10 Matching Annotations
  1. Mar 2021
    1. Based on my search, the game might be developed by neptun digital, an Android game called Brain On Physics Drop - Idle Balls Puzzle. It was released on Amazon, on June 29, 2017. Free.Later on Sep 4, 2017 it was put on google play store called Physics Brain Balls - Drop It On Dots. Free.Then in June 2018, its web browser version Love Draw released by Faramel Games. Free.Later here on Jan 9, 2019, Windows port showed up. Paid to play. Apart from all of this, the design of origin is simply modified based on a free game called Brain Dots released in 2015.A port doesn't deserve to be paid, let alone the origin of the port is not original at all.

      Not everything needs to be 100% original. People are allowed to charge money for their creations/work. "Porting" a game (probably writing from scratch if they are not the same developer) is not trivial.

  2. Sep 2017
    1. The multiple styles of making judgments in Pride and Prejudiceare filtered through conjugality because marriage is action with the highest stakes.

      Not necessarily an original idea, but Moe manipulates this concept to aid her original thesis.

  3. Feb 2014
    1. F a c t u a l c o m p i l a t i o n s , o n t h e o t h e r h a n d , m a y p o s s e s s t h e r e q u i s i t e o r i g i n a l i t y .

      Factual compilations may possess the requisite originality and so may be copyrightable.

    2. I t i s t h i s b e d r o c k p r i n c i p l e o f c o p y r i g h t t h a t m a n d a t e s t h e l a w ' s s e e m i n g l y d i s p a r a t e t r e a t m e n t o f f a c t s a n d f a c t u a l c o m p i l a t i o n s . " N o o n e m a y c l a i m o r i g i n a l i t y a s t o f a c t s . " I d . , § 2 . 1 1 [ A ] , p . 2 - 1 5 7 . T h i s i s b e c a u s e f a c t s d o n o t o w e t h e i r o r i g i n t o a n a c t o f a u t h o r s h i p . T h e d i s t i n c t i o n i s o n e b e t w e e n c r e a t i o n a n d d i s c o v e r y : T h e f i r s t p e r s o n t o f i n d a n d r e p o r t a p a r t i c u l a r f a c t h a s n o t c r e a t e d t h e f a c t ; h e o r s h e h a s m e r e l y d i s c o v e r e d i t s e x i s t e n c e . T o b o r r o w f r o m B u r r o w - G i l e s , o n e w h o d i s c o v e r s a f a c t i s n o t i t s " m a k e r " o r " o r i g i n a t o r . " 1 1 1 U . S . , a t 5 8 . " T h e d i s c o v e r e r m e r e l y f i n d s a n d r e c o r d s . " N i m m e r § 2 . 0 3 [ E ] .

      No one may claim originality to facts because facts do not owe their origin to an act of authorship. The distinction is one between creation vs discovery.

    3. T h e o r i g i n a l i t y r e q u i r e m e n t a r t i c u l a t e d i n T h e T r a d e - M a r k C a s e s a n d B u r r o w - G i l e s r e m a i n s t h e t o u c h s t o n e o f c o p y r i g h t p r o t e c t i o n t o d a y . S e e G o l d s t e i n v . C a l i f o r n i a , 4 1 2 U . S . 5 4 6 , 5 6 1 - 5 6 2 ( 1 9 7 3 ) . I t i s t h e v e r y " p r e m i s e o f c o p y r i g h t l a w . " M i l l e r v . U n i v e r s a l C i t y S t u d i o s , I n c . , 6 5 0 F . 2 d 1 3 6 5 , 1 3 6 8 ( C A 5 1 9 8 1 ) . L e a d i n g s c h o l a r s a g r e e o n t h i s p o i n t . A s o n e p a i r o f c o m m e n t a t o r s s u c c i n c t l y p u t s i t : " T h e o r i g i n a l i t y r e q u i r e m e n t i s c o n s t i t u t i o n a l l y m a n d a t e d f o r a l l w o r k s . "

      The originality requirement is the touchstone of copyright protection today.

    4. I n B u r r o w - G i l e s , t h e C o u r t d i s t i l l e d t h e s a m e r e q u i r e m e n t f r o m t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n ' s u s e o f t h e w o r d " a u t h o r s . " T h e C o u r t d e f i n e d " a u t h o r , " i n a c o n s t i t u t i o n a l s e n s e , t o m e a n " h e t o w h o m a n y t h i n g o w e s i t s o r i g i n ; o r i g i n a t o r ; m a k e r . " 1 1 1 U . S . , a t 5 8 ( i n t e r n a l q u o t a t i o n m a r k s o m i t t e d ) . A s i n T h e T r a d e - M a r k C a s e s , t h e C o u r t e m p h a s i z e d t h e c r e a t i v e c o m p o n e n t o f o r i g i n a l i t y . I t d e s c r i b e d c o p y r i g h t a s b e i n g l i m i t e d t o " o r i g i n a l i n t e l l e c t u a l c o n c e p t i o n s o f t h e a u t h o r , " 1 1 1 U . S . , a t 5 8 , a n d s t r e s s e d t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f r e q u i r i n g a n a u t h o r w h o a c c u s e s a n o t h e r o f i n f r i n g e m e n t t o p r o v e " t h e e x i s t e n c e o f t h o s e f a c t s o f o r i g i n a l i t y , o f i n t e l l e c t u a l p r o d u c t i o n , o f t h o u g h t , a n d c o n c e p t i o n . " I d . , a t 5 9 - 6 0 .

      In Burrow-Giles the court defined authors, in a constitutional sense, to mean "he to whom anything owes its origin, originator, maker" and emphasized the creative component of originality.

    5. I n T h e T r a d e - M a r k C a s e s , t h e C o u r t a d d r e s s e d t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n a l s c o p e o f " w r i t i n g s . " F o r a p a r t i c u l a r w o r k t o b e c l a s s i f i e d " u n d e r t h e h e a d o f w r i t i n g s o f a u t h o r s , " t h e C o u r t d e t e r m i n e d , " o r i g i n a l i t y i s r e q u i r e d . " 1 0 0 U . S . , a t 9 4 . T h e C o u r t e x p l a i n e d t h a t o r i g i n a l i t y r e q u i r e s i n d e p e n d e n t c r e a t i o n p l u s a m o d i c u m o f c r e a t i v i t y : " [ W ] h i l e t h e w o r d w r i t i n g s m a y b e l i b e r a l l y c o n s t r u e d , a s i t h a s b e e n , t o i n c l u d e o r i g i n a l d e s i g n s f o r e n g r a v i n g , p r i n t s , & c . , i t i s o n l y s u c h a s a r e o r i g i n a l , a n d a r e f o u n d e d i n t h e c r e a t i v e p o w e r s o f t h e m i n d . T h e w r i t i n g s w h i c h a r e t o b e p r o t e c t e d a r e t h e f r u i t s o f i n t e l l e c t u a l l a b o r , e m b o d i e d i n t h e f o r m o f b o o k s , p r i n t s , e n g r a v i n g s , a n d t h e l i k e . " I b i d . ( e m p h a s i s i n o r i g i n a l ) .

      In The Trade-Mark Cases the Court addressed the constitutional scope of writings saying for a particular work to be classified "under the head of writings of authors," the Court determined, "originality is required"; independent creation plus a modicum of creativity.

    6. O r i g i n a l i t y d o e s n o t s i g n i f y n o v e l t y ; a w o r k m a y b e o r i g i n a l e v e n t h o u g h i t c l o s e l y r e s e m b l e s o t h e r w o r k s s o l o n g a s t h e s i m i l a r i t y i s f o r t u i t o u s , n o t t h e r e s u l t o f c o p y i n g . T o i l l u s t r a t e , a s s u m e t h a t t w o p o e t s , e a c h i g n o r a n t o f t h e o t h e r , c o m p o s e i d e n t i c a l p o e m s . N e i t h e r w o r k i s n o v e l , y e t b o t h a r e o r i g i n a l a n d , h e n c e , c o p y r i g h t a b l e .

      See Sheldon v. Metro-Goldwyn Pictures Corp., 81 F. 2d 49, 54 (CA2 1936)

    7. O r i g i n a l i t y i s a c o n s t i t u t i o n a l r e q u i r e m e n t . T h e s o u r c e o f C o n g r e s s ' p o w e r t o e n a c t c o p y r i g h t l a w s i s A r t i c l e I , § 8 , c l . 8 , o f t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n , w h i c h a u t h o r i z e s C o n g r e s s t o " s e c u r [ e ] f o r l i m i t e d T i m e s t o A u t h o r s . . . t h e e x c l u s i v e R i g h t t o t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e W r i t i n g s . " I n t w o d e c i s i o n s f r o m t h e l a t e 1 9 t h c e n t u r y — T h e T r a d e - M a r k C a s e s , 1 0 0 U . S . 8 2 ( 1 8 7 9 ) ; a n d B u r r o w - G i l e s L i t h o g r a p h i c C o . v . S a r o n y , 1 1 1 U . S . 5 3 ( 1 8 8 4 ) — t h i s C o u r t d e f i n e d t h e c r u c i a l t e r m s " a u t h o r s " a n d " w r i t i n g s . " I n s o d o i n g , t h e C o u r t m a d e i t u n m i s t a k a b l y c l e a r t h a t t h e s e t e r m s p r e s u p p o s e a d e g r e e o f o r i g i n a l i t y .

      This Court defined the crucial terms authors and writings.

    8. T h e k e y t o r e s o l v i n g t h e t e n s i o n l i e s i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g w h y f a c t s a r e n o t c o p y r i g h t a b l e . T h e s i n e q u a n o n o f c o p y r i g h t i s o r i g i n a l i t y . T o q u a l i f y f o r c o p y r i g h t p r o t e c t i o n , a w o r k m u s t b e o r i g i n a l t o t h e a u t h o r . S e e H a r p e r & R o w , s u p r a , a t 5 4 7 - 5 4 9 . O r i g i n a l , a s t h e t e r m i s u s e d i n c o p y r i g h t , m e a n s o n l y t h a t t h e w o r k w a s i n d e p e n d e n t l y c r e a t e d b y t h e a u t h o r ( a s o p p o s e d t o c o p i e d f r o m o t h e r w o r k s ) , a n d t h a t i t p o s s e s s e s a t l e a s t s o m e m i n i m a l d e g r e e o f c r e a t i v i t y . 1 M . N i m m e r & D . N i m m e r , C o p y r i g h t § § 2 . 0 1 [ A ] , [ B ] ( 1 9 9 0 ) ( h e r e i n a f t e r N i m m e r ) . T o b e s u r e , t h e r e q u i s i t e l e v e l o f c r e a t i v i t y i s e x t r e m e l y l o w ; e v e n a s l i g h t a m o u n t w i l l s u f f i c e . T h e v a s t m a j o r i t y o f w o r k s m a k e t h e g r a d e q u i t e e a s i l y , a s t h e y p o s s e s s s o m e c r e a t i v e s p a r k , " n o m a t t e r h o w c r u d e , h u m b l e o r o b v i o u s " i t m i g h t b e . I d . , § 1 . 0 8 [ C ] [ 1 ] .

      The sine qua non of copyright is originality.