23 Matching Annotations
  1. Sep 2020
  2. Aug 2020
  3. Jul 2020
    1. Also, potentially potent in strengthening belongingness is individual coun-seling that encourages adolescents to find strength in relationships with family members, such that they are able to maintain these relationships even as they move from school to school. For each of these interventions, a student’s ability to find belongingness through healthy relationships, and gain strength from them, can be emphasized. Thus, by building belongingness through building healthy relationships, students can become resilient against negative threats. These are the types of interventions that can be supported by the result that belongingness is an effective moderator of the influence of peer acceptance on loneliness. In this way, these findings support Gysbers’s (2004) and Forrest’s (2004) encouragement for counseling psychology research to be informative for school counselors

      Findings: For each of these interventions, a student’s ability to find belongingness through healthy relationships, and gain strength from them, can be emphasized. Thus, by building belongingness through building healthy relationships, students can become resilient against negative threats.

    2. for the outcome of loneliness, and revealed belongingness as a moderator for this outcome (Table 2), is valuable in the establishment of belongingness as noteworthy for the social lives of adolescents. The graphing of the post hoc analysis of this relationship (Figure 1) further clarifies the importance of belongingness. This informs an understanding of the social environment of a multicultural middle school by showing that while those who have low peer acceptance are at risk, those who are strong in belongingness are some-what buffered against such consequences. Thus, belongingness appears to be a protective factor. Because the loneliness questionnaire, the CLS, targeted loneliness in the school environment, it was logical to expect that peer acceptance would be significantly correlated to loneliness, which it was. That students with high belongingness levels showed essentially no impact from peer acceptance levels on loneliness at school is notable. It suggests that high levels of belongingness can buffer the negative effects of low peer acceptance. This begins to establish belongingness as important in the lives of adolescents and as a promising factor in promoting resilience.

      Findings: This begins to establish belongingness as important in the lives of adolescents and as a promising factor in promoting resilience

    3. The relationship between loneliness and depression was steeper for low belongingness than for high belongingness, meaning that students with low belongingness were more vulnerable to depression in relation to feelings of loneliness than were their high-belongingness counterparts

      Findings: students with low belongingness were more vulnerable to depression in relation to feelings of loneliness than were their high-belongingness counterparts.

    4. With only loneli-ness in the equation with depression, the relationship was significant (R2= .28, p< .001). When belongingness was introduced, there was an increase in the strength of the equation (R2 increased by .02, p= .005). Finally, the interaction between belongingness and loneliness was significant with levels of depres-sion (R2 increased by .03, p= .001). Thus, there is support for Hypothesis 2, that belongingness does moderate the influence of loneliness on depression.

      Findings: belongingness does moderate the influence of loneliness on depression.

    5. This shows that belongingness was a moderator of the influence of peer acceptance on loneliness, supporting Hypothesis 1

      Findings: belongingness was a moderator of the influence of peer acceptance on loneliness

    6. The relationship between loneliness and peer acceptance was plotted at three levels of belongingness: low (-1 SD), medium (M), and high belongingness (+1 SD). With low belong-ingness, there is a somewhat steep relationship between loneliness and peer acceptance. This means that students who had limited belongingness were highly vulnerable to feelings of loneliness from rejection by their peers. At medium levels of belongingness, the relationship between peer acceptance and loneliness was not as steep, yet peer acceptance still had a clear influ-ence on loneliness. At high levels of belongingness, the line representing the relationship between loneliness and peer acceptance was nearly horizontal. In regard to loneliness, this reveals that students who were high in belong-ingness were almost unaffected by their level of peer acceptance, whereas students who were low in belongingness were susceptible to experiencing loneliness at low levels of peer acceptance

      Findings: In regard to loneliness, this reveals that students who were high in belongingness were almost unaffected by their level of peer acceptance, whereas students who were low in belongingness were susceptible to experiencing loneliness at low levels of peer acceptance

    7. One possibly important strengths-based moderator for children and adolescents is belongingness. Feeling a sense of belongingness to a wider social group is considered a ubiquitous need (Baumeister & Leary, 1995; Osterman, 2000). This notion is rooted in Maslow’s (1987) conceptualization that humans, like other animals, have the need “to herd, to flock, to join, and to belong” (p. 20). Belonging may be established in peer groups at school, but youth may also find belongingness through other social channels, such as teachers, parents, extended family, or community groups. This is supported by research from Appleton, Christenson, Kim, and Reschly (2006) that links the social context of students to academic, social, and emotional outcomes. Furthermore, it is important to differentiate belongingness from other allied variables associated with interpersonal functioning, such as social support and peer acceptance. While social support and peer acceptance connote a passive engagement of the individual with the social network, a sense of belonging represents a more active engagement and an internal experience of a strong psychological connection to a group (Brown, Alpert, Lent, Hunt, & Brady, 1988; Mallinckrodt, 1992; Mallinckrodt & Wei, 2005). Belongingness then involves a dyad, group, or community that one senses one’s current active membership completes. When individuals belong (have belongingness), they believe a dyad, group, or community is not complete without them, and they are not complete without the dyad, group, or community.
      • belongingness is a "strengths-based moderator for children"
      • belongingness =/= social support and peer acceptance
      • belongingness involves a group/community that "one's current active membership completes"
  4. Jun 2020
    1. Because the majority (57%) of young people met their capitalmentor through school, focused efforts should be made to create "mentor-rich environments" (Freedman, 1993, p. xxiv) in and around school. Social workers are in a prime position to take on this task, as social workers are already working in the school setting and have relationships with key potential mentors, including teachers and other school personnel. To "stock the pond," social workers should consider trainingteachers and school personnel toacknowledge their potential asa capitalmentor. This could include trainingteachers andschool personnelto recognize the power they have to connect young people to resources they do not have access to in their current social circles, and to proactivelyengage with these young people. School social workers should also advocate for institutional support of informal mentorship, including the creation of opportunities for one-on-one connections and rewarding teachers for prioritizing mentorship

      "Stock the Pond" in schools.

      • 57% of young people met their capital mentor through school
      • schools should create "'mentor-rich environments'" in/around school
      • social workers are ideal to take on this position
      • social workers should train teachers and school personnel to acknowledge their potential as a capital mentor through training
      • school social workers should advocate for institutional support of informal mentorship, like creating opportunities for one-on-one connections and rewarding teachers for prioritizing mentorship
    2. The capitalrelationship is likely with someone from outside the family, and is not marked by feelings of closeness or frequent communication.Young people go to capitalmentors for sound advice. These relationships connected young people to new resources and bolstered young peoples'feelingsof connectedness to a common group.

      Capital relationships "connected young people to new resources and bolstered young peoples' feelings of connectedness to a common group"

    3. The third function mentors play in promoting upward mobility for young people is the direct effect the provision of social capital (both bridging and bonding capital) has on building blocks of mobility(Ellwood et al., 2016). Bonding capital from a mentor who is also a teacher could foster feelings of school connectedness, which has been demonstrated to lead to academic engagement and ultimately, educational attainment (Ashtiani & Feliciano, 2018; Li, Lerner, & Lerner, 2010). An employer could have a similar effect by providing bonding capital. If a young person feels connected to the workplace or mission of the work place through their mentoring relationships with their employer, they are likely to have higherjob satisfaction and more opportunities for promotion (Ghosh &Reio 2013). Bridging capital can also have a direct effect on key links in the chain. Studies have shown that bridging mentors (commonly teachers and school personnel) were likely to promote educational attainment and employment

      Social capital (bridging and bonding) can "foster feelings of school connectedness, which has been demonstrated to lead to academic engagement and ultimately, educational attainment"; similar in workplaces, bonding with mentors in settings can create sense of connectedness with setting overall

    4. Those who report feeling emotionally supported have higher rates of academic competence (Sterrett, Jones, Mckee, & Kincaid, 2011) and strong academic outcomes (Wentzel, Russell & Baker, 2016). Additionally, adults who have achieved upward mobility are more likely to report instrumentally supportive relationships than those who were not mobile (Chan, 2017). Clearly, social support has a direct influence on someof thebuilding blocks of mobility

      Social support leads to higher rates of academic competence, strong academic outcomes; has a direct influence on some of the building blocks of mobility

    5. Social capital gives attention to larger social contexts (e.g., churches, schools, neighborhoods) as important aspects of one's social life. Those who study social support thus credit things like civic engagement and school involvement as important actions supporting social capital. Social support, conversely, focuses almost exclusively on relationships between two individuals.

      School plays a role in social capital; social support focuses almost exclusively on relationships between two individuals

    6. Putnam (2000) extended the terminology of weak and strong ties to bridging and bonding capital. Bonding capital is typically provided through an emotionally close and long-standing relationship, and strengthens the individual's connection to a common community. For example, if a youth identifies a teacher as their informal mentor, that teacher can build on their common social network (e.g., the school community) and have the youth feel more connected to and a part of the school as a whole.

      Bonding capital: typically provided through an emotionally close and long-standing relationship; strengthens connection to a common community Can lead to youth feeling "more connected to and a part of the school as a whole" when a youth identifies a teacher as their informal mentor, for example

    7. For instance, much attention has been paid to informal mentoring and educational outcomes: mentored youth are more likely to feel connected to their school (Black, Grenard, Sussman, & Rohrbach, 2010), have better grades (Chang et al., 2010), attend college (DuBois & Silverthorn, 2005a; Reynolds & Parrish, 2017) and receive a bachelor’s degree (Miranda-Chan, Fruiht, Dubon, & Wray-Lake, 2016; Erickson, McDonald, Elder, 2009). Cumulatively, these studies, along with a 2018 meta-analysis (Van Dam et al.) suggest a strong and consistent relationship between having an informal mentor and positive educational outcomes.

      Informal mentors can result in and influence positive educational outcomes, help promote ability to "feel connected to their school"

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  5. Sep 2019
    1. Reach out to those who didn’t do so well and express your willingness to help them. Check in with students who have missed a class or two.

      It's worth noting that none of this is easy or efficient. If it was, we'd all do it. One must make a concerted effort to ensure students feel like they belong and that they're supported so that they can learn best. If that's not part of an instructor's job, then what exactly is the instructor's job?

  6. Sep 2018
    1. It is amazing what calling someone by their name can do for a community and a feeling of belonging.

      I've been impressed in the past by faculty members who use this as a way to get to real class discussion and past serial dialogue between the professor an individual students in a Q&A. Saying "what she said" simply isn't acceptable; when you refer to another person's comment, you use their name,

  7. Aug 2018
    1. “If you’re not on MySpace, you don’t exist.”

      In prior generations, if you couldn't borrow dad's car, you didn't exist...

      Cross reference the 1955 cultural touchstone film Rebel Without a Cause. While the common perception is that James Dean, portraying Jim Stark, was the rebel (as seen in the IMDB.com description of the film "A rebellious young man with a troubled past comes to a new town, finding friends and enemies."), it is in fact Plato, portrayed by Sal Mineo, who is the true rebel. Plato is the one who is the disruptive and rebellious youth who is always disrupting the lives of those around him. (As an aside, should we note Plato's namesake was also a rebel philosopher in his time?!?)

      Plato's first disruption in the film is the firing of the cannon at school. While unstated directly, due to the cultural mores of Hollywood at the time, Plato is a closeted homosexual who's looking to befriend someone, anyone. His best shot is the new kid before the new kid manages to find his place in the pecking order. Again Jim Stark does nothing in the film but attempt to fit into the social fabric around him, his only problem is that he's the new guy. Most telling here about their social structures is that Jim has ready access to an automobile (a literal rolling social club--notice multiple scenes in the film with cars full of teenagers) while Plato is relegated to an old scooter (a mode of transport focused on the singleton--the transport of the outcast, the rebel).

      The Rebel Plato, with his scooter--and a gun, no less! Plato as portrayed by Sal Mineo in Rebel Without a Cause (1955). Notice that as the rebel, he's pictured in the middleground with a gun while his scooter protects him in the foreground. In the background is the automobile, the teens' coveted source of freedom at the time.

  8. Mar 2017
    1. Without her, nothing would have happened. I would have remained isolated probably, unhappily in a disconnected classroom.

      The importance of connecting with others like us...

  9. Apr 2016