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  1. Last 7 days
  2. Jun 2021
  3. May 2021
    1. The results indicate strong support for the first two hypotheses and qualified support for the third one

      confirmed the first two hypotheses

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    1. Begin by opening Chrome Menu in the top-right corner and select Settings from the option. Scroll down to find Show Advanced Settings and click on it to open. The next step to change font color browser results is to scroll down until you see the ‘Web Content’ heading. Under the Web Content menu, you will find Customize fonts – click on it to change the necessary font settings. Once you finish making all changes, click on done to save the changes. Chrome Related Issues Google Chrome Privacy Error Google Chrome not responding

  4. Apr 2021
    1. Bleuler defined schizophrenia with his four ‘A’s’, referring to the blunted Affect (diminished emotional response to stimuli); loosening of Associations (by which he meant a disordered pattern of thought, inferring a cognitive deficit), Ambivalence (an apparent inability to make decisions, again suggesting a deficit of the integration and processing of incident and retrieved information) and Autism (a loss of awareness of external events, and a preoccupation with the self and one’s own thoughts)

      I stumbled upon this accidentally. I was going to add to my prediction that schizophrenia might be related to autism, but now that I've found this I need to publish my draft.


      Edit: Here was the prediction I wrote. Copied unmodified, ensuring transparency.

      March 28, 6:15pm Prediction: Some cases of schizophrenia are being misdiagnosed as autism. I recently took a Coursera.org course on schizophrenia. The negative symptoms look similar to some autism symptoms.

      Before I look it up, there are a few other predictions I should make. Do I think schizophrenia and autism will be linked? If there’s cross-diagnosis, will this link be artificial or real? Last time I looked, people with aspergers had (more or less) normal sleep EEGs. In contrast, schizophrenia is associated with disrupted sleep spindles. I already know that schizophrenia and bipolar are genetically linked, but I don’t know what the bipolar sleep EEG looks like. That is to say, I don’t know if the lack of sleep abnormality in autism is evidence against a link to schizophrenia. All in all, I predict that there will be a real link (for example, genetic), but I have a low confidence in this prediction. The reason is that I expect there is little EEG sleep changes in bipolar, implying that there is a supra-mechanism causing all these effects; somewhat like metabolic syndrome, the same cause may manifest in different ways.

    1. Using this data, a large international team was able to pinpoint 114 specific loci – locations in the human genome – that contribute to risk of both schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, and four genome regions that contribute to differences in the biology of the two disorders.

      This is exactly what I expected. In fact, I would have been extremely surprised if this weren't the case. I just google "schizophrenia bipolar genes" expecting this result.

      I had the thought a few minutes ago, and google it right away. This means that I wasn't able to write it down as a prediction. Nonetheless, I think this points in favor of my prediction abilities. My confidence was inordinately high (i.e. on the order of 90%) even before collecting any evidence. Compare that to other high confidence beliefs (e.g. CFS is caused partly by blood volume), for which I have confidence on the order of 95%, but I have good evidence for that belief. Thus, this instance provides data that my confidence meter is reliable. I'll continue to make an effort to write down predictions ahead of time (to eliminate publication bias).

      There are several reasons I suspected this would be the case. Firstly, personal subjective experience; that's what gave me the first inkling. Secondly, the connection of mania with long periods of sleeplessness. If the sleep deprivation causes the mania, then bipolar may be a sleep disorder. This is backed up by the sleep deprivation therapy for depression. Additionally, the connection of depression to sleep disturbance implies that sleep may also be causal in low mood. Furthermore, given that schizophrenia is associated with disrupted sleep spindles, it follows that the two sleep disorders, namely schizophrenia and bipolar, may be closely related genetically (via sleep regulating genes). Moreover, I knew that schizophrenia and bipolar were two of the most heritable psychological conditions; given that both are highly genetic and both involve sleep, it follows that they would likely be closely linked. Finally, I know mania can be associated with delusions, so there are several symptom crossovers. All in all, it is highly surprising that I have not seen this discussed before. Neither documentaries on schizophrenia nor documentaries on manic depression/bipolar have mentioned a link. Nor have studies I've read (admittedly few on this particular topic) mentioned anything of the sort. I shall have to look through the literature to see if this idea has been around for long.

  5. Mar 2021
    1. Inevitably, most of these new entrants get wiped out over a decade or two and their market share goes down into the single digits (often zero). The end result is that the market often resembles one of two possible situations:
    1. (A) Optical image of the undeformed device (left) and the FEA model for simulation (right). Optical images and max principal strain contours of the multifunctional wearable electronics being uniaxially stretched by 60% along vertical direction (B), along horizontal direction (C), and being biaxially stretched by 30% (D). (E) ECG data of the same device under different deformation modes. Photo credit: Chuanqian Shi, University of Colorado, Boulder.

      (A) Model of the device without any stress/strain (left) and Finite element analysis model of the wearable device, not deformed (right). The model to the right exhibits the components inside the device. (B-C) The model shown being stretched 60%, vertically and horizontally respectively, show the maximum strain of the chip being 0.01%. This is much less than the normal failure strain for silicon (1%). (D) This figure shows the FMEA model being stretched 30% vertically and horizontally. The maximum strain in the chip components is below 0.004%. (E) Figure shows sensing performance of device when being stretched using an ECG. No significant effects from the mechanical stretching where evident in the results.

  6. Feb 2021
    1. (A) Schematic illustration of the fabrication processes of the multifunctional wearable electronics. (B) Motion tracking performance with the multifunctional device worn on the wrist. (C) Indoor and outdoor body temperatures acquired using the wearable electronics mounted on the forehead (top) and comparison of measured indoor body temperatures when the wearable electronics is mounted at different locations (bottom). (D) Acoustic data acquired using the wearable electronics mounted on the neck. (E) ECG data acquired using the wearable electronics when the participant is at rest (top), and after exercising for 13 s (middle) and 34 s (bottom). Photo credit: Chuanqian Shi, University of Colorado, Boulder.

      (A) Step-by-step process of each layer of the device to allow multiple functionalities and wearability. (B) Amplitude vs. Time graph of sensor worn on the wrist to measure motion when walking, running, jumping. (C) Thermal sensor can read forehead, abdomen, and hand temperature on skin when indoor and outdoor over time. (D) The acoustic sensor is placed on the neck to measure the amplitude (vibration) characteristics of the vocal chords to serve as a human-machine interface. (E) The electrocardiogram sensor measures heart activity while resting, after exercising for 13 seconds and then after 34 seconds. The heart rate resulted in 72, 96, and 114 per minute, respectively.

    2. (A) Schematic illustration of a multifunctional wearable electronic system mounted on the hand, which integrates ECG, acoustic, motion, and temperature sensing capabilities. (B) Exploded view of the multifunctional wearable electronics. (C) Optical images of the multifunctional device being crumpled on the skin, bended, twisted, and stretched. (D) Schematic illustration of the dynamic covalent thermoset polyimine: polymerization and depolymerization and bond exchange reaction induced bond breaking and reforming. (E) Schematic illustration of self-healing and recycling of the multifunctional wearable electronics.

      The sensing components of the device being worn on the hand are ECG, acoustic, motion, and temperature sensors. It incorporates an electrocardiogram to measure heart activity using amplifiers and resistors to calculate the voltage versus time using electrodes placed on the skin. Assembling the sensors with EGaIn alloy to connect the sensor electronics and polyimine films allows the device to possess its’ flexibility and stretchability. Using polyimine allows for the breaking and reforming of bonds to allow self-healing, and polymerization and depolymerization to recycle the product.

  7. Jan 2021
    1. We observed that for genes subject to XCI, a general increase in methylation on the Xi occurs at gene promoters. In comparison, genes escaping XCI show higher levels of methylation within gene bodies on both the Xa and Xi, but reduced promoter methylation only on the Xi.

      They found that there were higher levels of DNA methylation in the promoters of genes that underwent XCI on the Xi. Escapee genes, by contrast, have less promoter methylation on Xiin their promoters o the Xi, but an increase in methylation within gene bodies.

  8. Dec 2020
    1. The overall picture emerging from these studies indicates that UG is indeed opera- tive in child L2 grammars. However, it is not fully clear whether knowledge of UG is available to child L2 learners directly or through the mediation of the LI. The findings thus far suggest that we cannot entirely rule out the influence of the LI in child L2 acquis

      In the conclusion, there is basically more confirmation of the idea that young children are innately tuned to any language that they hear, but not many findings that indicate if the L1 plays a major role in something like this.

  9. Nov 2020
  10. Oct 2020
    1. Weber notes that according to any economic theory that posited man as a rational profit-maximizer, raising the piece-work rate should increase labor productivity. But in fact, in many traditional peasant communities, raising the piece-work rate actually had the opposite effect of lowering labor productivity: at the higher rate, a peasant accustomed to earning two and one-half marks per day found he could earn the same amount by working less, and did so because he valued leisure more than income. The choices of leisure over income, or of the militaristic life of the Spartan hoplite over the wealth of the Athenian trader, or even the ascetic life of the early capitalist entrepreneur over that of a traditional leisured aristocrat, cannot possibly be explained by the impersonal working of material forces,

      Science could learn something from this. Science is too far focused on the idealized positive outcomes that it isn't paying attention to the negative outcomes and using that to better define its outline or overall shape. We need to define a scientific opportunity cost and apply it to the negative side of research to better understand and define what we're searching for.

      Of course, how can we define a new scientific method (or amend/extend it) to better take into account negative results--particularly in an age when so many results aren't even reproducible?

  11. Sep 2020
    1. The impact of global warming on population health is a growing concern. Solar energy workers often work in very hot weather; where OSHA supports that there exist some hazards attempting to the health and safety of the workforce. Among the heat-related effects defined as a consequence of exposures to hot environments are, dehydration, heat exhaustion, heat stroke, and death. In order to ensure the safety of the solar workforce, the present study aims to provide with relevant information that could contribute to the development or improvement of safety procedures.The research paper briefly outlines the relation between sunny environments, heat load, heat-related occupational and safety, natural hazards, and climate change conditions. Followed by the description of the assessment method and safety limits. The assessment of levels of heat stress was based on a

      direct relation of results to health (not necessarily worker productivity however)

  12. Aug 2020
    1. The results suggest that at best, our combination of leaderboards, badges, and competition mechanics do not improve educationaloutcomes and at worst can harm motivation, satisfaction, and empowerment. Further, in decreasing intrinsic motivation, it can affectstudents'final exam scores.

      lowering intrinsic motivation can be harmful to course outcomes.

    2. The results show that course type directly affects intrinsic motivation (apath), where those in the gamified group have lower intrinsic motivation scores,a¼.30, 95% CI [.60,.01], and that higher intrinsicmotivation leads to higher scores on thefinal exam regardless of condition,b¼4.59; 95% CI [.41, 8.77]. However, there is no direct effect forcondition onfinal exam score when holding intrinsic motivation constant,c¼2.15; 95% CI [3.20, 7.50]. Despite a lack of evidence for adirect effect, it is still possible that course type affectsfinal exam scores indirectly via intrinsic motivation.

      intrinsic motivation is tied to course performance. But course type is not significant when intrinsic motivation is held constant.

    3. The interaction effect was significant,F(1.71,110.82)¼5.60,p¼.007, partialh2¼.08.Participants did not differ at Time 1, Time 2, or Time 3 in learner empowerment for the control group. For the leaderboard group, learnerempowerment dropped significantly at Time 2. At Time 3, it remained unchanged, though was no longer significantly lower than the controlcondition.H5was partially supported

      learner empowerment didn't really change from end to beginning.

    4. Although participants did not differ at Time 1, at Time 2 motivation for the control group escalated significantly and wasmaintained at Time 3. For the leaderboard group, motivation dropped significantly at Time 2. At Time 3, it remained unchanged and was stillsignificantly lower than the control condition.H2was supported.

      those participating in the gamified course decreased in intrinsic motivation and maintained this decrease over time

    5. predicted that over time, effort in the gamified course would be lower than the non-gamified course. The Mauchly's test was notsignificant. Video game use was not a significant covariate. Time was a significant factor,F(2,132)¼28.92,p<.001, partialh2¼.31. For bothconditions, effort increased significantly at each time point. Condition was not a significant factor,F(1, 66)¼.10,p¼.75, partialh2<.01. Theinteraction effect was not significant,F(2, 132)¼1.36,p¼.27, partialh2¼.02.H4was not supported.

      effort increased for both groups, but there was no difference between the two,

    6. Students in the gamified condition were not significantly different from those in the control group atTime 1 or Time 2, though they scored marginally significantly higher than the control group on social comparison at Time 3,F(1, 70)¼3.62,p¼.06, partialh2¼.05. Thus,H1was partially supported.
    7. The effect of course typeon students'final exam scores was mediated by students' levels of intrinsic motivation, with students inthe gamified course showing less motivation and lowerfinal exam scores than the non-gamified class.This suggests that some care should be taken when applying certain gamification mechanics to educa-tional settings

      Gamification might work against intrinsic motivation

  13. Jul 2020
    1. Results indicated that condition significantlypredicted number of uses generated,F(4, 235)¼16.62,p<.001,partialh2¼.220. Pairwise comparisons revealed that the leader-board condition (M¼37.52) significantly outperformed the do-your-best (M¼23.84) and easy goal conditions (M¼22.10),

      interesting that the difficult condition pushed people the same as the leaderboard.

  14. Jun 2020
    1. pattern of conflict modulation during one correct response is 489 orthogonal to the pattern during another correct response

      i.e. it is not a 'general boosting' effect -> only on average the activity of neurons can still increase, but it is all about upregulating the relevant neurons for this correct response

    2. higher when Ericksen conflict was present (Figure 2A)

      Yeah, in single neurons you can show the detection of general conflict this way, and it was not partitionable into different responses...

    3. with Ericksen conflict than it was for trials without Ericksen

      what about simon?

      This does mean: Conflict increases representation shifting response toward correct action!

    4. AUC

      This axis has more predictive power when there is conflict than when there is no conflict (task is already so easy that the information is not needed, or at least a lot less?)

    5. amplification hypothesis, conversely, does not predict a unified conflict 341 detection axis in the population. Instead, it makes a prediction that is exactly contrary to 342 the epiphenomenal view: that conflict should shift population activity along task-variable 343 coding dimensions, but in the opposite direction. That is, conflict is predicted to amplify 344 task-relevant neural responses

      conflict means more control will be exterted. Heavier representation of whatever info it is that dACC encodes that 'pushes' for the correct action. This function of dACC would be in line with the context layer!?

    6. At the population level, then, the epiphenomenon hypothesis330 predicts that conflict should decrease the amount of information about the correct response 331 and shift neuronal population activity down along the axis in firing rate space that encodes 332 this response

      Because less % of neurons 'fighting' for the correct response are active, at least in total.

    7. Neurons that were tuned for a specific correct response were 298 often tuned to prefer the same Simon/Ericksen distractor response

      DLPFC is tuned to action-outcomes? -> in single neurons!

    8. neurons did not encode the distractor response

      So on trials with a unique distractor response, that action-outcome was not represented at all? It's interesting but then where does the actual conflict take place?

    9. significant 270 proportion of neurons were selective for the correct response

      So desired action-outcome is represented. I think that was already known about dACC.

    10. Furthermore, the population of cells whose responses were significantly 244 affected by Eriksen conflict was almost entirely non-overlapping with the population 245 significantly affected by Simon conflict (specifically, only one cell was significantly 246 modulated by both)

      Really separate representations for different aspects of the current task-set?

    11. additive model was a better fit to the data than other, more 205 flexible models

      So separate statistical significance testing shows effect for Eriksen, not for Simon, but regression model shows through model comparison that it's best to ascribe to them the same effect...

    12. (n=15/145) neurons had significantly different firing rates between Simon and no-196 (which was not certified by peer review) is the author/funder. All rights reserved. No reuse allowed without permission. The copyright holder for this preprintthis version posted March 15, 2020. . https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.03.14.991745doi: bioRxiv preprint

      No significant main effect but more single cells had a significant effect...? -> also directionality is not all positive, some positive some negative

    13. A small number of individual 187 neurons also had different activity levels on Eriksen conflict and no conflict trials (8.2%, 188 n=12/145 neurons, within-cell t-test)

      Note the difference between 'averaged over all neurons' (first report) or 'within one specific neuron' (this report)

    14. activity was higher on Ericksen conflict 185 trials than on no conflict trials

      for Eriksen flankers there is a main effect of conflict (vs no-conflict). Simon was not statistically significant. Was it mainly a power issue?

    15. 4917.0 (1) 5826.5 (1)*

      Additive model is the winner in single cell firing rates -> coding simply for the notion of conflict? cf. the population coding from dimensionality reduction!

    16. Subtracting this expectation from the observed pattern 723 of activity left the residual activity that could not be explained by the linear co-activation 724 of task and distractor conditions

      So this is what to analyze: If this still covaries with conflict in some way it means we go beyond epiphenomenal?

  15. May 2020
  16. Apr 2020
  17. Feb 2020
    1. Someone who took the afternoon off shouldn't feel like they did something wrong. You don't have to defend how you spend your day. We trust team members to do the right thing instead of having rigid rules. Do not incite competition by proclaiming how many hours you worked yesterday. If you are working too many hours talk to your manager to discuss solutions.
    1. Hence, predator behaviour may aim to maximize foraging success based on both prey behaviour and the physiological processes that can influence behaviour of prey (i.e. metabolic rates).

      The original hypothesis that shark behavior would be solely tied to their own temperature (most active when warm and resting when cool, or some other binary relationship) is revised in light of the more nuanced pattern that the researchers observed in the data.

      Here, the authors present a new hypothesis that also includes the temperature and behavior of prey, pointing out that the sharks may be most active when the temperature gap between predator and prey is the largest due to their differences in thermal inertia. When the shark is cooling, the fish upon which it preys will have cooled down even more, reducing their ability to escape from the still relatively warm shark.

  18. Nov 2019
    1. To avoid the pursuit of unproductive paths, we report here what has not worked in our hands, as well as our progress developing a method to screen the most efficient electroporation parameters for optimal DNA delivery into Prochlorococcus cells

      negative results

  19. Sep 2019
    1. Results

      Results == Findings.

      I am aware that this section contains some statistical technique you did not learn in the course. Try to read the authors' descriptions, nonetheless, and see if you can make sense out of it. If the authors did their job, you should be able to understand their findings even if you might not appreciate the intricacies of their methodological choices.

      Please identify and highlight the key findings of this research.

  20. Apr 2019
  21. Mar 2019
    1. From this data, it can be concluded that cholesterol concentration in the diet group was statistically significantly higher than the exercise group (U = 110, p = .014). Depending on the size of your groups, SPSS Statistics will produce both exact and asymptotic statistical significance levels. Understanding which one to use is explained in our enhanced guide.

      Phrasing results for the Mann-Whitney U-test.

    1. This is one of many discussions of Kirkpatrick's four levels of evaluation. More of the page is taken up with decoration and graphics than needs to be the case but this page is included in this list because it offers a printable guide and because the hierarchy of the four levels is clearly shown. The text itself is printed in black on a white background and it is presented as a bulleted list (the bullets are not organized as well as they could be). Nonetheless it is a usable presentation of this model. rating 3/5

  22. Dec 2018
    1. larger fish have greater thermal inertia and increased cardiac capacity

      Thermal inertia is the ability of a body or object to maintain its temperature when ambient temperature changes. Larger objects have higher thermal inertia, so larger fish lose heat more slowly than smaller fish. Larger fish also have larger hearts, which can pump more blood.

    2. The largest size-based differences in energy intake were also observed in October (Fig. 6 and table S3), indicating that thermal niche expansion in this endothermic species results in high energetic reward.

      The increased temperature range allowed the tuna to forage and obtain energy more efficiently.

    3. Lower energy intake was observed during late summer (August and September), when bluefin tuna are moving up through the Southern California Bight (28° to 32°N).

      Lower energy intake during migrations.

  23. Nov 2018
    1. SurveyMonkey

      SurveyMonkey is a FREE survey platform that allows for the collection of responses from targeted individuals that can be easily collected and used to create reports and quantify results. SurveyMonkey can be delivered via email, mobile, chat, web and social media. The platform is easy to use and can be used as an add on for large CRMs such as Salesforce. There are over 100 templates and the ability to develop customized templates to suit your needs. www.surveymonkey.com

      RATING: 5/5 (rating based upon a score system 1 to 5, 1= lowest 5=highest in terms of content, veracity, easiness of use etc.)

  24. Aug 2018
    1. The patterns for Q. kelloggii are more complex.
      1. Still fewer teeth in warmer climates.
      2. Larger leaves in warmer climates.
      3. Correlations are stronger with elevation.
      4. No correlation of leaf traits to MAP
    2. There are many significant correlations in A. rubrum between MAT and leaf physiognomy
      1. Colder climates more teeth, larger teeth.
      2. Colder leaves are larger.
      3. MAP and leaf physiogony are weakly correlated.
  25. Jun 2018
  26. Mar 2018
    1. Con-servative strategies (15) serve individual careerswell but are less effective for science as a whole.Such strategies are amplified by the file drawerproblem (16): Negative results, at odds withestablished hypotheses, are rarely published,leadingto a systemic bias in published researchand the canonization of weak and sometimesfalse facts (17). More risky hypotheses may havebeen tested by generations of scientists, but onlythose successful enough to result in publicationsare known to us.

      cc @Lepou

  27. Dec 2017
    1. Table 1

      mtDNA CO1 is a gene found within the mitochondria, it is used to measure the genetic difference between organisms. A higher mean indicates a larger difference between two organisms, which is indicative of being a different species. (JP)

    2. Fig. 2

      In general, this graph illustrates that as genetic distance between species increases (this is measured by Nei's D) then mtDNA divergence increases as well. Overall, compatibility between two different organisms will be less if they have high mtDNA divergence and a high Nei's D value. (JP)

    3. All the shrimps we studied are shallow water, fully marine forms with planktonic larvae.

      Main subjects studied. Planktonic larva is significant in this study because larva shrimp would migrate to different regions of the Isthmus of Panama which may be a significant contributor to speciation events ~J.D.A. (+ JP)

    4. 4.4 to 6.1 (P5-CS), 4.0 to 6.3 (P6-C6), and 6.8 to 9.1 (P7-C7) Ma

      mtDNA traced pairs back to million years ago. ~J.D.A.

    5. Even the least divergent pairs show substantial reproductive isolation

      Species so closely related showed two differ clutches. Isolation could've been geographical, though nothing that could completely cut them off from each other since they are similar. If anything, this could infer that they could've been selective in mating, or aggressive in behavior to even mate, thus preventing creation of offspring between them. ~J.D.A

    6. The null hypothesis, that isolation was simultaneous but rates of divergence are highly variable, is incompatible with the observed pattern because metabolic enzymes, mtDNA, and mate recognition share no mechanistic basis that would cause their divergence rates to be automatically associated.

      Basically, the null is rejected because it contradicts the observed data. The null states that isolation occurred around at the same time, but the observed data shows divergence indicators such as metabolic enzymes, mtDNA, and mate recognition, all of which are not associated at a single mechanistic basis required for concurrent divergence. ~S.Z.

    7. However, they do show some distributional differences that could affect sensitivity to changing conditions associated with gradual rise of the isthmus.

      The physical location of the shrimp could effect the divergence associated with the gradual rise of isthmus. ~S.Z

    8. Pacific members of the most divergent pairs are found deeper in the intertidal or are rare in habitats with heavy sedimentation (25) (Fig. 2). Thus, larval avoidance (26) of shoaling waters over the rising isthmus (6, 7) may have accelerated genetic isolation of these pairs.

      The shrimp located closer to the sea floor had a slimmer chance of being pushed over the isthmus; therefore had a higher chance of isolation and divergence. ~S.Z.

    9. Our data can also be used to estimate rates of divergence in reproductive compatibility. Even the least divergent pairs show substantial reproductive isolation

      The less compatible they are the more they have diverged. ~S.Z.

    10. Likewise, there is no evidence for differences among the pairs in historical effective population sizes or generation times that can be related to divergence (20).

      The generation types (ex. F1, F2, etc.) and population size were taken into account for each shrimp pair. These factors were found to not support the phenomenon of divergence among shrimp pairs because no differences were found. ~J.D.A.

    11. Geographic isolation is thought to permit divergence and speciation by disruption of gene flow

      The physical barrier created by the Isthmus of Panama prevented the exchange of genes; therefore, allowing the organism to develop differently on wither side of the barrier or diverge. (SZ)

    1. a phosphorylation-mimicking Thr205→Glu205 (T205E) tau variant coprecipitated significantly less with PSD-95 as compared with nonmutant and T205A (A, Ala) tau (Fig. 4C and fig. S21)

      Phosphorylation at T205 inhibits complex formation.

    2. T205 phosphorylation of tau is part of an Aβ toxicity–inhibiting response.

      Phosphorylation at T205 on tau limits Amyloid beta toxicity.

    3. p38γ regulated PSD-95/tau/Fyn complexes, likely at the level of PSD-95/tau interaction

      From Fig. 3 the authors conclude that p38y reduces PSD-95/tau/Fyn complex formation by affecting PSD-95/Fyn interactions.

    4. PTZ transiently increased PSD-95/tau/Fyn complex formation in p38γ+/+ animals; this effect was even more noticeable in p38γ−/− mice

      p38y was shown to inhibit the formation of complexes, but the addition of PTZ lowers the protective function of p38y.

    5. PSD-95/tau/Fyn interaction was reduced in transgenic mice with neuronal expression of p38γCA

      The interactions that are required to form the complexes are reduced in mice with an active form of p38y, demonstrating that p38y may prevent complex formation.

    6. PSD-95 copurified more tau and Fyn from p38γ−/− versus p38γ+/+ brains, and even more from APP23.p38γ−/− compared with APP23.p38γ+/+ and p38γ−/− brains

      An immunoprecipitation for PSD-95 was ran. The proteins that were associated with PSD-95 complexes also precipitated due being in a complex with PSD-95. The results show that tau and Fyn were contributing more to the PSD-95 complexes when p38y was not present.

    7. PSD-95/tau/Fyn interaction was enhanced in Alz17.p38γ−/− animals versus Alz17.p38γ+/+ mice

      Results show that more PSD-95/tau/Fyn complexes were in the brains of p38𝛾-/- vs. p38𝛾+/+. This shows that PSD-95/tau/Fyn complexes are associated Amyloid-beta induced excitotoxicity

    8. when compared to tau−/−.p38γ+/+mice, tau−/−.p38γ−/− animals showed similar protection from PTZ-induced seizures

      p38y only protects agianst PTZ-induce siezures only when tau is present. A difference between p38y being present and p38 being absent is only seen in mice that have tau.

    9. These data also showed that, compared with APP23 mice, APP23.p38γ−/− animals had aggravated memory deficits that persisted with aging

      APP23.p38y+/+ mice survived longer and had performed better in water maze than APP23.p38y-/- mice. Also shown in the results is that APP23.p38y+/+.tau-/- vs. APP23.p38y-/-tau-/- mice, are statistically the same, suggesting that the protective effect of p38 comes from phosphorylating tau.

    10. The exacerbating effects of p38γ loss on reduced survival, memory deficits, and neuronal network dysfunction of APP23 mice were virtually abolished in APP23.p38γ−/−.tau−/− mice

      The APP23 deficits improved when tau was not present in mice.

    11.  p38γ−/− mice showed no deficits and had normal motor function

      The lack of p38y kinase did not negatively affect the movement and motor function of the mice.

    12. Aβ pathology was comparable in the brains of APP23.p38γ−/− and APP23.p38γ+/+ mice (fig. S6), but p38γ deletion aggravated premature mortality and memory deficits of APP23 mice

      APP23 mice that had p38y and did not have p38y displayed similar traits, but the deficits in mice that did not possess p38y kinase were worse.

    13. Surprisingly, only p38γ depletion (p38γ−/−), but not systemic p38β, p38δ, or neuronal p38α (p38αΔneu) knockout, changed PTZ-induced seizures

      The only knockout mouse that displayed a change associated with PTZ-seizures was p38y. Because p38y was the only one that influenced the results, it is the focus of all the experiments.

    14. Finally, we found that tau-dependent Aβ toxicity was modulated by site-specific tau phosphorylation, which inhibited postsynaptic PSD-95/tau/Fyn complexes, revealing an Aβ toxicity–limiting role of p38γ in AD that is distinct and opposite to the effects of p38α and p38β (11, 13, 14).

      The authors state, contrary to popular belief, that tau can play a protective role in limiting amyloid beta toxicity by interacting with p38γ. By phosphorylating specific sites tau can increase neuron survival and improve memory loss.

    15. PTZ-induced seizures are reduced in tau−/− mice (8, 9). Adeno-associated virus (AAV)–mediated expression of WT and T205A neurons, but not T205E tau or green fluorescent protein (GFP), in the forebrains of tau−/− mice enhanced PTZ-induced seizures (Fig. 4D and fig. S25).

      The data shows that the tau-/-.AAV tauWT and tau-/-.AAV tauT205A were the most susceptible to seizures and had the most severe seizures out of the four genotypes.

    16. Hence, phosphorylation of tau at T205 should similarly mitigate neurotoxicity. Aβ caused cell death in WT and T205A neurons but significantly less in T205E tau-expressing neurons (fig. S23). Similarly, neurons expressing p38γ and, more so, p38γCA were significantly more resistant to Aβ-induced cell death than controls (fig. S24).

      The results from previous experiments showed that neurons survived at higher rates when they had T205E and p38γ.

    17. Pan-p38 inhibition stopped p38γ/p38γCA-induced disruption of PSD-95/tau/Fyn complexes

      If p38y is completely inhibited, the complexes are stable.

    18. Hence, p38γ regulated PSD-95/tau/Fyn complexes via phosphorylating tau at T205.

      The results of this experiment showed that p38γ helped to disrupt the PSD-95/tau/Fyn complexes through phosphorylation of T205.

    19. Increasing p38γ levels compromised PSD-95/tau/Fyn interaction in cells, and expression of a constitutively active p38γ variant (p38γCA) completely abolished this interaction

      p38y was shown to prevent the interactions required to form the complexes associated.

    20. Similarly, pT205 was markedly reduced in APP23.p38γ−/− animals compared with APP23.p38γ+/+ mice (Fig. 4B)

      The results of the previous experiment showed that APP23p38𝛾-/- mice had decreased T205 phosphorylation compared to the APP23p38𝛾+/+, which had T205 phosphorylation.

    21. no PSD-95/tau/Fyn complexes were isolated from tau−/− and tau−/−.p38γ−/− brains

      Demonstrates that the complexes will not form if unless tau is present.

    22. In summary, the levels of active p38γ kinase and tau phosphorylation at T205 determined susceptibility to excitotoxicity and Aβ toxicity.
    23. the effects of p38γ on excitotoxicity and Aβ toxicity were tau-dependent.

      The protective qualities of p38y are dependent on tau being present. If tau is not present, amyloid-beta toxicity effects the cells the same, even if p38y is present.

    24. increasing tau levels in p38γ−/− mice [brought about by crossing with nonmutant tau-expressing Alz17 mice (23)] significantly enhanced PTZ-induced seizures in Alz17.p38γ−/− mice

      Mice that had higher levels of tau were more susceptible to seizures.

    25. In summary, p38γ depletion exacerbated excitotoxicity, neuronal circuit synchronicity, mortality, and memory deficits in APP23 mice, without changes in Aβ pathology.

      Overall, every deficit associated with APP23 was made worse when p38y was not present.

    26. Electroencephalography showed enhanced spontaneous epileptiform activity and interictal hypersynchronous discharges in APP23.p38γ−/− compared with APP23.p38γ+/+ mice

      From the results, the researchers can infer that the presence of p38𝛾 kinase has a protective ability that lessens the amount of seizure trains that occur due to Aβ density bodies

    27. Compared with APP23.p38γ+/+ mice, APP23.p38γ−/− animals had increased sensitivity to PTZ-induced seizures

      From the results conducted in the experiment, specifically the Fig. 1 G-J, mice that did not possess p38y were more sensitive to seizures

    28. only p38γ localized to postsynapses and limited excitotoxicity.

      The only knockout mouse that was shown to cause a change in PTZ-induced seizures was p38𝛾. p38𝛾 was also the only kinase that was shown to localize in postsynapses between neurons.

    1. The data do not support the competing hypothesis that reef shark relative abundance was primarily driven by environmental variation between sites.

      The data did not support this particular hypothesis because there was very little variation between the sites to begin with. The BRUV's were positioned in locations that did not vary in high arrays therefore a correlation between the abundance and environmental variation as not conclusive. -Sindy

    2. The second prediction of our main hypothesis is that the relative abundance of Caribbean reef sharks is higher in reserves than similar fished reefs. The factor “marine reserve” was the most important predictor of shark presence or absence on BRUVs in the GLM, which is consistent with this prediction.

      This indicates that their second prediction was also correct and they again failed to reject the null hypothesis meaning that there was a correlation between population density of sharks and a marine reserve. -Sindy

    3. Sharks often exhibit an ontogenetic expansion of home range size [45] and we would expect a positive correlation between MLD and shark size if this is true for Caribbean reef sharks.

      MLD is mixed layer depth, they expect a correlation between MLD and shark size because shark size normally correlates to its age and thus its experience. So the older and more experience a shark is, the more likely to go into ocean parameters with a mix of density or temperature etc than a smaller or younger shark. -Sindy

    4. Transmitters are also more likely to be detected in the fore-reef because seafloor relief is low relative to water depth, whereas receivers in the lagoon are partially blocked by emergent patch reefs.

      The complication arises in the fact that the transmitters may have a hard time ensuring accuracy due to the enviroment in which they are in. For example, in the fore-reef, the see level is too shallow so it may be spotted and cause the shark to drift away from it. And in the lagoons, not many sharks may approach either simply for the reason that the transmitters are being blocked by the reef. It is a complication related to placement of the transmitters and its unforeseen consequences. -Sindy

    5. We tested the hypothesis that Caribbean reef sharks are to benefit from the local respite from fishing occurring within marine reserves by examining two of its key predictions. The first prediction is that Caribbean reef sharks exhibit high site-fidelity to reserve areas. Acoustic monitoring showed that most individuals exhibit a high degree of site-fidelity at GRMR.

      This shows that the authors predictions were correct and thus fail to reject his null hypothesis. -Sindy

    1. EGLN1 was identified by both,

      After running the XP-EHH and iHS testing EGLN1 was determined to be a gene that was undergoing local positive selection. Meaning that the gene was currently providing an adaptive advantage to the person who had it, and was increasing in occurrence in that population.

    2. It is plausible that the diminished Hb levels found in Tibetans offset complications associated with sustained high Hb levels (for instance, hyperviscosity) seen in non-Tibetans exposed to high-altitude conditions (10, 11). Alternatively, decreased Hb levels could be a side effect of other phenotypes that are the actual targets of natural selection.

      Overall, the decreased hemoglobin levels seen in the Tibetan highlanders may be the result of variants in PPARA and EGLN1 haplotypes. However, the decreased hemoglobin levels could a side effect of a currently unknown phenotype, which may be the actual target of natural selection.

  28. Nov 2017
    1. mimicking site-specific tau phosphorylation alleviated Aβ-induced neuronal death and offered protection from excitotoxicity.

      The site that is phosphorylated by p38y was found to be important for reducing effects of AD. Demonstrates that the function of p38y is important, and the mere presence of p38y in the cell is not protective, it has to be functional.

    2. depletion of p38γ exacerbated neuronal circuit aberrations, cognitive deficits, and premature lethality in a mouse model of AD, whereas increasing the activity of p38γ abolished these deficits

      The research found that the presence of p38y reduced the effects of AD in the mouse model.

    1. first, the sex-determining proteins studied in the present work evolve at constant rates, as suggested by global molecular clock tests (Table 1).

      From Table 1, the following sex-determining proteins display InL, InL(clock), and the p-value. These factors display the final calculations. From what the author first concluded, the InL(clock) values show that there is in fact a constant rate with which the proteins evolve. It is tested by the likelihood ratio tests based off the models of evolution defined. -Melanie

    1. The high levels of genetic differentiation detected within C. jimenezii raise questions whether these two populations can be treated as different varieties/subspecies within this taxon or if indeed they may represent two different species.

      In this study, the researchers found some questions as to whether the two species of C. jimenezii could be grouped with the same taxa.

      Upon meeting with the author, it was stated that the molecular tools used, found a large amount of differentiation. This was not what the authors hoped and in turn was concluded that they were to remain in separate taxa.

      RA

    2. Therefore we recommend not translocating material between these two populations for genetic conservation or ecological restoration programs until the taxonomy of this species within Coccothrinax is further studied.

      Genetic conservation of this population is important due to the few individuals left in Haiti and the Dominican Republic.

      Upon meeting with the author, the difficulty of finding the purebred species was discussed as were the methods.

      RA

    3. The taxonomic uncertainties between the two populations of C. jimenezii have important implications for reintroduction programs. These two sites of C. jimenezii represent two clear management units for conservation, and the population genetic data suggest that we cannot rule out that they are two distinct taxa.

      The authors concluded based off of the molecular data, that the two species of C. jimenezii could not be identified as two different taxa.

      RA

    4. We have not been able to find data regarding the environmental history in these two populations since the 15th century. However, there is agreement among conservation biologists that since the arrival of the Europeans to this island there has been habitat fragmentation and deforestation linked to rapid expansion of urban and rural activities (Sambrook et al., 1999; Alscher, 2011; Foxx, 2012). Palms have long-life cycles; therefore, the detrimental consequences of genetic drift on genetic diversity can take a long period of time to manifest because of their long generation time and the presence of overlapping cohorts (Duminil et al., 2009).

      Since the extinction of C. jimenezii is of primary concern, the authors grab resources from other works to help solidify this concept. It is clear that the conservation of this species is vital to this study.

      RA

    1. The answers to fundamental questions about the origins of animal life and the evolution of their diverse phenotypes may be held in the genomes of distinct invertebrate phyla.

      The conclusion explains why they investigated what standards an invertebrate must reach to be tested for a successful genome sequencing. The researchers also add that geneticists could choose another option than searching an organism that meets their criteria. This option is sequencing organisms and modeling them for another organism. This would allow the geneticist to understand the other organism by having an idea of how the genome functions.

      The researchers also state a challenge faced by the science community is understanding the data they collect from the genome sequence, apart from also gathering the sequences. They state the research they do will help advance knowledge about invertebrate genomes by providing the necessary tools to investigate the sequences. (NAJ)

    1. Likewise, there is no evidence for differences among the pairs in historical effective population sizes or generation times that can be related to divergence (20).

      The generation types (ex. F1, F2, etc.) and population size were taken into account for each shrimp pair. These factors were found to not support the phenomenon of divergence among shrimp pairs because no differences were found. ~J.D.A.

    2. Our data can also be used to estimate rates of divergence in reproductive compatibility.

      The less compatible they are the more they have diverged. ~S.Z.

    3. Pacific members of the most divergent pairs are found deeper in the intertidal or are rare in habitats with heavy sedimentation (25) (Fig. 2). Thus, larval avoidance (26) of shoaling waters over the rising isthmus (6, 7) may have accelerated genetic isolation of these pairs.

      The shrimp located closer to the sea floor had a slimmer chance of being pushed over the isthmus; therefore had a higher chance of isolation and divergence. ~S.Z.

    4. However, they do show some distributional differences that could affect sensitivity to changing conditions associated with gradual rise of the isthmus.

      The physical location of the shrimp could effect the divergence associated with the gradual rise of isthmus. ~S.Z

    5. The null hypothesis, that isolation was simultaneous but rates of divergence are highly variable, is incompatible with the observed pattern because metabolic enzymes, mtDNA, and mate recognition share no mechanistic basis that would cause their divergence rates to be automatically associated.

      Basically, the null is rejected because it contradicts the observed data. The null states that isolation occurred around at the same time, but the observed data shows divergence indicators such as metabolic enzymes, mtDNA, and mate recognition, all of which are not associated at a single mechanistic basis required for concurrent divergence. ~S.Z.

    6. Geographic isolation is thought to permit divergence and speciation by disruption of gene flow

      The physical barrier created by the Isthmus of Panama prevented the exchange of genes; therefore, allowing the organism to develop differently on wither side of the barrier or diverge. (SZ)

    7. Even the least divergent pairs show substantial reproductive isolation

      Species so closely related showed two differ clutches. Isolation could've been geographical, though nothing that could completely cut them off from each other since they are similar. If anything, this could infer that they could've been selective in mating, or aggressive in behavior to even mate, thus preventing creation of offspring between them. ~J.D.A

    8. 4.4 to 6.1 (P5-CS), 4.0 to 6.3 (P6-C6), and 6.8 to 9.1 (P7-C7) Ma

      mtDNA traced pairs back to million years ago. ~J.D.A.

    9. All the shrimps we studied are shallow water, fully marine forms with planktonic larvae.

      Main subjects studied. Planktonic larva is significant in this study because larva shrimp would migrate to different regions of the Isthmus of Panama which may be a significant contributor to speciation events ~J.D.A. (+ JP)

    10. Fig. 2

      In general, this graph illustrates that as genetic distance between species increases (this is measured by Nei's D) then mtDNA divergence increases as well. Overall, compatibility between two different organisms will be less if they have high mtDNA divergence and a high Nei's D value. (JP)

    11. Table 1

      mtDNA CO1 is a gene found within the mitochondria, it is used to measure the genetic difference between organisms. A higher mean indicates a larger difference between two organisms, which is indicative of being a different species. (JP)

    1. Energy intake and thermal excess were positively correlated with body size as measured by the curved fork length (CFL) of tagged tunas

      A big tuna (large body size) requires more energy which means it needs to feed from a higher amounts of prey or big preys. Consequently, the heat production is higher provoking a thermal excess. YS & WT

    2. Lower energy intake was observed during late summer (August and September), when bluefin tuna are moving up through the Southern California Bight (28° to 32°N).

      Lower energy intake during migrations - M.A.S

    3. The largest size-based differences in energy intake were also observed in October (Fig. 6 and table S3), indicating that thermal niche expansion in this endothermic species results in high energetic reward

      The increased temperature range allowed the tuna to forage and obtain energy more efficiently. -SES

    1. Management of nutrient effects on both of these pathways would positively affect riverine health.

      The purpose of these experiments were to test the effects of nutrients on terrestrial carbon loss that ultimately leads to a change in ecosystems.

      Learning the effects and ideal ratios of nitrogen to phosphorus for ecosystems will lead to better policies to protect them.

    2. Litter quantity in the streambed was predicted to be 2.8 times and 7.7 times higher in reference versus nutrient-enriched streams after 6 and 12 months,

      In the experiment, it was found that the addition of nutrients encouraged terrestrial organic carbon loss.

      This was tested by observing the litterbags of the experimental streams and comparing the data to the litterbags of the control stream.

      Since a large amount of mass was lost in the stream with nutrient additions, this gives some evidence that too many nutrients off-balances organic carbon levels.

    3. Reach-scale outputs of C increased as fine POC export, as well as respiration (15).

      Fine POC export represents the movement of broken down carbon along the stream. Finer particles move faster and further down a stream as biological factors such as microbes and fungi decomposing the terrestrial organic carbon.

    4. They may limit terrestrial C loss as CO2 and maintain downstream C export, but contribute to depletion of local C resources (22, 23).

      Detrivores have a different method of carbon depletion from streams. finer particulate organic carbon travels faster and further away from an area, deleting the area of carbon sources.

      Invertebrates may leave the system if there are no food sources and alter the food chain.

    5. However, roughly similar-sized effects of N and P on loss rates are strong evidence of co-limitation (Fig. 2 and table S3).

      Both nitrogen and phosphorus are contributing factors to changes in terrestrial carbon loss.

      Within the ecosystem, different organisms require different ratios of nutrients to react and convert terrestrial carbon to carbon dioxide.

    1. Another study in which mouse NC cultures were treated with Edn3, Edn1, or Kitl showed an increase in the number of melanocyte progenitors; however, Kitl alone was not sufficient to induce the differentiation of melanocyte progenitors into mature melanocytes. Mature melanocytes were however observed, when treatment with Kitl was followed by Edn3 or Edn1 (Reid et al., 1996). As previously noted, although in the absence of Edn3, Kit-positive and DOPA-positive cells arose in mouse NC cultures, Ednrb signaling was required for the generation of fully pigmented melanocytes (Ono et al., 1998). These findings hint to a specific requirement for Ednrb signaling, independent of Kit signaling, in melanocyte differentiation. This requirement for Ednrb in the final phase of melanocyte differentiation may occur cell-autonomously, as suggested by the inability of Ednrb null cells to generate pigment even in the presence of Kitl (Hou et al., 2004). Together these findings point at a cooperative interaction between Kit and Ednrb signaling in melanocyte development, with Ednrb signaling being specifically required in the final differentiation step

      This paragraph discusses how Ednrb is needed in order to further a melanocyte into melanoma, even if Kitl (another signaling pathway) is present. Therefore, this is the direct link to melanoma.

      (NB)