1,667 Matching Annotations
  1. Last 7 days
    1. Θανάσιμη απειλή αποτελούσαν δύο υπερσύγχρονα θωρηκτά που η Τουρκία περίμενε να παραλάβει από βρετανικά ναυπηγεία το καλοκαίρι του 1914.

      Podcast του Μαυρογορδάτου για τα περιγημα Γερμανικά "δωρα" στην Οθωμανική Αυτοκρατορία που σκοπό είχαν την κυριαρχία του στο Αιγαίο.

    1. Σε αυτές κατοικούσε κόσμος που απέργησε για καλύτερους μισθούς και σταμάτησε τις απολύσεις στην κατεχόμενη Αθήνα του 1942, που με πολιτική απεργία και μαχητική διαδήλωση στις αρχές του 1943 εισέβαλε στο φρουρούμενο υπουργείο Εργασίας, έκαψε καταστάσεις και πήρε κρυμμένα τρόφιμα, τα οποία μοίρασε στο λαό της Αθήνας και τελικά ματαίωσε οριστικά την κατοχική επιστράτευση με τη διαδήλωση των 200.000 στις 5 Μάρτη στην κατεχόμενη Αθήνα του 1943.

      Αυτα ειναι από τα ουσιώδη κατορθώματα της Αντιστασης στην Γεμρανική Κατοχή.

    1. In 1653, Georg Philipp Harsd ö rffer completes the idea of an excerpt collection as an ordering of paper slips in a box with twenty-four drawers in alphabetical order.

      Georg Philipp Harsdörffer, in 1653, completes the basic idea of an excerpt collection as an ordering of paper slips in a physical box in alphabetic order.

    2. De Arte Excerpendi: Of Scholarly Book Organization by Vincen-tius Placcius. It offers an overview of contemporary procedures, instruc-tions on regular excerpting, and an extensive history of the subject. Placcius expressly warns against a loose form of indexing as pursued by Jungius. 38
      1. Placcius 1689, p. 72.

      Vincentius Placcius in De Arte Excerpendi: Of Scholarly Book Organization (1689) offers a contemporary set of instructions on excerpting knowledge as well as a history of the subject.

      In the book, he warns specifically against the loose form of indexing exhibited by Joachim Jungius. (p72)

    3. the fi rst card catalog in library history in Vienna around 1780.

      The first card catalogue dates to Vienna around 1780.

  2. Nov 2021
    1. ʰᵉʳᵉ ᵃʳᵉ ᵗʰᵉ ᵈʳʸʷᵃˡˡ ʷᵉᵇˢᶤᵗᵉ ᵉᵃˢᵗᵉʳ ᵉᵍᵍˢ

      Please be warned: a friend noticed some very insensitive language I had forgotten about entirely. I've chosen to leave it since this website should not be surfaced in any discovery engines beyond NeoCities... Hoping that isn't a stupid idea.

    1. s now exalting in all of those subsidies and those bailouts and using that to even consolidate themselves even more than they did in 1933 and 1971.

      These are the big stops of capitalism during 20th century and beyond:

      • 1933: Roosvelt nationalized the gold from the private banks
      • 19171: Nixon dismantled [[Bretton Woods]]
      • 2007-2020: Lehman Brothers & #Covid19 crisis consolidated international capital
    1. I spend most of my day in iOS Notes app.

      Did I ever really find this man intelligent??? Things sincerely do make a lot more sense now. Such a specific lack of aspiration.

    1. Seeking to address the reductive opposition both between written and oral texts and between script and print in the Early Modern period, Fernando Bouza, one of Spain's most influential cultural historians, makes an elegant case for the equality and complementary natures of the various modes of communication.

      This may prove an interesting perspective given my own desire to explore some of the same sorts of dynamics in Celtic texts at the border of orality and literacy in the early centuries of the common era.

    2. This looks interesting with respect to the flows of the history of commonplace books.

      Making the Miscellany: Poetry, Print, and the History of the Book in Early Modern England by Megan Heffernan

    3. https://site.pennpress.org/material-texts-2021/9780812236422/textual-situations/

      This looks interesting for a later time...

      Textual Situations: Three Medieval Manuscripts and Their Readers by Andrew Taylor

      Generations of scholars have meditated upon the literary devices and cultural meanings of The Song of Roland. But according to Andrew Taylor not enough attention has been given to the physical context of the manuscript itself. The original copy of The Song of Roland is actually bound with a Latin translation of the Timaeus.

      Textual Situations looks at this bound volume along with two other similarly bound medieval volumes to explore the manuscripts and marginalia that have been cast into shadow by the fame of adjacent texts, some of the most read medieval works. In addition to the bound volume that contains The Song of Roland, Taylor examines the volume that binds the well-known poem "Sumer is icumen in" with the Lais of Marie de France, and a volume containing the legal Decretals of Gregory IX with marginal illustrations of wayfaring life decorating its borders.

      Approaching the manuscript as artifact, Textual Situations suggests that medieval texts must be examined in terms of their material support—that is, literal interpretation must take into consideration the physical manuscript itself in addition to the social conventions that surround its compilation. Taylor reconstructs the circumstances of the creation of these medieval bound volumes, the settings in which they were read, inscribed, and shared, and the social and intellectual conventions surrounding them.

    1. You.com’s big differentiating feature is that it lets people influence which sources they see. You can “upvote” and “downvote” specific categories, so when you run searches, you’ll see preferred sources first, neutral searches next, and downvoted sources last.

      THIS IS LITERALLY THE ANSWER TO SEARCH.

      Just… FYI.

      All you need to do is give users more control.

    1. That's a picture of it in the background. And this organism has the special trick that we call "photosynthesis," the ability to go take energy from the sun and transform carbon dioxide into oxygen. And over the course of billions of years, so starting from two and a half billion years ago, little by little these bacteria spread across the planet 00:07:08 and converted all that carbon dioxide in the air into the oxygen that we now have. And it was a very slow process. First, they had to saturate the seas, then they had to saturate the oxygen that the earth would absorb, and only then, finally, could oxygen begin to build up in the atmosphere. So you see, just after about 900 million years ago, oxygen starts to build up in the atmosphere. And about 600 million years ago, something really amazing happens. 00:07:35 The ozone layer forms from the oxygen that has been released in the atmosphere. And it sounds like a small deal, like we talked about the ozone a couple decades ago, but it actually turns out that before the ozone layer existed, earth was not really able to sustain complex, multicellular life. We had single-celled organisms, we had a couple of simple, multicellular organisms, but we didn't really have anything like you or me. 00:07:59 And shortly after the ozone layer came into place, the earth was able to sustain complex multicellular life. There was a Cambrian explosion of life in the seas. And the first plants got onto land. In fact, there was actually no life on land ahead of that. Another way to see this is, this is kind of a chart of pretty much most of the animals that you guys are familiar with. 00:08:24 And right at the bottom in time is the formation of the ozone layer. Like nothing that you are familiar with today could exist without the contributions of these tiny organisms over those billions of years. And where are they now? Well actually, they never really left us. The direct descendants of the cyanobacteria were eventually captured by plants. And they're now called chloroplasts. 00:08:49 So this is a zoom-in of a plant leaf - and we probably ate some of these guys today - where tons of little chloroplasts are still trapped - contributing photosynthesis and making energy for the plants that continue to be the other half of our lungs on earth. And in this way, our breaths are very deeply united. Every out-breath is mirrored by the in-breath of a plant,

      This would be nice to turn into a science lesson or to represent this in an experiential, participatory Deep Humanity BEing Journey. To do this, it would be important to elucidate the series of steps leading from one stated result to the next, showing how scientific methodology works to link the series of interconnected ideas together. Especially important is the science that glues everything together over deep time.

    1. https://danallosso.substack.com/p/historians-reaction-to-history-of

      Interesting to watch Dan Allosso watch this video and see which parts he responded to.

      There are definitely some nice stopping off points in this overview which may make for some useful research for viewers. It also highlights in its negative spaces and non sequiturs areas which need more research and study to be better understood by historians.

    1. https://danallosso.substack.com/p/help-me-find-world-history-textbooks

      Dan Allosso is curious to look at the history of how history is taught.

      The history of teaching history is a fascinating topic and is an interesting way for cultural anthropologists to look at how we look at ourselves as well as to reveal subtle ideas about who we want to become.

      This is particularly interesting with respect to teaching cultural identity and its relationship to nationalism.

      One could look at the history of Reconstruction after the U.S. Civil War to see how the South continued its cultural split from the North (or in more subtle subsections from Colin Woodard's American Nations thesis) to see how this has played out. This could also be compared to the current culture wars taking place with the rise of nationalism within the American political right and the Southern evangelicals which has come to a fervor with the rise of Donald J. Trump.

      Other examples are the major shifts in nationalism after the "long 19th century" which resulted in World War I and World War II and Germany's national identity post WWII.

    2. I know a number of my subs and viewers are in India and I've noticed on Twitter and on Abhijit Chavda's channel that there's quite a bit of controversy about the way Indian History is taught to Indian students. That interests me a lot, but what I'm PARTICULARLY interested in is, how World History surveys throughout the world cover world history. If part of this involves continuing the narratives introduced by colonizers, like the Aryan Invasion myth, that's relevant to my question.
    3. I also did a bit of web and JSTOR research, and started a new Zotero folder called World History Comparison. Research Rabbit found a bunch of similar titles, but it will be a while before I can get to many of them. I DID, however, ask some people and groups such as the OE Global community on Twitter, and I want to extend that request to anyone who watches this video. I know a number of my subs and viewers are in India and I've noticed on Twitter and on Abhijit Chavda's channel that there's quite a bit of controversy about the way Indian History is taught to Indian students.

      Methods for attacking a research problem about history used here:

      • Web research
      • Journal database research
      • Zotero reference manager stub
      • Research Rabbit (AI search)
      • Reach out on various social media channels

      Not mentioned, but perhaps useful:

      • Standard library search (WorldCat)
      • Internet Archive search (scanned historical textbooks)
      • Off-label and dark web services (Library Genesis, Pirate Bay, etc.)
      • Open access and OER sources (this will probably find newer perspectives and newer texts which sometimes have philosophical outlines of what they're trying to change for the future versus the pedagogies of the past)
      • Current curricula and recommended textbooks at major universities on particular books and potential comparisons to those of the past (perhaps via Internet Archive).
    1. It wasn’t until the twentieth century that art historians determined that the figure was Aristotle

      What evidence was given for this identification of Homer and Aristotle?

    1. The author's hierarchical tags are delimited by dashes(-). I do it by dots(.). That's a convention we have to decide.

    1. He pointed out that the Web still lacks nearly every one of the advanced features he and his colleagues were trying to realize. There is no transclusion. There is no way to create links inside other writers' documents. There is no way to follow all the references to a specific document.

      Shortcomings of today's WWWeb in comparison to what Xanadu has visioned.

    1. «Είναι εμφανής η εμμονή ορισμένων με τη Μεταπολίτευση», μας λέει. «Η πολιτειακή αλλαγή το ’74, το τέλος του μετεμφυλιακού κράτους και η θεμελίωση της πιο μακροχρόνιας και ουσιαστικής δημοκρατίας σε κάποιους έπεσε βαριά. Δείτε με πόση εμμονή λένε “Να τελειώνουμε με τη Μεταπολίτευση”. Το πνεύμα της φταίει για όλα, είναι πνεύμα άκριτων διεκδικήσεων, συντεχνιακού κατακερματισμού και προνομίων. Φυσικά υπήρξαν στρεβλώσεις και καταχρήσεις. Ολοι τις γνωρίζουμε, πάσχουμε από αυτές, τις πληρώσαμε ακριβά. Αλλά η εργαλειοποίησή τους σκοπό έχει να αποδομηθούν και να διαλυθούν οι ιμάντες της μεταπολιτευτικής δημοκρατίας. Τι λένε; Τα Πανεπιστήμια είναι χώροι ανομίας, θα βάλουμε πανεπιστημιακή αστυνομία. Τα συνδικάτα είναι κάτι προνομιούχοι τεμπέληδες, θα περιορίσουμε νομοθετικά την απεργία και τις διαδηλώσεις. Οι ανθρωπιστικές οργανώσεις είναι πράκτορες του Σόρος ή διακινητές μεταναστών, θα τους στείλουμε στον εισαγγελέα. Δείτε πώς δαιμονοποιείται συστηματικά επί χρόνια το δικαίωμα στο συνέρχεσθαι: η διαδήλωση φταίει για τα άδεια μαγαζιά, το κυκλοφοριακό και τον Covid-19. Ξέρετε τι λέει ο κυρίαρχος λόγος που εκπέμπεται από την κυβέρνηση και τα μεγάλα ΜΜΕ; “Σας δώσαμε όσα συνιστούν μια συμμετοχική δημοκρατία και κάνατε κατάχρηση. Σας δώσαμε πολλή δημοκρατία και το παρακάνατε. Ωρα να τελειώνουμε με την πολλή ελευθερία”. Σαν να γυρεύουν ρεβάνς από τη Μεταπολίτευση».

      Πολυ ωραια περιγραφη πως και γιατι επιτιθονται στη Μεταπολιτευση.

    1. Το έλλειµµα του εµπορικού ισοζυγίου από 745 εκατ. δολάρια προβλέπεται ότι θα φτάσει τελικά το τέλος του 1973 τα 2.600 εκατ. δολάρια, δηλαδή περίπου θα τετραπλασιασθεί»…

      Εμπορικό έλλειμα: x3

    2. Ήταν τόσο «τίμιοι» και αντικομφορμιστές όσο και οι τρεις βίλες του Παπαδόπουλου: Μια στο Ψυχικό, μία την Πάρνηθα και μια Τρίτη το Λαγονήσι (η τελευταία ήταν προσφορά του Ωνάση). Ήταν τόσο «πατριώτες» που – εκτός του μέγιστου εγκλήματος κατά της Κύπρου – το βοούν και οι ληστρικές συμβάσεις με «Litton», «Μακντόναλντ», «Τομ Πάππας» και «Ζήμενς» – πάντα η… «Ζήμενς». Ήταν τόσο θεομπαίχτες που έφτασαν να βουτάνε λεφτά ακόμα και από το… παγκάρι! Γνωστή η ιστορία με την ανέγερση του «θαυματουργού» (καθότι… αόρατος) Ναού του Σωτήρως. Μόνο από εκεί, από έναν προϋπολογισμό ύψους 450 εκατομμυρίων, φαγώθηκαν τα 400… 

      Μεγα-σκανδαλα της Χούντας (περα των σαπιων κρεάτων).

    3. Τα φορολογικά έσοδα από τις ναυτιλιακές εταιρείες μειώθηκαν από 109 εκατομμύρια δραχμές το 1968 σε 29 εκατομμύρια το 1972 (μείωση 73%!), περίοδος κατά την οποία ο ελληνικός στόλος αυξήθηκε κατά 16,7 εκατομμύρια τόνους.

      Εξωφρενικές Φοροαπαλαγες σε Εφοπλιστες.

    4. Σε έξι χρόνια οι χουντικοί έκαναν το χρέος 1,5 φορά µεγαλύτερο απ’ όσο είχε αυξηθεί σε διάστηµα 145 χρόνων!

      Χρέος: ~x3

    1. Διότι πρέπει να έχουμε στο μπροστινό μέρος της εικόνας (και όχι στο πίσω μέρος του μυαλού μας) πως το 2015 τον Γενάρη, αν μετρήσουμε το σώμα των ψήφων που πήρε συνολικά η Δεξιά είναι καταθλιπτικό - σε πλακώνει: πήρε 36% (με τη Χ.Α.) και αν βάλουμε και Καμμένο και ΠΑΣΟΚ, πάμε σχεδόν στο 50%. Ο ένας στους δύο Ελληνες είχε ψηφίζει Δεξιά ή μνημονιακά κόμματα! Αυτό δεν παλεύεται μόνο με ένα καλό ιδεολογικό και οικονομικό πρόγραμμα.

      Η Δεξιά ειναι ριζωμένη στα μυαλά των ανθρώπων, οπως φαινεται από ΌΛΕΣ τις εκλογικές αναμετρήσεις μέχρι σήμερα.

    2. Πρώτον, να μην το βάζεις κάτω. Και, δεύτερον, να επικοινωνήσεις όλα τα προβλήματα της κοινωνίας, όχι μόνο τα δικά σου. Η αμφισβήτηση και η αντίδραση είναι η μόνη διέξοδος!

      Απλή συμβουλή από καποιον που δομικαστηκε στη δυσκλία της Δικτατορίας: don't stop!

    3. Ο κόσμος φοβάται. Οχι μόνο λόγω πανδημίας. Ουσιαστικά, ο φόβος στην Ελλάδα δεν έπαψε ποτέ να υπάρχει.

      Σημαντική διαπίστωση, πως ο φοβος ενυπαρχει ακόμα στους Αριστερούς εν Ελλαδι, από καποια που εζησε τη Χούντα.

    1. η νέα μεσαία τάξη που αναδύθηκε την περίοδο εκείνη απαίτησε, όταν ήρθε η στιγμή, τον απογαλακτισμό της από το καθεστώς που την ανέδειξε

      Η Χούντα γεννησε τη Μεσαία Ταξη στη Ελλάδα!!??!

    2. οι πραξικοπηματίες συνέβαλαν τελικά στον πλήρη εκδημοκρατισμό της Δεξιάς και διαμέσου αυτής και της χώρας.

      Ιστορική ακροβασία ξεπλύματος των χουντικών από τις λίγες!

    3. Η χώρα αστικοποιήθηκε, η οικοδομική δραστηριότητα γνώρισε δόξες, το οδικό δίκτυο επεκτάθηκε, ο εξηλεκτρισμός της χώρας ολοκληρώθηκε και πραγματοποιήθηκαν μεγάλης κλίμακας ξένες επενδύσεις. Παρά τις αυταρχικές πρακτικές του καθεστώτος, πολλές τέχνες άνθησαν και η νεολαία προσέγγισε μαζικά τα δυτικά πρότυπα διασκέδασης, κατανάλωσης και ζωής. Η κοινωνία του 1974 μικρή σχέση είχε με αυτή του 1964.

      3η εξωφρενική προταση-ξεπλυμα της Χούντας.

    4. συνέβαλαν τελικά με έμμεσο τρόπο στον ραγδαίο αξιακό και πολιτισμικό εκσυγχρονισμό της. Ιδωμένη λοιπόν από την οπτική του παρόντος, η δικτατορία είτε δεν εμπόδισε τον πολιτικό και κοινωνικό εκσυγχρονισμό της χώρας είτε τον υποβοήθησε, χωρίς βέβαια να επιδιώκει κάτι τέτοιο.

      Εντυπωσιακό ξεπλυμα της Χούντας νο 2.

    5. Η δικτατορία ξεπεράστηκε εύκολα και γρήγορα. Ισως γιατί υπήρξε ένα μικρό διάλειμμα δίχως μεγάλη σημασία.

      Ειναι εκτός τόπο και χρόνου με τη Ελληνική πραγματικότητα ο ξενοτραφής καθηγητής.

    1. Μέσα σε αυτά τα «ιερά» σχέδια συντελέστηκε το θαύμα: είχαν εξαφανιστεί 406 εκατ. δρχ., φυσικά πέρασαν στις τσέπες των επιτήδειων, αρεστών και «ημετέρων» του καθεστώτος – στην υγεία των «κορόιδων».

      406εκ σκανδαλο με δωρεές πιστών και πολιτών φαγανε τα λαμόγια της Χούντας.

    1. This documentary speaks a lot, not only about the Greeks, but also about its creators!

      • 12:40: "the communists had destroyed Papandreou's 1st government ..."

        Talks about the Dekemvriana, where on 3rdof December 1944, 3 months after the country had been liberated from Germans, the police gendarmes under Papandreou's government and backed by British troops and Nazi collaborationists killed 100's of unarmed demonstrators in front of the parliament, signalling the start of the White Terror against the anti-Nazi warriors - most of them from the Left.

      • 19:20: "The MPs are the surgeons, that must cure the victims of a broken down bureaucracy, and a society that has outgrown most of its institutions"

        Again, no mention of the fact that this system was established by foreign powers (UK and then US) against the will of the people after WWII.<br> While DURING THE WARR, people of Greec had elected and run their own government (ΠΕΕΑ), running liberated parts of the country. The members of that government had been motivated and worked with unselfishness for the benefit of the people, had even constituted the legality of female voting, and had built roads and communication networks, all while the Nazi still occupied Greece. That was the "Pillars of Greece" that the British had to bring down in order to establish the loyalist government of Papandreou and subsequent conservative governments.

      • 12:40: one of the rare moments where the newspaper mogul Ελενη Βλαχου talks to the camera. Her opinion apears twice in this documentary, signifying her unconstitutional power ove Greece at that time.

      • 28:00: the greek elites were already accusing the people they were suspicious that their government worked against them...which was, of course, pretty true. Very few cases of pro-people decisions had been made till the documentary was filmed, and most conservative politicians had been starving for more and more power, in the hope that this will transform into wealth.

      • 36:00: shameless propaganda for private education (Doxiadis's university) - nowdays nobody remebers this institute ever existed.

      • 45:30: again, resignation of A.Papandreou's is given out-of-the-blue: it was the palace that accused him and a bunch of high-ranking generals of plotting to establish a communist dictatorship in Greece. A false accusation that led to the Junta, after 3 years of king's puppet-governments. But it was not not the King this time, but the CIA-led Colonels who did the Coup d'état.

    1. Αδικαίωτοι (καθηγητές αυτή τη φορά) παντου, η κληρονομιά της κυριαρχίας της Δεξιάς στην Ελλάδα ειναι μια συνεχής καταφρόνηση οσων πολεμησαν τη Γερμανία.

    1. e.g. Idea from Yuval Harari’s Sapiens that Europe and Asia developed better civilisation than Americas because Americas span vertically lot of climates making it harder to share agriculture progress between different climates.

      Apparently Yuval Harari didn't footnote very well as this idea is directly from Jared Diamond's Guns, Germs, and Steel which predated Harari's book.

    1. ́his historical interest is fueled not onlyby the rapid growth of the history of readingW of which the study of notetaking is an offshootW

      Where exactly do we situate note taking? Certainly within the space of rhetoric, but also as Ann M. Blair suggests within the history of reading.

      What else? manuscript studies, psychology, others?

    1. Antonin Sertillanges' book The Intellectual Life is published in 1918 in which he outlines in chapter 7 the broad strokes a version of the zettelkasten method, though writing in French he doesn't use the German name or give the method a specific name.[11] The book was published in French, Italian, and English in more than 50 editions over the span of 40 years. In it, Sertillanges recommends taking notes on slips of "strong paper of a uniform size" either self made with a paper cutter or by "special firms that will spare you the trouble, providing slips of every size and color as well as the necessary boxes and accessories." He also recommends a "certain number of tagged slips, guide-cards, so as to number each category visibly after having numbered each slip, in the corner or in the middle." He goes on to suggest creating a catalog or index of subjects with division and subdivisions and recommends the "very ingenious system", the decimal system, for organizing one's research. For the details of this refers the reader to Organization of intellectual work: practical recipes for use by students of all faculties and workers by Paul Chavigny [fr][12]. Sertillanges recommends against the previous patterns seen with commonplace books where one does note taking in books or on slips of paper which might be pasted into books as they don't "easily allow classification" or "readily lend themselves to use at the moment of writing."

      [[Antonin Sertillanges]]' book ''The Intellectual Life'' is published in 1918 in which he outlines in chapter 7 the broad strokes a version of the zettelkasten method, though writing in French he doesn't use the German name or give the method a specific name.<ref>{{cite book |last1=Antonin |first1=Sertillanges |author-link1= Antonin_Sertillanges |title=The Intellectual Life: Its Sprit, Conditions, Methods |date=1960 |publisher=The Newman Press |location=Westminster, Maryland |translator-last1= Ryan |translator-first1= Mary |translator-link1= |pages=186-198 |edition=fifth printing |language=English}}</ref> The book was published in French, Italian, and English in more than 50 editions over the span of 40 years. In it, Sertillanges recommends taking notes on slips of "strong paper of a uniform size" either self made with a paper cutter or by "special firms that will spare you the trouble, providing slips of every size and color as well as the necessary boxes and accessories." He also recommends a "certain number of tagged slips, guide-cards, so as to number each category visibly after having numbered each slip, in the corner or in the middle." He goes on to suggest creating a catalog or index of subjects with division and subdivisions and recommends the "very ingenious system", the decimal system, for organizing one's research. For the details of this refers the reader to ''Organization of intellectual work: practical recipes for use by students of all faculties and workers'' by {{interlanguage link|Paul Chavigny|fr}}<ref>{{cite book |last1=Chavigny |first1=Paul |title=Organisation du travail intellectuel: recettes pratiques à l'usage des étudiants de toutes les facultés et de tous les travailleurs |date=1918 |publisher=Delagrave |language=French}}</ref>. Sertillanges recommends against the previous patterns seen with commonplace books where one does note taking in books or on slips of paper which might be pasted into books as they don't "easily allow classification" or "readily lend themselves to use at the moment of writing."

  3. Oct 2021
    1. social evolution

      A Theory of Change

      How did we get here?

      Yesterday (October 26, 2021), I picked up David Graeber’s book, The Dawn of Everything: a New History of Humanity, written with David Wengrow, at Coles in Abbotsford.

      It is interesting to note that David Graeber was interested in the origins, the beginnings.

      Renowned for his biting and incisive writing about bureaucracy, politics and capitalism, Graeber was a leading figure in the Occupy Wall Street movement and professor of anthropology at the London School of Economics (LSE) at the time of his death.

      https://www.theguardian.com/books/2020/sep/03/david-graeber-anthropologist-and-author-of-bullshit-jobs-dies-aged-59

    1. Drawing on path-breaking research in archaeology and anthropology, the authors show how history becomes a far more interesting place once we learn to throw off our conceptual shackles and perceive what's really there.

      Reimagining our social architecture might begin with rethinking our past and origins as a species.

    1. Canada’s Indian Reserve System served, officially, as a strategy of Indigenous apartheid (preceding South African apartheid) and unofficially, as a policy of Indigenous genocide (preceding the Nazi concentration camps of World War II).

      The Doctrine of Discovery

      Since the Doctrine of Discovery was issued by a Papal Bull in 1493, Western Europeans have used this document as legal justification for the genocide, colonization, extraction, and profit from the theft of land and its resources in what they called the New World.

    1. Design for the Real World

      by Victor Papanek

      Papanek on the Bauhaus

      Many of the “sane design” or “design reform” movements of the time, such as those engendered by the writings and teachings of William Morris in England and Elbert Hubbard in the United States, were rooted in a sort of Luddite antimachine philosophy. By contrast Frank Llloyd Wright said as early as 1894 that “the machine is here to stay” and that the designer should “use this normal tool of civilization to best advantage instead of prostituting it as he has hitherto done in reproducing with murderous ubiquity forms born of other times and other conditions which it can only serve to destroy.” Yet designers of the last century were either perpetrators of voluptuous Victorian-Baroque or members of an artsy-craftsy clique who were dismayed by machine technology. The work of the Kunstgewerbeschule in Austria and the German Werkbund anticipated things to come, but it was not until Walter Gropius founded the German Bauhaus in 1919 that an uneasy marriage between art and machine was achieved.

      No design school in history had greater influence in shaping taste and design than the Bauhaus. It was the first school to consider design a vital part of the production process rather than “applied art” or “industrial arts.” It became the first international forum on design because it drew its faculty and students from all over the world, and its influence traveled as these people later founded design offices and schools in many countries. Almost every major design school in the United States today still uses the basic foundation course developed by the Bauhaus. It made good sense in 1919 to let a German 19-year-old experiment with drill press and circular saw, welding torch and lathe, so that he might “experience the interaction between tool and material.” Today the same method is an anachronism, for an American teenager has spent much of his life in a machine-dominated society (and cumulatively probably a great deal of time lying under various automobiles, souping them up). For a student whose American design school slavishly imitates teaching patterns developed by the Bauhaus, computer sciences and electronics and plastics technology and cybernetics and bionics simply do not exist. The courses the Bauhaus developed were excellent for their time and place (telesis), but American schools following this pattern in the eighties are perpetuating design infantilism.

      The Bauhaus was in a sense a nonadaptive mutation in design, for the genes contributing to its convergence characteristics were badly chosen. In boldface type, it announced its manifesto: “Architects, sculptors, painters, we must all turn to the crafts.… Let us create a new guild of craftsmen!” The heavy emphasis on interaction between crafts, art, and design turned out to be a blind alley. The inherent nihilism of the pictorial arts of the post-World War I period had little to contribute that would be useful to the average, or even to the discriminating, consumer. The paintings of Kandinsky, Klee, Feininger, et al., on the other hand, had no connection whatsoever with the anemic elegance some designers imposed on products.

      (Pages 30-31)

    1. Around 1700, the Virginia House of Burgesses declared:The Christian Servants in this country for the most part consists of the Worser Sort of the people of Europe. Andsince . . . such numbers of Irish and other Nations have been brought in of which a great many have been soldiers inthe late warrs that according to our present Circumstances we can hardly governe them and if they were fitted withArmes and had the Opertunity of meeting together by Musters we have just reason to fears they may rise upon us.It was a kind of class consciousness, a class fear. There were thingshappening in early Virginia, and in the other colonies, to warrant it

      This is a powerful example that class consciousness and class fears have driven the building of America since its inception.

      It's been built into our DNA and thus will be difficult to ever stamp out fully so that people will enjoy greater equality, equity, and freedom.

    2. We see now a complex web of historical threads to ensnare blacks forslavery in America: the desperation of starving settlers, the specialhelplessness of the displaced African, the powerful incentive of profit forslave trader and planter, the temptation of superior status for poor whites, the

      elaborate controls against escape and rebellion, the legal and social punishment of black and white collaboration.

      The point is that the elements of this web are historical, not "natural."

    1. The earliest legal restrictions on the nighttime activities and movements of African-Americans and other ethnic minorities date back to the colonial era. The general court and legislative assembly of New Hampshire passed "An Act To Prevent Disorders In The Night" in 1714:[6][7] .mw-parser-output .templatequote{overflow:hidden;margin:1em 0;padding:0 40px}.mw-parser-output .templatequote .templatequotecite{line-height:1.5em;text-align:left;padding-left:1.6em;margin-top:0}Whereas great disorders, insolencies and burglaries are oft times raised and committed in the night time by Native American, Negro, and Molatto Servants and Slaves to the Disquiet and hurt of her Majesty's subjects, No Indian, Negro, or Molatto is to be from Home after 9 o'clock. Notices emphasizing and re-affirming the curfew were published in The New Hampshire Gazette in 1764 and 1771.
  4. Sep 2021
    1. Without some way to escape debt's gravity, all productive labor becomes oriented toward debt-service, and the economy grinds to a halt.

      Michael Hudson's thesis, apparently with nods to Babylonian history of the jubilee, is that without a way to escape the burden of debt, all productive labor becomes captured by servicing debt and causes economies to grind to a halt.

    2. Hudson, meanwhile, is the debt-historian and economist whose haunting phrase "Debts that can't be paid, won't be paid," is a perfect and irrefutable summation of the inevitable downfall of any system that relies on household debt to drive consumption.

      With this description, I want to read Michael Hudson's work.

    1. neoliberalism and social conservatism have frequently coexisted in practice. Yet the alt-right fits none of the previously identified alliances

      Indeed, alt-right is a radical movement (hence the danger if we let it uncontested).

    1. μαρξιστής στοχαστής T. Eagleton έχει γράψει ότι το παρελθόν δεν είναι κάτι το κλειστό και συντελεσμένο, αλλά αντίθετα αποκτάει κάποιο νόημα μόναχα όταν φωτίζεται από την πολιτική πράξη που εκτυλίσσεται στο σήμερα

      Το παρελθόν μας το επινούμε συνεχώς, όσο παραμενουμε ζωντανοί.

    1. In his intriguing book “The Rise Of Christianity,” sociologist Rodney Stark recalls the “Plague of Galun” which ravaged the Roman Empire in 164CE with a death toll of approximately 30% of the population.

      The great epidemic of the second century, which is sometimes referred to as the “Plague of Galen,” first struck the army of Verus, while campaigning in the East in 165 A.D.,

      Semeia 56: Social Networks in Early Christian Environment: Issues and Methods for Social History

    1. The ancient Romans sometimes connected wax tablets with leather or cords, suggesting a prototype of binding. Replacing the wax with leaves allowed many pages to be stacked atop one another, then sewn or otherwise bound together.

      early book prototypes

    1. The Virginians needed labor, to grow corn for subsistence, to grow tobaccofor export. They had just figured out how to grow tobacco, and in 1617 theysent off the first cargo to England. Finding that, like all pleasurable drugstainted with moral disapproval, it brought a high price, the planters, despitetheir high religious talk, were not going to ask questions about something soprofitable.

      Told from this perspective and with the knowledge of the importance of the theory of First Effective Settlement, is it any wonder that America has grown up to be so heavily influenced by moral and mental depravity, over-influenced by capitalism and religion, ready to enslave others, and push vice and drugs? The founding Virginians are truly America in miniature.

      Cross reference: Theory of First Effective Settlement

      “Whenever an empty territory undergoes settlement, or an earlier population is dislodged by invaders, the specific characteristics of the first group able to effect a viable, self-perpetuating society are of crucial significance for the later social and cultural geography of the area, no matter how tiny the initial band of settlers may have been.” “Thus, in terms of lasting impact, the activities of a few hundred, or even a few score, initial colonizers can mean much more for the cultural geography of a place than the contributions of tens of thousands of new immigrants a few generations later.” — Wilbur Zelinsky, The Cultural Geography of the United States, Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1973, pp. 13–14.

    1. A great advance in the accuracy of household clocks came with the application of the pendulum after 1658. Grandfather clocks begin to spread more widely from the I66os, but clocks with minute hands (as well as hour hands) only became common well after th

      this time.

    2. clocks from the fourteenth century onwards, how far this was itself a symptom of a new Puritan discipline and bourgeois exac

      I do not wish to argue how far the change was due to the spread of clocks from the fourteenth century onwards, how far this was itself a symptom of a new Puritan discipline and bourgeois exactitude.

      For some history of the importance of time with relation to naval navigation and trade, see: Sobel, Dava (1995). Longitude: The True Story of a Lone Genius Who Solved the Greatest Scientific Problem of His Time. New York: Walker and Company.

    3. Time, Work-Discipline, and Industrial Capitalism

      • Author(s): E. P. Thompson
      • Source: Past & Present, No. 38 (Dec., 1967), pp. 56-97
      • Published by: Oxford University Press on behalf of The Past and Present Society
      • Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/649749

      <small><cite class='h-cite via'> <span class='p-author h-card'>Dan Allosso (@danallosso)</span> in Howard Zinn's A People's History, Part 1 (YouTube) (<time class='dt-published'>09/16/2021 09:28:56</time>)</cite></small>

    1. I've been wanting to read Zinn, so perhaps this is a good place to follow along? A sort of pseudo book club perhaps?

      It's interesting to see Dan struggle with an obvious listicle article in Forbes as an authoritative source. This example is a great indicator that Forbes online has created far too much of a content farm to be taken seriously anymore. From what I've seen of it over the past several years it's followed the business model of The Huffington Post before Huffington sold it and cashed out. My supposition is that Forbes is providing a platform for people to get reach and isn't actually paying those writers to create their content.

      Howard Zinn's A People's History of the United States

      https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vlnYt9NOUAw

    1. Friedrich Nietzsche once identified three approaches to the writing of history: the monumental, the antiquarian and the critical, the last being history “that judges and condemns.”

      Nietzche's three types of historians:

      • monumental
      • antiquarian
      • critical
    1. The minds of other people can also supplement our limited individual memory. Daniel Wegner, a psychologist at Harvard, named this collective remembering “transactive memory.” As he explained it, “Nobody remembers everything. Instead, each of us in a couple or group remembers some things personally — and then can remember much more by knowing who else might know what we don’t.” A transactive memory system can effectively multiply the amount of information to which an individual has access. Organizational research has found that groups that build a strong transactive memory structure — in which all members of the team have a clear and accurate sense of what their teammates know — perform better than groups for which that structure is less defined.

      Transactive memory is how a group encodes, stores, and shares knowledge. Members of a group may be aware of the portions of knowledge that others possess which can make them more efficient.

      How can we link this to Cesar Hidalgo's ideas about the personbyte, etc.?

      How would this idea have potentially helped oral cultures?

      She uses the example of a trauma resuscitation team helping to shorten hospital stays, but certainly there are many examples in the corporate world where corporate knowledge is helpful in decreasing time scales for particular outcomes.

  5. www.library.upenn.edu www.library.upenn.edu
    1. How have chance survivals shaped literary and linguistic canons? How might the topography of the field appear differently had certain prized unica not survived? What are the ways in which authors, compilers, scribes, and scholars have dealt with lacunary exemplaria? How do longstanding and emergent methodologies and disciplines—analysis of catalogs of dispersed libraries, reverse engineering of ur-texts and lost prototypes, digital reconstructions of codices dispersi, digital humanities. and cultural heritage preservation, and trauma studies to name a few,—serve to reveal the extent of disappearance? How can ideologically-driven biblioclasm or the destruction wrought by armed conflicts -- sometimes occurring within living memory -- be assessed objectively yet serve as the basis for protection of cultural heritage in the present? In all cases, losses are not solely material: they can be psychological, social, digital, linguistic, spiritual, professional. Is mournful resignation the only response to these gaps, or can such sentiments be harnessed to further knowledge, understanding, and preservation moving forward?
    1. While the material about just how darn embodied our brains are might have been something of a bummer for someone as uncomfortable being bodied as I am, the material about how much our brains like narratives was just what I wanted to read.

      How might we compare/contrast the ideas behind this with Alex Rosenberg's book How History Gets Things Wrong: The Neuroscience of Our Addiction to Stories?

    1. Thus the idea that ancient Greeks could develop a James Watt style steam engine without advanced guns, wind mills, machining tools, improved mass production systems for iron production etc is rather unthinkable. It is a bit like thinking a society could make a space rocket before having created trains, cars and calculators.

      This idea of past flory is spread among present-day Greeks.

    1. Scott Sampson has argued that we should subjectify nature rather than objectifying it. People are a part of nature and integral to it. We are not separate from it and we are assuredly not above it.

      Can the injection of multi-disciplinary research and areas like big history help us to see the bigger picture? How have indigenous and oral cultures managed to do so much better than us at this? Is it the way we've done science in the past? Is it our political structures?

    2. Cosmos was unlike any previous book about nature. Humboldt took his readers on a journey from outer space to earth, and then from the surface of the planet into its inner core.

      Could Alexander von Humboldt have been one of the early examples of a popular science writer?

    1. “What other subject is routinely taught without any mention of its history, philosophy, thematic development, aesthetic criteria, and current status? What other subject shuns its primary sources—beautiful works of art by some of the most creative minds in history—in favor of third-rate textbook bastardizations?”

      ---Paul Lockhart

    1. punctum books encourages projects that profit from formal risks and possibly engage with supposedly outmoded or ‘quaint’ genres—the abcedarium, (auto)commentary, summa, bestiary, dialogue, case study, compendium, speculum/mirror, conduct manual, letter/address, apologia pro vita sua, hagiography, elegy, postcard, telegraph/telegram, inter-office memo, encyclopedia, forgery, hidden writing, source-fiction, natural history, leechbook, atlas, colloquium, colophon, commonplace book, telephone book, rolodex, field report, romance, dialogue, dream vision, catalogue, sonnet cycle, poetics, treatise, manifesto, prosody, calendar, morality play, marginalia, interlinear translation, digest, microfiche, concordance, book of hours, pastoral/eclogue, polemic, epigram, broadsheet, flyer, note-book, breviarium, collationes/collectio, book of nature, testament, proof, manual, pamphlet, miscellany, chapbook, captivity narrative, penny dreadful, testament, manual, discography, catena, liner notes, autopsy, exegesis, rule, antiphonary, legend, fax, travelogue, etymologiae, lai, excerpt, curiosity cabinet, disputation, computus, comedy of errors, soliloquy, essay, bulletin, evangeliary, gloss, meditation, fable, florilegium, myth, fairy tale, purchase order, carbon copy, transcript/transcryptum, blueprint, psalter, micrologue, lyric, daytimer, inventory, annal/chronicle, pipe roll, receipt/invoice, watch-list, charter, canon, and so on ad infinitum. Surprise yourself.

      This is a great list of book types, genres, etc.

  6. Aug 2021
    1. The most common and sensible location for putting down thoughts, critique or notes was the margin of the medieval book. Consider this: you wouldn’t think so looking at a medieval page, but on average only half of it was filled with the actual text. A shocking fifty to sixty percent was designed to be margin. As inefficient as this may seem, the space came in handy for the reader. As the Middle Ages progressed it became more and more common to resort to the margin for note-taking.
    2. Dots and lines are particularly common ingredients of such footnote symbols. Interestingly, their first appearance is not as a connector of comment and text, but as an insertion mark that added an omitted line into the text.

      In a version similar to a footnote, a line and a dot were first used much as we use the carot symbol (^) today for editing to indicate the insertion of a missing line.

    3. The solution to the vanishing bookmark came in the form of what is called a “register bookmark." This type, which looks like a spider with its legs trapped, was securely fastened to the top of the binding (visible below), so it couldn’t get lost. Additionally, the bookmark allowed the reader to mark multiple locations in the book.

      Register bookmark

    1. έγγραφο του «Συνδέσμου των εν Ελλάδι Ανωνύμων Εταιρειών», ενός από τους προδρόμους του σημερινού ΣΕΒ, που καλούσε τα μέλη του να καταθέτουν οικονομική ενίσχυση υπέρ των «Τριών Εψιλον» σε ειδικό λογαριασμό στη Λαϊκή Τράπεζα

      Τα φασιστικά κόμματα στηρίχθηκαν από τους βιομηχάνους.

    1. The impactof such practices upon eighteenth-century visual and material culture is recounted in te Heesen, The World in a Box.

      This reference appears to show some of the historical link between the method of loci in rhetoric with that of commonplacing ideas within books. The fact that the word box may suggest some relational link between commonplacing and zettelkasten.

    2. lexicographers (lexicographi) collated ‘namesin different languages’, while nomenclators (nomenclatores) concentrated on naming the objectsof natural history.
    3. by the eighteenth century, suchchapters were being expanded into sizeable books that functioned primarily as natural historybibliographies in their own right. An early example of this practice was Johann JakobScheuchzer’s Bibliotheca scriptorium(1716).
    1. Media and the Mind: Art, Science and Notebooks as Paper Machines, 1700-1830 (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2022), 550 pp + 60 figures.

      I can't wait to read Media and the Mind: Art, Science and Notebooks as Paper Machines, 1700-1830 (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2022)!

      I see some bits on annotation hiding in here that may be of interest to @RemiKalir and @anterobot.

      If you need some additional eyeballs on it prior to publication, I'm happy to mark it up in exchange for the early look.

    1. I am beginning to think that the significant difference is that with songlines, learning is always done in the physical ‘memory palace’ which is constantly revisited. It can be recalled from memory, but is encoded in place. For me, that is way more effective, but I have aphantasia and very poor visualisation, so it may not be as big a factor for others. So recalling your childhood home can be a memory palace, but not a songline.

      Lynne Kelly is correct here that we need better delineations of the words we're using here.

      To some of us, we're taking historical methods and expanding them into larger super sets based on our personal experiences. I've read enough of Kelly's work and her personal experiences on her website (and that of many others) that I better understand the shorthand she uses when she describes pieces.

      Even in the literature throughout the middle ages and the Renaissance we see this same sort of picking and choosing of methods in descriptions of various texts. Some will choose to focus on one or two keys, which seemed to work for them, but they'd leave out the others which means that subsequent generations would miss out on the lost bits and pieces.

      Having a larger superset of methods to choose from as well as encouraging further explorations is certainly desired.

    1. This blogpost by Manfred Kuehn is one of the earliest posts about Zettelkasten I've seen referenced on the early web. It dates from 2007-12-16.

    1. I was searching for notecard systems after reading Will and Ariel Durant’s dual autobiography and not having much luck. The book talks a lot about his writing and the use of “classification slips” to cover the depth of material, especially for The Story of Civilization series they did.

      Apparently Will Durant and Ariel Durant used a form of commonplace book set up in which they used "classification slips".

    1. Hesperides, or The Muses’ Garden. Hao Tianhu, “Hesperides, or the Muses’Gardenand its Manuscript History,”Library10(2009),372–404, convincinglyunpacks the complicated history ofHesperides, a manuscript commonplacebook of thousands of passages of contemporary verse and prose extractsarranged alphabetically under headings which exists in two extant versions:Folger Shakespeare Library, MS V.b.93(compiled c.1654–66) and a secondversion based on the former that was prepared for print in1655–65but neverprinted, was cut up in the nineteenth century by James Orchard Halliwell-Phillipps, and now exists in three Folger manuscripts and seventy scrapbooksat the Shakespeare Centre Library in Statford-upon-Avon. Gunnar Sorelius,“An Unknown Shakespearian Commonplace Book,”Library28(1973),294–308, demonstrates that the source of the Shakespeare quotations cut andpasted into over sixty of Halliwell-Phillipps’ Shakespearean scrapbooks was amanuscript that also once contained the now-fragmentary Folger MSSV.a.75,79, and80, and argues that the manuscript is valuable for the light itsheds on seventeenth-century taste and on how a reader spontaneously editedShakespeare. Beal (III, E), vol.1, part2(1980), p.450, discovered thecompiler’s identity (John Evans), an entry in the Stationers’ Register for1655and an advertisement of1659indicating thatHesperideswas to be publishedby Humphrey Moseley (though it never was), and the existence of FolgerMS V.b.93.

      This provides evidence and at least a date for the idea of cutting up books into scraps and then rearranging them to create a commonplace. Where does this fit into the continuum on the evolution of the zettelkasten idea?

      How was this rearrangement physically done besides the cutting up of pieces? Were they pasted in? Clipped? other?

  7. Jul 2021
  8. uniweb.uottawa.ca uniweb.uottawa.ca
    1. Victoria E. Burke, Commonplacing, Making Miscellanies, and Interpreting Literature, The Oxford Handbook of Early Modern Women’s Writing in English, 1540-1680, Oxford University Press Oxford, 2022Editors: Danielle Clarke, Sarah C.E. Ross, and Elizabeth Scott-BaumannBook historyEarly modern literatureManuscript studiesSeventeenth-century women's writing

      This looks like a fun read to track down.

    1. This is all too correct. Sadly the older methods for writing, note taking, thinking, and memory have fallen by the wayside, so most literate moderns don't have the tradition most of (elite educated) Western culture has had for the past 2000+ years. The long tradition of commonplace books and their related versions including waste books, florilegium, sudelbücher, scholia, glossae, notebooks, anthologies, sylvae, table books, vade mecum, memoranda books, diaries, miscellanies, pocket books, thesauruses, etc. underlines your thesis well. The Zettelkasten, exactly like almost all of these others, is simply an iteration of the commonplace book instantiated into index card form. One of the reasons that Umberto Eco's advice on writing seems so similar to the zettelkasten method is that he was a medievalist scholar who was aware of these long traditions of writing, note taking, and memory and leveraged these for himself, though likely in a slightly different manner. Would anyone suggest that he didn't have a voluminous output or an outsized impact on society and culture? If one really wants to go crazy on the idea of backlinks and the ideas of creativity and invention, perhaps they ought to brush up on their Catalan and read some Ramon Llull? He was an 11th century philosopher and polymath who spent a lot of time not only memorizing much of his personal knowledge, but who invented combinatorial creative methods for juxtaposing his volumes of information to actively create new ideas. I guarantee no backlinking system held a match to his associative methods. Now if someone wanted to mix some mysticism into the fray, then perhaps there might be a competition... Many who are now writing so positively about Zettelkasten or backlinks are doing so in much the same way that humanist scholars like Desiderius Erasmus, Rodolphus Agricola, and Philip Melanchthon did when writing about and re-popularizing commonplace books in the 1500s. The primary difference being that the chance that they leave as lasting a legacy is much smaller. Worse many of them are crediting Luhmann for the actual invention of the Zettelkasten when his is but one instantiation on a long evolution of many note taking devices over literal millennia. I'm still waiting for folks to spend more time talking about Carl Linnaeus' revolutionary invention and use of the index card. Or John Locke's system for creating a new indexing system for commonplace books. Generally we don't talk about these innovations because their users spent more of their time using their systems to get other more important things done for their legacies. In the end, the message seems clear, anyone can be incredibly productive; most of it boils down to having some sort of system of reading, thinking, note taking, and new production and sticking with it for a while. Have a system; use your system; evolve it slowly to work well for you and the way you think and work.

    1. In the Western tradition, these memory traditions date back to ancient Greece and Rome and were broadly used until the late 1500s. Frances A. Yates outlines much of their use in The Art of Memory (Routledge, 1966). She also indicates that some of their decline in use stems from Protestant educational reformers like Peter Ramus who preferred outline and structural related methods. Some religious reformers didn't appreciate the visual mnemonic methods as they often encouraged gross, bloody, non-religious, and sexualized imagery.

      Those interested in some of the more modern accounts of memory practice (as well as methods used by indigenous and oral cultures around the world) may profit from Lynne Kelly's recent text Memory Craft (Allen & Unwin, 2019).

      Lots of note taking in the West was (and still is) done via commonplace book, an art that is reasonably well covered in Earle Havens' Commonplace Books: A History of Manuscripts and Printed Books from Antiquity to the Twentieth Century (Yale, 2001).

    1. Thus we can roughly define what we mean by the art of reading as follows: the process whereby a mind, with nothing to operate on but the symbols of the readable matter, and with no help from outside, 0 elevates itself by the power of its own operations. The mind passes from understanding less to under­standing more. The skilled operations that cause this to hap­pen are the various acts that constitute the art of reading.

      I'm not sure I agree with this perspective of not necessarily asking for outside help.

      What if the author is at fault for not communicating properly or leaving things too obscure? Is this the exception of which he speaks?

      What if the author isn't properly contextualizing all the necessary information to the reader? This can be a particular problem when writing history across large spans of both time and culture or even language.

    1. Since then, the two parties have just about traded places. By the turn of the millennium, the Democrats were becoming the home of affluent professionals, while the Republicans were starting to sound like populist insurgents. We have to understand this exchange in order to grasp how we got to where we are.

      I'm definitely curious about how this about face occurred.

    1. The Corn Field is a region of mythological status where once naughty avatars were sent to think about what they had done.

      "mythological status"

      Reinforcing middle school grammar and writing skills while promoting social learning around topics such as a mythology in a game such as Minecraft or Roblox.

      APB: Ephemeral Flan, Booklady...wilson Huckleberry too

      This annotation flags archive.org's 2009 capture (its earliest) of this Second Life Wiki article. It could also be a launchpad* for an assignment.

      LTI Note archive.org's timeline panel, in the context of constructive learning, could lead to engaging inquiry about particular subjects.

    1. Society can’t understand itself if it can’t be honest with itself, and it can’t be honest with itself if it can only live in the present moment.
    1. Not all the ancients are ancestors.

      I'll definitely grant this and admit that there may be independent invention or re-discovery of ideas.

      However, I'll also mention that it's far, far less likely that any of these people truly invented very much novel along the way, particularly since Western culture has been swimming in the proverbial waters of writing, rhetoric, and the commonplace book tradition for so long that we too often forget that we're actually swimming in water.

      It's incredibly easy to reinvent the wheel when everything around you is made of circles, hubs, and axles.

    1. This new edition is based on an exhaustive two-year study by the Designer of the records that have come to light since the fall of the Berlin Wall. The game combines highly accurate information on the forces the Warsaw Pact actually had with now de-classified reports from the CIA and the Defense Intelligence Agency regarding what satellite surveillance and HUMINT revealed about their actual plans.
  9. Jun 2021
    1. το 1945, σε δημοσκόπηση που πραγματοποιήθηκε στη Γαλλία, το 57% των ερωτηθέντων πίστευε πως η Σοβιετική Ένωση είχε τον πιο καθοριστικό ρόλο στην νίκη του ναζισμού, ποσοστό που μειώθηκε το 1994 στο 25% και στο 23% το 2015, ενώ αντίστοιχα αυξήθηκε σημαντικά το ποσοστό των ΗΠΑ – από 20% το 1945 σε 54% το 2015 (Πηγή: δημοσκοπήσεις IFOP 1945, 1994, 2004, 2015).

      Stillpeople do not know what Putin wrote about WWII.

    1. Ed Yong. (2021, February 9). The incomparable @sarahzhang is still ruling the vaccine beat; here’s her latest on what vaccines, variants, and herd immunity. Https://t.co/np7viqRU1T [Tweet]. @edyong209. https://twitter.com/edyong209/status/1359234289448189952

    1. The introduction could use a referrent to prior examples across history from commonplace books, florilegium, waste books, etc. This general idea has been used for centuries (and is even seen in oral societies before literacy).

      Including a few examples of people who've used the method/ideas before and how it was successful for them could be both useful as well as highly motivating.

  10. pbinkley.github.io