process of reconciliation, almost saying that the efforts towards reconciliation could not occur until the Germans acknowledged their role in the bombing. Of course, the museum does blame Franco for never fully acknowledging his role in the bombing, but couldn't efforts have been made without outside assistance? Particularly after the death of Franco? It just seems rather odd that reconciliation couldn't happen until other people did something too.

    4. The atmosphere in Gernika before the war was tense for a long time. Franco introduced tough repression of both ideology and culture. There were new regulations and codes of conduct; people were reported to the authorities and searches were carried out on a daily basis, and nothing escaped scrupulous examination by the Civil Guard. The people of Gernika were forced to confront fear, distrust and mutual suspicion. Nobody gave them back the happy, open town they had once known.

      Of course, a museum emphasizing how tragic the bombing of Guernica was would make it clear that the aftermath of the bombing forever altered how the town operated. Analyzing the quote specifically, Franco instituted a real authoritarian state over the entire town, turning the townspeople against one another. It reminds me very much so of how the Nazis treated the German citizenry through using the Gestapo to instill fear and distrust. Studying how the Gestapo turned German people against one another, Franco and his regime did very much so the same thing. Paraphrasing from the website, people basically had no rights, their rights as citizens were routinely violated by the regime, which is something that the website emphasizes repeatedly.

    5. Reconstruction took five long years and, paradoxically, the person who was ultimately responsible for the destruction of Gernika, Francisco Franco, was made an adopted son of the town.

      Now this struck me as rather peculiar. When Guernica is finally rebuilt, the town names Francisco Franco an honorary son of the town. It does not entirely make sense, because Guernica was destroyed by Franco in the first place. Since Guernica was destroyed so early into the reign of the regime, I wonder if Guernica was forced to acknowledge Franco in such a way as a sign of creating a prosthetic memory, going back to Landsberg. Franco was manipulating the media at the time, so by having the town make him an honorary son, this could have been a way of Franco working to cover his tracks. Having the government create this new memory of what actually happened, that Franco was not involved, and instead helped rebuild the town through providing political prisoners, it puts Franco into a more caring light.

      Of course, this was all an act by the government, in an attempt to make themselves look better to the rest of the world. As time went on however, it became increasingly apparent that Franco was behind the bombing, yet what this website wants to emphasize that people from an outside perspective understood off the bat that Franco definitely played a role in the bombing.

    6. "The statement released by Salamanca according to which Guernica was destroyed by the reds is completely untrue.

      I do wish that the website could have included sources from German and other Fascist news outlets, concerning their initial response to the bombing. Of course more liberal outlets would've taken sided against Franco, ensuring that everyone knew that Franco was behind the bombings. To provide a more balanced view of the bombing, it would have behooved the website to include some sources from countries which supported Franco. This is a private museum however, so they are much so allowed to promote their own political agenda.

    7. Franco's army never acknowledged responsibility - on the contrary, evidence was twisted, and his press service accused the Basque republicans (referred to as reds and separatists) of having set fire to the town during their retreat towards Bilbao.

      Backing up of the previously made point that the Franco regime denies any involvement in having an outside MILITARY force bomb civilians, civilians who are not in any way connected to the countries utilized for the bombing. What this website does seem to make rather apparent is that the Franco regime truly did not care about its citizens, because those on the opposing side of Franco were not considered true citizens. Franco's reaction to the bombing, denying it, relates well back to the Aguilar piece about how the government struggled greatly with reparations to those on the "losing" side of the war, or just acknowledging mistreatment, period. Aguilar describes how the government took quite a long time to come to term with the issues of the past, so it shouldn't be too surprising that Franco reacted in such a way.

    8. The news was published in the main European organs thanks to the rapid action taken by a number of journalists, of which the best-known is George Steer.

      Interesting how the governments of the Euzkadi and Basque areas were the ones to break the news to the rest of the world instead of Franco's regime. This points to the Franco's regime repeated denial of wrongdoing on any front.

    9. "Before God and History, which will eventually judge us all, I hereby state that for three and a half hours German planes bombed the defenceless civilian population of Gernika with unprecedented viciousness. They reduced the town to ashes and machine-gunned women and children, many of whom were killed, while the rest fled in terror." Jose Antonio Aguirre. President of the Basque Government. "Aguirre is lying. We respected Gernika in the same way as we respect everything Spanish." Francisco Franco.

      The juxtaposition of the two statements represent the two dueling sides on the issue of the bombings. With the Basque country being rather against the Franco regime, Aguirre ardently came out stating Franco organized the bombings on Guernica. Of course, Franco comes out in full force against Aguirre and the Basque county, saying 'the reds did it to themselves'. Each side worked to promote their own side of the story, yet Aguirre received far more support from outside of Spain. Furthermore, it would behoove the museum to continually paint Franco in a poor light. Since this is a private museum, it will only show one side of the story. It could have benefited from showing both sides of the bombing.

    1. music and art were important in helping those early modern humans forge a sense of group identity and mutual trust that enabled them to become so successful.

      Forging those group identities helped set up a strong base for creating different cultures.and also set up future pathways for ideas and theories among these groups.

  15. Mar 2018
    1. acid HF,

      I remember discussing during lecture, but why is HF considered a weak acid? Despite the fact, that it has very high electronegative difference. Shouldn't the big electronegative difference cause it to be a stronger acid?

  16. Feb 2018
    1. Academic essays, biology posters, statistical PowerPolnt presenta-tions, lolcats ... what do all of these texts have in common? They are all multimodal.

      The vinyl produced by David Pescovitz is multimodal. The Golden Record is multimodal of Carl Sagan. They are ways to communicate, for David it was to communicate with other people, for Carl i was for the alien civilization

    1. . Should African American Vernacular English (AAVE) be ac- ceptable to use in the classroom? Is AAVE a dialect or a language? Can AAVE be recognized as a second lan- guage that is accepted and validated within my classroom communi

      All dialects are rule governed, so there is no such thing as right or wrong forms of English (Silva/Lancia 2012) It is important to let a student use the dialect they are comfortable with as long as they are still being taught the literacy curriculum. This is an important element in an inclusive classroom.

    2. She asked if she might visit the classroom and talk to them the next day. Little did I know at the time how difficult it was for Aaron's mother to cross the threshold of the school. In future conversations, she revealed many of her own negative school experiences (including bully- ing and verbal abuse by both her peers and teachers) and how ner- vous it made her to step into a school building agai

      To create trustful connections with caregivers it is important for teachers to understand that a school environment for some, can be a place of great discomfort. Asking the parent how confortable they are coming in and reassuring them that as a teacher, you will help them as much as they need is helpful. Small steps like this would build trust and help communication between teacher and parents.

    3. This story was adapted from my teaching journal and represents a turning point in my teaching car

      To me, she makes it seem like everyone has a turning point and sometimes in life there is no going back, only moving on and you have to accept that.

    4. community literacy, the wide existence and use of print in the real world, and how our assump- tions about diversity and social practices, language and literacy, shape us as teachers and lear

      Just a good way to start off this strong article. She dove right into the main topics.

    5. . He had just exposed me to a whole new world that I am not representing in my classroom. He carries the classroom into his outside world but do I let him bring his world into the classroom? Do I allow any of the children to

      Aaron is a perfect example of a child who is able to apply what they are learning in school to the outside world. Although it is not common to find kindergarteners spending free time in a bar, his mother is doing the best she can for him. He is using people in the bar as his resources to better himself in his learning process.

    6. her. Daily we ask questions, make inquiries, and learn from each other. But there always seems to be a child . . . one child who comes along and shatters our thinking, shakes us to our c

      I think that as a teacher it is important to understand that although we are there to teach students the academic knowledge they need to know, the students are there to teach us so much more when we least expect it

    7. . Literature on theme studies and inquiry cycles Language Arts, Vol. 82 No. 5, March 2005 (Fisher, 1998; Gamberg, Kwak, Hutchings, 8t Altheim, 1988; Short 8t Burke, 1991) helped me transform my curriculum from themes about teddy bears and applesauce to in- quiry cycles where the children asked questions pertinent to their worlds. Questions surfaced about the house that was being demol- ished and rebuilt across from the school. When spring came, it rained and rained and eventually caused major flooding. Nature gave us in- credible reasons to investigate our world

      Connecting lessons and concepts to concrete things that children are familiar with helps them understand it better. It goes from feeling foreign to feeling understandable and important.

    8. On the following day during writing workshop, I pull my chair up along- side Aaron, and we decide to write a story together about our experience. When we share our story with the rest of the class, many more chil- dren are prompted to share stories from their worlds- stories of Sandra's next-door neighbor who raises 200 birds and of Manuel's grandma who had a runaway tamale!

      Students sharing their stories in the classroom is so important. It helps build a sense of community of learners who care about one another on a deeper level than just being classmates. They can understand what their life outside of school is like, and it expands their view of the world. It not only helps them get to know their classmates better, but it helps them learn about certain things that they may not even know were happening or existed. Not only this, but it provides students with an environment in which they feel safe and comfortable to share these stories about their life with everyone.

    9. "He is doomed to failure."

      This, as well as the others before it, is a phrase that should never be said about a student. No student is ever doomed to failure. Even if their home life is not perfect, they can still excel. If teachers have this mindset, then of course their students will not do well. They need to provide an environment for students where phrases like this do not exist. Aaron was demonstrating great literacy skills that his teacher did not even realize he had, so it is not fair to say that this home environment he was in makes him doomed to failure.

    10. Aaron comes over and whispers to me that it is a good thing that I am teaching him to read because they need him to read a lot here at the bar.

      Although she saw him as a struggling reader, in his environment, he is great at it. This is because he is able to apply it to things he knows. He is using reading in a way that he believes is useful and helpful, so it comes easily for him there. As teachers, we need to implement this in our classroom. We need to integrate their home life and community in our classroom.

    11. hat every child who comes through the classroom door becomes our tea

      This is so important! Teachers should learn from their students just as much as they learn from us. This is important for students to understand as well. Learning is a two way relationship.

    1. South Bellmore Veterinary Group Review - Things to keep in mind in gifting pets

      You only have a few more days left until Christmas and you’re probably thinking of gifting a pet to a loved one. Many people love to keep a pet and if the person receiving the gift is an animal lover then his happiness is guaranteed in giving him a good animal. The pet will serve as his partner in doing things that the person likes like playing at the backyard, doing some physical activities, resting at the park, and many more things the both of them can share together.

      Whatever your reasons are in gifting a pet to a person where it can be for Christmas or for a birthday celebration, South Bellmore Veterinary Group still wanted you to consider a few important things regarding the subject matter first before choosing a good pet at the adoption center.

      Learn about the preferences of the person getting the pet beforehand. Determine his likes or dislikes in taking care of a pet, and get a list of animals he’s excited to have one day. With that kind of information, you’ll have a clear understanding to which pet suits the person the most.

      In relation to the above paragraph, you need to find a pet that would fit the personality of the person especially his lifestyle. If he’s committed to physical training or exercises, then get him a dog that does routine exercise as well. Or if the person prefers to stay at home and just relax most of his days, then get an animal that also does the same. Do a bit of research to ensure the good relationship between the person and the animal in the near future. You can visit or contact an adoption counselor for more expert advice on gifting a pet to a person.

      You can also go with giving the person a certificate instead of a present box with a pet inside. A lot of people like it better this way because the person can choose personally at the adoption center for the particular animal he loves to have at his home with a certificate in hand, which covers the adoption fee.

      Think about the future possibilities as well, thus go to an adoption center that can still accept the pet when the owner can’t take care of it anymore since this could become a reality in the future. You won’t know for certain the future of the person you’re giving the pet into and the animal, so South Bellmore Veterinary Group wanted you to make sure that the pet still have a place to go home to once it is left by its current owner due to unexpected circumstances, and will receive professional care until the day a new person will fulfill his role as its pet owner.

      If ever the person knows that you’ll be giving him a pet as a token of your love or friendship, then it’s better to take him to the animal adoption center and let him choose the animal that he’s very comfortable with and promises to take care throughout its life. Make sure that the person is also ready to face the responsibilities of being a pet owner where he will do his best to provide its needs.

      As a group that takes care of pets of any kinds and breeds with utmost love and care, South Bellmore Veterinary Group would like each and every pet owner reading this to show your love to your pet often because this is also the key for it to live a very long life.

    1. South Bellmore Veterinary Group Review - Hvor hen til gide den ren Pet i overensstemmelse med jeres lifestyle

      Pets kunne levere mange artig sager hen til jer nemlig dens indehaver, men den oparbejde i vælger hvilke sig er ren nemlig jeres lifestyle burde implicere en grundig indfald. Med nogle faktorer at overveje, beslutte, hvilken en vil tage nogen tid, men syd Bellmore veterinær gruppe forsikrer dig om, at det vil være det værd i sidste ende. Selv om jeres ' aktuelle planlæggelse hen til optage noget pets, lære den sager at jer savn hen til overveje i den næste paragraffer.

      Det er muligt, at du allerede har en liste over dyr, du er interesseret i at holde, så det næste skridt er at lære om de specifikke behov og ønsker af hvert dyr, der indgår på din liste. Du er nødt til at tænke på din rutine og livsstil, mens lære om dem, og derefter afgøre, hvilke dyr der er bedst egnet til din måde at leve på. Du skal sørge for, at tingene vil fungere fint mellem dig og dit valgte dyr.

      Selv om jeres ' altid en optaget pågældende og jeres ' ikke sikker omkring gav konstant omhu og opmærksomhed hen til jeres pets så er der ikke mere gide simpel opretholdelse dyrene hvilke forlange færre handlekraftig vekselvirkning. Hvordan end, selv om jer savnet hen til tage sig af nok så handlekraftig dyrene såsom hunde og katte og jeres ' sikker at jer kunne indrømme sig jeres gang med jævne mellemrum så er der ikke mere opgave er hos disse arter i dyrene.

      Når du har gjort op dit sind til at vælge fra lav vedligeholdelse dyr, kan du begynde din søgning med fisk. Holde en guldfisk er et godt valg, så godt, især hvis du er på et stramt budget, da det er billigt og er meget let at tage sig af, da du kun behøver at fodre det hver dag. Men det kan ikke give det venskab eller kammeratskab du kan få fra mere aktive dyr. Men hvis fiskene ikke var til din smag, kan du gå med fugle. De har heller ikke brug for så meget opmærksomhed for at tage sig af dem, du simpelthen nødt til at rense deres bur og sætte nok forsyning af mad og vand. I modsætning til fisk, kan du interagere med fugle og danne et venskab med dem og i sidste ende udvikle en stærkere Bond. Du kan få dem på en overkommelig eller en højere pris afhængig af deres racer, hvor det kan være finker, kanariefugle eller parakitter. Du kan også finde lykken med deres glade støj. Som tidligere nævnt, hunde og katte er perfekt, hvis du er sikker på, at du kan tage sig af dem regelmæssigt. En hund kunne indrømme jer dens uparret loyalitet og lover hen til opbevare jer sikker hele tiden, samtidigt med at en kat kan jeres Fur-ballet i ihærdighed og kilde i sikker vibes.

      Fra det øjeblik du har besluttet, hvilket dyr der skal medtages i dit hjem, fordi det passer til din livsstil, skal du vælge, hvilken en af dens race er kompatibel med dig næste. Imødese at hver arten har anderledes savn og karakteristikker, altså jer skal være grundig i indlæring omkring sig hen til afgøre hvor hver kunne have indflydelse på jeres liv.

      Syd Bellmore Veterinary sammenstille vil nu indbringe jer hen til noget arter i hunde. Den først sig var benævnt Boston skrækkelig og indeværende sort i arten dont ' navnlig savn sand behændighedsøvelse og var nobel af simpelt hen slappe ved siden af deres indehaver. Pugs kom på andenpladsen, og denne race ønskede at engagere sig mere i ting, der kan bringe nydelse eller underholdning og også velegnet til en køligere miljø. For det tredje, den type race, der er munter og ideel til regelmæssig udøvelse, der har en god kropsstørrelse samt er kendt som Cocker Spaniels. Nemlig vor sidst arten indfinde sig den Greyhounds, hvilke nyde en større legeme nummer og yndlings løb og rolig omgivelser hos en hyggelig Loco nemlig napping.

      Efter at have diskuteret nogle hunderacer, vil vi nu gå videre til racer af katten. Den først arten tilbyder en opvakt og munter optræden, den Rusland blå katte, hvilke elske leger omkring hos deres legetøj eller tilbragt gang sammen med deres indehaver. Ser frem til deres sammensat kropsholdning så godt og deres engagement i en rutine. Anden er en race, der var blid og stille, kludedukke katte. Men sørg for at købe fnug ruller og opretholde regelmæssig og ordentlig grooming, så deres udgydelse vil ikke være en kæmpe ballade. Den tredjedel er en arten at er fluffy, høflig og rolig ligeledes, den Persian katte. De er perfekte til at håndtere andre mennesker og elsker at blive soigneret hver dag. Hvis du vil have en aktiv kat, der nyder at hoppe rundt i nogen højder, Manx katte var det øverste valg for dig.

      I slutningen af dagen, alt efter hvad dyr du vælger som et kæledyr, vil South Bellmore veterinær gruppe gerne have dig til at være forpligtet til at tage sig af dem til den bedste af dine evner hver dag.

  17. Jan 2018
    1. South Bellmore Veterinary Group Review - Hvordan gi hjelp til en hund med angst

      Hovedparten av pet eiere hvem lever alene avreise deres pets for deres huset hver gang de gå ytterside å arbeide eller å studere for skolen. Bortsett fra sakene av hundene har engstelse med hensyn til ensomheten finnes inne situasjonen av annet pet eiere. Og en gang din hunden fikk blitt diagnosed med engstelse alt etter dens vet eller en legeundersøkelse profesjonell, det er på tide å ta affære og høre bedre veier å ta vare på det hel frisk-tilværelse av din hunden, særlig dens mental sunnhet. I løpet av disse vanskelige tider, er din tålmodighet og engasjement sterkt behov i henhold til Sør Bellmore veterinær gruppe. Vite det noe hendelsen kunne finne sted som din hunden havne i ødelegge noe saker inne din huset fordi det er en prøver å komme ut.

      Du nød å finner flere metoder for utviklende og sinnsro det mental forfatning av din hunden siden ettall handling alene skrånende ' fullt ut gro det kamp din pet er aktuelle erfaring. Faktisk, dette inkluderer noen vanskeligheter på begge sider, men du kan ikke ha en regnbue uten litt regn, ikke sant? Du nød å ha lated medications, forpliktelse, og hjelpe og oppbacking fra annet folk særlig det eksperter eller legeundersøkelse profesjonelle for at hjelp det mental kamp av din hunden. Mene det en dag, din hunden ville virkelig oppfatte din ansvar og ville høre å administrere dens tristhet eller ensomheten, og således bevege fjerne å forbindelsesveien av engstelse.

      Hvis din ' lever med din hel slekt, din hunden kunne ikke stemning ensomhet selv om din ' går ytterside å møte din ansvar fordi annet slekt medlemmer ville sikker ta vare på den. Bortsett fra hvis din hunden fremdeles bebygget engstelse med slik omgivelsene, du nød å behandle denne materie med din slekt. Sør Bellmore veterinary gruppe ønske du å bli deres hjelpe og oppbacking inne skaper fint opptreden planer, eller ga hunden en positiv, handlekraftig og lysomgivelsene det kunne hjelpe fjerne dens negativ følelsene. For å se mer effektive resultater, erverve service av en sertifisert dyr trener eller en veterinær Behaviorist.

      Hvis din ' lever alene med din hunden, begynne et par endre å din praksis eller lifestyle hvilke sikte å hjelpe din hunden minske dens engstelse. Hver gang du fikk opp fra sengen, finner din hunden og gir den en morgen klem å fylle dens energi måler for dagen. Opprette tid til deres hunden likeledes aften for kun få minuttene der hvor du kanne mate den dens favoritt næringen eller pet den for en stund. Vis ham en god morgen stemning til minst gjøre det glemme sin angst bygge opp. Tidligere du avreise din hjem, snakke med din hunden og forsikre den det du ville komme hjem så snart som mulig etter dem honorere din ansvar idet en ansatte eller en student. Gi den en klem og et smil med et skikkelig farvel. Selv om det ikke kan forstå dine ord, vil din oppriktighet sikkert nå sitt hjerte. Du kan la TV-en eller musikkspilleren være åpen for å distrahere den fra sin ensomhet eller samle sine favoritt leker på ett sted som er lett tilgjengelig.

      Dra nytte av dagen-offs og tilbringe litt kvalitetstid sammen med hunden din. Gå en tur rundt i nabolaget eller bare slappe av og spille på en Park. Hvis din ' innlevering huset, sikre den rettferdig for en kort perioden i den grad at din hunden ville oppfatte det din ' komme hjem tidlig i løpet av din hviledager. Se å den det din elsket pet er likeledes mottar det lated beløpet av nærende igjennom en frisk-balansert kosten og en lated morsjon.

      Dont ' gjøre aksjonene det kunne avreise en arr opp på din dogâ € ™ s følelsene som får meget irritert på den med det punkt din ' rope for den. Hvis din ' bekymret om har den riktig disiplin, der er annet enkel veier det kunne hjelpe du og ettall gir den noe behandler å hver føle etter kommandere. Har engstelse er en følsom utsendelse og dont ' avente den å rask forsvinne fra din pet. Sør Bellmore veterinary gruppe ville like du å forstå det denne nødvendig tid, tålmodighet, besluttsomhet, likeledes idet oppbacking fra andre mennesker og dyr eller legeundersøkelse eksperter.

    2. South Bellmore Veterinary Group Review - Kuinka jotta keventää sinun Vintti koira kilpailut ' korostaa ja Ahdistuneisuus

      Monet usein katsella maailmaa tänään nopeasti eteenpäin liike, jossa kaikki vaatii paljon työtä ja ihmisten täytyy pysyä muutoksia, jotka vaativat heitä työskentelemään kovemmin voidakseen elää. Avulla nyt kuluva, toinen hellitellä omistaja joskus dont ' hankkia aika jotta vedonlyöjä ajaa haluta-lta heidän lemmikki ynnä asia että he kaivata jotta erota heidän lemmikki yksin aikaa koti-aina kun he kaivata jotta sisu jotta koulia eli aikaansaada. Ja tästä syystä jotkut koirat unwantedly kehittää stressiä tai ahdistusta, koska yksinäisyyttä.

      Tokko sinun koira ennestään has ahdistuneisuus pitää keskuspaikkanaan model after tulokset-lta sinun eläin lääkäri, niin muodoin eroten se yksin mahti muodostaa jalkeilla enemmän korostaa. Mutta emme voi tehdä asialle mitään, koska jokainen meistä tarvitsee työtä, mitä voit tehdä, on löytää muita tapoja auttaa koirasi vähentää sen stressiä ja ahdistusta. Vaara tilanteiden koirien kokee stressiä ja ahdistusta voi sisältyä niitä epätoivoisesti yrittää päästä ulos talosta ja lopulta murtaa paljon asioita prosessissa.

      Asiantuntijat sanoivat, että yksi hoito ei voi kokonaan poistaa ahdistusta koira ja he lisäsivät, että se on hyvin vaikea asia käsitellä. Mutta tästä huolimatta Etelä Bellmore eläin lääkintä ryhmä haluaisi sinun olevan vahvempi koirallesi ja Älä anna periksi. Pysyminen positiivinen se on yksi tapa, jolla voit täyttää sen tyhjiön hieman valoa toivoa. Sitoutumalla ja loputon hoito ja rakkaus, koirasi varmasti jonain päivänä ymmärtää teidän tehtäviä ja velvollisuuksia, ja se voi myös paremmin käsitellä stressiä.

      Muistaa että auttaa sinun koira herkku pala sen ahdistuneisuus jälki säädös ajaa aivan jokin aika ja arpa-lta kärsivällisyys. Tokko sinun koira elämä avulla eheä heimo, se on epätodennäköinen ajaksi se jotta edistää ahdistuneisuus alkaen paikalla enemmän kuin ainoa henki joka ajaa haluta-lta se, ainoastaan kotona jokin kovaonninen asia johon koira edistää ainoa, apu-lta ehjä heimo kotona herkku pala ahdistuneisuus-lta heidän Belove d hellitellä on kaivata. Voit keskustella sen kanssa perheen jäsenten ja kehittää keinoja, miten paremmin hoitaa koirasi. Tehokkaimpia tuloksia, hakea asian tuntemusta sertifioitu Animal Trainer tai eläin lääkärin behaviorist.

      Sinun pitäisi aloittaa muutokset itsesi kanssa, kuten käyttäytymistä ja/tai elämän tapa. Sinun koira osata sinun ' astuva rikki polveutua aika se herää ja polveutua paikalla,-nsa huolestunut eli korostaa toukokuu muodostaa jalkeilla, joten polveutua aika te panna jalkeilla, kimmoisuus sinun koira aikamoinen halaus ja mahti koska kummuta heilahdus jokin-lta sinun aamu rutiinin omainen ja arvioida enemmän aika ilakoida avulla se edes ajaksi muutaman minuutin ruokinta sen lempi ruokaansa tai aamiaista, tai hyväily sitä jonkin aikaa. South Bellmore eläin lääkintä ryhmä ehdottaa jättää TV auki niin, että se voisi katsella hyviä esityksiä ja välttää ikävystyminen, tai laittaa sen suosikki leluja lähistöllä. Te kanisteri kin erota se avulla hyvä musiikki ilakoida liepeillä, ja joka aika te panna koti-polveutua aikaansaada/koulia, esitellä sinun koira sinun lempiä ja kimmoisuus se aikamoinen halaus jälleen.

      Se on harkittu koska kummuta jotta sisu ulkona ajaksi rajoitettu eli lyhytfilmi erä-lta aika aikana sinun aika offs joten että sinun koira jälki säädös muodostaa luulo että aikana jokin days-lta työviikko, sinun ' johtuen koti-pikemmin kuin tavallinen, ja kaihtaa ajatteleva kanssa ankara ja olla erittäin yksinäinen. Ja koska se on sinun vapauttaa aika, hän ei ajaa sinun koira ajaksi astua jotta puisto ja ainoastaan hellittää ala-puu ja olla heittää model after hävytön Nurmi. Katso, että olet myös seurata sen terveyttä ja säilyttää tasapainoisen ruoka Valion asianmukaista liikuntaa.

      Tokko sinun koira has ahdistuneisuus, osata että se on aivan altis, joten kaihtaa ehtiminen kiukkuinen aikaa se ja ehkäistä piittaamatta sen läsnäolo. Te kohottanut sinun koira koska sinun parhaiten kaveri, joten olla avulla se edes aikana sen ankara silloin tällöin. South Bellmore eläin lääkintä ryhmä ehdottaa pitää se kurin alainen käyttämällä muita tapoja, jotka eivät vahingoita sen tunteita kuin antaa se kohtelee, kun se seuraa tilauksesi. Te erikoiskieli ' helposti eliminoida sinun Vintti koira kilpailut ' ahdistuneisuus kohtuullinen kuin maaginen koska youll ' kaivata auttaa-lta toinen ihmiset liepeillä te ja arvonmukainen lääke hoito kimmoisuus luona ammatti mies, ja-lta elämän suunta sinun omistautumista jotta parantaa sinun Vintti koira kilpailut ' mielen terveys.

  18. Nov 2017
    1. To be safe, always pack all medications in your carry on—never in checked luggage. Airplanes don't have refrigerators. If you have a drug that must be kept cold, ask your pharmacist how to package it safely for travel.

      This is great information for travelers as they often have many questions about where to carry their medications and whether or not they need to be documented in the checked luggage.

    1. Under the ACAA(Section 382.57), the airlines are not allowed to charge you for your dialysis machine.iii

      This is great information to be sharing with clients when educating them about life style changes and considerations.

    1. The Effect of Education on Quality of Life in Elderly Females with Urinary Incontinence, Refereeing to Jahandidegan Center in Shiraz-Iran, 2011

      I think this article is very relevant because it is not soley information focused. I like that it is a study that was conducted. My question is this something we want to incorporate in our infographic? Do we want a study? Also since it is from 2011, should we try to find another study or is this the most recent and relevant study for our topic? Let me know.

    1. Urinary Incontinence in Older Adults

      This article is very informative! I like how descriptive it is but summarized and concise at the same time. I agree with you Ari this is an important article for our foundation of our infographic. We should definitely meet and discuss this article as a group as we begin to draft our infographic.

    1. Pathophysiology

      I like this article a lot. I think that there is also a lot of useful information throughout the article. I especially like this patho section. We should meet and discuss amongst ourselves whether we want to include some patho or not. I believe this article can be very useful throughout our presentation.

    1. Where do I start?

      I really like this website and this article that was published. Like you said Ari, it is very summarized and to the point which is what we need for this assignment. I like this section titled "Where do I start" because this provides information about noninvasive techniques to treat incontinence.

    1. How To Put On and Take Off a Male Condom Carefully open and remove condom from wrapper. Place condom on the head of the erect, hard penis. If uncircumcised, pull back the foreskin first. Pinch air out of the tip of the condom. Unroll condom all the way down the penis. After sex but before pulling out, hold the condom at the base. Then pull out, while holding the condom in place. Carefully remove the condom and throw it in the trash.

      This is a credible source and I believe we should include these simple steps in our presentation. The do & don't list is also straight forward and can be explained throughout the presentation. -Diana Xicotencatl

  19. Oct 2017
    1. he is an object of amusement that mediates coercion and asymmetric power relations.

      this objectification is not only a bi-product of war, it just made it easier as they had more access to vulnerable women.

    1. While it would be stupid to deny the importance of constituencies and audiences in the construction of an intellectual argument, I think it has to be supposed that many arguments can be made to more than one audience and in different situations. Otherwise we would be dealing not with intellectual argument but either with dogma or with a technological jargon designed specifically to repel all but a small handful of initiates or coteries.

      The irony of the student's statement against Said is that by attacking him for not having the name of not including names of scholars of a specific background, the student ends up purely appealing for the interest of a specific group of individuals rather than speaking of how to make the message itself more universally accepted. Her statement of attack clearly displays how she cares more about the status of the names mentioned rather than the messages they offer which is a mentality similar to the priorities of most upper class elites in every civilization who end up creating an unnecessary divide between people of different backgrounds.

  20. Sep 2017
    1. As the reproductive system awakens to activity it naturally attracts the attention of the girl, and an effort should be made to call her thoughts to other themes.

      Discussion of hysteria in girls, making sex taboo for girls and also stating that there are "other things" that they should be taking care of. What would the view towards men's sexual development be?

    2. God

      The author, Mary Wood-Allen, was the World Superintendent of the Purity Department, Woman's Christian Temperance Union.

    3. and may even cause insanity.

      Sexual incarnations of hysteria/insanity could be treated by stimulation of the sexual organs, however there was a belief that if women were to masturbate themselves it would cause hysteria.

    4. It is unfortunate that girls generally have the idea that it is not modest to think of marriage further than the ceremony.

      This is now the era where a woman thinks past the ceremony of marriage and about the possibility of future children; because of this, it is now the woman's responsibility as the one who actually bears the children to make sure that they are not messed up genetically and educated correctly.

    5. But she has the power to decide what shall be the paternal ancestry of [213]her household; and if she is duly impressed with the responsibility of this power, she will not allow herself to fall in love and marry a man of whose family she knows nothing, or knows facts that do not promise well for posterity.

      This is also the idea that the poor chose to be poor. If the women did not choose to marry poor men there would not be poor children.

    1. Here we go round the prickly pear     Prickly pear prickly pear     Here we go round the prickly pear     At five o'clock in the morning.

      The repetition here demonstrates the hollow man's ardent search for any form of relief from his hopeless condition. The speaker always feels that he is on the verge of entering into a greater hope, but instead finds himself going in circles.

  21. Mar 2017
    1. They have no identity, no personality. The men are units in an army

      I can see the group man theory already becoming present. They lost their own personal identity and now are just apart of one big group who has to work together.

    1. Because to influence a person is to give him one’s own soul. He does not think his natural thoughts, or burn with his natural passions.

      Henry is all influence, completely wound up inside because of it. That is why he is Wilde. Dorian is clean and ready to be influenced. Maybe that is why Wilde wants to be this way.

  22. Jan 2017
    1. Interestingly here talks about the difference between how marketing utilize focus group and how design utilize focus group since they focus on different aspects doing user research. Marketing people are looking for some big trend or representation through a small amount of people such as user group, trying to imagine and predict the picture of larger population such as how they will purchase. On the contrast, in design, we do user research to see their actual behavior to design something meet their needs. When I studied in business in my undergrad, focus group is a very common way in marketing to learn more donut consumer, but at that time i did not know design utilize similar method in order to get different insights since it’s a research method in social science. All roads lead to Rome.

  23. Nov 2016
    1. Best piece I’ve seen on last week’s announcements.

      Gruber had linked to Michael Tsai’s roundup of the backlash, calling it “must-read stuff”. In this case, though, Gruber is “throwing his hat in the ring”. And the ring now feels like the site of a burgeoning flamewar. Issue is, here, that the “war” is happening about people who actually enjoy Apple’s products. This isn’t the “religious wars” between Macs and PCs or between Fandroids and Apple fanbois. It’s a whole argument between people who have been purchasing Apple computers and wanted updated ones. A well-known lesson from social psychology is that group polarization deepens divides by encouraging extreme positions. Chuq Von Rospach’s piece contains several comments which could be qualified as “extreme”. And it puts the blame on those who disagree. There are similar pieces on the other side of the equation, surely. Tsai’s roundup should make it possible to identify them. But Gruber has yet to link to them (apart from arguing about specific points like Tim Cook’s quote on the irrelevance of “PCs” and trying to set the record straight on Apple and Intel sharing responsibility for the 16GB limits on new top-of-the-line MacBook Pro desktop replacements).

      As an example of the effect of group polarization: my own perspective is that disappointment is real. Wasn’t impressed by what transpired from last week’s announcement. Feeling a bit more excited about the Microsoft Surface Studio than about the Touch Bar, but will likely not buy either any time soon. Because polarization forces me to take sides, my vote would go for the “there’s a serious problem, here”. Not saying Apple is doomed or that each of the problems discussed is a tragedy. But, to me, what is being thrown around sounds quite reasonable, not “trivial and petty”. Can’t be on Von Rospach’s side if that’s where the line is drawn. “You’re either with us or against us.” If you force me to choose, well, bye bye!

  24. Oct 2016
    1. They focused on two kinds of students. The “thrivers” were those who did much better in college than their high school grades would have predicted. The “divers” were those who did much worse.

      This is an interesting quote because it shows how personality and traits of a person actually affects the potential of their effort into college courses. A student's personality plays an important role in how they do in college or academics because whether they are enthusiastic or depressed will show in their study habits as well as test scores. When it comes to academics, many people will think it may come natural rather than utilizing the cognitive skills, which is believed to be a skill that applies. However, cognition is an important asset - there is more that contributes into this criteria of education. Although, what draws the line to being fully considered as a thriver student or a diver student. Can someone(a student)be considered both?

  25. Sep 2016
    1. First, according to Trumbull, Olson underestimates diffuse groups’ ability to develop compelling narratives about how they serve the public interest. In fact, weak, diffuse groups have a paradoxical political advantage: precisely because they are weak and diffuse, the public sees them as less self-interested and thus comparatively trustworthy. Second, Olson also underestimates the power of ideological motivation, rather than just money and concentration, to spur activism. Third, “diffuse interests can be represented without mobilization,” thanks to activism by politicians and government officials who take up their cause. (FDR started a federal pension program at a time when “retirees,” as a self-identified social class, did not yet exist. The program created the constituency, rather than the other way around.) Fourth, weak or diffuse interests can link up with concentrated groups to amplify their effectiveness, as when consumers align with exporters to oppose trade protections or when free-speech advocates join with political parties to oppose campaign-finance limits.
  26. Aug 2016
    1. Page 3

      this is a critical juncture in building the next generation of scholarly information infrastructure. The technology has advanced much more quickly than has our understanding of its present potential uses. Social research on scholarly practices is essential to inform the design of tools, services, and policies. Design decisions made today will determine whether the Internet of tomorrow enables imaginative new forms of scholarship and learning – or whether it simply reinforces today's tasks, practices, laws, business models, and incentives.

    2. Page 10

      Borgman on the relationship of knowledge mobilization scholarship, similarities and differences:

      once collections of information resources are online, they become available to multiple communities. Researchers can partner across disciplines, asking new questions using each other's data. Data collected for policy purposes can be used for research and vice versa. Descriptions of museum objects created for curatorial research purposes are interesting to museum visitors. Any of these resources may also be useful for learning and instruction. nevertheless, making content that was created for one audience useful to another is a complex problem. Each field that is on vocabulary, data structures, and research practices. People ask questions in different ways, starting with familiar terminology. Repurpose sing of research data for teaching can be especially challenging. Scholars goals are to produce knowledge for their community, while student schools are to learn the concepts and tools of a given field. These two groups have different levels of expertise in both disciplinary knowledge in the use of data and information resources. Different descriptions, tools, and services may be required to share content between audiences.

  27. Jul 2016
    1. Page 226

      Borgman on why we need a common effort in building a scholarly Commons

      Striking contrast exists between disciplines and artifacts, practices, and incentives to build the content layer. Common approaches are none the less required to support interdisciplinary research, which is a central goal of the research. Scholarly products are useful to scholars and related fields and sometimes to scholars in distant fields as the boundaries between disciplines becomes more porous, the interoperability of information systems and services becomes indispensable.

    2. Page 225

      Here is a great statement as to the need for a self-conscious commons :

      The content layer of the scholarly information infrastructure will not be built by voluntary contributions of information artifacts from individuals. The incentives are too low and barriers too high. Contributing publications through self archiving has the greatest incentives and the fewest barriers, but voluntary contributions remain low. Contributing data has even fewer incentives and even greater barriers. Scholars continue to rely on the publishing system to guarantee that the products of their work are legitimized, disseminated, reserved, curated, and made accessible. Despite its unstable state, the system does exist, resting on relationships among libraries, publishers, universities, scholars, students, and other stakeholders. No comparable system exists for data. Only a few fields have succeeded in establishing infrastructures for their data, and most of these are still fledgling efforts. Little evidence exists that a common infrastructure for data will arise from the scholarly community. The requirements are diverse, the common ground is minimal, and individuals are not rewarded for tackling large institutional problems. Building the content layer is the responsibility of the institutions and policymakers rather than individuals. Individual behavior will change when the policies change to offer more rewards, and when tools and services and prove to decrease the effort required….

    3. Page 184

      In the section “Description and Organization in the Sciences” Borgman discusses some of the ways in which scientific literature is better organized: for example these include uniform language, taxonomies, thesauri, and ontologies.

    4. page 182

      the sciences create a variety of objects the salt in the gray area between documents and data. Examples include Laboratorio field notebooks, slicer talks, composition objects such as graphic visualization of data. Laboratorio notebooks are often classified as data because their records research. Slides from talks, which were once ephemeral forms of communication, now our compost and competent person websites are distributed to accomplish proceedings. Graphic visualization data can be linked to scarlet documents to report research or to the underlying data.

    5. Chapter 8 is an excellent overview of the nature of the commons its differences and similarities

    6. Page 182 Borgman on the disciplinary differences in scholarly practice

      Despite many common activities, both the artifacts and practices of scholarship very by discipline. The artifacts very as scholars make choices about the sources of data, along with what, when, where, and what form to disseminate the products of their work. Scholarly practices vary in the way that scholars create, use, and share documents, data, and other forms of information.

    7. Chapters 4 and 5 the continuity of scholarly publishing and the discontinuity of scholarly publishing

      These are both useful and important chapters for the scholarly Commons working group. They discuss the things that are common across scholarly communication as well as the different functions comma and they also discuss a new technology is disrupting this common area.

    1. Thirty kings and two minors have reigned in that distracted kingdom sincethe conquest, in which time there has been (including the revolution) no less than eight civil wars and nineteen Rebellions.

      The citation stated here is evidence that the continued rule on lineage has caused many a conflict over the years.

    2. avor of hereditary succession is,that itpreserves a nation from civil wars; and were this true, it would be weighty; whereasit is the most bare-faced falsity ever imposed upon mankind

      This is clearly the Assertion. Boldly stated is that heredity succession does not save from Civil Wars and it is foolish to believe so.

  28. May 2016
    1. But true it is. From France there comes a power Into this scattered kingdom

      I believe that the understatement of the French invasion of England in the folio is a flaw. To understand the direction of the plot, the statement that France is mobilizing against the armies of Goneril and Regan is important for when one reads the battle scenes. Though the folio mentions French spies, neglecting to mention the mobilization of France makes the dissent against Goneril and Regan appear more ambiguous.

    2. No, he's a yeoman that has a gentleman to his son, for he's a mad yeoman that sees his son a gentleman before him.

      In the folio, the Fool more directly answers his own question regarding "whether a madman be a gentleman or a yeoman," and it is significant that the Fool negates and corrects Lear's answer of "A king, a king" with "No." When the Fool corrects Lear's 'wrong' answer, it could bias the reader's understanding of Lear's mental state to think of Lear as mad and wrong.

    3. I tax not you, you elements, with unkindness.

      I find it interesting that in the quarto, Lear says, "I task not you, you elements, with unkindness," while in the folio, Lear says, "I tax not you, you elements, with unkindness." Using "task" implies that the elements are given an obligation to Lear (imposed by Lear), while "tax" implies that the elements most certainly owe Lear (and are obligated by a greater force to comply, such as a legal one, compared to the self-imposed obligation to Lear implied by the word "task").

    4. all germens spill at once That makes ingrateful man.

      The fact that the line "That makes ingrateful man" stands on its own line in the folio version of the play makes the line that much more powerful when Lear ends the first part of one of his great speeches in the heath. The image conjured up by "all germens spill at once" is very strong, because the spilling of seed in this place of nothingness reminds us of the sub-theme of infertility in the play. The result of this spilling of seed--"That makes ingrateful man"--seems much more significant when it stands on a line of its own in the folio. The spilling of fertile seed into nothingness can only bring forth ingrateful [sic] offspring or make the parent figure ingrateful [sic] as well. The image is stronger when it stands on its own line to end this section of Lear's rambling speech.

    5. What's here

      It is significant that Kent asks "What's here" in the quarto edition compared to "Who's there" in the folio. The "who" indicates that Kent is inquiring about the identity and whereabouts of a person, while the "what" indicates that the unknown presence in the scene could be more ambiguous--such as a natural force or something that potentially has an inhuman quality. A human stripped down to its base nature, like Lear or Poor Tom in the scenes containing their madness and nakedness, could also be considered a "what." Therefore, I think it is powerful that, in the quarto, Kent presents this possibility of a stage presence with an ambiguous quality existing in the scene, because it fits in with Shakespeare's thematic use of chaos and perverted human nature in the play.

    6. Tears his white hair, Which the impetuous blasts with eyeless rage Catch in their fury and make nothing of; Strives in his little world of man to outscorn The to-and-fro-conflicting wind and rain. This night, wherein the cub-drawn bear would couch, The lion, and the belly-pinched wolf Keep their fur dry, unbonneted he runs, And bids what will take all.

      This section of the gentleman’s answer to Kent’s question regarding the whereabouts of King Lear only exists in the quarto. These eight and a half lines constitute one of the largest differences between the quarto and folio versions of Act III. The gentleman gives us a preview of Lear’s madness in the heath—telling us how the storm strikes Lear and how he attempts to fight back against it—and then relates the scene to dangerous predatory animals that would usually hunt in the night and in the elements. He essentially says that even such fierce creatures are taking cover from the storm, yet Lear still runs in it, rages against it, and thinks the storm will listen and react to his words. The shorter response of the gentleman in the folio neglects to provide us with this in-depth preview of Lear’s actions in the storm.

    7. Contending with the fretful elements; Bids the wind blow the earth into the sea, Or swell the curlèd waters 'bove the main That things might change or cease.

      In the folio, the gentleman answers Kent’s question about Lear’s whereabouts in a simpler manner. He just essentially discusses how Lear fights against the storm and entreats it to behave in a certain way. The four succinct lines set up the following scene (III.2) in which Lear both encourages and rages against the storm. These lines are also in the quarto, but in the folio, the word “element” in the quarto becomes plural as “elements,” and this small, one-letter change to make the word plural causes the storm to seem even bigger, stronger, and harsher. Without the next eight and a half lines that are only included in the quarto, the audience does not get an in-depth preview of Lear’s chaotic raging, and so the next scene, featuring Lear, is slightly more of a shock for the audience.

    8. Tears his white hair, Which the impetuous blasts with eyeless rage Catch in their fury and make nothing of

      These first few lines in the gentleman's reply that are not in the folio are especially powerful in incorporating major themes that continue throughout the play. The reference to Lear's "white hair" shows the theme of age in the play that is often connected to Lear's madness, and the "impetuous blasts" foreshadow the apocalyptic language and scenes that personify Lear's madness as the great chaos of the storm. The adjective "Eyeless" to describe "rage" brings in the theme of seeing and not seeing--as well as of deception. The "eyeless rage" also just literally shows that the storm has no human or animalistic features and so obviously cannot respond to Lear's entreating. The use of the word "nothing" continues the theme of nothingness throughout the play, and the storm makes Lear's hair into nothing--just as almost everything in the play is reduced to nothing. Unfortunately, the folio version does not contain these lines and thus does not have these immense connections to the play's major themes.

    9. Here's a night pities neither wise man nor fool

      It is interesting that, in the quarto version, the fool says "Here's a night pities neither wise man nor fool," while, in the folio version, the fool's sentence becomes plural: "Here's a night pities neither wise men, nor fools." When the sentence says "wise man nor fool," it seems that the fool implies that, of Lear and himself, one is a wise man and one is a fool--even though which character is the wise man or fool is not specified. When the sentence says "wise men, nor fools," it seems that the fool implies that, of Lear and himself, one could be wise, one a fool, or both characters could be wise men or fools. The situation seems a bit more vague. The answer to this question of characterization as wise or foolish is never explicitly answered in the quarto and folio versions of the play.

    10. smite

      I think the difference between "smite" in the quarto and "Strike" in the folio is significant because "smite" has a much more severe connotation than "Strike." The quarto version of "smite" fits in better with the apocalyptic language used by the characters in the heath and with Lear's mental apocalypse in Act III--where Lear's madness is even personified in the absolute chaos around him. "Smite" also incorporates a biblical connotation that fits in with the hellish chaos of the storm when Lear is on the heath.

    11. thou, all-shaking thunder

      Though simply a difference of line placement and a single comma, it is still significant that, in the quarto, a comma comes after "thou." The fact that there is a comma before and after "all-shaking thunder" in the quarto makes it an appositive phrase, and clarifies that Lear is directly addressing the thunder--an entity that has no ability to listen and react to him--thus more strongly showing Lear's mental degradation. The folio version does not use an appositive phrase, so the direct address of the thunder is not as clear.

    12. True, my good boy

      It is interesting that Lear calls the fool "my good boy" in the quarto, while he simply calls the fool "boy" in the folio. Calling him "my good boy" in the quarto denotes ownership, affection, and familiarity that it is not explicitly expressed in the folio version of this line.

    13. In such a night To shut me out?

      The folio differs in this sentence by Lear stressing the gravity of the storm and that his daughters abandoned him by reminding the audience that his daughters "shut me out" in "such a night as this." The quarto does not go through the extra trouble of once again reminding us how Lear's daughters shut him out.

    14. This is a brave night to cool a courtesan. I'll speak a prophecy ere I go. When priests are more in word than matter, When brewers mar their malt with water, When nobles are their tailors' tutors, No heretics burned but wenches' suitors; When every case in law is right, No squire in debt, nor no poor knight; When slanders do not live in tongues, Nor cut-purses come not to throngs; When usurers tell their gold i'th'field, And bawds and whores do churches build; Then shall the realm of Albion Come to great confusion. Then comes the time, who lives to see't, That going shall be used with feet. This prophecy Merlin shall make, for I live before his time.

      The Fool's prophecy that ends Act III.2 in the folio version of the play is one of the main, most striking differences between the quarto and folio in Act III. The Routledge Parallel Text Edition of King Lear attributes much of the prophecy to a Chaucerian parody where the land of Albion (England) shall come to great confusion and chaos, and the footnote interpretation of the Fool's words states that, intellectually despairing, he means "that both the world as it is and the world as it ideally should be are equally confusing and meaningless" (p. 204). The Fool's metatheatrical performance here in the folio directly addresses the audience by breaking the fourth wall, and indicates that the Fool is significant beyond the realm of the play. The Fool expresses that he even predates Merlin--an English legendary figure which no other character in the play is aware of. In addition, bringing in this idea of life becoming meaningless and chaotic in the realm of Albion would play to the contemporary audience's fears about the kingdom(s) and the succession during the reign of King James and continue the theme of political chaos brought about by Lear dividing the kingdom--an action that would horrify the paranoid contemporary English audience. I believe that this prophecy is an exceptionally important and powerful speech during the play, and it is unfortunate that it only appears in the quarto.

    15. I'll pray, and then I'll sleep.

      It is interesting that Lear's line regarding prayer only appears in the folio version. At first I thought that in a pre-Christian play one might not expect Lear to announce that he would go off to pray, but then I remembered that pagans and other pre-Christian peoples still prayed to certain deities or figures, and Lear has previously addressed Nature and other storm forces as if praying. However, he has not retired to go pray before. This line, only appearing in the folio version, could be interpreted in multiple ways: it could simply be a filler line, or it could show that Lear has so strongly internalized the betrayals and harm done to him that he has resorted to prayer as a comfort with which to deal with his hurt emotions or as a cry for help in his degraded state of nothingness.

  29. Apr 2016
  30. Mar 2016
    1. But thy eternal summer shall not fade,

      Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat.

    2. But thy eternal summer shall not fade,

      Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipisicing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua.

    3. But thy eternal summer shall not fade,

      Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu fugiat nulla pariatur.

    4. But thy eternal summer shall not fade,

      Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat.

    5. dimm'd

      ipsum

    6. complexion

      lorem

    7. Shall I compare thee to a summer’s day?

      Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu fugiat nulla pariatur.

    8. Shall I compare thee to a summer’s day?

      Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat.

    9. Shall I compare thee to a summer’s day?

      Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipisicing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua.

    10. Shall I compare thee to a summer’s day?

      Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu fugiat nulla pariatur.

    11. Shall I compare thee to a summer’s day?

      Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat.

    12. Shall I compare thee to a summer’s day?

      Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipisicing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua.

  31. Aug 2015
  32. Feb 2015
    1. (Again, this is in no way a proposal for how the URLs should be structured.)

      To avoid overvaluing group names by making them scarce, we should include a small uniqueness element like a (very short) UUID.

      Obviously more than one person will want to make a group named "research."

  33. Sep 2014
    1. "the scholarly and scientific record is rapidly evolving to become a formalized web of content, in which any node must be able to be linked to any other node, with formal, typed relationships" (2)

  34. Feb 2014
    1. Chapter 1, The Art of Community We begin the book with a bird’s-eye view of how communities function at a social science level. We cover the underlying nuts and bolts of how people form communities, what keeps them involved, and the basis and opportunities behind these interactions. Chapter 2, Planning Your Community Next we carve out and document a blueprint and strategy for your community and its future growth. Part of this strategy includes the target objectives and goals and how the community can be structured to achieve them. PREFACE xix Chapter 3, Communicating Clearly At the heart of community is communication, and great communicators can have a tremendously positive impact. Here we lay down the communications backbone and the best practices associated with using it

      Reading the first 3 chapters of AoC for discussion in #coasespenguin on 2013-02-11.

  35. Jan 2014
    1. This suggests that peer production will thrive where projects have three characteristi cs

      If thriving is a metric (is it measurable? too subjective?) of success then the 3 characteristics it must have are:

      • modularity: divisible into components
      • granularity: fine-grained modularity
      • integrability: low-cost integration of contributions

      I don't dispute that these characteristics are needed, but they are too general to be helpful, so I propose that we look at these three characteristics through the lens of the type of contributor we are seeking to motivate.

      How do these characteristics inform what we should focus on to remove barriers to collaboration for each of these contributor-types?

      Below I've made up a rough list of lenses. Maybe you have links or references that have already made these classifications better than I have... if so, share them!

      Roughly here are the classifications of the types of relationships to open source projects that I commonly see:

      • core developers: either hired by a company, foundation, or some entity to work on the project. These people care most about integrability.

      • ecosystem contributors: someone either self-motivated or who receives a reward via some mechanism outside the institution that funds the core developers (e.g. reputation, portfolio for future job prospects, tools and platforms that support a consulting business, etc). These people care most about modularity.

      • feature-driven contributors: The project is useful out-of-the-box for these people and rather than build their own tool from scratch they see that it is possible for the tool to work they way they want by merely contributing code or at least a feature-request based on their idea. These people care most about granularity.

      The above lenses fit the characteristics outlined in the article, but below are other contributor-types that don't directly care about these characteristics.

      • the funder: a company, foundation, crowd, or some other funding body that directly funds the core developers to work on the project for hire.

      • consumer contributors: This class of people might not even be aware that they are contributors, but simply using the project returns direct benefits through logs and other instrumented uses of the tool to generate data that can be used to improve the project.

      • knowledge-driven contributors: These contributors are most likely closest to the ecosystem contributors, maybe even a sub-species of those, that contribute to documentation and learning the system; they may be less-skilled at coding, but still serve a valuable part of the community even if they are not committing to the core code base.

      • failure-driven contributors: A primary source of bug reports and may also be any one of the other lenses.

      What other lenses might be useful to look through? What characteristics are we missing? How can we reduce barriers to contribution for each of these contributor types?

      I feel that there are plenty of motivations... but what barriers exist and what motivations are sufficient for enough people to be willing to surmount those barriers? I think it may be easier to focus on the barriers to make contributing less painful for the already-convinced, than to think about the motivators for those needing to be convinced-- I think the consumer contributors are some of the very best suited