23 Matching Annotations
  1. Sep 2021
    1. Haber, N. A., Wieten, S. E., Rohrer, J. M., Arah, O. A., Tennant, P. W. G., Stuart, E. A., Murray, E. J., Pilleron, S., Lam, S. T., Riederer, E., Howcutt, S. J., Simmons, A. E., Leyrat, C., Schoenegger, P., Booman, A., Dufour, M.-S. K., O’Donoghue, A. L., Baglini, R., Do, S., … Fox, M. P. (2021). Causal and Associational Linking Language From Observational Research and Health Evaluation Literature in Practice: A systematic language evaluation [Preprint]. Epidemiology. https://doi.org/10.1101/2021.08.25.21262631

  2. Apr 2021
  3. Jan 2021
    1. While no serious climate scientist doubts the fact that human activities are causing climate change, this can’t be proved through experimentation on another Earth.

      In both cases, the answers should be clear when looking at the evidence and the mechanisms at play without an ideological bias

  4. Oct 2020
  5. Aug 2020
  6. Jul 2020
  7. Jun 2020
  8. May 2020
  9. Apr 2020
    1. Watts, D. J., Beck, E. D., Bienenstock, E. J., Bowers, J., Frank, A., Grubesic, A., Hofman, J., Rohrer, J. M., & Salganik, M. (2018). Explanation, prediction, and causality: Three sides of the same coin? [Preprint]. Open Science Framework. https://doi.org/10.31219/osf.io/u6vz5

  10. Mar 2018
    1. Assess-ing causality is one of the most needed futuredevelopments in SciSci: Many descriptive studiesreveal strong associations between structure andoutcomes, but the extent to which a specific struc-ture“causes”an outcome remains unexplored.
  11. Mar 2017
    1. A specific component cause mayplay a role in one, two, or all three of thecausal mechanisms pictured

      Figure 1 here is particularly important.

    2. “sufficient cause,” whichmeans a complete causal mechanism, can bedefined as a set of minimal conditions andevents that inevitably produce disease; “mini-mal” implies that all of the conditions orevents are necessary to that occurrence

      Set of minimal conditions together define the sufficient cause or complete causal mechanism.

    3. an event, condition, or characteristicthat preceded the disease event and withoutwhich the disease event either would nothave occurred at all or would not have oc-curred until some later time

      The expression, "without which the disease or event would not have occurred", points out to another important concept here, the notion of counterfactual theory of causation.

    4. We can define a cause of a specific dis-ease event as an antecedent event, condition,or characteristic that was necessary for theoccurrence of the disease at the moment itoccurred

      Note the criteria:

      1. Cause as an event
      2. Cause as a condition
      3. Cause as characteristic
      4. Cause is antecedent
      5. Cause is necessary
      6. Cause is conditional We will see all of these conditions expanded
    5. we need a moregeneral conceptual model that can serve as acommon starting point in discussions ofcausal theories

      Note that we start with the example of the bulb and then expand to generalise this example to larger issues -- in our case, health.

    6. Theeffect usually occurs immediately after turn-ing on the switch, and as a result we slip intothe frame of thinking in which we identify theswitch as a unique cause

      Another important point -- often the last observable event tends to be considered the "cause" of an outcome. One must be careful to find out other possible causes of an outcome.

    7. When allother factors are in place, turning the switchwill cause the light to go on, but if one ormore of the other factors is lacking, the lightwill not go on

      This is a very important point in this paper. It points to the notions of multifactorial causality -- that is, an outcome will more often than not have more than one cause, and one cause is not usually sufficient to result in the effect.