10 Matching Annotations
  1. Nov 2019
    1. We combined these data

      Here, the authors have brought together several batches of data, where each batch represents the relative abundances of isotopes present in fluid inclusions inside diamonds, like helium, Pb-Sr, trace-elements, and carbon isotopes. After collecting this data, they have plotted them in multiple graphs to highlight comparisons between them. This is very common in scientific research and requires training in data analysis and graph plotting. This is also recommended in the Science Practice 5 of AP Physics 2 Course and Exam Description.

    2. After establishing the sublithospheric origin for our diamonds, we measured helium isotopes of the fluid inclusions.

      The helium isotopes were measured from the fluid inclusions using mass spectrometry. Mass Spectrometry is a specialized technique, which is used to determine relative abundances of isotopes from a sample. See Essential Knowledge 1.D.2 in the AP Chemistry Course and Exam Description.

  2. Jun 2018
    1. Abstract

      Hydrology is the main reason for the carbon balance of wetlands by controlling the uptake of CO₂ and CH4. Determining the effect of droughts on CO2, fluxes and CH4 emission was stimulated by hydroperiod with three scenarios. These three scenarios affect the rate of drought from being gradual, intermediate, and rapid transition into drought. It resulted in higher net CO2 losses net ecosystem exchange (NEE) over a 22-week manipulation. Due to drought vegetation dieback, it increased ecosystem respiration (Reco), and it also reduced carbon uptake gross ecosystem exchange (GEE). The NEE did not offset methane production during periods of flooding. Changes in precipitation patterns and drought occurrence altered the carbon storage of freshwater marshes. We can determine that with the change in the climate will modify the storage capacity of freshwater marshes by influencing the water availability.

  3. Aug 2015
    1. We found that dispersions of the triblock co-micelles in a decane:toluene (3:5 by volume) solution resulted in the selective dissolution of the central M(PFS60-b-PDMS660) micelle block, leaving short XLM(PI1424-b-PFS63) daughter micelles

      Connects to AP Chemistry Learning Standard 6: Any bond or intermolecular attraction that can be formed can be broken. These two processes are in dynamic competition, sensitive to initial conditions and external perturbations.

      Found on page 71 of the AP Chemistry Course and Exam Description:


    2. BCPs assemble into a variety of different morphologies that are influenced by polymer molecular weights and block ratios, with further control possible through the manipulation of environmental conditions such as temperature, solvent, and concentration

      Connects to AP Chemistry Learning Standard:2.B

      Forces of attraction between particles (including the noble gases and also different parts of some large molecules) are important in determining many macroscopic properties of a substance, including how the observable physical state changes with temperature

      Found on page 27 of the AP Chemistry Course and Exam Description:


    3. solution

      Connects to AP Chemistry Learning Standard:2.A.3: Solutions are homogeneous mixtures in which the physical properties are dependent on the concentration of the solute and the strengths of all interactions among the particles of the solutes and solvent:

      Found on page 25 of the AP Chemistry Course and Exam Description:


  4. Jul 2015
    1. Because dynein inhibition alone did not inhibit IAV uncoating completely, we investigated a possible additional role for the actomyosin system



      Whenever an observation is not fully understood, scientists try to analyze the issue from different angles. Here, the authors observed that the inhibition of dynein wasn't sufficient for inhibiting the viral uncoating completely. Therefore, they deduced that other factors were implicated with uncoating and decided to explore this possibility.

    2. we noticed that another histone deacetylase, HDAC6, was also required for infection

      Connect to Learning Standards: http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=13165&page=69

      Progression for explanation. In a previous study, the authors observed that HDAC6 was required for viral infection. As a consequence, they continued to study the function of HDAC6 in deep detail.

    3. With the risk of an influenza pandemic growing, it is increasingly important to understand virus-host interactions in detail and to develop new antiviral strategies (1).


      Science can contribute to meeting many of the major challenges that confront society today, such as preventing and treating disease.

    1. The motion of probe particles trackedinside cells has been classified as subdiffusive,diffusive, or superdiffusive. Such classifications,however, obscure the distinction between ther-mally driven and nonequilibrium fluctuationsand are inadequate to identify intracellular ma-terial properties