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  1. Last 7 days
    1. Taking notes for historical writing .t3_185xmuh._2FCtq-QzlfuN-SwVMUZMM3 { --postTitle-VisitedLinkColor: #9b9b9b; --postTitleLink-VisitedLinkColor: #9b9b9b; --postBodyLink-VisitedLinkColor: #989898; } questionI'm trying to understand how to adopt parts of the Zettelkasten method for thinking about historical information. I wrote a PhD in history. My note-taking methodology was a complete mess the whole time. I used note-taking to digest a book, but it would take me two or three times longer than just reading. I would go back over each section and write down the pieces that seemed crucial. Sometimes, when I didn't know a subject well, that could take time. In the end, I would sometimes have many pages of notes in sequential order sectioned the way the book was sectioned, essentially an overlay of the book's structure. It was time-consuming, very hard, not useless at all, but inefficient.Now consider the Zettelkasten idea. I haven't read much of Luhmann. I recall he was a sociologist, a theorist in the grand style. So, in other words, they operate at a very abstract level. When I read about the Zettelkasten method, that's the way it reads to me. A system for combining thoughts and ideas. Now, you'll say that's an artificial distinction, perhaps...a fact is still rendered in thought, has atomicity to it etc. And I agree. However, the thing about facts is there are just A LOT of them. Before you write your narrative, you are drowning in facts. The writing of history is the thing that allows you to bring some order and selectivity to them, but you must drown first; otherwise, you have not considered all the possibilities and potentialities in the past that the facts reveal. To bring it back to Zettelkasten, the idea of Zettel is so appealing, but how does it work when dealing with an overwhelming number of facts? It's much easier to imagine creating a Zettelkasten from more rarefied thoughts provoked by reading.So, what can I learn from the Zettelkasten method? How can I apply some or all of its methodologies, practically speaking? What would change about my initial note-taking of a book if I were to apply Zettelkasten ideas and practice? Here is a discussion about using the method for "facts". The most concrete suggestions here suggest building Zettels around facts in some ways -- either a single fact, or groups of facts, etc. But in my experience, engaging with a historical text is a lot messier than that. There are facts, but also the author's rendering of the facts, and there are quotes (all the historical "gossip"), and it's all in there together as the author builds their narrative. You are trying to identify the key facts, the author's particular angle and interpretation, preserve your thoughts and reactions, and save these quotes, the richest part of history, the real evidence. In short, it is hard to imagine being able to isolate clear Zettel topics amid this reading experience.In Soenke Ahrens' book "How to Take Smart Notes," he describes three types of notes: fleeting notes (these are fleeting ideas), literature notes, and permanent notes. In that classification, I'm talking about "literature notes." Ahrens says these should be "extremely selective". But with the material I'm talking about it becomes a question. How can you be selective when you still don't know which facts you care about or want to maintain enough detail in your notes so you don't foreclose the possibilities in the historical narrative too early?Perhaps this is just an unsolvable problem. Perhaps there is no choice but to maintain a discipline of taking "selective" literature notes. But there's something about the Zettelkasten method that gives me the feeling that my literature notes could be more detailed and chaotic and open to refinement later.Does my dilemma explained here resonate with anyone who has tried this method for intense historical writing? If so, I'd like to hear you thoughts, or better yet, see some concrete examples of how you've worked.

      reply to u/ethanzanemiller at https://www.reddit.com/r/Zettelkasten/comments/185xmuh/taking_notes_for_historical_writing/

      Rather than spending time theorizing on the subject, particularly since you sound like you're neck-deep already, I would heartily recommend spending some time practicing it heavily within the area you're looking at. Through a bit of time and experience, more of your questions will become imminently clear, especially if you're a practicing historian.

      A frequently missing piece to some of this puzzle for practicing academics is upping the level of how you read and having the ability to consult short pieces of books and articles rather than reading them "cover-to-cover" which is often unnecessary for one's work. Of particular help here, try Adler and Van Doren, and specifically their sections on analytical and syntopical reading.

      • Adler, Mortimer J., and Charles Van Doren. How to Read a Book: The Classical Guide to Intelligent Reading. Revised and Updated ed. edition. 1940. Reprint, Touchstone, 2011.

      In addition to the list of practicing historians I'd provided elsewhere on the topic, you might also appreciate sociologist Beatrice Webb's short appendix C in My Apprenticeship or her longer related text. She spends some time talking about handling dates and the database nature of querying collected facts and ideas to do research and to tell a story.

      Also helpful might be Mill's article which became a chapter in one of his later books:

      Perhaps u/danallosso may have something illuminating to add, or you can skim through his responses on the subject on Reddit or via his previous related writing: https://danallosso.substack.com/.

      Enough historians and various other humanists have been practicing these broad methods for centuries to bear out their usefulness in researching and organizing their work. Read a bit, but truly: practice, practice, and more practice is going to be your best friend here.

    1. Can you provide any more information about how this method works in detail?

      reply to u/ethanzanemiller at https://www.reddit.com/r/Zettelkasten/comments/1843k2w/comment/kb4d882/?utm_source=reddit&utm_medium=web2x&context=3

      Presuming you came into this from a search on "history" or a related topic rather than long time experience in this sub?

      A card index, fichier boîte (French), or zettelkasten (German) is broadly the use of index cards (or digital versions) for research and writing. (I generally frame it as an extension of keeping a commonplace book.)

      But some of it is best described within the area of "historical method" by practicing historians themselves, so also try these texts written by historians on the subject:

      Allosso, Dan, and S. F. Allosso. How to Make Notes and Write. Minnesota State Pressbooks, 2022. https://minnstate.pressbooks.pub/write/.

      Barzun, Jacques. The Modern Researcher. Boston : Houghton Mifflin Co., 1992. http://archive.org/details/modernresearcher00barz_1.

      Dow, Earle Wilbur. Principles of a Note-System for Historical Studies. New York: Century Company, 1924.

      Eco, Umberto. How to Write a Thesis. Translated by Caterina Mongiat Farina and Geoff Farina. 1977. Reprint, Cambridge, MA, USA: MIT Press, 2015. https://mitpress.mit.edu/books/how-write-thesis.

      Gottschalk, Louis Reichenthal. Understanding History: A Primer of Historical Method. 1st ed. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1950. https://www.amazon.com/Understanding-History-Louis-Gottschalk/dp/B001OY27L6.

      Goutor, Jacques. The Card-File System of Note-Taking. Approaching Ontario’s Past 3. Toronto: Ontario Historical Society, 1980. http://archive.org/details/cardfilesystemof0000gout.

      Langlois, Charles Victor, and Charles Seignobos. Introduction to the Study of History. Translated by George Godfrey Berry. First. New York: Henry Holt and company, 1898. http://archive.org/details/cu31924027810286.

      Margolin, Victor. The Process of Writing World History of Design, 2015. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Kxyy0THLfuI.

      Thomas, Keith. “Diary: Working Methods.” London Review of Books, June 10, 2010. https://www.lrb.co.uk/the-paper/v32/n11/keith-thomas/diary.

      Maybe start with Keith Thomas and Margolin which are short and then jump to either Goutor or Allosso (first half of that text) which are slightly longer but still quick reads. Umberto Eco may be the dean of studies here, though Barzun has been fairly influential. If you prefer, you can practice Luhmann's method, which is very similar though with a twist, and laid out at https://zettelkasten.de/posts/overview/.

    1. Macaulay claimed that his memory was good enough to enable him to write out the whole of Paradise Lost. But when preparing his History of England, he made extensive notes in a multitude of pocketbooks of every shape and colour.

      Thomas Babington Macaulay, 1st Baron Macaulay, PC, FRS, FRSE 25 October 1800 – 28 December 1859) was a British historian and Whig politician, who served as the Secretary at War between 1839 and 1841, and as the Paymaster General between 1846 and 1848. Macaulay's The History of England, which expressed his contention of the superiority of the Western European culture and of the inevitability of its sociopolitical progress, is a seminal example of Whig history that remains commended for its prose style.

      • for: science and religion, flat earth misconception

      • summary

        • Dutch historian Jochem Boodt explains how fake news isn't something new, but as old as the history books!
        • Science and religion were not antagonist in early Western history, as is believed today. This was fake news fabricated in a fascinating way.
        • He uses the example of the common misconception that before Columbus, people thought the earth was flat.
    1. This myth is mostly the blame of the novelist Washington Irving
      • for: Washington Irving, book - the History of New York, book - A History of the Life and Voyages of Christopher Columbus

      • comment

        • Irving was a American writer who wrote fiction for the intent of stoking nationalism. He bent the truth in many ways.
        • Among his most famous and impactful historical lies that Irving fabricated in his book on Columbus was that prior to Columbus, the majority of educated people thought the earth was flat. In fact, most educated people believed the earth to be round during the time of Columbus.
      • interesting fact: knickerbocker

        • The term knickerbocker originated in the pseudonym Diedrich Knickerbocker that Irving chose for his book "A History of New York"
    1. that's exactly the hypocrisy of the Israeli Zionist lift which in many ways is worse than the 00:36:03 right Wingers in many ways not in all ways yeah but at least the right Wingers are not hypocritical they say what they want the Israel Zionist left labor party and others 00:36:15 are the biggest Hypocrites because they establish the occupation it's not the right wing as we establish it they establish the settlements it's not the right Wingers to establish it they started everything they had 00:36:28 actively done the nakba it was not the right Wingers it was the Socialists left of Israel

      It was the Socialist Zionists that perpetrated the Nakba ([[BenGTurion]]).

    1. Oslo was that territories would be divided into categories a b and c so there would be Palestinian territories there would be territories under mix control and C which were going to be Israeli

      Eventually Palestinians got only 12% of West Bank full of denigraded barbecheck-points. Even that 12% they have to defend it against armed settlers that wander freely in Areas C & D.

    2. there's a detail here which is that there are also parts of the Palestinian movement who 00:05:28 reject the original state of Israel and the 1948 borders

      The interviewee does not clarify enough this point,though it is recognized as contentious.

      According to UN 1945, 2.8 Palestinians have the right to demand conpensations for the lands Israel apropiated before the Nakba.

      The international community after 1967 came to the gradual understanding that negotiations for the reparations & the occupation will commence AFTER Israel withdraws to pre-1967 borders. Israel & the US are the parties that have been steadily resisting this, as is is shown by all intermediate agreements the US contributed to manufacture consent.

    3. Palestine after the war and in 1948 led by David Boran a the setting up of the state of Israel driven by actually uh an Israeli military assault 00:03:43 that takes a lot of the territory previously held by Arab communities and involves many many Arabs being displaced from their homes

      [[Nakba]] started earlier than 1948.

      The kick-off event was the 1929 AlBuraq revolts. David Ben-Gurion participated since 1935, in parallel with [[Haganah]] & [[Irgun]] Jewish militants terrorizing pastoral Palestinians for more than a decade before the peak of the Nakba.

      The whole sentence in the video here a a great understatement of the organized terror employed by the militant Zionist organizations against the indigenous populations to kick them out and appropriate their lands.

    4. back to the former 00:02:28 state of Israel

      There was no "former state of Israel" for the European Jews, and that biblical missconception framed the grave consequences of their colonization. Ashkenazies had patrilinear only of M.Eastearn origin - their husbants were convested to Jewdaism:

      Thus the great majority of Ashkenazi maternal lineages were not brought from the Levant, as commonly supposed, nor recruited in the Caucasus, as sometimes suggested, but assimilated within Europe. These results point to a significant role for the conversion of women in the formation of Ashkenazi communities, and provide the foundation for a detailed reconstruction of Ashkenazi genealogical history.

  2. Nov 2023
    1. the Brits were actually uh targets of terrorist attacks from both Arabs and and Jews and

      The British were not impartial. On the contrary, they cooperated with the Zionists, and handed over to them years of intel they had collected on the indigenous people facilitating thus Nakba. Certainly there were clashes (eg. British arrested many [[Irgun]] members, but with the cooperation of [[Haganah]] & [[Ben-Gurion]].

    2. during the nearly 2,000 years this had become very much a place dominated by Arab Muslim communities so the Jews were moving back

      Grave missconception, Arabs did not replace Palestine populations.

      Modern DNA tells that people of Palestine, Jews and Muslims, Christians and Druzes, never left the place. Arab emigration were mostly a spread of their ideology, not in body counts. The admixture of Arab DNA to the Muslims of the Levant is actually lower than expected, and non-existent for other Levantines.

    3. going back 3,000 years state of Israel was um dominated by a Jewish 00:01:26

      Non-Jewish religions (Kebarans, Natufians, Sumerians & Akkads and later Babylonians originating from Levant, Anatolia & Eurates crescent) and non-Semitic races (the biblical "Philistines") all co-existed for millennia before the Bible was even written, 1200-200 BC. Jews being the dominant population probably applies only after ~600BC, when they started returning from the 80y Babylonian enslavement, and started to gradually re-occupy their fatherlands, a significant event that culminated a sense of identity much stronger than that of the neighboring populations.

    4. they were displaced just under 2,000 years ago basically by the Romans

      This is disputed. We don't see any population drop in the Levant , actually it continued to grow that period.

      Certainly the Romans destroyed Jerusalem's temple, but populations in Palestine mostly laid low, were not exterminated or evicted.

      OTOH, Semitic people were sailors who were emigrating to Mediterranean coastal cities for centuries - no displacement story needed to explain their spread populations, the same as for the Hellenic people.

    1. it's remarkable to me once i started to dig in that the speed and scope of what we did as a country and actually what we specifically did here in british columbia
      • for: history - wartime mobilization - Canada

      • trivia: in 6 years, starting from zero, British Columbia produced

        • 750 ships (350 ships produced in British Columbia)
        • 16,000 military aircrafts (4th largest air force in the world)
        • 800,000 military vehicles (more than Germany, Italy and Japan combined)

    1. there's things in the 10th Century in what we think of as now as broadly Western and Central Europe 01:13:46 that are beginning to show up particularly in art and architecture and poetry and music not an accident the musician we know that artists are often people who sense 01:13:59 things and are ahead of a culture they give the first articulation to a set of ideas and so if you today if next time you're in Ottawa I invite you to go to the 01:14:10 National Gallery because the National Gallery in Ottawa has one of the world's best collections of European northern European art and it starts about 1300 01:14:22 there's some before that but their collections of that's old enough to get you into it and it works through historically as you work through the rooms and at least it used to last time I brought it was there it brought you 01:14:36 out into a post-modern into postmodern art as if what's beyond what we think of as Modern Art uh into post-modern art
      • for: BEing journey - history of art from 10th century to present
    1. why are we still asking the same questions in this slightly sort of sclerotic manner

      Unfortunately, the interviewer did not pick up David's saying on inequality: what should we have been doing by now?

    2. foragers hunter-gatherers being less parochial basically than

      [[David Wingrow]] doesn't reply on religiosity of ancient humans but on the scale of their reach.

    1. There was no automatic advertising delivery. There was no personalization, or any kind of tracking. Instead, I go through all of this every morning, picking which ads I thought looked interesting today, and manually changing and updating the pages on my site.This also meant that, because there was no tracking, the advertising companies had no idea how many times an ad was viewed, and as such, we would only get paid per click.Now, the bigger sites had started to do dynamic advertising, which allowed them to sell advertising per view, but, as an independent publisher, I was limited to only click-based advertising.However, that was actually a good thing. Because I had to pick the ads manually, I needed to be very good at understanding my audience and what they needed when they visited my site. And so there was a link between audience focus and the advertising.Also, because it was click based, it forced me as an independent publisher to optimize for results, whereas a 'per view' model often encouraged publishers to lower their value to create more ad views.

      Per-click versus per-view advertising in the 1900s internet

    1. I've highlighted the shit out of this because I believe it actually argues a fundamental truth: communicating electronically is, indeed, a better way of communicating.

      I don't think this friendship had to die, but the illusion of romance probably did. I'm going to do my best to choose to ignore the confirmation bias within me - could it be the absence of stigma that enabled these realizations? Is the stigma, itself, then, now a virtually all-powerful (beyond any measure of reflection) force which will never allow us to progress???

      Fuck hype, man.

    1. Cut/Copy/Paste explores the relations between fragments, history, books, and media. It does so by scouting out fringe maker cultures of the seventeenth century, where archives were cut up, “hacked,” and reassembled into new media machines: the Concordance Room at Little Gidding in the 1630s and 1640s, where Mary Collett Ferrar and her family sliced apart printed Bibles and pasted the pieces back together into elaborate collages known as “Harmonies”; the domestic printing atelier of Edward Benlowes, a gentleman poet and Royalist who rode out the Civil Wars by assembling boutique books of poetry; and the nomadic collections of John Bagford, a shoemaker-turned-bookseller who foraged fragments of old manuscripts and title pages from used bookshops to assemble a material history of the book. Working across a century of upheaval, when England was reconsidering its religion and governance, each of these individuals saved the frail, fragile, frangible bits of the past and made from them new constellations of meaning. These fragmented assemblages resist familiar bibliographic and literary categories, slipping between the cracks of disciplines; later institutions like the British Library did not know how to collate or catalogue them, shuffling them between departments of print and manuscript. Yet, brought back together in this hybrid history, their scattered remains witness an emergent early modern poetics of care and curation, grounded in communities of practice. Stitching together new work in book history and media archaeology via digital methods and feminist historiography, Cut/Copy/Paste traces the lives and afterlives of these communities, from their origins in early modern print cultures to the circulation of their work as digital fragments today. In doing so, this project rediscovers the odd book histories of the seventeenth century as a media history with an ethics of material making—one that has much to teach us today.
    1. One of the primary problems with note taking in most of the mid-twentieth century (and potentially well before, particularly as framed in most educational settings) was that students would take notes, potentially review them once or twice for a test, but then not have easy access to them for later review or reuse.

      People collected piles of notes without any ability to reuse or review them. Perhaps we should reframe the collector's fallacy as this: collection without reuse has dramatically decreasing returns. Certainly there may be some small initial benefit in writing it down as a means of sense making, but not reviewing it past a short period of two weeks or even several months and not being able to reuse it in the long term is a travesty, especially in a world of information overload.

    1. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Presentism_(historical_analysis)

      relationship with context collapse

      Presentism bias enters biblical and religious studies when, by way of context collapse, readers apply texts written thousands of years ago and applicable to one context to their own current context without any appreciation for the intervening changes. Many modern Christians (especially Protestants) show these patterns. There is an interesting irony here because Protestantism began as the Catholic church was reading too much into the Bible to create practices like indulgences.)

    2. The historian David Hackett Fischer identifies presentism as a fallacy also known as the "fallacy of nunc pro tunc". He has written that the "classic example" of presentism was the so-called "Whig history", in which certain 18th- and 19th-century British historians wrote history in a way that used the past to validate their own political beliefs. This interpretation was presentist because it did not depict the past in objective historical context but instead viewed history only through the lens of contemporary Whig beliefs. In this kind of approach, which emphasizes the relevance of history to the present, things that do not seem relevant receive little attention, which results in a misleading portrayal of the past. "Whig history" or "whiggishness" are often used as synonyms for presentism particularly when the historical depiction in question is teleological or triumphalist.[2]

      This sort of Whig History example seems to be cropping up again in the early 21st century as Republicans are basing large pieces of their beliefs/identity/doctrine on portions of The Federalist Papers which were marginally read at the time they were written, but because those historical documents appear to make their current positions look "right" today, they're touting them over the more influential Federalist tracts at the time of the founding of America.

      Link this to example of this (which I can't seem to find right now.)

    1. Cosmos was unlike any previous book about nature. Humboldt took his readers on a journey from outer space to earth, and then from the surface of the planet into its inner core.

      Could Alexander von Humboldt have been one of the early examples of a popular science writer?

      Perhaps an early David Attenborough?

    1. sumption of decreasing virulence with time is a double-edged sword in NativeAmerican disease history. Recent Native Americans have extreme susceptibility to oftenacute infections such as influenza and tuberculosis (Indian Health Service 1999; Koenig1921; Matthews 1886). Although, as detailed later in this paper, many factors, includingsocio-economic conditions, diet, and other concurrent infections, could be contributing tothis incidence, these factors seem to pale by comparison with disease history. Essentially,current incidence rates account for the absence of crowd infections prior to Columbus andabsence explains the present incidence rate


    2. se diseases, once introduced, severelywinnowed Native American populations.


    3. Since the mid-twentieth century it has been widely accepted that Old World populationsintroduced infectious diseases to Native Americans beginning with the Columbianvoyages of AD 149


  3. Oct 2023
    1. But sometimes Alter’s comments seem exactly wrong. Alter calls Proverbs 29:2 “no more than a formulation in verse of a platitude,” but Daniel L. Dreisbach’s Reading the Bible with the Founding Fathers devotes an entire chapter to that single verse, much loved at the time of the American Founding: “When the righteous are many, a people rejoices, / but when the wicked man rules, a people groans.” Early Americans “widely, if not universally,” embraced the notion that—as one political sermon proclaimed—“The character of a nation is justly decided by the character of their rulers, especially in a free and elective government.” Dreisbach writes, “They believed it was essential that the American people be reminded of this biblical maxim and select their civil magistrates accordingly.” Annual election sermons and other political sermons often had Proverbs 29:2 as “the primary text.” Far from being a platitude, this single verse may contain a cure to the contagion that is contemporary American political life.

      Ungenerous to take Alter to task for context which he might not have the background to comment upon.

      Does Alter call it a "platitude" from it's historical context, or with respect to the modern context of Donald J. Trump and a wide variety of Republican Party members who are anything but Christian?

    1. Yeah, I want back in search history and see Sascha started around 2014. There are hardly any references to ZK before 2012.

      reply tu u/sscheper and u/Barycenter0 at https://www.reddit.com/r/Zettelkasten/comments/17gmrj8/before_2021_who_here_was_using_a_luhmannian/

      Before 2021, who here was using a Luhmannian analog Zettelkasten?

      This blogpost by Manfred Kuehn dating from 2007-12-16 is one of the earliest posts about Luhmann's Zettelkasten I've seen referenced on the early web (at least in an English language setting). You'll notice that Christian Tietze, the creator of zettelkasten.de, pops up in the comments, though it wasn't until almost six years later.

      Daniel Lüdecke was also obviously reading Kuehn by 2013 and making his digital version of ZKN3. His post has a reference to a 2001 web post in German, but sadly it's not archived. One might presume he tried physical index cards prior to implementing his digital solution.

      German speakers may be better versed to indicate a greater number of potential users in the 80s through the 00s as Luhmann's paper and method were relatively well known, though physical index cards were obviously going out of fashion during that time period. It's most likely that it was academics using it. By the late 00s into 2015, there were probably several dozens of people doing this practice, but identifying/contacting them will require a lot of legwork.

      The zettelkasten.de forum and blog posts may indicate quite a number of users prior to 2021, but I'll leave that work to others. Christian and Sasha may have better approximations for that time period.

      Given the number of digital users who are probably all mostly Luhmann-adjacent in their practices (at best), there likely still aren't a lot of people (digital or analog) who are following his particular recipe or method. Most of what I see discussed in zettelkasten and zettelkasten adjacent spaces online these days could best be described as a mélange of commonplace book and wiki-esque methods with a focus toward smaller atomic level notes. Most practices vary across a pretty wide spectrum.

    1. Crosley's intent for his car was well summarized by his proclamation "You wouldn't cross a river in a battleship," nor would you want to cross town in a large family car just to purchase groceries or have coffee with a friend.

      I'm afraid I'm having a problem coming up with any other reference (aside from the latest Grand Tour episode) to corroborate this quote...

    1. Nein. Ich habe den Zettelkasten aus der simplen Überlegung her-aus angefangen, daß ich ein schlechtes Gedächtnis habe. Zunächsteinmal hatte ich Zettel in Bücher gelegt, auf die ich mir Notizenmachte, auf diese Weise gingen die Einbände der Bücher kaputt.Dann habe ich mir mit Mappen geholfen, als die jedoch dickerwurden, fand ich nichts mehr in ihnen. Ab 1952 oder 1953 begannich dann mit meinem Zettelkasten, weil mir klar wurde, daß ich fürein Leben planen müsse und nicht für ein Buch.

      Machine translation:

      No. I started the Zettelkasten out of the simple thought that I have a bad memory. First of all, I put pieces of paper in books on which I wrote notes, so the covers of the books got ruined. Then I helped myself with folders, but when they got thicker I couldn't find anything in them. In 1952 or 1953, I started my Zettelkasten because I realized that I had to plan for a life and not for a book.

      There's some missing interstitial space here about how precisely he came to it outside of the general motivation for the thing in general.

      52/53 would have been after law school and in his administrative days and before his trip to Harvard in 61.

    1. I'm going to kind of give you my 00:04:56 take on what I believe to have been the natural history of or what I believe is the natural history of awareness a sort of a sequence of innovations that occurred that facilitated the appearance 00:05:09 of consciousness on Earth
      • for: key claim, key claim - natural history of awareness leading evolution of consciousness, natural history - awareness leading to consciousnessn
    1. I'm not so much saying Adler and Van Doren were trying to prevent readers from coming to grips with the unresolved issues of American history illustrated in this example. But I am suggesting that the idea that there's a "message" in these foundational texts and they know what it is and our job is to find out, is flawed. Too deterministic, too hierarchical, too supportive of a master narrative that needs to be challenged so truth can be appreciated in its complexity.


    1. 坐在向前急行的火车里,你如果不看看窗外风景,只管朝着车内的旅客、座位、查票员、茶房等等留心,甚至于闭起眼来假寐,那末,隆隆然车轮的转动声你是听到的,而车子向着什么方向进行,已经走了多少路程,就一点也不会清楚。或许反以为车子没有动,甚而以为正在倒退中。要清楚有无进行以及方向速率,就非望望窗外的风景不可。见了电线柱子的向后飞奔,桑圃菜畦的旋转,近山平畴的渐渐移动,因为一路的印象无时不在变动之中,于是你才知道车行十里了五十里了一百里了。我们大概都是已经丧失了喜欢望望窗外风景的那种小孩子的天真,而只管在人气十足的车室里烦闷的旅客。无论外面是春光秋色,晨曦晚霞,在我们一样是苦恼。小孩子就不如此,他爱窗外的景色;火车的司机者也不如此,他负了车内全部旅客运命的责任,不能不留心前途的信号,车行的速度。人生原是旅行,我们便是旅客。窗外的景色原是旅行的背景,有背景做了我们的标识,才能清楚进行的有无,以及进行的方向、进行的这率、进行的结果……这便是所谓历史。不明历史,只能醉生而梦死。不然,就难免生于苦恼,死于烦闷了。进行认识的标识,有种种级次,那些专记人名、地名、年月日的政治史,好比是车外电线柱子的飞奔;在绿叶里隐现的桑圃菜畦,好比是经济史;近山平畴的移动,好比是文化史;再远一点,就好比是人类史;连山的蜿蜒,就好比是生物史、地质史;至于那无论车行几何,总是不觉得有所移动的星辰,这正是宇宙史。我们清楚了那些背景,换句话说,清楚了人生站在政治、经济、文化、人类、生物、地质、宇宙里面的地位,才能知道我们自己是什么。
  4. Sep 2023
      • for: Michel Bilbot, transcendental, transcendental - Kant, awakening, non-dual, nondual, nonduality, non-duality, emptiness, epoche, Maurice Merle-Ponty, perspective shift, perspective shift - transcendental

      • summary

        • Michel Bilbot gives an extremely important talk on two related themes
          • Kant's concept of the idea of transcendental
          • Husserl's concept of epoche / phenomenological reduction
          • comparison of two perspectives of science as
            • panpsychism where atomic theories of materialism are held to be theories of everything
            • Husserl's phenomenology of human experience
        • Bilbot points out the situatedness each individual is born into life with. Even acts such as visually seeing reveal our situatedness as a seer with clues such as perspective that reveals structures of the seer such as vanishing point.
      • adjacency

        • between
          • Kant's transcendental
          • Husserl / Maurice Merle-Ponty / Heidegger's phenomenology and epoche / phenomenological reduction methodology
          • eastern mysticism and philosophical ideas:
            • nonduality - dissolution of the self / other dualism
            • awakening
            • enlightenment
            • emptiness
        • adjacency statement
          • Michel Bilbot establishes the important foundation of one of Kant's major life works on the transcendental, and how Husserl's phenomenology and related process of the phenomenological reduction (epoche) is critical to understanding Husserl and Kant.
          • He then applies it to an analysis and comparison of science seen from two contrasting perspectives, atomic theories of panpsychism vs phenomenology.
          • Bilbot reveals that Husserl was deeply influenced by Buddhist thought
    1. a transcendental is something that is, or not a thing, of course, but it's very well known and it has been well known for a very long time.
      • for: Kant's transcendental - in history, quote, quote - Upanishad, quote - Ernst Cassirer, quote - Michel Henry, quote - Giovanni Gentile, quote Edmund Husserl

      • paraphrase

        • The transcendental cannot be an objective thought but is the condition for any objective thought
        • Brihadaranyaka Upanishad
          • Kant's transcendental is equivalent to the Braham
            • it is never seen but is a seer
            • it is never heard but is a hearer
            • it is never thought but is the thinker
            • it is never known but is the knower
            • it is the source of things and the source of knowledge
        • Ernst Cassirer
          • Consciousness is a goal to which knowledge turns its back
        • Michel Henry Consciousness cannot be shown, for it is the power to show.
        • Giovanni Gentile
        • Edmund Husserl
          • transcendental turn
            • the world is a sense for the transcendental ego
            • the transcendental ego is presupposed by the senses
    1. Day One for me has created journal nirvana, in the same way that Things created multi-platform to do syncing and iA Writer perfected multi-platform text editing.
    1. Merchants and traders have a waste book (Sudelbuch, Klitterbuch in GermanI believe) in which they enter daily everything they purchase and sell,messily, without order. From this, it is transferred to their journal, whereeverything appears more systematic, and finally to a ledger, in double entryafter the Italian manner of bookkeeping, where one settles accounts witheach man, once as debtor and then as creditor. This deserves to be imitatedby scholars. First it should be entered in a book in which I record everythingas I see it or as it is given to me in my thoughts; then it may be enteredin another book in which the material is more separated and ordered, andthe ledger might then contain, in an ordered expression, the connectionsand explanations of the material that flow from it. [46]

      —Georg Christoph Lichtenberg, Notebook E, #46, 1775–1776

      In this single paragraph quote Lichtenberg, using the model of Italian bookkeepers of the 18th century, broadly outlines almost all of the note taking technique suggested by Sönke Ahrens in How to Take Smart Notes. He's got writing down and keeping fleeting notes as well as literature notes. (Keeping academic references would have been commonplace by this time.) He follows up with rewriting and expanding on the original note to create additional "explanations" and even "connections" (links) to create what Ahrens describes as permanent notes or which some would call evergreen notes.

      Lichtenberg's version calls for the permanent notes to be "separated and ordered" and while he may have kept them in book format himself, it's easy to see from Konrad Gessner's suggestion at the use of slips centuries before, that one could easily put their permanent notes on index cards ("separated") and then number and index or categorize them ("ordered"). The only serious missing piece of Luhmann's version of a zettelkasten then are the ideas of placing related ideas nearby each other, though the idea of creating connections between notes is immediately adjacent to this, and his numbering system, which was broadly based on the popularity of Melvil Dewey's decimal system.

      It may bear noticing that John Locke's indexing system for commonplace books was suggested, originally in French in 1685, and later in English in 1706. Given it's popularity, it's not unlikely that Lichtenberg would have been aware of it.

      Given Lichtenberg's very popular waste books were known to have influenced Leo Tolstoy, Albert Einstein, Andre Breton, Friedrich Nietzsche, and Ludwig Wittgenstein. (Reference: Lichtenberg, Georg Christoph (2000). The Waste Books. New York: New York Review Books Classics. ISBN 978-0940322509.) It would not be hard to imagine that Niklas Luhmann would have also been aware of them.

      Open questions: <br /> - did Lichtenberg number the entries in his own waste books? This would be early evidence toward the practice of numbering notes for future reference. Based on this text, it's obvious that the editor numbered the translated notes for this edition, were they Lichtenberg's numbering? - Is there evidence that Lichtenberg knew of Locke's indexing system? Did his waste books have an index?

    1. "... I am willing to believe that history is for the most part inaccurate and biased, but what is peculair to our own age is the abandonment of the idea that history could be truthfully written."—George Orwell

      check source and verify text <br /> (8:42)

    1. I was searching for notecard systems after reading Will and Ariel Durant’s dual autobiography and not having much luck. The book talks a lot about his writing and the use of “classification slips” to cover the depth of material, especially for The Story of Civilization series they did.

      via SAM on January 15, 2017 at 8:54 pm

      Apparently Will Durant and Ariel Durant used a form of commonplace book set up in which they used "classification slips".

    1. Back in the day, the de facto standard for sending binaries across electronic mail was uuencode. It still exists, but has numerous usability problems; if at all possible, you should send MIME attachments instead, unless you specifically strive to be able to communicate with the late 1980s.
    1. Harl, Kenneth W. The Vikings: Course Guidebook. Vol. 3910. The Great Courses. Chantilly, VA: The Teaching Company, 2005.

      Vikings. Streaming Video. Vol. 3910. The Great Courses. Chantilly, VA, 2005. https://www.thegreatcourses.com/courses/vikings.

      annotation URL: urn:x-pdf:e17d7b3a22a4a56be07f2afb64548410<br /> search

      Started 2023-09-18

    1. 500 cd/m2 max brightness (typical)

      According to this not-entirely-vetted World Wide Web service, this unit ("Candela per square meter") is 1:1 equivalent to "Nits."

      ...no, it would seem the latter is just an incorrect name for the same unit. Cool.

    1. Adler's record of ineptness is pret ty good so far — but he surpasses it with his third Revolution. He dis likes both Marxists and Moscow, so how did the Russian Revolution be come one of the great sources or change in modern society? Because “with the Russian Revolution, we have, for the first time, the emer gence of the welfare state” — mild offspring sired from such ferocious parents. In the past, only right‐wing kooks thought F.D.R. derived his in spiration for W.P.A. from the Bol shies!

      Reference to the "welfare state" in 1971 by Gary Wills.

    1. Jarvis, Jeff. “Moving On.” Medium. Whither News? (blog), September 2023. https://medium.com/whither-news/moving-on-4eecb1c76ce3.

      Jeff Jarvis looking back briefly on his history at CUNY's Newmark Graduate School of Journalism. An interesting snapshot of some of the pedagogical changes and programs over almost 20 years.

    1. Essentially, @mac.com is legacy users and was in place from the debut of osX to late 2000s. It required a annual paid subscription to have an email address, lol. Then the short-lived mobileMe era happened, which lasted only a couple years before Apple retracted and replaced it with iCloud, a much more sweeping service. MobileMe was also a paid subscription and included primordial versions of photo sharing and web hosting, etc. The iCloud era starting in 2012 finally ushered in free email addresses and free operating system updates. That's when the business model of large tech companies turned more into user accumulation wars to see who can attract the most subscribers and retain them in their ecosystem of products.
    1. facilitated by having selected passages typewritten anddistributed to the class in mimeographed sheets.

      Not sure I knew that typewritters and mimeograph machines were so prevalent by 1910. (typewriters yes, but mimeo?)

  5. Aug 2023
    1. As late as 1884 the four hundred American institutions of higher education had about twenty full-time teachers of history.”

      second hand quote from History: Professional Scholarship in America<br /> John Higham, 1965

    1. other jokes did not land because I did not know the movie star or celebrity referenced.
    2. The main thing I learned while reading through Phyllis Diller's jokes is that comedy has changed a lot since she started her career in the mid-1950s. Her comedy is focused on short one-liners that get laughs in quick succession, while today's comedy is more story-driven. Although a lot of her jokes are very time-bound due to their content, it was interesting to get a glimpse of what was happening at the time a joke was written. Each joke card has a date on it, and the cards span the 1960s to the 1990s. The topic of the jokes told a lot about what people were worried about or focused on at the time the joke was written, whether it was the inflation or student protests of the 1970s, a celebrity's many marriages, or gossip about the president at the time. While, like any comedian, some of her jokes fall flat, I appreciated Diller's hard work in meticulously recording, testing, and filing each joke in the gag file, along with her ability to make a joke about almost any topic.

      evidence of comedy shift from 50s/60s of one liners to more story-based comedy of the 2000s onward. Some of this may come about through idea links or story links as seen in some of Diller's paperclipped cards (see https://hypothes.is/a/W9Wz-EXsEe6nZxew_8BUCg).

    1. Methodenstreit mischten sich zahlreichenamhafte Historiker und andere Geisteswissenschaftlerein. Warburg leistete keinen direkten publizistischen Bei-trag, nahm jedoch, wie der Zettelkasten belegt, als passi-ver Beobachter intensiv an der Debatte teil.359

      Karl Lamprecht was one of Warburg's first teachers in Bonn and Warburg had a section in his zettelkasten dedicated to him. While Warburg wasn't part of the broader public debate on Lamprecht's Methodenstreit (methodological dispute), his notes indicate that he took an active stance on thinking about it.

      Consult footnote for more:

      59 Vgl. Roger Chickering, »The Lamprecht Controversy«, in: Historiker- kontroversen, hrsg. von Hartmut Lehmann, Göttingen 20 0 0, S. 15 – 29

    1. on Aug. 12, the National Museum of American History is giving the artifact pristine treatment.WpGet the full experience.Choose your planArrowRight"Have You Heard the One . . . ? The Phyllis Diller Gag File" is an exhibition of the beige cabinet in the quiet Albert H. Small Documents Gallery.

      The National Museum of American History debuted Phyllis Diller's gag file on August 12, 2011 in the Albert H. Small Documents Gallery in an exhibition entitled "Have you Hard the One...? The Phyllis Diller Gag File."

      see also: press release https://www.si.edu/newsdesk/releases/national-museum-american-history-showcases-life-and-laughs-phyllis-diller

    1. These revolutions appear invisible in the history of science, Kuhn explained, because each successive generation learns science through the lens of the current paradigm.

      As a result of Kuhn's scientific revolutions perspective, historians of science will need to uncover the frameworks and lenses by which prior generations saw the world to be able to see the world the same way. This will allow them to better piece together histories

      How is this related to the ways that experts don't appreciate their own knowledge when trying to teach newcomers their subjects? What is the word/phrase for this effect?

    1. BookmarkZettelkasten for historical research?

      @pgrhowarth @MartinBB @tevka and other historians (and sociologists, anthropologists, humanists, etc.) who want to delve into some of the ideas of historical method, zettelkasten, note taking, intellectual craftsmanship outside of Luhmann's version, I've compiled a list of various primary sources who have written on a variety of related methods throughout the past few hundred years: https://www.zotero.org/chrisaldrich/tags/note%20taking%20methods/items/KTZXN3EV/item-list

      Historians in particular have used indexing their notes as a means of creating analog databases for individual facts outside of their other writing/compiling practices. Thus a mixture of methods may suit your working needs.

      To help frame it one might also consult the following: * Thomas, Keith. “Diary: Working Methods.” London Review of Books, June 10, 2010. https://www.lrb.co.uk/the-paper/v32/n11/keith-thomas/diary. * Blair, Ann M. Too Much to Know: Managing Scholarly Information before the Modern Age. Yale University Press, 2010. https://yalebooks.yale.edu/book/9780300165395/too-much-know.

      I've got a relatively short overview of some of these methods and examples of users at https://boffosocko.com/2022/10/22/the-two-definitions-of-zettelkasten/.

    1. the Auto industry built for us and what's most Insidious is the financials behind all of this
      • for: adjacency - urban decay, suburbs, history- suburbs, history - car culture, urban decay - economics
      • paraphrase

        • as the suburbs expanded they need more and more roads highways Bridges infrastructure to stay afloat
        • but because the nature of the suburb is spread out single-family housing as opposed to the densely packed City Apartment dwelling the suburbs have too few people to be able to fund this infrastructure
        • subsequently, they so they have to keep expanding in order to fund themselves and even then they still can't fund themselves
        • so they often rely on tax dollars from City dwellers to subsidize their Suburban excesses
        • who lives in the cities because of white flight ?... people of color
        • when it comes to housing, people of color have been screwed over in literally every way in imaginable

        • so we have this self-perpetuating cycle

          • the growth of suburbs leads to more suburban sprawl
          • this increases the need for cars
          • this leads to the building of more highways and Roads
          • this leads to not enough income to pay for the suburbs
          • this leads to black and brown communities being forced to subsidize Suburban Lifestyles at the expense of the beautification of their own communities leading to the degradation of inner city neighborhoods
    2. Auto industry actively demonized pedestrians making fun of pedestrian victims of auto accidents and coining the term jaywalker from the term J used in the late 1800s to mean worthless 00:10:26 fourth rate a hick or a dope and walking in the suburbs is actively discouraged through City planning
      • for: history - suburbs, history - car culture
      • etymology
        • jaywalking
          • invented by the auto industry to discourage waling in the suburbs. A "Jay" was a derogatory term in the 1800s that meant "worthless"
    3. Lots but the people living in the suburbs continued to work and commute in the cities what's the solution High-Speed Rail and Incredibly 00:08:08 efficient mass transit no dummy cars obviously but it wasn't obvious the obsession with and Reliance on cars that seems uniquely American was manufactured as not a symptom but a feature of the 00:08:20 suburbs
      • for: history - suburbs, history - car culture
      • paraphrase
        • With so many people living in the suburbs, there was a new transportation problem as these people had to travel to the city centers to work.
        • High speed rail and mass transit lost out over big oil and the auto industry lobby, and this loss resulted in an auto-centric design that shaped not only the American landscape, but the entire world
        • The 1956 federal aid highway act created a national highway system, but also provided positive feedback to increase suburban development
        • highway construction disproportionately affected minority communities
    4. the GI Bill provided a range of benefits to returning World War II veterans including low-cost mortgages job training and college tuition the implementation of these benefits was not Equitable across racial lines though the 00:04:36 legislation itself didn't explicitly differentiate benefits based on race in practice the distribution of its benefits was largely influenced by social and institutional racism the GI Bill worked in tandem with existing racially discriminating housing and 00:04:48 lending practices such as redlining and restrictive covenants which effectively excluded black veterans from enjoying the same opportunities for homeownership as their white counterparts redlining was a discriminatory practice where 00:05:00 lenders would designate neighborhoods with a high percentage of black people as high risk areas for mortgage lending these areas were often outlined in red on maps used by Banks and other lending institutions hence the term redlining 00:05:13 this led to a systemic denial of Home Loans or Insurance to People based on the racial or ethnic composition of their neighborhoods
      • for: history - suburbs, GI Bill, racial discrimination, structural racism, institutional racism, racial discrimination
      • paraphrase
        • The GI Bill institutionally and structurally discriminated against people of color and played a major role in how suburbs expansion was racially discriminatory against people of color
      • for: town planning, zoning, uglification, history - car culture, big oil - lobby, history - suburbs
    1. Oreskes, Naomi, and Erik M. Conway. The Big Myth: How American Business Taught Us to Loathe Government and Love the Free Market. Bloomsbury Publishing, 2023.

    1. 中共上海情报科,是中央特科的延续,是「最后的特科」留下的种子。1934 年到 1935 年,中共上海地下党受到国民党特务的反复大规模破坏。为保存力量,1935 年 8 月决定撤销上海临时中央局、中央特科等机构并分批撤离。特科在上海只留下一个办事处,由丘吉夫负责。1935 年 11 月 18 日,国民党特务又将特科上海办事处破获,丘吉夫被捕。1936 年 4 月,陕北中央派冯雪峰回到上海。冯雪峰指示徐强,将主要任务转向情报工作。1937 年 7 月全面抗战爆发,国共合作之后,上海特科被改组为中共上海情报科,负责对日战略情报侦察。之所以能够担负这项任务,是因为特科的王学文发展了中西功和西里龙夫两名日籍党员。1933 年春,西里龙夫来到上海谋职,就任日本新闻联合通讯社上海总局记者。1934 年,他设法找到王学文,加入中共,开始进行情报收集和分析工作。1937 年,日军攻陷南京后,西里龙夫就任日军「北支派遣军」司令部奏任级嘱托(顾问)、伪「中华联合通讯社」指导官和日本同盟社首席记者,打入日军高层。1934 年,中西功经尾崎秀实介绍到大连「满铁总社调查部」就职。经过一段时间的观察,他认为日本侵华的策划中心已移至上海,于是设法调到上海,通过西里龙夫与王学文接上联系。1938 年,中西功加入中共,就任日军「支那派遣军」特别嘱托(顾问)、「满铁上海办事处」调查室主任、日本「中国抗战力量调查委员会」派驻上海委员,打入日本驻华情报机构。1939 年,徐强调回延安,吴纪光接手上海情报科工作。在潘汉年直接领导下,吴纪光调整加强了上海情报科:上海以中西功为核心,利用中西功的地位,在「满铁上海办事处」调查室名下成立了一个「特别调查班」。名义上,这个调查班的任务是搜集南京、延安和上海租界方面上层人物的活动情报;实际上,这个特别调查班里安插了多名上海情报科的中共党员,特别调查班的班长程和生担任联络员。【注:程和生为化名,本名郑文道。】在南京,有西里龙夫、李一峰(伪「中央社」采访部主任,汪伪特工总部顾问)、汪敬远(汪精卫随从秘书)三名战略情报员,李得森及其妻子张敏以行医为掩护设立南京情报站,张明达担任与上海方面的联络员。在华北,尾崎庄太郎打入日军「北支派遣军」司令部任情报课长,白井行幸在太原以经商名义活动,并派钱志行到北平建立联络站。这样,上海情报科构成了埋伏在日军内高层的情报网络,为延安提供了大量侵华日军以及汪伪、日蒋之间活动的战略情报。据八路军总部作战参谋杨迪回忆,当时日军的重要军事、政治行动,总部均能提前得到可靠的情报。
    2. 当年,中央特科的王学文在上海日本东亚同文书院担任经济学教授时,在日本学生中组织了一个学习小组,学习马克思主义,并发展其中的一些日本学生加入中国共产主义青年团。中西功、西里龙夫等后来加入中共的一批日籍党员都是出自这个小组。当时,尾崎秀实作为派驻上海的日本记者,同情中国革命,也经常参加这个小组的活动,因而与中西功等人建立了深厚的情谊和长期的联系,中西功进入「满铁上海调查课」就是尾崎秀实介绍的。
    3. 佐尔格知道,此时,苏联获取对日战略情报的希望只能寄托在另一个方向的两条情报线上了。这个方向,就是中国。两条情报线,一条线是中国共产党的上海情报科,它的战略情报员,包括打入上海满铁调查课的中共日籍党员中西功和打入华中派遣军司令部的中共日籍党员西里龙夫;另一条线就是红军总参四局派遣原佐尔格上海小组的中共党员,分别部署在上海、北平、天津等地构成的情报网络,这些小组都有电台,直接与莫斯科联系,张放就是天津站站长。佐尔格知道,这两条线将能够继续侦查并向莫斯科提供日军的战略动向。其中,中共上海情报科的能力更强。此前获知日军「南进」战略的情报,其实就是出自中共上海情报科的中西功之手。
    1. 这是尾崎秀实被捕前最后的文学发言。完成史沫特莱著作译介工作的他也日益转向有关中国的政治经济评论,他转到东京朝日新闻社的东亚问题调查会、参加太平洋关系协会的国际会议,最后位列首相近卫文麿的「早餐会」,成为日本外交政局的智囊。不幸的是,一九四一年十月中旬,苏联红军情报局的特工理查德·佐尔格的身份暴露,包括尾崎秀实在内与他相关的三十多人先后被日本军部逮捕。
  6. Jul 2023
    1. Unlike Turkophobic reviews I know real history behind WW1, Armenian gangs (most famous ones Henchak and Dashnak) killed lots of people and rob their neighbors. My mom side ancestors came from Van and I heard stories about Armenian neighbors came to rob them when their husbands went to war.Turkey suggested Armenia for a joint historians board for so-called Armenian Genocide research and opening state archives. Armenia denied their proposition.Let me explain this to you: you don't accept historians to decide, you praise (millions of) so-called Armenian Genocide supporter films without historical proof and if you see one film which just picture real situation it is propaganda. You say it is a propaganda because it conflicts with your propaganda.
    1. England: From the Fall of Rome to the Norman Conquest. Streaming Video. Vol. 30140. The Great Courses. Chantilly, VA: The Teaching Company, LLC, 2022. https://www.thegreatcourses.com/england-from-the-fall-of-rome-to-the-norman-conquest. https://www.wondrium.com/england-from-the-fall-of-rome-to-the-norman-conquest.

      Paxton, Jennifer. England: From the Fall of Rome to the Norman Conquest. The Great Courses: Books. First. The Great Courses 30140. Chantilly, VA: The Teaching Company, 2022.

    1. we regard this disappearance as an aberration, and notas an indication of progress.

      disappearance [of education] as an...

      there's also disappearance of context of what has gone before



  7. Jun 2023
    1. The idea that what happened was not inevitable. Understanding the contingency of the past, I think, may suggest to them that the present and future are similarly “not a done deal”.

      In some respects, even the past is not a done deal. It must be examined and studied and will be viewed differently in the present and in the future, thus making history a feedback loop, though hopefully in positive ways.

    1. 22:30 Differing environments/context matters. So before giving tricks, hacks, etc. realise that you function within a different environment.

      Historicity is a historical sibling to this: periods have different environments, and thus don't apply 1 on 1.

      But we can still learn from other other people & periods?

    1. There’s no evidence ofdisputes requiring intervention by mediators or arbitrators, and reading all the edits gives a verygood idea of what all the rumpus over the years has been about.

      This quote and example enhanced my understanding and views of Wikipedia. I'm happy the article included Daniel Jonah Goldhagen's wikipedia page for reference because by telling me that it has been revised 607 times and there is no evidence of anything rude, or inaccurate makes me trust wikipedia and the volunteers a lot more. I attached the history list of Daniel Goldhagen. as further proof

    1. In Chile, two million Chileans were estimated to have been killed by the Pinochet regime

      Totally overblown, 3065 dead, ~40k tortured, 200k exiled from Chile by Pinochet.

    1. “中国”的名称是在天下观念的崩溃和王朝循环历史终结的废墟上建立起来的,并最终由革命者将其规定为中国人集体的认同。在国际上,把华人、华侨、中国人等混同使用,以淡化一国之概念,这恰恰是天下观念的历史遗产,也因此说明中国并非一个经典意义上的民族国家。
  8. May 2023
    1. The object of the present volume is to point out the effects and the advantages which arise from the use of tools and machines ;—to endeavour to classify their modes of action ;—and to trace both the causes and the consequences of applying machinery to supersede the skill and power of the human arm.

      [28] AI - precedents...