23 Matching Annotations
  1. Nov 2018
  2. www.nationalcollege.org.uk www.nationalcollege.org.uk
    1. ANDRAGOGY: AN EMERGING TECHNOLOGY FOR ADULT LEARNING

      This article discusses the foundations of technology for adult education and the development of andragogy. In particular, it notes that adult learners need to be self-driven and self-evaluating to constantly be a part of their own education. This would be valuable in working with adult students, or in preparing for a professional development of adult educators.

      Content Depth: 5/5

      Content Breadth: 4/5

      Ease of Access: 3/5

  3. Sep 2018
    1. Huxley suggests that one source for a definition of what it means to be a human being is religion. In Brave New World, religion has been abolished and Christianity is a distant memory

      In his story, religion is completely abolished and along with this, is a sense of morality, what is good and what is bad. To a degree, it may not even be religion that is the basis of being human, rather it is just spiritual and moral values overall that holds the foundation for emotion and growth to take place.

  4. Aug 2018
    1. Similarly, the moral foundations theory originally put forth by Jonathan Haidt and Jesse Graham purports that humans have (in the most common and widely discussed versions of the theory) five innate moral building blocks: care/harm; fairness/cheating; loyalty/betrayal (associated with in-group/out-group consciousness); authority/subversion; and sanctity/degradation (“sanctity” is also often referred to as “purity” in the relevant discussions). Liberals are highly attuned to care/harm and fairness/reciprocity, but conservatives, while valuing care, also emphasize authority and purity, which means that their approach to care/harm will be very different from that of liberals. (In fairness, many on the far Left also emphasize purity and fall into authoritarianism.)

      This could be worth a read as well.

  5. Sep 2017
    1. Pronounced inequalities and disparities exist in terms of individuals’ digital skills and competencies within communities, countries and regions.

      Foundations to address:

      1. Institutional capacity and continuity
      2. GOV involvement
      3. Public/private partnerships managed via nonprofit/neutral bodies
      4. Localization/contextualization
      5. Scaling existing promising practices
      6. Using existing technologies
      7. Blending non-digital approaches
      8. Bridge formal/informal skills provision
      9. Teacher PD
      10. Evaluation/evidence
  6. Jul 2016
  7. Feb 2014
    1. Think how much could be saved if new foundation grants begin requiring interoperability with a set of core community source projects.

      making interoperability a requirement for the receipt of a grant

    1. T h i s p r o t e c t i o n i s s u b j e c t t o a n i m p o r t a n t l i m i t a t i o n . T h e m e r e f a c t t h a t a w o r k i s c o p y r i g h t e d d o e s n o t m e a n t h a t e v e r y e l e m e n t o f t h e w o r k m a y b e p r o t e c t e d . O r i g i n a l i t y r e m a i n s t h e s i n e q u a n o n o f c o p y r i g h t ; a c c o r d i n g l y , c o p y r i g h t p r o t e c t i o n m a y e x t e n d o n l y t o t h o s e c o m p o n e n t s o f a w o r k t h a t a r e o r i g i n a l t o t h e a u t h o r . P a t t e r s o n & J o y c e 8 0 0 - 8 0 2 ; G i n s b u r g , C r e a t i o n a n d C o m m e r c i a l V a l u e : C o p y r i g h t P r o t e c t i o n o f W o r k s o f I n f o r m a t i o n , 9 0 C o l u m . L . R e v . 1 8 6 5 , 1 8 6 8 , a n d n . 1 2 ( 1 9 9 0 ) ( h e r e i n a f t e r G i n s b u r g ) .

      Though a work may be copyrightable it does not mean that every element of the work may be protectable.

    2. F a c t u a l c o m p i l a t i o n s , o n t h e o t h e r h a n d , m a y p o s s e s s t h e r e q u i s i t e o r i g i n a l i t y .

      Factual compilations may possess the requisite originality and so may be copyrightable.

    3. C e n s u s t a k e r s , f o r e x a m p l e , d o n o t " c r e a t e " t h e p o p u l a t i o n f i g u r e s t h a t e m e r g e f r o m t h e i r e f f o r t s ; i n a s e n s e , t h e y c o p y t h e s e f i g u r e s f r o m t h e w o r l d a r o u n d t h e m . D e n i c o l a , C o p y r i g h t i n C o l l e c t i o n s o f F a c t s : A T h e o r y f o r t h e P r o t e c t i o n o f N o n f i c t i o n L i t e r a r y W o r k s , 8 1 C o l u m . L . R e v . 5 1 6 , 5 2 5 ( 1 9 8 1 ) ( h e r e i n a f t e r D e n i c o l a ) . C e n s u s d a t a t h e r e f o r e d o n o t t r i g g e r c o p y r i g h t b e c a u s e t h e s e d a t a a r e n o t " o r i g i n a l " i n t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n a l s e n s e . N i m m e r § 2 . 0 3 [ E ] . T h e s a m e i s t r u e o f a l l f a c t s — s c i e n t i f i c , h i s t o r i c a l , b i o g r a p h i c a l , a n d n e w s o f t h e d a y . " [ T ] h e y m a y n o t b e c o p y r i g h t e d a n d a r e p a r t o f t h e p u b l i c d o m a i n a v a i l a b l e t o e v e r y p e r s o n . " M i l l e r , s u p r a , a t 1 3 6 9 .

      Census takers do not create; they merely copy the figured from the world around them. All facts-- scientific, historical, biographical, and news of the day-- may not be copyrighted and are part of the public domain.

    4. I t i s t h i s b e d r o c k p r i n c i p l e o f c o p y r i g h t t h a t m a n d a t e s t h e l a w ' s s e e m i n g l y d i s p a r a t e t r e a t m e n t o f f a c t s a n d f a c t u a l c o m p i l a t i o n s . " N o o n e m a y c l a i m o r i g i n a l i t y a s t o f a c t s . " I d . , § 2 . 1 1 [ A ] , p . 2 - 1 5 7 . T h i s i s b e c a u s e f a c t s d o n o t o w e t h e i r o r i g i n t o a n a c t o f a u t h o r s h i p . T h e d i s t i n c t i o n i s o n e b e t w e e n c r e a t i o n a n d d i s c o v e r y : T h e f i r s t p e r s o n t o f i n d a n d r e p o r t a p a r t i c u l a r f a c t h a s n o t c r e a t e d t h e f a c t ; h e o r s h e h a s m e r e l y d i s c o v e r e d i t s e x i s t e n c e . T o b o r r o w f r o m B u r r o w - G i l e s , o n e w h o d i s c o v e r s a f a c t i s n o t i t s " m a k e r " o r " o r i g i n a t o r . " 1 1 1 U . S . , a t 5 8 . " T h e d i s c o v e r e r m e r e l y f i n d s a n d r e c o r d s . " N i m m e r § 2 . 0 3 [ E ] .

      No one may claim originality to facts because facts do not owe their origin to an act of authorship. The distinction is one between creation vs discovery.

    5. T h e o r i g i n a l i t y r e q u i r e m e n t a r t i c u l a t e d i n T h e T r a d e - M a r k C a s e s a n d B u r r o w - G i l e s r e m a i n s t h e t o u c h s t o n e o f c o p y r i g h t p r o t e c t i o n t o d a y . S e e G o l d s t e i n v . C a l i f o r n i a , 4 1 2 U . S . 5 4 6 , 5 6 1 - 5 6 2 ( 1 9 7 3 ) . I t i s t h e v e r y " p r e m i s e o f c o p y r i g h t l a w . " M i l l e r v . U n i v e r s a l C i t y S t u d i o s , I n c . , 6 5 0 F . 2 d 1 3 6 5 , 1 3 6 8 ( C A 5 1 9 8 1 ) . L e a d i n g s c h o l a r s a g r e e o n t h i s p o i n t . A s o n e p a i r o f c o m m e n t a t o r s s u c c i n c t l y p u t s i t : " T h e o r i g i n a l i t y r e q u i r e m e n t i s c o n s t i t u t i o n a l l y m a n d a t e d f o r a l l w o r k s . "

      The originality requirement is the touchstone of copyright protection today.

    6. I n B u r r o w - G i l e s , t h e C o u r t d i s t i l l e d t h e s a m e r e q u i r e m e n t f r o m t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n ' s u s e o f t h e w o r d " a u t h o r s . " T h e C o u r t d e f i n e d " a u t h o r , " i n a c o n s t i t u t i o n a l s e n s e , t o m e a n " h e t o w h o m a n y t h i n g o w e s i t s o r i g i n ; o r i g i n a t o r ; m a k e r . " 1 1 1 U . S . , a t 5 8 ( i n t e r n a l q u o t a t i o n m a r k s o m i t t e d ) . A s i n T h e T r a d e - M a r k C a s e s , t h e C o u r t e m p h a s i z e d t h e c r e a t i v e c o m p o n e n t o f o r i g i n a l i t y . I t d e s c r i b e d c o p y r i g h t a s b e i n g l i m i t e d t o " o r i g i n a l i n t e l l e c t u a l c o n c e p t i o n s o f t h e a u t h o r , " 1 1 1 U . S . , a t 5 8 , a n d s t r e s s e d t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f r e q u i r i n g a n a u t h o r w h o a c c u s e s a n o t h e r o f i n f r i n g e m e n t t o p r o v e " t h e e x i s t e n c e o f t h o s e f a c t s o f o r i g i n a l i t y , o f i n t e l l e c t u a l p r o d u c t i o n , o f t h o u g h t , a n d c o n c e p t i o n . " I d . , a t 5 9 - 6 0 .

      In Burrow-Giles the court defined authors, in a constitutional sense, to mean "he to whom anything owes its origin, originator, maker" and emphasized the creative component of originality.

    7. I n T h e T r a d e - M a r k C a s e s , t h e C o u r t a d d r e s s e d t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n a l s c o p e o f " w r i t i n g s . " F o r a p a r t i c u l a r w o r k t o b e c l a s s i f i e d " u n d e r t h e h e a d o f w r i t i n g s o f a u t h o r s , " t h e C o u r t d e t e r m i n e d , " o r i g i n a l i t y i s r e q u i r e d . " 1 0 0 U . S . , a t 9 4 . T h e C o u r t e x p l a i n e d t h a t o r i g i n a l i t y r e q u i r e s i n d e p e n d e n t c r e a t i o n p l u s a m o d i c u m o f c r e a t i v i t y : " [ W ] h i l e t h e w o r d w r i t i n g s m a y b e l i b e r a l l y c o n s t r u e d , a s i t h a s b e e n , t o i n c l u d e o r i g i n a l d e s i g n s f o r e n g r a v i n g , p r i n t s , & c . , i t i s o n l y s u c h a s a r e o r i g i n a l , a n d a r e f o u n d e d i n t h e c r e a t i v e p o w e r s o f t h e m i n d . T h e w r i t i n g s w h i c h a r e t o b e p r o t e c t e d a r e t h e f r u i t s o f i n t e l l e c t u a l l a b o r , e m b o d i e d i n t h e f o r m o f b o o k s , p r i n t s , e n g r a v i n g s , a n d t h e l i k e . " I b i d . ( e m p h a s i s i n o r i g i n a l ) .

      In The Trade-Mark Cases the Court addressed the constitutional scope of writings saying for a particular work to be classified "under the head of writings of authors," the Court determined, "originality is required"; independent creation plus a modicum of creativity.

    8. O r i g i n a l i t y d o e s n o t s i g n i f y n o v e l t y ; a w o r k m a y b e o r i g i n a l e v e n t h o u g h i t c l o s e l y r e s e m b l e s o t h e r w o r k s s o l o n g a s t h e s i m i l a r i t y i s f o r t u i t o u s , n o t t h e r e s u l t o f c o p y i n g . T o i l l u s t r a t e , a s s u m e t h a t t w o p o e t s , e a c h i g n o r a n t o f t h e o t h e r , c o m p o s e i d e n t i c a l p o e m s . N e i t h e r w o r k i s n o v e l , y e t b o t h a r e o r i g i n a l a n d , h e n c e , c o p y r i g h t a b l e .

      See Sheldon v. Metro-Goldwyn Pictures Corp., 81 F. 2d 49, 54 (CA2 1936)

    9. O r i g i n a l i t y i s a c o n s t i t u t i o n a l r e q u i r e m e n t . T h e s o u r c e o f C o n g r e s s ' p o w e r t o e n a c t c o p y r i g h t l a w s i s A r t i c l e I , § 8 , c l . 8 , o f t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n , w h i c h a u t h o r i z e s C o n g r e s s t o " s e c u r [ e ] f o r l i m i t e d T i m e s t o A u t h o r s . . . t h e e x c l u s i v e R i g h t t o t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e W r i t i n g s . " I n t w o d e c i s i o n s f r o m t h e l a t e 1 9 t h c e n t u r y — T h e T r a d e - M a r k C a s e s , 1 0 0 U . S . 8 2 ( 1 8 7 9 ) ; a n d B u r r o w - G i l e s L i t h o g r a p h i c C o . v . S a r o n y , 1 1 1 U . S . 5 3 ( 1 8 8 4 ) — t h i s C o u r t d e f i n e d t h e c r u c i a l t e r m s " a u t h o r s " a n d " w r i t i n g s . " I n s o d o i n g , t h e C o u r t m a d e i t u n m i s t a k a b l y c l e a r t h a t t h e s e t e r m s p r e s u p p o s e a d e g r e e o f o r i g i n a l i t y .

      This Court defined the crucial terms authors and writings.

    10. T h e k e y t o r e s o l v i n g t h e t e n s i o n l i e s i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g w h y f a c t s a r e n o t c o p y r i g h t a b l e . T h e s i n e q u a n o n o f c o p y r i g h t i s o r i g i n a l i t y . T o q u a l i f y f o r c o p y r i g h t p r o t e c t i o n , a w o r k m u s t b e o r i g i n a l t o t h e a u t h o r . S e e H a r p e r & R o w , s u p r a , a t 5 4 7 - 5 4 9 . O r i g i n a l , a s t h e t e r m i s u s e d i n c o p y r i g h t , m e a n s o n l y t h a t t h e w o r k w a s i n d e p e n d e n t l y c r e a t e d b y t h e a u t h o r ( a s o p p o s e d t o c o p i e d f r o m o t h e r w o r k s ) , a n d t h a t i t p o s s e s s e s a t l e a s t s o m e m i n i m a l d e g r e e o f c r e a t i v i t y . 1 M . N i m m e r & D . N i m m e r , C o p y r i g h t § § 2 . 0 1 [ A ] , [ B ] ( 1 9 9 0 ) ( h e r e i n a f t e r N i m m e r ) . T o b e s u r e , t h e r e q u i s i t e l e v e l o f c r e a t i v i t y i s e x t r e m e l y l o w ; e v e n a s l i g h t a m o u n t w i l l s u f f i c e . T h e v a s t m a j o r i t y o f w o r k s m a k e t h e g r a d e q u i t e e a s i l y , a s t h e y p o s s e s s s o m e c r e a t i v e s p a r k , " n o m a t t e r h o w c r u d e , h u m b l e o r o b v i o u s " i t m i g h t b e . I d . , § 1 . 0 8 [ C ] [ 1 ] .

      The sine qua non of copyright is originality.

    11. T h e r e i s a n u n d e n i a b l e t e n s i o n b e t w e e n t h e s e t w o p r o p o s i t i o n s . M a n y c o m p i l a t i o n s c o n s i s t o f n o t h i n g b u t r a w d a t a — i . e . , w h o l l y f a c t u a l i n f o r m a t i o n n o t a c c o m p a n i e d b y a n y o r i g i n a l w r i t t e n e x p r e s s i o n . O n w h a t b a s i s m a y o n e c l a i m a c o p y r i g h t i n s u c h a w o r k ? C o m m o n s e n s e t e l l s u s t h a t 1 0 0 u n c o p y r i g h t a b l e f a c t s d o n o t m a g i c a l l y c h a n g e t h e i r s t a t u s w h e n g a t h e r e d t o g e t h e r i n o n e p l a c e . Y e t c o p y r i g h t l a w s e e m s t o c o n t e m p l a t e t h a t c o m p i l a t i o n s t h a t c o n s i s t e x c l u s i v e l y o f f a c t s a r e p o t e n t i a l l y w i t h i n i t s s c o p e
    12. i t i s b e y o n d d i s p u t e t h a t c o m p i l a t i o n s o f f a c t s a r e w i t h i n t h e s u b j e c t m a t t e r o f c o p y r i g h t . C o m p i l a t i o n s w e r e e x p r e s s l y m e n t i o n e d i n t h e C o p y r i g h t A c t o f 1 9 0 9 , a n d a g a i n i n t h e C o p y r i g h t A c t o f 1 9 7 6
    13. T h i s c a s e c o n c e r n s t h e i n t e r a c t i o n o f t w o w e l l - e s t a b l i s h e d p r o p o s i t i o n s . T h e f i r s t i s t h a t f a c t s a r e n o t c o p y r i g h t a b l e ; t h e o t h e r , t h a t c o m p i l a t i o n s o f f a c t s g e n e r a l l y a r e . E a c h o f t h e s e p r o p o s i t i o n s p o s s e s s e s a n i m p e c c a b l e p e d i g r e e . T h a t t h e r e c a n b e n o v a l i d c o p y r i g h t i n f a c t s i s u n i v e r s a l l y u n d e r s t o o d . T h e m o s t f u n d a m e n t a l a x i o m o f c o p y r i g h t l a w i s t h a t " [ n ] o a u t h o r m a y c o p y r i g h t h i s i d e a s o r t h e f a c t s h e n a r r a t e s . " H a r p e r & R o w , P u b l i s h e r s , I n c . v . N a t i o n E n t e r p r i s e s , 4 7 1 U . S . 5 3 9 , 5 5 6 ( 1 9 8 5 ) .

      The most fundamental axiom of copyright law is that "no author may copyright his ideas or the facts he narrates." Harper & Row, Publishers, Inc. v. Nation Enterprises, 471U. S.539,556 (1985).

    14. T h i s c a s e r e q u i r e s u s t o c l a r i f y t h e e x t e n t o f c o p y r i g h t p r o t e c t i o n a v a i l a b l e t o t e l e p h o n e d i r e c t o r y w h i t e p a g e s
    1. Alexander v. Haley, 460 F.Supp. 40 (S.D.N.Y. 1978)
    2. Lecture 1: The Foundations of Copyright Law

      Readings:

      • 17 U.S.C. 102
      • Feist Publications, Inc. v. Rural Telephone Service Co., 499 U.S. 340 (1991)
      • Mannion v. Coors Brewing Co., 377 F.Supp. 2d 444 (S.D.N.Y. 2005)
      • Alexander v. Haley, 460 F.Supp. 40 (S.D.N.Y. 1978)