3,682 Matching Annotations
  1. Jun 2021
    1. When learners have adequatedomain understanding and self-regulation skills, a lower level of instructor involvementmay provide moreflexibility to learners while also reducing the instructor’s workload

      So is degree of instructor involvement merely a factor of level of course?

    2. some earlier-starter students communicated challenges with the timing of participationas they needed to check back multiple times to read their peers’contributions

      This is a perennial issue that has a technical solution (notifications) but also needs to be addressed culturally. "You should be checking back, rereading the text and our own and the comments of others!"

    3. rereading

      Definitely a key "means to an end" goal for annotation IMO.

    4. As Web annotation activities generate digital trace data that provide indicators oflearning, one approach worth considering is to derive learning analytics that extractsannotation data to be analyzed for evaluation purposes.

      This would be a cool project, DHSI friends...

    5. useful for peer interaction but less valuable for thecreation of course community

      What's the difference here?

    6. some peer annotations might evenimpede their understanding

      I've never really heard this before, though it's clearly an issue when thinking about public annotation on the web in terms of the whole "don't read the comments" thing.

      I suppose it's also a pedagogical dilemma. Can noise be as instructive as signal? Is distinguishing the two, and perhaps leveraging both, part of the work of educaiton?

    7. In the COVID-19 pandemic

      In the end I'm not sure this great review of the literature has much to do with the pandemic or even specifically remote teaching and learning.

    8. The authors suggested instructor facilitation wascritical for achieving the desired outcome.


    9. provided sufficient scaffolding

      Would like to see the how here…

    10. The annotations wereextracted from Diigo for groups to discuss and construct well-reasoned arguments.

      Love the idea of harvesting annotations for summative assignments.

    11. orchestrating knowledge construction

      While I don't disagree with the concept, it's interesting that the instructor has the agency here in what is often seen as a more horizontal activity.

    12. socialconstructivist views of learning

      While I agree, I also sometimes think about where on the social constructivist spectrum different kinds of Hypothesis/social annotation activities fall.

    13. One challenge facing the use of social annotation is the occurrence of“low-quality”student annotations.

      There's an assumption here about the utility of an annotation. Is it only supposed to convey meaning? Or could it convey confusion that would occasion meaning making through peer to peer learning or instructor intervention.

    14. processing domain-specific knowledge,

      While not specific to just this use case for social annotation, I'm a big advocate of leveraging tags to aid in metacognition around this type of annotating.

  2. May 2021
    1. In my own institution,

      It seems like these types of support vary depending on institution. Some schools have an obvious and active center for teaching and learning. Others not so much.

  3. Apr 2021
  4. Jan 2021
    1. Apr 25, 2018

      Some people have been thinking about these issues well before the pandemic and I hope we'll continue to be thoughtful about creating online spaces even after remote education isn't a medical necessity.

    1. This division is severe enough to call to mind the disagreements between the colonists and King George, and those between the Confederate and Union forces in the Civil War.

      Eerie to read this in the aftermath of the Trump Insurrection January 6, 2021.

    2. restoration

      What the problem is with current approaches isn't laid out clearly at the start.

    3. Americans will never falter in defending the fundamental truths of human liberty proclaimed on July 4, 1776.

      We're always faltering. That's the point. Faltering and learning from our mistakes to form "a more perfect union."


  5. Oct 2020
    1. has a weight you can feel Hanging on you, & then it’s there – that Point – whatever – which, now, while It’s happening seems to be constantly slipping away, “Like the sand through your f


  6. Jul 2020
    1. This is the sergeant5 Who, like a good and hardy soldier, fought ’Gainst my captivity.—Hail, brave friend! Say to the King the knowledge of the broil

      not capturing line breaks...

    2. 10

      think about xyz

  7. Jun 2020
    1. Almost all are affected by the physical isolation measures and lack of human contact.

      I feel like my kids' school did well to equip them with good apps to keep up with their academics. What was really missing was the social aspect of their schooling. I'm hoping that if they are online in the fall that there will be more attention to this.

    1. ed tech)

      Why no dash?

    2. Amnesia

      One thing I really like about annotation is that it's "nothing new" right? It actually asks us to remember an analog practice and revive it.

  8. May 2020
  9. Mar 2020
    1. Strategy 7. Reimagine advising and support services.

      The future is leveraging the data and content of social annotation in order to inform advising and other support services.

    2. ▪      Peer-led study groups.

      Reading socially can be used to address equity gaps:

      • encourages students to collaborate
      • learn from each other
      • realize they are not alone in their confusion, etc.?
    3. emphasize Instructor presence

      With collaborative annotation, the instructor can be "present" and engaged during one of the most isolating but crucial academic experiences: reading.

    4. active learning pedagogies

      Like social annotation!

  10. Feb 2020
    1. /

      what do you call this thing between the numbers in a fraction?

      dividing line?

    2. 1/4

      annotating a full fraction

    3. 1/

      this is me annotating a piece of a fraction

    1. Gerstle Cove Campground is situated atop the coastal bluffs on the ocean side of Highway One and offers 30 family campsites. 

      This is where we want to stay

    1. • March:  Last adults leave. Weaned pups teach themselves how to swim.


  11. Jan 2020
  12. www.bigsurcamp.com www.bigsurcamp.com
    1. 4 people 54, 58, 60, 64, 66, 70, 101, A, B 

      4 person cabins

    1. San Francisco to SAN DIEGO Groove to tunes in The Van Morrison, a Eurovan camper that seats and sleeps four. Pick up in San Francisco anytime mid-March and cruise it down to San Diego before March 23. We’ll waive your one-way fee.

      A good option, saving one-ways fees...

    1. Insurance You are required to purchase our insurance, which provides collision and liability coverage. Insurance costs $32.50/day. 24-Hour Roadside Assistance If you don’t have your own AAA PLUS or PREMIER policy (or something similar) we will send you off with our 24-hour roadside assistance package for $15 a day. Coverage includes unlimited: towing, flat tire assistance, emergency fluids delivery, battery boost, and a mobile mechanic.

      Would USAA cover this?

  13. Dec 2019
    1. What’s more, Genius became a successful company thanks in large part to the unpaid work of tens of thousands of music fans who transcribe and annotate without any compensation.

      Like Wikipedia?

    2. First, an apostrophe pattern concealed in song lyrics that spelled out “red handed” in Morse code (which is even older than phonebooks), then a spacing pattern that spelled out “genius.”

      This is, well, Genius.

  14. Nov 2019
    1. anchored

      Interesting word choice, as if the landscape is like an ocean.

    1. n bolstering an existing strong privacy system, in covering up some specific action, in making things marginally harder for an adversary, or even in the “mere gesture” of registering our discontent and refusal.

      Not all of these are obfuscation in my understanding though they are all different forms of resistance to surveillance.

      Obfuscation in my opinion lies in not furthering coherency along another rational line, like limiting the signal (say, reform of TOS) but in confusing the system/signal altogether.

    2. Cyclosa mulmeinensis, which fill their webs with decoys of themselves.

      Very cool.

    3. She is not in prison or institutionalized, nor is she a dissident or an enemy of the state, yet she lives in a condition of permanent and total surveillance unprecedented in its precision and intimacy.
  15. Oct 2019
    1. tudents and faculty are reduced to a “look but don’t touch” relationship with their materials

      Hmm, it's true that the remixability of OER materials is a more fully immersive experience. But touching and manipulating copyrighted material, in my mind, forms the basis of much study in any classroom even with the most minor consideration of the role of active learning.

    2. make the teaching and learning problems caused by copyright the core issue we are solving with OER

      I still wonder to what degree open educational practices are necessarily or always tied to copyright. That is, can OEP be implemented on copyrighted texts?

    1. I think you can run a business premised on open source applications and still provide something folks are more than willing to pay for (which in our case is by and large support). 


    1. Being open and transparent about what they are charging for

      Been thinking about this one a lot lately...

    2. And yet the narrative is not so simple because some of the for-profit players are making efforts to be good (or at least better) actors in open education. I believe that these efforts should be recognized and lauded. In some cases we are witnessing the outcomes of individual efforts to (slowly) change long-standing organizational culture. I believe these internal advocates need our support to engineer systemic change, to get their organizations to understand the value (and not just the price) of doing right by students.


  16. Sep 2019
    1. According to White House officials I spoke with, this was "not the first time" under this Administration that a Presidential transcript was placed into this codeword-level system solely for the purpose of protecting politically sensitive-rather than national security sensitive-information.

      This may be one of the most damning pieces of information in the whole complaint. It also opens up multiple avenues for further investigation if true.

    2. Instead, the transcript was loaded into a separate electronic system that is otherwise used to store and handle classified information of an especially sensitive nature.

      This is one of the craziest and most damning details and really undoes a lot of the subsequent argument by the administration that this stuff was classified/covered by executive privilege.

    3. as a "direct follow-up" to the President's call with Mr. Zelenskyy about the "cases" they had discussed.

      So it wasn't just "locker room talk," then.

    4. The White House officials who told me this information were deeply disturbed by what had transpired in the phone call.

      Susan Hennessey has suggested that the Mueller Report should have been read more like a novel than a legal brief. The facts are only part of the story. It's details like this then that become so troubling.

    5. This letter is UNCLASSIFIED

      This was a super savvy move. "Deep Whistle" knew what they were doing.

    1. Perusall generates more revenue and less cost for publishers without increasing the price to students (and without charging instructors). Publishers get nearly 100% sell-through, no resales, the ultimate solution to piracy, great data, a larger impact on the learning experience, and more satisfied customers.

      Really surprised to see an ed-tech company talk this openly about money for publishers.

    1. personalization

      Defined how?

    2. Embed assessment directly into daily learning experience;

      Like reading...

    3. Relieve administrative burdens;

      Couldn't this be a pathway, if a slippery slope, to "replacing teachers"?

    4. “making money isn’t a dirty word,” and believed that creating more transparency and openness in conversations among stakeholders could shift the culture of teacher suspicion to make way for more partnerships.

      I like this.

    5. Give educators a voice in the design process!

      I love this, but I've also found some staff and faculty impatient when a things is not just done and ready to go.

    1. So our learning technologies cannot continue to live solely in our administrative units; our academic units are where we are doing some of the more transformative work of learning

      I like this because it moves away from one-size-fits-all models of education technology. Are these smaller academic units sufficiently well budgeted to support this approach, though?

    2. Regarding the last, should students own their data, and if so, what would that look like? What can and should we do with that data? Should we turn our students' data over to external vendors?

      There's an unexplored question here, I think, and that is whether the school should own the data vs the student vs the vendor. It's relatively easy to argue vendors shouldn't have access to student data, but schools?

    1. So why was I in the room with a vendor? It was just for coffee, and he was suggesting to me that the best sales people in EdTech are the ones who have worked in education. I am mindful of a Neil Gaiman Quote from Neverwhere – “When angels go bad they are worse than anyone else. Remember Lucifer used to be an angel.”

      Ouch. Couldn't the opposite be true? Someone who actually gets where students and teachers are coming from might have a more reasonable approach?

    2. An aspiration would be the scenario above, representing close working relationships between the elements.

      This sounds great! But I'd argue all three parties create the gap for various reasons.

      Sometimes I find myself trying to bridge the gap (authentically, I believe) only to find senior management uninterested in a particular teacher's excitement about collaborative annotation for teaching.

    3. “Always use the plural pedagogies, because you can claim that your pedagogy has moved on from theirs”  

      Lots of education professors would probably say the same thing. The plural recognizes diverse learners and approaches...

    4. Here’s the thing Darwin never said that.

      Is that the thing? Misattributing a quote is bad practice no doubt. Not sure that constitutes a sales technique.

    5. having established his borrowed credibility from Charles Darwin,

      This seems a pretty common rhetorical technique not isolated to sales: borrowing a quote from someone famous to get your audience thinking.

  17. Aug 2019
  18. Jul 2019
    1. There are many reasons why a college student may not do the reading for a course,

      Some interesting ideas around this problem and potential solutions can be found in this CHE article.

    2. a potential need to access those materials again

      I have an embarrassing number of Norton anthologies of literature. Some of them have traveled with me since high school across five states.

    1. A student of religion might refer to “divine creation” as making something from nothing. But when humans create something, we usually consider the term scientifically, changing the state of a material or an idea, or making something from something

      This is true, but aren't some measures of human art taken by the degree of nothingness from which they came, that is, how original they are.

      Of course, the idea that no creation can be truly original is also out there. As Emerson writes:

      EVERY book is a quotation; and every house is a quotation out of all forests and mines and stone-quarries; and every man is a quotation from all his ancestors.

    1. driven by data—where schools use data to identify a problem, select a strategy to address the problem, set a target for improvement, and iterate to make the approach more effective and improve student achievement.

      Gates data model.

    2. a successful transition from high school to postsecondary education and career-training programs.

      Annotation is one of those core academic practices that spans K-16.

    3. regularly use data to continuously improve the supports, instruction, and learning students experience.

      Data from annotation informing teaching practices, understanding of learning, success, at admin level.

    4. real-time assessments for gauging student progress

      Real-time grading/assessment for reading = annotation

      And note just assessment, but presence: peer learning; teacher-student feedback, ...

  19. Jun 2019
    1. He would provide all of the upfront capital. He’d do the digital marketing and hire course designers and produce the videos of lectures and the software that allowed students and faculty to interact live online, with worldwide 24/7 support. In return, the colleges had to give him 60 percent of the tuition. This was still a good deal for them, since 40 percent of something was better than 100 percent of the nothing they had before.

      The original OPM model.

    2. At some for-profit schools, almost 90 percent of revenues came from federal funds.


    3. What this means is that an innovation that should have been used to address inequality is serving to fuel it.

      Story of the Internet?

  20. May 2019
    1. LTI Launch URL as submission

      So this would be the doc with h scoped to group and a particular user?

    2. content item selection

      Still don't get what this is...

    3. Requires heavy usage of Canvas specific API’s, so is not interoperable

      OK, this is key--glad Canvas is admitting it!

    4. Canvas submissions API.

      Hmmm. Is this how @judell got the Hypothesis activity view into Speedgrader last time?

    5. (optional) Using the LTI Outcomes service, the tool can also return a piece of plain text, a basic URL, or even an LTI Launch URL. This will be attached to a student submission object in Canvas, and it’ll be visible on the student submission page and in Speedgrader

      This is key: to deliver the artifact of the annotation to Speedgrader.

    1. totransform the system of scholarly communication from one that remains closedand unaffordable,to one that is more open, fair, transparent, and sustainable

      A noble goal indeed.

      Curious to see what overlap there is with the "system of education technology". Would love to draft a "Declaration of Rights" for that space...

  21. Apr 2019
    1. Annotation Profile Follow learners as they bookmark content, highlight selected text, and tag digital resources. Analyze annotations to better assess learner engagement, comprehension and satisfaction with the materials assigned.

      There is already a Caliper profile for "annotation." Do we have any suggestions about the model?

    1. teaching strategies can change how students read.

      Agreed here.

    2. An algorithm grades the “thoughtfulness” of their annotations and compares their reading habits to behaviors that predict classroom success.

      I've always found this a problematic part of the Perusall platform.

    3. from an Eastern university


    4. the internet. 

      The Internet is, at least in part, reading!

    5. compliance

      This is, as Laura Gibbs points out on Twitter, an unfortunate choice of words and problematic approach to the issue.

    6. the digital age.


    7. not as capable

      Hrmmm. Not a good starting point for this conversation.

    8. who retired

      No offense, but maybe talk to some early career folks as well.

    9. “The main idea in a text is not on the page,”

      Isn't it? Or shouldn't it be? Yes, the rearticulation of that main idea requires some independent critical thinking, but it should be somewhere on the page that you can point to. And that's part of teaching reading or learning to read.

    1. 4. To build the wire panels, sandwich 5-by-4-foot sections of galvanized-steel wire between 1x3 cedar, screwing through the front of the frame into the back.
    1. Example (Before) A direct link to an article in Project Muse before the proxy URL has been added: https://muse.jhu.edu/journals/demography/v047/47.4.groen.pdf Example (After) A direct link to an article in Project Muse after the proxy URL has been added: http://eztncc.vccs.edu:2048/login?url=https://muse.jhu.edu/journals/demography/v047/47.4.groen.pdf 

      How will their proxy interfere with ours? Or h more generally?

    1. Linking to the article also allows the Library to track use and obtain data about the importance of a particular journal to the campus.  

      Another argument for linking.

    2. While there may be good reason to upload articles to the LMS, it is important to consider that doing so may mean that your students do not have the most recent version of the article. It is not unusual for publishers to make corrections or changes, such as adding supplementary material, to articles after initial publication.

      Argument for permalinks v downloads.

    1. The libraries recommend that you link articles from the library databases to your course in lieu of making the pdfs available.

      This seems the norm though not strictly enforced in practice. That is, libraries say this is what you should do, but profs keep PDFs of articles locally, etc.

    1. naturally occurring

      Interesting qualifier.

    2. digital sociology?

      Interesting that Tressie uses the plural in her OLC Innovate 2019 keynote title., "Digital Sociologies: How Inequality Shapes Our Technologies"

    3. A group of conference attendees annotated this article as part of an OLC Innovate "Innovation Studio" session on "Collaborative Annotation Within and Beyond the Classroom." Tressie gave a keynote entitled "Digital Sociologies: How Inequality Shapes Our Technologies" address at the same conference later the same afternoon.

  22. Mar 2019
    1. annotations give the instructor “a sense of what students found interesting or confusing in the assigned texts ahead of the classroom discussions.”

      This is so important. As an English instructor I always felt like this was a bit of a black box: student annotations were private, contained in their own copies of their books. Now teachers can see this work and intervene and inspire as needed.

    1. themission of UC

      The reminder that these principles (and open access generally) are in line with the mission of the public university is critical. The same can be said about UC's eventual decision not to contract with Elsevier. In short, the model of scholarly communication perpetuated by E contradicts the mission of most public research universities.

    1. The history department, for example, added a digital tool that helped students visualize historical events and then surveyed them on their experiences using it.

      Another lasting example of this was the CRIT tool from English. There was an accompanying SMOC that attempted to broaden the audience/participation by broadcasting a seminar style discussion with real students and including online means of participation. Not saying that's a perfect or even good model, but it was interesting.

    2. Individual departments from journalism to French and Italian were making and assessing changes to their curricula, aided by Project 2021 money and staff.

      Despite critiques of this not being a teaching-focused project, here's a concrete grassroots change that happened.

    3. the challenges of focusing a public research university on undergraduate reform — the research budget and research agenda are top priorities. 

      So the focus on teaching was actually the problem!

    1. You were beginning to gather that there were other symbols mixed with the words that might be part of a sentence, and that the different parts of what made a full-thought statement (your feeling about what a sentence is) were not just laid out end to end as you expected.

      This suggests that Joe is doing something almost completely unrecognizable--with language at least. I guess my assumption is that I would know what Joe was doing he'd just be doing it so quickly I wouldn't be able to follow. And he'd complete the task--a task I recognize--far more quickly than I possibly could using comparable analog technologies. Perhaps this is me saying, I buy Englebart's augmentation idea on the level of efficiency but remain skeptical or at least have yet to realize it's transformative effect on intellect itself.

    2. He also mentioned a recently developed computer process that could go back over a record of the human actions involved in establishing a given argument structure and do a creditable job of picking out the steps which contributed the most to the final picture—and also some of those that contributed least.


    3. have given to me a power to participate in more sophisticated processes that capitalize more fully upon the computer's capability

      I have to admit that I haven't taken away from Engelbart so far a solid understanding of how computer augmentation helps with the more sophisticated mental processes. I have gathered and very much appreciate some of the more mundane processes that can (and have) become automated to allow more time for human devotion to more complex intellectual work.

    4. teaching machines that provided continuous participation and reinforcement.

      Wait, this already happened?!

    5. a specialist

      I'm guessing this guy loses his job.

    6. Now, as part of my regular practice, I spend about five minutes out of each hour exercising with this package. This almost always reveals things to me that change at least the slant of my approach during the next hour, and often stimulates a relatively significant change in my short-range plans.

      Also starting to think about health/exercise monitoring software here.

    7. Then we added more features to the program, in which the computer occasionally interrupts the human's activity and displays some questions to be answered.

      Personalized learning?

    8. ow the human made use of that time.

      In education, learning data and analytics?

    9. With the human contributing to a process, we find more and more as the process becomes complex that the value of the human's contribution depends upon how much freedom he is given to be disorderly in his course of action.

      I love this line. And along with description below it offers a wondrous balance of human and computer working together. I may not have gotten Engelbart until this passage! I can't say though that I've ever heard of a computer program as open and accommodating as this.

    10. we provide him as much help as possible in making a plan of action. Then we give him as much help as we can in carrying it out. But we also have to allow him to change his mind at almost any point, and to want to modify his plans.

      I'm thinking about the role of AI tutors/advisors here. How often do they operate in the kind of flexible way described here. I wonder if they can without actual human intervention.

    11. formal and precise

      What about languages and behaviors that exceed these structures? I'm a little stuck on the mechanization of argumentation here and how so much human communication doesn't follow easily quantifiable rules.

    12. You can see there that these skills are easy to learn in the context of what the human has to learn anyway about using the tools, and that they provide for much greater flexibility in finding convenient ways to use the tools to help shape materials.

      I think knowing the limits of tools is as important as their mastery.

    13. There was a slight pause while Joe apparently was reflecting upon something. He started to speak, thought differently of it, and turned to flash something on a screen.

      One thing we get from this narrative is the persistence of humanity/humanities. Joe is not a robot!

    14. We have developed quite a few concepts and methods for using the computer system to help us plan and supervise sophisticated courses of action, to monitor and evaluate what we do, and to use this information as direct feedback for modifying our planning techniques in the future.

      This reminds me of "personalized learning."

    15. those words were automatically saved for a brief period in case he wanted to call them back

      Control Z!!

    16. where precise use of special terms really pays off, where the human just couldn't be that precise by depending upon his unaided memory for definitions and 'standards,' and where using dictionary and reference-book lookup in the normal fashion would be so distracting and time-consuming that the task execution would break down.

      I wonder about the assumptions here. What really is the capacity of the individual for such memory. Clearly many people before the computer age had prodigious individual vocabularies to draw from. And "Thesaurus" can backfire, right?--giving the user a technical synonym that's connotations don't make sense in context. I also wonder about the haptic and other benefits of the more burdensome research process of reaching for a dictionary and flipping through the pages.

  23. Feb 2019
    1. Which segments of text are being highlighted?

      Do we capture this data? Can we?

    2. What types of annotations are being created?

      How is this defined?

    3. Who is posting most often? Which posts create the most replies?

      These apply to social annotation as well.

    4. Session Profile

      Are we capturing the right data/how can Hypothesis contribute to this profile?

    5. Does overall time spent reading correlate with assessment scores? Are particular viewing patterns/habits predictive of student success? What are the average viewing patterns of students? Do they differ between courses, course sections, instructors, or student demographics?

      Can H itself capture some of this data? Through the LMS?

    1. 7. Team Cooperation

      The below reminds me of working in Google Docs, which can indeed be a delightful site for collaboration.

      Still--and perhaps I've just been monastic in my stance while reading Engelbart--I wonder about the power of isolated individual deliberation ahead of or in some other less immediate relation to the cooperation described here.

    2. It is rather amazing how much superfluous verbiage is contained in those papers merely to try to make up for the pitifully sparse possibilities available for symbol structuring in printed text."

      No argument here. :)

    3. Well, when you ever get handy at roaming over the type of symbol structure which we have been showing here, and you turn for this purpose to another person's work that is structured in this way, you will find a terrific difference there in the ease of gaining comprehension as to what he has done and why he has done it, and of isolating what you want to use and making sure of the conditions under which you can use it.

      Like picking up a book that has been highlighted or annotated by someone else?

    4. something like footnotes

      Or annotations?!

    5. You are quite elated by this freedom to juggle the record of your thoughts, and by the way this freedom allows you to work them into shape

      It can be exciting.

    6. Your ideas begin to take shape, and you can continually re-work the existing set of statements to keep representing the state of your "concept structure."

      It's clear that this process becomes easier than its paper and pen analog. But is it better? That is, in terms of ordering our thoughts, is one means of achieving process better at producing a convincing argument. Again, I'm very interested in the history/position of composition studies on this topic.

    7. You don't know. He's a nice enough guy, but he sure gets preachy.

      This really is an effective format, the fictional dialogue. Not unlike Plato's use of it.

    8. demonstrated how he could request that each instance of the use of a given term be changed to a newly designated term

      Search and replace!!!

    9. readjust margins

      This innovation has been abused by many a college paper writer.

    10. The text would all still look as neat as if freshly retyped

      This is of course desirable in terms of product. But losing that process is also problematic. Of course modern word-processing systems save and can display these histories in powerful and sophisticated ways. I especially Google Docs love this project from a former colleague.

    11. Joe could direct the computer to move that string from where it was to insert it at a new point which his light pen designated

      Cut and paste!

    12. He showed you how he could single out a group of words (called the "object symbol string," or simply "object string") and define an abbreviation term, composed of any string of symbols he might choose, that became associated with the object string in computer storage. At any later time (until he chose to discard that particular abbreviation from his working vocabulary) the typing of the abbreviation term would call forth automatically the "printing" on the display of the entire object string.

      Keyboard shortcuts? Or autocorrect? Again, these seem (appreciated) conveniences of speed rather than evolutions in intellect. But is part of the point my brain is saved for other tasks?

    13. He showed you how he could call up the dictionary definition to any word he had typed in, with but a few quick flicks on the keyset. Synonyms or antonyms could just as easily be brought forth.

      So crazy how prescient this is. Though I suppose folks at IBM and Microsoft probably read Englebart.

    14. This didn't impress you very much

      Right, though I'll take it.

    15. For example, select a given capability, at any level in the hierarchy, and ask yourself if it can be usefully changed by any means that can be given consideration in the augmentation research contemplated. If it can, then it is not basic but it can be decomposed into an eventual set of basic capabilities.

      It would be interesting to do this exercise with the various learning outcomes one might have for a course. Which can be aided by augmentation/technological intervention? Which can't?

    16. out

      Needs augmentation.

    17. If it were so very easy to look things up,

      Despite the "brick pencil" prolepsis above, I still don't feel like the (simultaneous) potential for de-evolution is sufficiently addressed here.

      Yesterday I attended a parent-teacher conference at my daughter's elementary school. One spelling exercise she did strikes me as relevant here. She would be shown a card by a teacher with a word spelled out and have to spell it out orally in front of there (this was accompanied by a kind of patty cake hand work.) Then she would cross the room and spell the word out on paper. The goal was obviously to drive home the spelling in some deeper way and used only basic human motor and brain functions.

      Meanwhile, there are words I routinely misspell: accommodate, guarantee, for example. I basically don't know how to spell them. But I am able to rely on autocorrect/spellcheck--spelling augmentation software--to get by. Is that augmented intellect or handicapped intellect?

      There's no doubt that being able to look things up easily helps me function. But something is lost as well, no?

    18. We fastened a pencil to a brick
    19. The English language since Shakespeare has undergone no alteration comparable to the alteration in the cultural environment; if it had, Shakespeare would no longer be accessible to us.

      Is this true? Gardner, as a literary scholar, do you agree?

    20. Where a complex machine represents the principal artifact with which a human being cooperates, the term "man-machine interface" has been used for some years to represent the boundary across which energy is exchanged between the two domains. However, the "man-artifact interface" has existed for centuries, ever since humans began using artifacts and executing composite processes.

      This is an important point I think in current debates about "technology" and "social media." Not to exculpate the builders of our more modern tools and their responsibility for abuse on their platforms--important work still needs to be done there--but the abuse of such tools has deeper underlying human and social causes that need to be addressed as well.

    21. amplifier."

      For me this word connotes volume whereas the power of "augmentation" lies more in capacity.

    22. Even so apparently minor an advance could yield total changes in an individual's repertoire hierarchy that would represent a great increase in over-all effectiveness

      I'm starting to wonder about the difference between augmenting intellect and increasing efficiency...

    23. You can integrate your new ideas more easily, and thus harness your creativity more continuously, if you can quickly and flexibly change your working record.

      Perhaps. I often long for the linearity of the hand-written word. I feel that sometimes my digital composition processes allow for too many tangents, not enough focus.

    24. It would be practical for you to accommodate more complexity in the trails of thought you might build in search of the path that suits your needs.

      Fascinating. Is the suggestion here that digital composition allows for more complexity because, essentially, I'm not limited by the linearity of the page, either in thought or writing?

    25. This writing machine would permit you to use a new process of composing text.

      Though I lived through the change from writing out essays for school to typing them out on a computer, I haven't really thought about how the processes and products for those different forms of composition are. I'd be interested to research this issue, especially across literary history, and how, say, the novel, changed as it means of production shifted.

    26. Let us consider an augmented architect at work.

      I can't help but think of this scene from Bladerunner as I read this section.

    1. "Guess what? All that up-and-down with the cylinders, all firing at exactly the right millisecond, and then the gears and contraptions to turn the up-and-down into round-and-round? Gone. Oil changes? Gone. You have a battery, you have electric motors directly attached to wheels, you have absurd amounts of torque, and very few moving parts to wear out. The power goes straight to the wheels. All that internal combustion stuff did a great job for the last 100 years, but we can propel our wheeled vehicles with more efficiency and less complexity now."

      This is a description/advocation of electric cars?

    2. If you want to get a lot of money from VCs, it helps a lot to look like a platform company (although I get the sense that's beginning to change in the education investment space).

      Very interesting. Hypothesis will never be a platform I don't think.

    3. This value proposition is a far cry from robot tutors in the sky that can semi-read your mind. It's less sexy, more grounded, and more strategic.

      Still curious how it effects on the ground labor, though...

    4. Operational excellence is the new hotness


    5. I never got the sense that there were many True Believers in adaptive learning as a magic bullet.

      At ELI 2019, the 2019 Horizon Report was released. It was observed that "adaptive" was no longer on the roadmap.