748 Matching Annotations
  1. Last 7 days
  2. Sep 2023
    1. Merchants have their waste book, Sudelbuch or Klitterbuch in German I believe, in which they list all that they have sold or bought every single day, everything as it comes and in no particular order. The waste book’s content is then transferred to the Journal in a more systematic fashion, and at last it ends up in the “Leidger [sic] at double entrance,” following the Italian way of bookkeeping. […] This is a process worthy of imitation by the learned.”(See Ulrich Joost’s analysis in this volume, 24-35.)

      I've seen this quote earlier today, but interesting seeing another source quote it.

    1. Fig. 5.1 An early bulletin board system. The entire interface was just plain text, and you had to type in commands to navigate to the different threads and read or reply with messages.

      This would be a killer introduction to computing I wonder if there's a demo of this anywhere

    1. .

      Power and connectivity in the delta frequency band increase during unconsciousness, possibly because thalamocortical neurons rapidly alternate between increased and decreased activity at that time. Functional connectivity of the brain may become less complex during unconsciousness due to this rapid alternation.

    2. .

      The current study evaluated the effects of TMS perturbation on functional connectivity during consciousness and unconsciousness. It was predicted that synchronization of oscillatory activity would be higher in consciousness than in unconsciousness (because of coordinated bistability being higher), and that local aspects of functional segregation would happen strongly during unconsciousness.

    3. Using this approach,a recent study found that spectral power in the delta band in posterior cortex was higher during reported uncon-sciousness than during reported consciousness 23 . Furthermore, using a within-state design in NREM sleep, ithas been found that TMS triggers a larger negative EEG peak amplitude during reported unconsciousness thanduring reported consciousness, indicating that differences in consciousness within the same physiological stateare related to local alterations in the cortical bistability of posterior brain regions 21.
    4. Previous studies have mostly compared wakefulness with sleep or anesthesia to evaluate features associatedwith the level of consciousness in healthy individuals 14,18,19 . However, such studies are confounded by otherchanges that occur across global state shifts, such as changes in the cardiovascular, respiratory, and neuromus-cular systems 20 . To address this issue, recent studies have measured the presence or absence of consciousnesswithin the same physiologically categorized state using a within-state paradigm21–23.
    5. .

      TMS can effectively probe functional connectivity differences between conscious and unconscious brain states. EEG studies have demonstrated that functional connectivity breaks down in unconscious states by showing that brain responses to TMS are less complex during said states.

    6. Together these resultssuggest that alterations in spectral and spatial characteristics of network properties in posterior brainareas, in particular decreased local (segregated) connectivity at low frequencies, is a potential indicatorof consciousness during sleep.
    7. The neuronal connectivity patterns that differentiate consciousness from unconsciousness remainunclear. Previous studies have demonstrated that effective connectivity, as assessed by transcranialmagnetic stimulation combined with electroencephalography (TMS–EEG), breaks down duringthe loss of consciousness.
  3. Aug 2023
    1. Texts are patient conversationalists always waiting for you to write your side of the conversation into the margin before they continue on with their side of the conversation. Sadly, too many readers (students especially) don't realize that there's a conversation going on.

      Link to:<br /> - https://hypothes.is/a/bBwyhkN3Ee6nQNPI5xmSnQ - https://hypothes.is/a/GvRApkN3Ee6LbBPqqX-A5Q

    2. Margins in books and on paper are blank spaces for "dark ideas" asking to be filled in while "reading with a pen in hand" so that the reader can have a conversation with the text.

      Link to https://hypothes.is/a/GvRApkN3Ee6LbBPqqX-A5Q on dark ideas

    3. Indigenous cultures can "see" dark constellations (example: the Australian emu in the sky) which are defined empty spaces which are explicitly visible.

      Using this concept, one could think of or use blank index cards in a zettelkasten or even the empty (negative) spaces between cards as "dark ideas" (potential ideas which need to be thought of and filled in).

      Link to: https://hypothes.is/a/FlqusEN1Ee6XEr_9StPUlA

  4. Jul 2023
    1. Si usted recibe un comentario, Hypothesis le enviará un correo electrónico notificándolo de dicha acción.

      Esto es perfecto; el débate que se genera a partir de nuestros comentarios es la mejor forma de interactuar en la academia.

    2. ya estamos en condiciones de cambiar nuestros hábitos de lectura y compartir nuestras lecturas con otros.

      Un punto muy interesante porque además de poder cambiar nuestros hábitos de lectura, el hecho de visualizar los comentarios y las ideas de otras personas, nos permite reflexionar sobre otros puntos de vista e incluso puede impactar nuestra opinión.

    1. Ideas cause ideas and help evolve new ideas. They interact with each other and with other mental forces in the same brain, in neighboring brains, and thanks to global communication, in far distant, foreign brains.

      Ideas as neurons/connecting to each other

    1. using OOP effectively is sufficiently complex to require a book-length treatment

      Is anyone working on this?

    1. An intriguing possibil-ity suggested by the authors of the study and extendedby Iacoboni (2006) is that the failure to modulate thedefault network in ASD is driven by differential cog-nitive mentation during rest, specifically a lack of self-referential processing.

      Wonder if the "lack of self-referential processing" would imply a weaker sense of self/ego? Or maybe it's more related to the lack of internal (particularly bodily and emotional) awareness?

  5. Jun 2023
  6. May 2023
    1. I know this is an old question but I just want to comment here: To any extent email addresses ARE case sensitive, most users would be "very unwise" to actively use an email address that requires capitals. They would soon stop using the address because they'd be missing a lot of their mail. (Unless they have a specific reason to make things difficult, and they expect mail only from specific senders they know.) That's because imperfect humans as well as imperfect software exist, (Surprise!) which will assume all email is lowercase, and for this reason these humans and software will send messages using a "lower cased version" of the address regardless of how it was provided to them. If the recipient is unable to receive such messages, it won't be long before they notice they're missing a lot, and switch to a lowercase-only email address, or get their server set up to be case-insensitive.
    1. Write down all these slender ideas. It is surprising how often one sentence, jotted in a notebook, leads immediately to a second sentence. A plot can develop as you write notes. Close the notebook and think about it for a few days — and then presto! you’re ready to write a short story. — Patricia Highsmith: Her Diaries and Notebooks

      quote is from Highsmith's Plotting and Writing Suspense Fiction

      I love the concept of "slender ideas" as small, fleeting notes which might accumulate into something if written down. In saying "Close the notebook and think about it for a few days" Patricia Highsmith seems to be suggesting that one engage in diffuse thinking, passive digesting, or mulling rather than active or proactive thinking.

      She also invokes the magic word "presto!" (which she exclaims) as if to indicate that magically the difficult work of writing is somehow no longer difficult. Many writers seem to indicate that this is a phenomenon, but never seem to put their finger on the mechanism of why it happens. Some seems to stem from the passive digestion over days with diffuse thinking, with portions may also stem from not starting from a blank page and having some material to work against instead of a vacuum.

      From Patricia Highsmith: Her Diaries and Notebooks: 1941-1995 (Swiss Literary Archives)

  7. Apr 2023
    1. My biggest realization recently is to do whatever the opposite of atomicity is.

      Too many go too deep into the idea of "atomic notes" without either questioning or realizing their use case. What is your purpose in having atomic notes? Most writing about them online talk about the theoretical without addressing the underlying "why".

      They're great for capturing things on the go and having the ability to re-arrange and reuse them into much larger works. Often once you've used them a few times, they're less useful, specially for the average person. (Of course it's another matter if you're an academic researcher, they're probably your bread and butter.) For the beekeepers of the world who need some quick tidbits which they use frequently, then keeping them in a larger outlined document or file is really more than enough. Of course, if you're creating some longer book-length treatise on beekeeping, then it can be incredibly helpful to have them at atomic length.

      There's a spectrum from the small atomic note to the longer length file (or even book). Ask yourself, "what's your goal in having one or the other, or something in between?" They're tools, choose the best one for your needs.

    1. .

      The stress and responsibilities of reintegrating into society are especially challenging for dually diagnosed persons, as many of them lack the interpersonal and life skills to do so. It is therefore important for mental healthcare professionals to assist them in developing these skills.

    2. .

      Dually-diagnosed persons may have an especially difficult time avoiding drug use due to lack of satisfying activities and relationships in their lives, further emphasizing the importance of providing them with opportunities to engaging in enjoyable activities relationships in the context of treatment.

    3. .

      Many participants reported relapsing due to negative emotional states or to self-medicate for psychiatric conditions.

    4. .

      Relapse was common among participants, and boredom was one of the most frequently cited reasons for participant relapse. It is therefore important for dually-diagnosed persons to engage in structured social and recreational activities as part of their SUD treatment. The study was unable to determine how much of a role physical cravings play in the desire of dually-diagnosed individuals to use substances.

    1. .

      Implications of these findings are that preventative measures regarding substance use should be implemented in the ASD population, and that comprehensive psychiatric examinations should be done in individuals with ADHD, ID, and ASD to determine what SUD treatment methods are most effective for each. Another implication is that attempts to treat SUD in ASD should consider vulnerabilities of first degree family members.

    2. We aimed to investigate the risk of substance use-relatedproblems in ASD. We also tested if any association betweenASD and substance use-related problems could be related tocomorbidity with ADHD or intellectual disability (ID). Toelucidate if shared familial factors underlie both ASD andsubstance use-related problems, we examined the pattern ofsubstance use-related problems also among unaffected rela-tives of individuals with ASD.
    3. .

      The study was limited in that it was not able to determine whether shared familial background between ASD and substance use-related problems was due to genetic or environmental factors, and in that it did not differentiate between different forms of autism (although the DSM-5 does not distinguish between types of autism).

    4. In other words, register-based stud-ies are likely to underestimate the absolute prevalence ofsubstance use disorder since users not in contact with thetreatment system are not taken into account (EMCDDA2004).
    5. Second, we could stratify our analysis on comorbidADHD and ID only when those disorders were diagnosed,but it impossible to rule out that patients with seemingly“pure” ASD have undiagnosed ID, ADHD, or subthresh-old ADHD-symptoms involving substance use-relatedproblems
    6. .

      The study may have been biased in that it targeted populations which were more likely to have substance-use related problems in addition to ASD. However, it also found the same results in populations that weren't as likely to have substance-use related problems in addition to ASD.

    7. Strengths include the large scale population-based design,prospectively collected data from nationwide registries,stratification by comorbid disorders, statistical control forsocio-demographic confounders, and analysis of familialaggregation data from relatives. Nevertheless, some limita-tions deserve comments.
    8. .

      Non-autistic relatives of autistic probands were at an increased risk for substance use-related problems. This correlation provides evidence for shared familiar liability regardless of ASD diagnosis. There are several possible explanations: that ASD and substance use-related problems share genetic risk variants, that parental SUD increases rates of mutations involved in ASD due to teratogenic effects of substances, or that associations between ASD and substance use-related problems are caused by shared environmental factors.

    9. We can only speculate that the same familial factors maybe causal in substance use-related problems among ASDprobands may lead also to higher risks of substance-relateddeath among their non-ASD relatives.
    10. As a result, it turned out that patients with ASD only andASD with ADHD are actually on comparable risks of sub-stance use-related problems (OR 1.6 vs. 1.9) and previouslydescribed extremely high risk in patents with ASD andADHD seems to be due diagnostic biases.
  8. Mar 2023
    1. Or, did you ever see a dog with a marrowbone in his mouth,—the beast of all other, says Plato, lib. 2, de Republica, the most philosophical? If you have seen him, you might have remarked with what devotion and circumspectness he wards and watcheth it: with what care he keeps it: how fervently he holds it: how prudently he gobbets it: with what affection he breaks it: and with what diligence he sucks it. To what end all this? What moveth him to take all these pains? What are the hopes of his labour? What doth he expect to reap thereby? Nothing but a little marrow

      The description of this scene is insinuating on the importance of the little things which I believe is what the author was trying to convey when asking such questions to seeing a dog with a bone. He even refers to Plato at one point who was known as a philosophical speaker who was wise in such ideas. "Plato says that true and reliable knowledge rests only with those who can comprehend the true reality behind the world of everyday experience." (Macintosh) Platos theory of forms suggested that there is a different reality to everything for each person. That would insinuate that for a dog, that bone is big thing worth his time, while as humans, we see the dog with his bone and think "why bother?".

    1. In the fall of 2015, she assigned students to write chapter introductions and translate some texts into modern English.

      Perhaps of interest here, would not be a specific OER text, but an OER zettelkasten or card index that indexes a variety of potential public domain or open resources, articles, pieces, primary documents, or other short readings which could then be aggregated and tagged to allow for a teacher or student to create their own personalized OER text for a particular area of work.

      If done well, a professor might then pick and choose from a wide variety of resources to build their own reader to highlight or supplement the material they're teaching. This could allow a wider variety of thinking and interlinking of ideas. With such a regiment, teachers are less likely to become bored with their material and might help to actively create new ideas and research lines as they teach.

      Students could then be tasked with and guided to creating a level of cohesiveness to their readings as they progress rather than being served up a pre-prepared meal with a layer of preconceived notions and frameworks imposed upon the text by a single voice.

      This could encourage students to develop their own voices as well as to look at materials more critically as they proceed rather than being spoon fed calcified ideas.

  9. Feb 2023
    1. The way to get new ideas is to notice anomalies: what seems strange, or missing, or broken? You can see anomalies in everyday life (much of standup comedy is based on this), but the best place to look for them is at the frontiers of knowledge.Knowledge grows fractally. From a distance its edges look smooth, but when you learn enough to get close to one, you'll notice it's full of gaps. These gaps will seem obvious; it will seem inexplicable that no one has tried x or wondered about y. In the best case, exploring such gaps yields whole new fractal buds.

      Way to get new ideas

    1. .

      In the study, the three most commonly cited strategies to stop substance use were 12-step meetings, formal treatment, and quitting "cold turkey." The effectiveness of formal treatment has been well-documented for both dual-diagnosed and single-diagnosed persons. While 12-step programs have been found to be effective for single-diagnosed persons, the effectiveness of 12-step for dually-diagnosed persons has been under-researched. Quitting drugs "cold turkey" has been documented in both dual-diagnosed and single-diagnosed drug users, but is much less common.

    2. .

      In this study, one of the most frequent motivations to cease substance use was the negative consequences of substance use. Dually diagnosed substance users often consider only short term consequences of substance use, and so do not take them into consideration when using substances. Over time, however, the long term consequences of substance use become bad enough that even dually diagnosed people curb or decrease their substance use.

    3. .

      Participants usually started using substances to "fit in" with peers during adolescence. It may be the case that mentally ill adolescents have an especially strong need to fit, since being mentally ill may cause them to feel alienated from their peers. It has been suggested that they seek out drugs because of this, and often find belonging in drug-related social networks where people are more accepting of differences.

    4. .

      It is additionally important to investigate reasons for wanting to stop substance use and resources used to attain abstinence in dually-diagnosed individuals, for the purpose of designing more effective interventions in this population. However, this area of study has also been under-researched.

    5. .

      While the biological and pharmacological factors impacting dual diagnosis have been well investigated, the psychosocial factors impacting it (including substance users' stated reasons for substance use) have not. Following Fishbein's theory of reasoned action, it has been proposed that substance users' personal beliefs about why they use substances may largely determine their substance use behaviors. In particular, dually-diagnosed peoples' perception of the interplay between SMI and SUD may play a major role in their substance use, but this area of study is under-researched.

    6. 1. to examine stated reasons for initiation of andrelapse to substance use,2. to examine reasons and strategies used for quit-ting, and3. to explore the perceived association betweensubstance use and mental illness among a largesample of persons with co-occurring SMI andSUD.
    7. The aims of this articleare
    8. Fishbein’s(1980) theory of reasoned action postulates that be-havior is based on attitudes that, in turn, are based onpersonal beliefs. Beliefs rest in large part on what islearnt and experienced; in particular, beliefs that arebased on personal experience have been found tohave a stronger influence in the formation of attitudesthan information gained in other ways and to betterpredict later behavior (Fazio & Zanna, 1981).
    9. The supersensitivity model, wherebybiological vulnerability due to psychiatric disorderresults in sensitivity to small amounts of alcoholand drugs, leading to substance misuse, has alsoreceived some support (e.g., Lieberman, Kane, &Alvir, 1987).
    10. .

      Several models have been proposed to explain the high rate of comorbidity between SUDs and SMIs. These include family history, ASPD, and the super-sensitivity model. The self-medication model states that specific substances are used to alleviate certain painful affects, but it is not empirically supported. The "alleviation of dysphoria" model is empirically supported, and states that people with SMIs are prone to dysphoric states that predispose them to drug use, which results in them becoming addicted to drugs.

    11. .

      It is important to better understand causes of substance use in individuals with co-occurring SUDs and SMIs, as the reasons for which they use substances may radically differ from the reasons for which individuals with only SUDs use substances. Increasing our understanding in this area will be important for increasing the effectiveness of therapeutic interventions.

    12. .

      SUDs have a high rate of co-occurrence with SMIs (severe mental illnesses). Individuals with co-occurring SUD and SMI have a heightened vulnerability to medical, legal, social, and financial problems. Such problems tend to decrease when said individuals attain abstinence and engage in treatment interventions.

    13. The etiology of substance use among persons with severe mental illness remains unclear. Thisstudy investigates stated reasons for substance use among persons in recovery from co-occurringdisorders of serious mental illness and substance abuse and dependence. The desire to fit in withpeers played a key role in the initiation of substance use; boredom, loneliness, temptations to use,and stress were cited most as relapse triggers.
    1. .

      There are numerous potential reasons as to why it was historically believed that ASD is a protective factor against substance use-related problems. One likely explanation is that substance use in general was less common in the past, so those with ASD were less likely to have substance use-related problems, and research at the time reflected this. Another explanation is that past diagnostic criteria for ASD was narrow and excluded individuals with ASD and substance use-related problems, which also would have been reflected by research at the time.

    2. Increased risk of substance use-related problems seemsto contradict global negative attitudes towards psychoac-tive substances observed among ASD patients (Ramos etal. 2013). Individuals with ASD may find them helpful toreduce tension and enhance social skills more often thannon-ASD controls do (Cludius et al. 2013).
    3. Despite limited and ambiguous empirical data,substance use-related problems have been assumed to berare among patients with autism spectrum disorders (ASD).
    4. .

      It is widely believed by experts that ASD is not a risk factor for substance use-related problems, but many of the studies that support this assertion compared substance use in people with ASD to substance use in people with other psychiatric conditions that predispose substance use, so their results may have been biased. Another more recent study examined whether ASD traits predispose substance use, but not whether ASD diagnoses does.

    5. We found that ASD was associated with increased risk fora range of substance use-related problems, and the familydata suggested that this was due to shared liability betweenASD and substance use-related problems between relatives.
    6. We conclude that ASD is arisk factor for substance use-related problems. The elevatedrisks among relatives of probands with ASD suggest sharedfamilial (genetic and/or shared environmental) liability.
    7. .

      Although substance use is thought to be rare in people with ASD, it has been documented in a significant percentage of that population (19-30%). This may be because there is a high rate of comorbidity between ASD and ADHD, which is linked to substance use. While older studies of clinical populations suggest that ADHD is the risk factor underlying increased substance use in people with ASD, newer studies of non-clinical populations suggest that ASD alone could be a risk factor for increased substance use.



    1. One can find utility in asking questions of their own note box, but why not also leverage the utility of a broader audience asking questions of it as well?!

      One of the values of social media is that it can allow you to practice or rehearse the potential value of ideas and potentially getting useful feedback on individual ideas which you may be aggregating into larger works.

    1. how was I ever able to organise my thoughts without atomising them

      Yes! This is the killer feature of TiddlyWiki. I think of it as some kind of intrinsic reward associated with cognitive outsourcing/offloading. Don't hear this mentioned often.

      These "atoms" also seem like the fruit of the insight process, e.g. the moment when Leo Szilard conceived nuclear fission whilst waiting to cross the road near Russell Square. Oh! I just noticed the atom pun! Entirely accidental.

      The "atomising" aspect is also key to making "molecules".

  10. Jan 2023
    1. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NPqjgN-pNDw

      When did the switch in commonplace book framing did the idea of "second brain" hit? (This may be the first time I've seen it personally. Does it appear in other places?) Sift through r/commonplace books to see if there are mentions there.

      By keeping one's commonplace in an analog form, it forces a greater level of intentionality because it's harder to excerpt material by hand. Doing this requires greater work than arbitrarily excerpting almost everything digitally. Manual provides a higher bar of value and edits out the lower value material.

    1. Expansion is led by focus. By taking time to edit, carve up, and refactor our notes, we put focus on ideas. This starts the Great Wheel of Positive Feedback. All hail to the Great Wheel of Positive Feedback.

      How can we better thing of card indexes as positive feedback mechanisms? Will describes it as the "Great Wheel of Positive Feedback" which reminds me a bit of flywheels for storing energy for later use.

  11. Dec 2022
    1. Your story is familiar to many and I was in the same position as you until recently. It’s an example of people believing in the Collector’s Fallacy: https://zettelkasten.de/posts/collectors-fallacy/I’d recommend that article as a good reason for others to adopt the active approach of ZK, rather than the passive approach of collecting articles and mostly not reading them.

      What does the collector's fallacy really relate to?

      If you're collecting material you're not processing and either linking/tagging for future active use, then yes, it's definitely a fallacy. Collecting articles and tidbits that you don't read and don't use, at least in the moment is a massive waste.

      But if, instead, you're collecting tidbits of context and examples over time, say like historian Keith Thomas (? double check this reference, but I think it was him in his essay Working Methods (LRB, 2010)) describes, and then linking them into some sort of larger thesis or puzzling out some pattern between and amongst those examples, then you're collecting correctly and productively.

    1. A provocation is a statement that we know is wrong or impossible but used to create new ideas.

      The idea of expressing the worst possible idea first in brainstorming can often often be helpful.

      Example: when brainstorming restaurant suggestions for a group, suggest McDonalds first to subtly pressure people to create better ideas to prevent the lowest common denominator from winning.

    1. Labs can be a useful piece of the innovation puzzle if managers adopt a systems-thinking strategy, thinking more about their role within the wider government, department or company. They need to shape a culture within the whole organisation that is more open to new ideas, and this could be addressed by focusing more on communication.

      This seems to be the key element here: systems-thinking approach and thinking about our role within our departments.

    1. I came to this page after reading the "About the Author (The Second Right Answer)" page of Roger von Oech's "A Whack on the Side of the Head: How You Can Be More Creative" which was mentioned by Kevin Bowers in his discussion with John Vervaeke titled "Principles & Methods for Achieving a Flow State | Voices w/ Vervaeke | John Vervaeke & Kevin Bowers".

      von Oech stated that

      I wrote my doctoral dissertation on the twentieth century German philosopher Ernst Cassirer, the last man to know everything. From him, I learned that it's good to be a generalist, and that looking at the Big Picture helps to keep you flexible.

      This was a surprising reference since Bowers stated that the book was written for helping entrepreneurs become more creative; the book seems more widely applicable based on the examples and exercises given in the first 20 pages.

      Cassirer appears to bridge between the continental and analytic traditions in philosophy. Cassirer's touching on mathematics, aesthetics, and ethics reminds me of - John Vervaeke's work - ie, the process of relevance realization and his neo platonic, transformational reading of ancient texts - Forrest Landry work - ie, his magnum opus "An Immanent Metaphysics" which he purports to be pointing to a foundation between ontology, epistemology, and ethics. Recently, IDM (Immanent Domain Metaphysics) made more sense to me when I attempted to translat the 3 axioms and 3 modalities into language from category theory

      The following seem important and related somehow: 1. the symbolic process 2. the process of abstraction 3. the process of representation

      Maybe these are related to the means by which one can can transcend their current self? ie, is it through particular symbolic practices that one can more easily shed one identity and acquire another?

      Also, are 1., 2., and 3. different aspects of the same thing/event?

    1. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Q8Xaw72ESdA

      According to researcher Danny Hatcher, the "Feynman Technique" was coined by Scott H. Young in the August 22, 2011 YouTube video Learn Faster with The Feynman Technique and the subsequent 2022-09-01 article Learn Faster with Feynman Technique, ostensibly in a summarization of Gleick, James (1992). Genius: The Life and Science of Richard Feynman. Pantheon Books. ISBN 0-679-40836-3. OCLC 243743850.

      The frequently quoted Einstein that accompanies many instances of the Feynman Technique is also wrong and not said by Einstein.

      The root Einstein quote, is apparently as follows:

      that all physical theories, their mathematical expressions apart ought to lend themselves to so simple a description 'that even a child could understand them.' —Ronald W. Clark, p418 of Einstein: His Life and Times (1972)

    1. I’ve been using this phrase “the next most useful thing” as a guiding light for my consulting work - I’m obsessed with being useful not just right. I’ve always rejected the fancy presentation in favor of the next most useful thing, and I simply took my eye off the ball with this one. I’m not even sure the client views this project as a real disappointment, there was still some value in it, but I’m mad at myself personally for this one. A good reminder not to take your eye off the ball. And to push your clients beyond what they tell you the right answer is.

      So often when developing ideas and solutions, it can be easy to get caught up with the ideal, rather than coming up with an idea that responds to the situation at hand.

  12. Nov 2022
    1. In the same category of integrating h. into my pkm workflows, falls the interaction between h. and Zotero, especially now that Zotero has its own storage of annotations of PDFs in my library. It might be of interest to be able to share those annotations, for a more complete overview of what I’m annotating. Either directly from Zotero, or by way of my notes in Obsidian (Zotero annotatins end up there in the end)

      I've been thinking about this exact same flow. Given that I'm mostly annotating scientific papers I got from open access journals I was wondering whether there might be some way to syndicate my zotero annotations back to h via a script.

    1. http://www.cs.ucr.edu/~eamonn/meaningless.pdf Paper that argues cluster time series subsequences is "meaningless". tl;dr: radically different distributions end up converging to translations of basic sine or trig functions. Wonder if constructing a simplicial complex does anything?

      Note that one researcher changed the algorithm to produce potentially meaningful results

    1. He has a warehouse of notecards with ideas and stories and quotes and facts and bits of research, which get pulled and pieced together then proofread and revised and trimmed and inspected and packaged and then shipped.

      While the ancients thought of the commonplace as a storehouse of value or a treasury, modern knowledge workers and content creators might analogize it to a factory where one stores up ideas in a warehouse space where they can be easily accessed, put into a production line where those ideas can be assembled, revised, proofread, and then package and distributed to consumers (readers).


  13. Oct 2022
    1. In his delightful autobiography, Memories Migrating, the late John Burrow records his perplexities when this injunction was conveyed to him by his graduate supervisor, George Kitson Clark: ‘I brooded on this. What was a fact? And what made it one fact? Surely most facts were compound. How would I know when I had reached bedrock, the ultimate, unsplittable atomic fact?’

      Historian John Burrow brooded over the definition of the atomicity of an idea in his autobiography Memories Migrating (2009).

      Individual facts link together into small networks to create context for each other.

    1. (Note, by contrast, how much of the literature refers to the design orcreation of new groups (e.g. Goodman and Associates 1988). From our viewpoint, thecentral questions more involve the detection and support of emergent or existingcommunities.

      Research ideas!

    1. Goutor defines self-help notes as notes which one would use to refresh their memory about what remains to be done or researched, problems that remain to be solved, or information which is needed to be researched or found. (p26) These are akin in some sense to what I call "open questions". He also indicates that these notes might be triggered by one's daily activities or occasional musings which relate to one's project but occur outside of its active pursuit. In this sense, they have a similar feel to the idea of Ahrens' fleeting notes, but in Goutor's practice they aren't defined as occurring while one is doing active reading or research.

      He suggests that one keeps these notes in a separate area so that they might be systematically and regularly visited for review, further research, or answering as the opportunities to do so present themselves. Once the questions have been answered and appropriate notes updated or added, these self-help notes can be discarded.

    1. " f r i n g e - t h o u g h t s "

      C. Wright Mills' idea of "fringe-thoughts" is similar to Ahrens framing of "fleeting notes".

    1. An example of this comes from President Lyndon Johnson. As he explainedto an aide in 1960, “I’ll tell you what’s at the bottom of it. If you can convincethe lowest white man that he’s better than the best colored man, he won’t noticeyou picking his pocket. Hell, give him somebody to look down on, and he’llempty his pockets for you.”25
      1. Robert Dalleck, Lone Star Rising: Lyndon Johnson and His Time, 1908–1960 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1991), p. 584.



  14. Sep 2022
    1. In writing my dissertation and working on my first book, I used an index card system, characterized by the "one fact, one card" maxim, made popular by Beatrice Webb.

      Manfred Keuhn indicates that Webb popularized the idea of "one fact, one card", (and perhaps she may have helped re-popularize the idea in the 20th century) but Konrad Gessner (Pandectarum sive Partitionum Universalium. Zurich: Christoph Froschauer, 1548) had already advised "A new line should be used for every idea." Since Gessner then says that each line was to be cut up into an individual slip, the ideas are equivalent.

      link to: https://hypothes.is/a/uEboYlOwEeykkotYs594LA

    1. “Substantially all ideas are second-hand, consciously and unconsciously drawn from a million outside sources, and daily use by the garnerer with a pride and satisfaction born of the superstition that he originated them.”Mark Twain
    1. https://lu.ma/w6c1b9cd

      [[Anne-Laure Le Cunff & Nick Milo - How can we do Combinational Creativity]]


      Date: [[2022-09-06]]<br /> Time: 9:00 - 10:00 AM<br /> Host: [[Nick Milo]]<br /> Location / Platform: #Zoom<br /> URL: https://lu.ma/w6c1b9cd<br /> Calendar: link <br /> Parent event: [[LYT Conference 2]]<br /> Subject(s): [[combinational creativity]]

      To Do / Follow up

      • [ ] Clean up notes
      • [ ] Post video link when available (@2022-09-11)





      generational effect

      Silent muses which resulted in drugs, alcohol as chemical muses.

      All creativity is combinational in nature. - A-L L C

      mash-ups are a tacit form of combinatorial creativity

      Methods: - chaining<br /> - clustering (what do things have in common? eg: Cities and living organisms have in common?)<br /> - c...

      Peter Wohlleben is the author of “hidden life of trees”

      CMAPT tools https://cmap.ihmc.us/

      mind mapping

      Metaphor theory is apparently a "thing" follow up on this to see what the work/research looks like

      I put the following into the chat/Q&A:

      The phrase combinatorial creativity seems to stem from this 2014 article: https://fs.blog/networked-knowledge-and-combinatorial-creativity/, the ideas go back much further obviously, often with different names across cultures. Matt Ridley describes it as "ideas have sex" https://www.ted.com/talks/matt_ridley_when_ideas_have_sex; Raymond Llull - Llullan combinatorial arts; Niklas Luhmann - linked zettels; Marshall Kirkpatrick - "triangle thinking" - Dan Pink - "symphonic thinking" are some others.

      For those who really want to blow their minds on how not new some of these ideas are, try out Margo Neale and Lynne Kelly's book Songlines: The Power and Promise which describes songlines which were indigenous methods for memory (note taking for oral cultures) and created "combinatorial creativity" for peoples in modern day Australia going back 65,000 years.

      Side benefit of this work:

      "You'll be a lot more fun at dinner parties." -Anne-Laure

      Improv's "yes and" concept is a means of forcing creativity.

      Originality is undetected plagiarism - Gish? English writer 9:41 AM quote; source?

      Me: "Play off of [that]" is a command to encourage combintorial creativity. In music one might say "riff off"...

      Chat log

      none available

    2. Anne-Laure Le Cunff & Nick Milo: How can we do Combinational Creativity?

      Interesting to see people talking about these ideas in these spaces. It's too often a missed piece of the puzzle, and is really one of the most valuable parts.

      What was the origin of the phrase "combinatorial creativity"? Was if Farnam Street in 2014 https://fs.blog/networked-knowledge-and-combinatorial-creativity/

      Some of Anne-Laure Le Cunff's discussion of this in the past: - Building a Creativity Inbox: Anne-Laure Le Cunff & David Perell https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MTSAuSUxuj0 (taped: June 23, 2020; released: Jun 25, 2020) where the phrase is uased as well as "idea sex" - Combinational creativity: the myth of originality https://nesslabs.com/combinational-creativity (see https://twitter.com/anthilemoon/status/1275820127058120705)

  15. Aug 2022
    1. day-length profoundly affects growth responses with stronger impact on root elongation under SD conditions

      SD has a stronger impact on root elongation...

    1. Apart from a higher probability to retrieve particular note sheets, that advantage lies in thecircumstance that notes having a similar keyword will, as the box grows, find themselves atthe same location because of the alphabetical structure. That means not only an automaticcollection of content, but also a comparative review of those related note sheets, which inturn leads to new thoughts basd on the relation between the note sheets with identicalkeywords
    1. We might learn something new, if we understood both sides.

      Allosso is using "both sides" in a broadly journalistic fashion the way it had traditionally meant in the mid to late 21st century until Donald J. Trump's overtly racist comment on Aug. 15, 2017 "you also had people that were very fine people, on both sides." following the Charlottesville, VA protests.

      Perhaps it might be useful if people quit using the "both sides" as if there were only two perspectives on an issue (for or against), when in reality there is often a spectrum of thoughts and feelings, not all mutually exclusive, about issues?

    1. Annotate Books has added a 1.8-inch ruled margin on every page. The ample space lets you to write your thoughts, expanding your understanding of the text. This edition brings an end to does convoluted, parallel notes, made on minute spaces. Never again fail to understand your brilliant ideas, when you go back and review the text.

      This is what we want to see!! The publishing company Annotate Books is republishing classic texts with a roomier 1.8" ruled margin on every page to make it easier to annotate texts.

      It reminds me about the idea of having print-on-demand interleaved books. Why not have print-on-demand books which have wider than usual margins either with or without lines/grids/dots for easier note taking and marginalia?

      Link to: https://hypothes.is/a/C5WcYFhsEeyLyFeV9leIzw

    1. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Y07l5AsWEUs

      I really love something about the phrase "get them [ideas] into a form that students can work with them". There's a nice idea of play and coming to an understanding that I get from it. More teachers should frame their work like this.

    1. But commission member Kondratiuk, a heraldic expert who served as a military historian for the National Guard and US Army for more than four decades, said such objections are “a misreading of the heraldry.”“That’s the arm of God protecting the Commonwealth,” he said, referring to the upraised sword. “That symbol has been used in European heraldry for hundreds of years.”He added that the Native figure’s downward-facing arrow indicates “peaceful intent.”“The Native American on there is an homage to the Native Americans,” Kondratiuk said, adding he “voted with the pack” to see what recommendations the commission would produce. As for the motto: “That’s an allusion to the monarch,” he continued. “The Founding Fathers would have been very familiar with that.”

      Example of how older traditions have passed from memory and are now re-read (mis-read) in new contexts.

    2. Designed by illustrator Edmund Garrett in 1898, the current seal draws on the original seal of the Massachusetts Bay Colony, which featured a Native American man, naked but for some shrubbery about his groin, saying, “Come over and help us.”
    1. Historical Hypermedia: An Alternative History of the Semantic Web and Web 2.0 and Implications for e-Research. .mp3. Berkeley School of Information Regents’ Lecture. UC Berkeley School of Information, 2010. https://archive.org/details/podcast_uc-berkeley-school-informat_historical-hypermedia-an-alte_1000088371512. archive.org.



      headshot of Charles van den Heuvel

      Interface as Thing - book on Paul Otlet (not released, though he said he was working on it)

      • W. Boyd Rayward 1994 expert on Otlet
      • Otlet on annotation, visualization, of text
      • TBL married internet and hypertext (ideas have sex)
      • V. Bush As We May Think - crosslinks between microfilms, not in a computer context
      • Ted Nelson 1965, hypermedia


      • Michael Buckland book about machine developed by Emanuel Goldberg antecedent to memex
      • Emanuel Goldberg and His Knowledge Machine: Information, Invention, and Political Forces (New Directions in Information Management) by Michael Buckland (Libraries Unlimited, (March 31, 2006)
      • Otlet and Goldsmith were precursors as well

      four figures in his research: - Patrick Gattis - biologist, architect, diagrams of knowledge, metaphorical use of architecture; classification - Paul Otlet, Brussels born - Wilhelm Ostwalt - nobel prize in chemistry - Otto Neurath, philosophher, designer of isotype

      Paul Otlet

      Otlet was interested in both the physical as well as the intangible aspects of the Mundaneum including as an idea, an institution, method, body of work, building, and as a network.<br /> (#t=1020)

      Early iPhone diagram?!?

      (roughly) armchair to do the things in the web of life (Nelson quote) (get full quote and source for use) (circa 19:30)

      compares Otlet to TBL

      Michael Buckland 1991 <s>internet of things</s> coinage - did I hear this correctly? https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Internet_of_things lists different coinages

      Turns out it was "information as thing"<br /> See: https://hypothes.is/a/kXIjaBaOEe2MEi8Fav6QsA

      sugane brierre and otlet<br /> "everything can be in a document"<br /> importance of evidence

      The idea of evidence implies a passiveness. For evidence to be useful then, one has to actively do something with it, use it for comparison or analysis with other facts, knowledge, or evidence for it to become useful.

      transformation of sound into writing<br /> movement of pieces at will to create a new combination of facts - combinatorial creativity idea here. (circa 27:30 and again at 29:00)<br /> not just efficiency but improvement and purification of humanity

      put things on system cards and put them into new orders<br /> breaking things down into smaller pieces, whether books or index cards....

      Otlet doesn't use the word interfaces, but makes these with language and annotations that existed at the time. (32:00)

      Otlet created diagrams and images to expand his ideas

      Otlet used octagonal index cards to create extra edges to connect them together by topic. This created more complex trees of knowledge beyond the four sides of standard index cards. (diagram referenced, but not contained in the lecture)

      Otlet is interested in the "materialization of knowledge": how to transfer idea into an object. (How does this related to mnemonic devices for daily use? How does it relate to broader material culture?)

      Otlet inspired by work of Herbert Spencer

      space an time are forms of thought, I hold myself that they are forms of things. (get full quote and source) from spencer influence of Plato's forms here?

      Otlet visualization of information (38:20)

      S. R. Ranganathan may have had these ideas about visualization too

      atomization of knowledge; atomist approach 19th century examples:S. R. Ranganathan, Wilson, Otlet, Richardson, (atomic notes are NOT new either...) (39:40)

      Otlet creates interfaces to the world - time with cyclic representation - space - moving cube along time and space axes as well as levels of detail - comparison to Ted Nelson and zoomable screens even though Ted Nelson didn't have screens, but simulated them in paper - globes

      Katie Berner - semantic web; claims that reporting a scholarly result won't be a paper, but a nugget of information that links to other portions of the network of knowledge.<br /> (so not just one's own system, but the global commons system)

      Mention of Open Annotation (Consortium) Collaboration:<br /> - Jane Hunter, University of Australia Brisbane & Queensland<br /> - Tim Cole, University of Urbana Champaign<br /> - Herbert Van de Sompel, Los Alamos National Laboratory annotations of various media<br /> see:<br /> - https://www.researchgate.net/publication/311366469_The_Open_Annotation_Collaboration_A_Data_Model_to_Support_Sharing_and_Interoperability_of_Scholarly_Annotations - http://www.openannotation.org/spec/core/20130205/index.html - http://www.openannotation.org/PhaseIII_Team.html

      trust must be put into the system for it to work

      coloration of the provenance of links goes back to Otlet (~52:00)

      Creativity is the friction of the attention space at the moments when the structural blocks are grinding against one another the hardest. —Randall Collins (1998) The sociology of philosophers. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press (p.76)

    1. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DJLDF6qZUX0

      The classic Reece's Peanut Butter Cups commercial (circa 1981) in which a boy and a girl run into each other on the street with the following exchange:

      Girl: Hey! You got your chocolate in my peanut butter. Boy: You got peanut butter on my chocolate.

      is a good example of the productive collision of ideas behind the concepts of "ideas have sex" or "combinatorial creativity".

  16. Jul 2022
    1. It is terrible to seehow a single unclear idea, a single formula without meaning, lurking in a young man's head, willsometimes act like an obstruction of inert matter in an artery, hindering the nutrition of the brain,and condemning its victim to pine away in the fullness of his intellectual vigor and in the midst ofintellectual plenty.



    1. Beyond the cards mentioned above, you should also capture any hard-to-classify thoughts, questions, and areas for further inquiry on separate cards. Regularly go through these to make sure that you are covering everything and that you don’t forget something.I consider these insurance cards because they won’t get lost in some notebook or scrap of paper, or email to oneself.

      Julius Reizen in reviewing over Umberto Eco's index card system in How to Write a Thesis, defines his own "insurance card" as one which contains "hard-to-classify thoughts, questions, and areas for further inquiry". These he would keep together so that they don't otherwise get lost in the variety of other locations one might keep them

      These might be akin to Ahrens' "fleeting notes" but are ones which may not easily or even immediately be converted in to "permanent notes" for one's zettelkasten. However, given their mission critical importance, they may be some of the most important cards in one's repository.

      link this to - idea of centralizing one's note taking practice to a single location

      Is this idea in Eco's book and Reizen is the one that gives it a name since some of the other categories have names? (examples: bibliographic index cards, reading index cards (aka literature notes), cards for themes, author index cards, quote index cards, idea index cards, connection cards). Were these "officially" named and categorized by Eco?

      May be worthwhile to create a grid of these naming systems and uses amongst some of the broader note taking methods. Where are they similar, where do they differ?

      Multi-search tools that have full access to multiple trusted data stores (ostensibly personal ones across notebooks, hard drives, social media services, etc.) could potentially solve the problem of needing to remember where you noted something.

      Currently, in the social media space especially, this is not a realized service.

    1. probefahrer · 7 hr. agoAre you familiar with Mark Granovetter‘s theory of weak ties?He used it in the sense of the value of weak social connections but I am pretty sure one could make a case for weak connections in a Zettelkasten as being very valuable

      Humanity is a zettelkasten in biological form.

      Our social ties (links) putting us into proximity with other humans over time creates a new links between us and our ideas, and slowly evolves new ideas over time. Those new ideas that win this evolutionary process are called innovation.

      The general statistical thermodynamics of this idea innovation process can be "heated up" by improving communication channels with those far away from us (think letters, telegraph, radio, television, internet, social media).

      This reaction can be further accelerated by actively permuting the ideas with respect to each other as suggested by Raymond Llull's combinatorial arts.

      motivating reference: Matt Ridley in The Rational Optimist

      link to: - Mark Granovetter and weak ties - life of x

  17. Jun 2022
    1. To address these limitations, in Experiment 1, we requiredparticipants to rate their confidence after each individual response(rather than after each pair of responses).
    2. In Experiment 4, we manipulated participants’ confidence priorto administration of the MRT. All participants first completed aline judgment task that was intentionally difficult, so that par-ticipants would be unable to gauge their performance.
    3. Upon completion of the line judgment task, participants wererandomly informed that their performance on the line judgmenttask was either above average (‘‘high confidence’’condition) orbelow average (‘‘low confidence’’ condition).
    4. Ifconfidence mediates mental rotation performance, then partic-ipants in the high confidence condition should outperform theircounterparts in the low confidence condition.
    5. Cooke-Simpson and Voyer (2007) provided tentative evi-dence that confidence predicted MRT performance, but thatstudy had several critical limitations.
    6. correlation was comparable to that observed in prior studies(r = ?.69; Cooke-Simpson & Voyer, 2007).
    7. As illustrated in Fig. 2, confidence predicted accuracy acrossboth sexes, r(67) = ?.56, p\.001, and the strength of this
    8. Thisresult replicates the general pattern observed in Experiment 1(Fig. 3), and indicates that both males’ and females’ confi-dence was indeed calibrated to their performance.
    9. Experiment3 therefore supported the hypothesis that mental rotation ismediated by confidence.
    10. Experiment 3 provided a further test of whether the sex differencein performance is better explained by confidence or by omissions.
    11. Results are summarized in Table 1. The sex difference in accu-racy was replicated in the omission condition but not in the com-mission condition.
    12. Thus, the sex difference in mental rotationwas attributable to confidence rather than omissions.
    13. mediates mental rotation. If confidence was unrelated to mentalrotation, then the sex difference should be equivalent acrossgroups (i.e., no interaction should occur).
    14. Critically, an inter-action in either direction would suggest that confidence
    15. .

      It could also be the case that confidence would have more of an effect on the commission group than the omission group, which would exacerbate the sex difference in MRT performance.

    16. .

      There were two conditions in this experiment, one in which participants could omit trials at their discretion (omission) and one in which they had to respond to every trial (commission). The idea here was that confidence would have less of an effect on the commission group than the omission group, which would eliminate the sex difference in MRT performance.

    17. In Experiment 2, we sought to attenuate the sex difference inmental rotation performance by rendering confidence irrelevantto the task.
    18. Fig. 4

      Shows the mediating relationships between sex, confidence, and mental rotation, via Baron and Kenny's regression method for simple mediation.

      Sex negatively predicted both confidence rating and mental rotation score, whereas confidence positively predicted mental rotation score. Confidence seems to mediate the sex difference in MRT performance.

    19. In conclusion, Experiment 1 corroborated the finding thatconfidence predicted mental rotation performance both acrossand within sexes (Cooke-Simpson & Voyer, 2007). Experiment1 further demonstrated, for the first time, that confidence pre-dicted mental rotation performance within individuals: Partic-ipants were more accurate on trials for which they were moreconfident. These results thus provide the most precise evidenceto date of the relation between confidence and mental rotation.Finally, Experiment 1 also provided the first evidence of thedirection of this relationship: Mediation analyses revealed thatconfidence mediated the sex difference in mental rotation per-formance whereas mental rotation performance did not mediatethe sex difference in confidence.
    20. If confidence mediates mental rotation performance,then confidence ought to predict accuracy on the MRT acrosssexes, within each sex, and possibly even within individuals.
    21. In Experiment 1, we tested whether confidence predicted men-tal rotation performance between sexes, within each sex, andwithin individuals.
    22. Thus, mental rotation performance did notmediate the sex difference in confidence, but rather confidencestrongly mediated the sex difference in mental rotation per-formance.
    23. So, together, Figs. 2 and 3 reveal thatmales and females were similarly successful at calibrating theirconfidence to their accuracy (Fig. 3), though males tendedtoward the upper part of the distribution on both confidence andaccuracy (Fig. 2).
    24. As expected, an independent samples t-test revealed that males(M = 5.61, SD = 1.02) were more confident than females (M =4.62, SD = 1.41), d = .74, t(65) = 3.26, p\.01.
    25. Specifically, if confidence medi-ates mental rotation, then (1) confidence should predict mentalrotation scores not only between sexes, but also within sexes, (2)rendering confidence irrelevant to the task should attenuate thesex difference, and (3) manipulating participants’ confidenceshould affect their mental rotation performance.
    26. .

      Women provide fewer responses to the MRT than men, which means that they deliberately abstain from responding to some MRT questions. This could indicate that women are less confident of their MRT responses than men are.

    27. Because confidence appears tobe an important component of the MRT, it stands as a plausiblemediator of performance.
    28. The most common measure of mental rotation performanceis the Mental Rotations Test (MRT; Vandenberg & Kuse, 1978),which is based on the 3-dimensional block figures introduced byShepard and Metzler (1971) and updated by Peters et al. (1995).
    29. .

      Evidence from previous research indicates that confidence mediates performance on cognitive tasks, but the relationship between confidence and spatial ability is under studied and not well understood.

    30. Preliminary evidence suggests that confidence might indeedunderlie the sex difference in mental rotation.
    31. .

      Multiple studies have found that stereotype threat (especially for sex stereotypes) can affect performance on cognitive tasks by influencing confidence.

    32. We therefore tested whether confidence mediatedmental rotation performance.
    33. basic cognitive skills, such as attention, memory, and judgment(e.g., Schmader et al., 2008), which ultimately would affectperformance.
    34. The beliefthat one (or one’s social group) is skilled or poor at a given taskmay well affect one’s confidence when approaching that taskand this effect on confidence may have cascading effects on
    35. Much of the research on gender role and sex stereotype effectsassumes confidence as a potential cognitive mechanism bywhich those social factors exert their effect.
    36. So, in summary, beliefs about and aware-ness of sex stereotypes are both related to the sex difference inmental rotation performance. But how exactly might sex ste-reotypes affect performance?
    37. Mental rotation performance may also be affected by mereawareness of, rather than belief in, the stereotype that men aresuperior to women on spatial tasks.
    38. .

      Research has suggested that women who hold the stereotypical belief that men are better than women at spatial tasks might perform worse on these spatial tasks as a result of this belief.

    39. Performance on spatialtasks thus is clearly related to gender role beliefs and traits.
    40. Gender role beliefs and traits may partially explain the sex dif-ference in mental rotation performance.
    41. Here, we examined whether one suchsociocognitive factor, namely participants’ confidence, contrib-uted to this sex difference in mental rotation performance.Although this presumed relation between confidence and men-tal rotation performance has received little empirical attention,related research on gender roles, sex stereotypes, and stereotypethreat provides a rich source of supportive evidence.
    42. .

      Research has reliably demonstrated that men perform better at the MRT than women do. It is unlikely that there is a purely biological explanation for this sex difference, and sociocognitive factors probably play a role in the sex difference.

    43. Given the complexity of the taskand the magnitude of the sex difference, it likely has multi-ple causes or mediators.
    44. Of all cognitive sex differences, the mental rotation of abstractfigures in 3-dimensional space is the most robust (Halpern, 2000;Hines, 2004; Linn & Petersen, 1985; Maccoby & Jacklin, 1974).
    45. Thus, confidence medi-ates the sex difference in mental rotation performance and hencethe sex difference appears to be a difference of performancerather than ability. Results are discussed in relation to otherpotential mediators and mechanisms, such as gender roles,sex stereotypes, spatial experience, rotation strategies, work-ing memory, and spatial attention.
    46. On tasks that require the mental rotation of 3-dimensional figures, males typically exhibit higher accuracythan females. Using the most common measure of mental rota-tion (i.e., the Mental Rotations Test), we investigated whetherindividual variability in confidence mediates this sex differ-ence in mental rotation performance.
    1. .

      Varying the amount of stimuli presented to the participants in the MRT could reveal sex differences as a result of women spending more time making sure that their MRT answers are correct than men do.

    2. Thus, the third approach to the issue of Sex differencesand the time factor in the MRT examined the sex differ-ence in a RT paradigm where only two mental rotationfigures were used.
    3. .

      A past study found evidence to support the assertion that women take more time than men do on the MRT because women spend extra time making sure that their answer is correct while men do not do this. This is an alternative explanation to women taking more time than men do on the MRT because they simply cannot solve spatial problems as fast as men can.

    4. For this reason, Study 2, which manipulatestime directly, compares sex differences under the stan-dard condition with sex differences which are observedwhen time is increased, but within limits.
    5. Here, we administered the MRT under identical con-ditions, but allowing two durations.
    6. .

      Large sample size allows for the examination of sex differences on the MRT as it progresses. This condition documents the effect of time constraints on MRT performance between sexes (baseline condition).

    7. If time pressure is a significant factor in per-formance, we expect to see two indicators in the data.First, we expect to see that females attempt significantlyfewer problems than males and, second, we expect to seethat the magnitude of the sex difference increases as theproblem position increases.
    8. In the present study, three different approaches to theproblem of time constraints are taken, each examining adifferent aspect of how time might affect the sex differ-ences on the MRT.
    9. Thus, our understanding of the role of time con-straints in MRT sex differences remains inconclusive.
    10. Several studies find that when enough time is pro-vided for the V&K MRT, sex differences on the MRTdisappear (Goldstein, Haldane, & Mitchell, 1990;Voyer, 1997), leading to the conclusion that sex differ-ences arise because the sexes differ in the amount of timetaken to perform the mental rotation.
    11. The idea that the activational effects of hormones mightlead to relatively faster mental rotations touches uponthe time factor in MRT sex differences.
    12. That males and females differ in performance on Van-denberg and Kuse (1978) mental rotation task is wellknown (Voyer, Voyer, & Bryden, 1995). The causes areless well understood.
    13. .

      Sex differences may arise because of qualitative differences in how the sexes solve spatial problems, or because of spatial problem solving ability being modulated by hormonal differences between the sexes.

    14. We conclude that performancefactors may play a role in sex difference on mental rotation tasks, but do not account for all of the differences.
    15. In accounting for the well-established sex differences on mental rotation tasks that involve cube stimuli of the Shepard and Met-zler (Shepard & Metzler, 1971) kind, performance factors are frequently invoked.



    1. There’s no need to capture every idea; the best ones willalways come back around eventually.

      While one can certainly capture a lot of cruft that isn't actionable or easily reusable, it's a fable that the best ideas will come back around. All too often the really brilliant ideas can be quickly lost to the wind if not captured immediately.

    2. An Archipelago of Ideas separates the two activities your brainhas the most difficulty performing at the same time: choosing ideas(known as selection) and arranging them into a logical flow (knownas sequencing).*

      A missed opportunity to reference the arts of rhetoric here. This book is a clear indication that popular Western culture seems to have lost the knowledge of it.

      As a reminder, in the review be sure to look at and critique the invention, arrangement, style, memory, and delivery of the piece as well as its ethos, pathos, and logos. :)

    3. The Archipelago of Ideas

      This idea doesn't appear in Steven Johnson's book itself, but only in this quirky little BoingBoing piece, so I'll give Forte credit for using his reading and notes from this piece to create a larger thesis here.

      I'm not really a fan of this broader archipelago of ideas as it puts the work much later in the process. For those not doing it upfront by linking ideas as they go, it's the only reasonable strategy left for leveraging one's notes.

    4. Sometimes you know a project is coming and can startsaving things to a project folder in advance,

      no mention of the affordances of being able to cross-link things or even transclude them from an original location (which works for one currently) to another useful location.

    1. The box is not a substitute for creating. The box doesn’t compose or write apoem or create a dance step. The box is the raw index of your preparation. It is therepository of your creative potential, but it is not that potential realized.

      Great quote about what a zettelkasten isn't. This is also one of the reasons why I've underlined the amount of work that one must put into the box to get productive material back out the other end.

    2. Beethoven, despite his unruly reputation and wild romantic image, waswell organized. He saved everything in a series of notebooks that were organizedaccording to the level of development of the idea. He had notebooks for rough ideas,notebooks for improvements on those ideas, and notebooks for finished ideas,almost as if he was pre-aware of an idea’s early, middle, and late stages.

      Beethoven apparently kept organized notebooks for his work. His system was arranged based on the level of finished work, so he had spaces for rough ideas, improved ideas and others for finished ideas.

      Source for this?

    3. It’s not the only answer, of course. Maurice Sendak has a room that’s theequivalent of my boxes, a working studio that contains a huge unit with flat pulloutdrawers in which he keeps sketches, reference materials, notes, articles. He works onseveral projects at a time, and he likes to keep the overlapping materials out of sightwhen he’s tackling any one of them. Other people rely on carefully arranged indexcards. The more technological among us put it all on a computer. There’s no singlecorrect system. Anything can work, so long as it lets you store and retrieve yourideas—and never lose them.

      Regardless of what sort of physical instantiation one's notes may take, a workable storage option for them is necessary whether it is a simple box, a shelving system, a curiosity cabinet, a flat file, or even an entire room itself.

    1. .

      Lots of research has investigated the cause of sex differences in MRT performance. One proposed explanation is that men and women emphasize different instructional aspects under timed conditions. For this reason, men are able to complete more items than women do when taking the MRT.

    2. Gender differences in favor of men in spatial abilities are one of the most commonly replicated finding inpsychology research (Hedges & Nowell, 1995; Linn & Petersen, 1985; Voyer, Voyer, & Bryden, 1995). Among thetasks that produce such differences, the Mental Rotations Test (MRT), developed by Vandenberg and Kuse (1978),produces the largest effects (Linn & Petersen, 1985; Peters, 2005).
    3. Eighty undergraduate students (40 males, 40 females) completed the MRT while ratingtheir confidence in the accuracy of their answers for each item. As expected, gender differences in favor of men were obtained.Results also indicated a positive correlation between confidence ratings and scores on the MRT, as well as negative correlationsbetween confidence ratings and MRT outcomes presumed to reflect propensity to guess. More elaborate analyses using a measureof accuracy of predictions (the Brier score) indicated that men have a more accurate perception of their performance on the MRTthan women do.



    1. Further support for a constant anduniform biological explanation comes from studies that findsimilar effect sizes for gender across cultures (Silverman,Phillips, & Silverman, 1996).
    2. The distinct hormonal environments of men and womenmay play a role.
    3. .

      Hormones having an activational effect on cognitive functioning in adulthood could also cause sex differences in the MRT. Research has suggested that greater exposure to androgens/estrogens in adulthood can affect cognitive functioning.