 Nov 2022

scientificallysound.org scientificallysound.org

Cohen was reluctant to provide reference values for his standardized effect size measures. Although he stated that d = 0.2, 0.5 and 0.8 correspond to small, medium and large effects, he specified that these values provide a conventional frame of reference which is recommended when no other basis is available.

 Nov 2021

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov

In this report, we investigated performance of the omnibus test using simulated data. The hierarchical procedure is a widely used approach for comparing multiple (more than two) groups.[1] The omnibus test is intended to preserve type I errors by eliminating unnecessary posthoc analyses under the null of no group difference. However, our simulation study shows that the hierarchical approach is not guaranteed to work all the time. The omnibus and posthoc tests are not always in agreement. As our goal of comparing multiple groups is to find groups that have different means, a significant omnibus test gives a false alarm, if none of the posthoc tests are significant. But, most important, we may also miss opportunities to detect group differences, if we have a nonsignificant omnibus test, since some or all posthoc tests may still be significant in this case.Although we focus on the classic ANOVA model in this report, the same considerations and conclusions also apply to more complex models for comparing multiple groups, such as longitudinal data models [2]. Since for most models, posthoc tests with significant levels adjusted to account for multiple testing do not have exactly the same type I error as the omnibus test as in the case of ANOVA, it is more difficult to evaluate performance of the hierarchical procedure. For example, the Bonferroni correction is generally conservative.Given our findings, it seems important to always perform pairwise group comparisons, regardless of the significance status of the omnibus test and report findings based on such group comparisons.
Post hoc not significant when omnibus test is significant.

 Oct 2021

www.cla.purdue.edu www.cla.purdue.edu

List only the first author’s name followed by “et al.” in every citation, even the first, unless doing so would create ambiguity between different sources.
APA 7 3 or more authors

 Jun 2021

kardecpedia.com kardecpedia.com

2  PRAYERS FOR THE ONE WHO PRAYS. TO GUARDIAN ANGELS AND PROTECTING SPIRITS

 May 2021

www.simplypsychology.org www.simplypsychology.org

Materials
Materials

Design
Design

Method
How to write a methods section: Participants

Introduction:
Introduction


www.simplypsychology.org www.simplypsychology.org

APA title page (cover page) format, examples, and templates
APA title page (cover page) format, examples, and templates

 Mar 2021

owl.purdue.edu owl.purdue.edu

In general, APA style recommends using words to express numbers below 10, and using numerals when expressing numbers 10 and above


stackoverflow.com stackoverflow.com

knit: (function(inputFile, encoding) { rmarkdown::render(inputFile, encoding = encoding, output_dir = "pdf") })
knit html to another folder other than the working directory

 Jan 2021

community.canvaslms.com community.canvaslms.com

Submit Assignment
Add comments to Canvas Studio submission.


docs.github.com docs.github.com

Types of GitHub Pages sites
Types of GitHub Pages sites

 Dec 2020

gitscm.com gitscm.com

Download for macOS
Install git on a macOS
Tags
Annotators
URL


gohugo.io gohugo.io

Host on GitHub
Host hugo on github pages.

Deployment of Project Pages from /docs folder on main branch
Deployment of Project Pages from /docs folder on main branch.


gohugo.io gohugo.io

Homebrew (macOS)
Install Hugo on Mac os
to upgrade hugo via terminal do this:
brew upgrade hugo
Tags
Annotators
URL


stats.libretexts.org stats.libretexts.org

The following ANOVA table illustrates the relationship between the sums of squares for each component and the resulting Fstatistic for testing the three null and alternative hypotheses for a twoway ANOVA.
The following ANOVA table illustrates the relationship between the sums of squares for each component and the resulting Fstatistic for testing the three null and alternative hypotheses for a twoway ANOVA.


etopics.missouri.edu etopics.missouri.edu

Importing/Copying grading schemes from one course to another
Importing/Copying grading schemes from one course to another


community.canvaslms.com community.canvaslms.com

How do I view rubric results for my assignment?
How do I view rubric results for my assignment?


catalog.csun.edu catalog.csun.edu

Repeating Courses (Grade Forgiveness) Undergraduate
Repeating Courses (Grade Forgiveness) Undergraduate.


community.canvaslms.com community.canvaslms.com

Create Extra Credit using Weighted Assignment Groups


imaging.mrccbu.cam.ac.uk imaging.mrccbu.cam.ac.uk

Rules of thumb on magnitudes of effect sizes
Rules of thumb on magnitudes of effect sizes

 Nov 2020

mycsun.app.box.com mycsun.app.box.com

Repeated Measures ANOVA example.
Tags
Annotators
URL


apastyle.apa.org apastyle.apa.org

Statistics
Reporting statistical symbols in APA 7th.


statistics.laerd.com statistics.laerd.com

Assumption #4:
When to choose between the KruskallWallis mean ranks and the median test.


bookdown.org bookdown.org

By default, bookdown merges
Bookdown navigation structure.
Tags
Annotators
URL


bookdown.org bookdown.org

R packages are also often constantly updated on CRAN or GitHub, so you may want to update them once in a while:


statistics.laerd.com statistics.laerd.com

You will want to report this as follows:
Reporting ANOVA in APA style.

 Oct 2020

www.researchgate.net www.researchgate.net

With large sample sizes, both tests are very sensitive to slightest violations and will usually have pvalues below .05, although the data/residuals are sufficiently normally distributed.
The problem with normality tests.


stats.idre.ucla.edu stats.idre.ucla.edu

autorecode gender /into ngen. execute.
Auto recode a string variable into a numeric variable... the most effective way

Power Analyses
Power Analyses with SPSS, R, Stata, SAS


www.ibm.com www.ibm.com

The GROUPS subcommand specifies an unknown variable or a long string variable.
The GROUPS subcommand specifies an unknown variable or a long string variable.



Generate Random Numbers from a Normal Distribution
Generate Random Numbers from a Normal Distribution


www.scribbr.com www.scribbr.com

Example: Reporting the results of ANOVA
Example: Reporting the results of ANOVA
Tags
Annotators
URL


www.scribbr.com www.scribbr.com

Understanding types of variables
Understanding types of variables



Evaluation
Evaluation rubric for final project poster.


www.google.com www.google.com

Capella is a bright star in the constellation Auriga.
Capella is a bright star in the constellation Auriga.
Tags
Annotators
URL


apastyle.apa.org apastyle.apa.org

See the following diagram for an illustration of the basic table components.
apa table format


statistics.laerd.com statistics.laerd.com

Underlying Assumptions: Normality
Repeated measures anova normality and sphericity


rstudio.github.io rstudio.github.io

Citations
citing in rstudio

 Sep 2020

owl.purdue.edu owl.purdue.edu

Tables and Figures
APA 7TH TABLES AND FIGURES


moderndive.com moderndive.com

9.2 Understanding hypothesis tests
Hypothesis testing



2.1.5 Journal articles
Creating journal articles with r


www.csun.edu www.csun.edu

Online Graduation Application
Online Graduation Application

Eligibility: You may apply to graduate as soon as you have:
Eligibility: You may apply to graduate as soon as you have

 Aug 2020

catalog.csun.edu catalog.csun.edu

Changing Major or Option Students seeking to change majors/options must be able to complete the new major/option within 140 units. Student requests to change a major/option must be approved by the department chair of the new major/option. If the student has 90 or more earned units, the request also must be approved by the associate dean of the new major/option. Requests to change majors/options must be accompanied by a plan demonstrating that the new major/option can be completed within 140 units.
CSUN students must read the content of this page before contacting their academic advisor.

 Jul 2020

infoinspired.com infoinspired.com

Custom Google Sheets Formula to Highlight Max Value in a Row
Highlight min/man in google sheets

 Jun 2020

owl.purdue.edu owl.purdue.edu

Captions and Legends
APA 6th figures format

 May 2020

statistics.laerd.com statistics.laerd.com

The magnitude of the Pearson correlation coefficient determines the strength of the correlation. Although there are no hardandfast rules for assigning strength of association to particular values, some general guidelines are provided by Cohen (1988):
Magnitude of pearson correlation coeficient.


www.csun.edu www.csun.eduForms1

Undergraduate students who have already applied for graduation may change their date by submitting this form. The $8.00 processing fee is temporarily waived until further notice.
Graduate date change.

 Apr 2020

online.stat.psu.edu online.stat.psu.edu

Graphically, interactions can be seen as nonparallel lines connecting means when we are working with the simple twofactor factorial with 2 levels of each main effect (adapted from Zar, H. Biostatistical Analysis, 5th Ed., 1999). Remember interactions are referring to the failure of a response variable to one factor to be the same at different levels of another factor. So when lines are parallel the response is the same. In the plots below you will see parallel lines as a consistent feature in all of the plots with no interaction. In plots depicting interactions, you notice that the lines cross (or would cross if the lines kept going).
Main and interaction effects  graphs


statistics.laerd.com statistics.laerd.com

Step #3b
Mix anova when no interaction effect is found.

Step #3a:
Mix Anova interpretation step 3a

 Mar 2020

bookdown.org bookdown.org

To solve this issue, we render figures at the root directory /figure/, which will be copied to _site/ by Jekyll. To refer to an image under _site/figure/, we need the leading slash (baseurl), e.g., <img src="/figure/foo.png">. This is an absolute path, so no matter where the HTML is rendered, this path always works.
Fix the path issue in rstudio using knitr.


www.lifehacker.com.au www.lifehacker.com.au

Click on Advanced Options, and you’ll see some additional useful tools:
Virtual waiting room.

Done? Not quite. Once you’ve launched your meeting and you’re staring at everyone’s lovely faces, consider clicking on Manage Participants, and then click on the “More” button. You’ll see the following options, which you can use to control some of the chaos in your meeting:
Prevent users to unmute themselves.

You can also disable annotations and whiteboards, if you’re worried that people might try to draw unpleasant things during your call. Over in the Advanced “In Meeting” settings, you might want to consider disabling Zoom’s virtual background feature—a way that a person can replace their video background with any image they want, which could get unpleasant.
Prevent user to change background.

Zoom’s app doesn’t have every setting you can use to control the chaos of your meetings. You’ll have to visit its website to play with a few of its most helpful options. For example, within its basic settings, you can block private chats in your meetings, turn off the public chat entirely, and block file transfers—useful so trolls don’t try to spam your willing participants.
Prevent private chat

Finally, here’s the biggie. Go back to the primary Zoom meeting window and click on the up arrow next to Share Screen. From there, click on Advanced Sharing Options, where you’ll see this screen:
Share screen


bookdown.org bookdown.org

4.1 ioslides presentation


sourcethemes.com sourcethemes.com

Create a course or documentation
Create a course or documentation for academic


utstat.toronto.edu utstat.toronto.edu

2.6 The Normal Distribution
The normal distribution in r


vincentarelbundock.github.io vincentarelbundock.github.io

sleep Student's Sleep Data
Data which show the effect of two soporific drugs (increase in hours of sleep compared to control) on 10 patients.

Pulse Pulse Rates and Exercise
Students in a Stat2 class recorded resting pulse rates (in class), did three "laps" walking up/down a nearby set of stairs, and then measured their pulse rate after the exercise. They provided additional information about height, weight, exercise, and smoking habits via a survey.

HSAUR agefat Total Body Composision Data
Dataset used for KSB



Some examples of using \( \LaTeX \) in R Markdown documents
Some examples of using \( \LaTeX \) in R Markdown documents


support.rstudio.com support.rstudio.com

Authoring R Presentations
Using RStudio to create slides based on Markdown


stackoverflow.com stackoverflow.com

How do I use the ebook functions epub_book and kindlegen() for existing bookdown documents?
Convert epub to mobi in bookdown


macappstore.org macappstore.org

Install KindleGen on Mac OSX
Install kindlegen, which converts rmarkdown files to mobi
Tags
Annotators
URL


www.markdownguide.org www.markdownguide.org

Tables
Table syntax in markdown
Tags
Annotators
URL


www.psychologie.hhu.de www.psychologie.hhu.de

Types!of!power!analyses
Types of power analysis


stats.idre.ucla.edu stats.idre.ucla.edu

Factors that affect power
Factors that affect power.

Cohen’s recommendations: Jacob Cohen has many wellknown publications regarding issues of power and power analyses, including some recommendations about effect sizes that you can use when doing your power analysis. Many researchers (including Cohen) consider the use of such recommendations as a last resort, when a thorough literature review has failed to reveal any useful numbers and a pilot study is either not possible or not feasible. From Cohen (1988, pages 2427):
Recommendations from Cohen about choosing the effect size when doing a power analysis.

Obtaining the necessary numbers to do a power analysis
Obtaining the necessary numbers to do a power analysis

Power is the probability of detecting an effect, given that the effect is really there. In other words, it is the probability of rejecting the null hypothesis when it is in fact false. For example, let’s say that we have a simple study with drug A and a placebo group, and that the drug truly is effective; the power is the probability of finding a difference between the two groups. So, imagine that we had a power of .8 and that this simple study was conducted many times. Having power of .8 means that 80% of the time, we would get a statistically significant difference between the drug A and placebo groups. This also means that 20% of the times that we run this experiment, we will not obtain a statistically significant effect between the two groups, even though there really is an effect in reality.
Power analysis definition


bookdown.org bookdown.org

Generating random data
Generating random data in r


www.statmethods.net www.statmethods.net

Descriptive Statistic
R provides a wide range of functions for obtaining summary statistics. One method of obtaining descriptive statistics is to use the sapply( ) function with a specified summary statistic.
Tags
Annotators
URL


www.rdocumentation.org www.rdocumentation.org

This function is based on the standard normal distribution and creates confidence intervals and tests hypotheses for both one and two sample problems.
Use this syntax to run a ztest in r


my.ilstu.edu my.ilstu.edu

The standard error (the standard deviation of the distribution of sample means) has this formula:
Tex command for the standard deviation of the sample mean


statistics.laerd.com statistics.laerd.com

Now that you have identified the null and alternative hypotheses, you need to find evidence and develop a strategy for declaring your "support" for either the null or alternative hypothesis. We can do this using some statistical theory and some arbitrary cutoff points. Both these issues are dealt with next.
The researcher does not always have to support the alternative hypothesis.

 Sep 2019

acrobat.adobe.com acrobat.adobe.com

View, print and annotate PDFs.
Free Acrobat Reader for Mac and PC.

 May 2019

stats.stackexchange.com stats.stackexchange.com

Multiple comparisons: It is not good practice to test for significant differences among pairs of group means unless the ANOVA suggests some such differences exist. Nevertheless, I admit it is tempting to take another look at the comparison of G1 with G3 (ignoring the existence of G2 and perhaps assuming normality), but then you should use a Welch t test to account for the differences in sample variances, and you should not make claims about the result unless the Pvalue is as low as .01 or .02. Looking at that difference more carefully might prompt a subsequent experiment.
Test for significance among pairs when the overall f test is not significant.

 Apr 2019

en.wikipedia.org en.wikipedia.org

Wait list control group


statistics.laerd.com statistics.laerd.com

statistics.laerd.com statistics.laerd.com

There are two tests that you can run that are applicable when the assumption of homogeneity of variances has been violated: (1) Welch or (2) Brown and Forsythe test. Alternatively, you could run a KruskalWallis H Test. For most situations it has been shown that the Welch test is best. Both the Welch and Brown and Forsythe tests are available in SPSS Statistics (see our Oneway ANOVA using SPSS Statistics guide).
ANOVA is robust against violation of the assumption of equal variances, but...

However, platykurtosis can have a profound effect when your group sizes are small. This leaves you with two options: (1) transform your data using various algorithms so that the shape of your distributions become normally distributed or (2) choose the nonparametric KruskalWallis H Test which does not require the assumption of normality.
ANOVA is robust against violation of normality, but...


www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov

Favorable changes occurred in zscores for weight (onetailed p < 0.04) for age and gender among children in the combined center and homebased intervention compared to comparison children at posttest.
Here is an example of a study that used an onetailed test as opposed to a twotailed test.
Challenge for readers: Dig into the Methods section and find out why the researchers used an onetailed test.

 Mar 2019

statistics.laerd.com statistics.laerd.com

From this data, it can be concluded that cholesterol concentration in the diet group was statistically significantly higher than the exercise group (U = 110, p = .014). Depending on the size of your groups, SPSS Statistics will produce both exact and asymptotic statistical significance levels. Understanding which one to use is explained in our enhanced guide.
Phrasing results for the MannWhitney Utest.


statistics.laerd.com statistics.laerd.com

Testing for Normality using SPSS Statistics


web.hypothes.is web.hypothes.is

Using the Hypothesis LMS App with Assignments in Canvas
Using Hypothesis with Canvas LMS


www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov

We performed some manipulation checks to examine the internal validity of the perceptualcognitive skill tests and any learning effects as a result of watching the same video clips multiple times
