35 Matching Annotations
  1. May 2019
    1. Lithium-ion batteries are key components for most consumer electronics, from cellphones and laptops to electric cars.

      the ions in the lithium is the competent that is found in phones.

    1. Cobalt's primary ores are cobaltite (CoAsS) and erythrite (Co3(AsO4)2). Cobalt is usually recovered as a byproduct of mining and refining nickel, silver, lead, copper and iron.

      this is where cobalt comes from

  2. Mar 2019
    1. When we burn these fossil fuels, the carbon combines with oxygen to make carbon dioxide. This extra carbon dioxide (and other GHGs like methane) traps more and more heat in our atmosphere.

      How we end up making carbon dioxide

    1. Theorem 4.3.

      Generalized law of large numbers extended to a case where the i.i.d. r.v.s have a distribution that changes as we increase the number of samples (although the way it changes is constrained).

      EDIT: see comment

      The reason this is nontrivial is that the \(\phi(g_i^{\frak{c}t})\) have a distribution that changes with \(t\), although it approaches a limit. So it is different from the standard law of large numbers.

      In words, here we are saying that the empirical averages as we increase \(t\) approach (almost surely) the expected value of \(Z\) distributed according to the limit distribution of \(\phi(g_i^{\frak{c}t})\)

    2. zN(c;Kc)

      \(\mu^\frak{c}\) is the vector of means of the tuple of \(i\)th components of the vectors in the argument of either \(\mathtt{f}^a\) or \(\mathtt{f}^b\), and \(K^\frac{c}\) is the covariance matrix of this tuple/vector.

      Note (also useful for the above definition) that we are defining means and covariances for any individual component of the vectors \(\mathtt{g}\). That is, we are describing the distribution of \(\mathtt{g}^{\frak{c}}_i=(\mathtt{g}^l_i)_{g^l\in\frak{c}}\) for any \(i\). Different tuples of components are independently distributed, as explained in a comment in the beggining of the Setup section above

    3. gcinti N(cint;Kcint)for eachi;j

      Note the subscript \(i\), so this is the distribution for the tuple of the \(i\)th components of all the Invecs in \(\frac{c}\).

      We therefore allow the \(i\)th component of two different Invecs to be correlated (useful to model the distribution of the first hidden layer, as per the usual NNGP analysis). But we don't allow different components of Invecs, \(g_i^{lt}\) and \(g_j^{mt}\) for \(i\neq j\), to be correlated.

      Thre is a typo, it should say for each \(i\).

  3. Nov 2018
    1. Explaining Deep Learning Models - A Bayesian Non-parametric Approach

      无疑,讨论模型可解释性的 paper 总是让人充满好奇的。 文中说前人据网络的 output 形成了两种解释思路:whitebox/blackbox explanation。此文提出了新black-box方法(general sensitivity level of a target model to specific input dimensions) 通过建立 DMM-MEN。

    2. Local Explanation Methods for Deep Neural Networks Lack Sensitivity to Parameter Values

      This paper shows that local explanations for DNNs with random-initialized weights are qualitatively and quantitatively similar to explanations produced by DNNs with learned weights.

      • Pros:

      The paper is clear, the problem is well stated and the method is sound.

      • Cons:

      The impact of the findings in this paper is unclear. Perhaps the most important point made in the paper is the importance of the architecture over fine-tuning of the weights for explanation tasks (and more in general).

      其实 goodfellow 这文章篇幅很短,可视化图像的效果是很棒的!

    1. One instructor's use of Slack, comparing and contrasting other LMS (but he used Canvas); good basic breakdown of the conversational tools and samples of how hey can be used; This is a great primer of Slack's use in the classroom (5/5)

  4. Aug 2018
    1. Please don't post in the "Public" group- join the HST271 group on hypothes.is and you will see a drop-down menu appear which offers the option to "Post to HST271"

  5. May 2018
    1. Maximum number of hours of work is fixed  Extra payment over and above the fixed wage for Overtime.  One day off for every seven days of work

      Main clauses of the act - specifics of what the act entails

  6. Mar 2018
  7. www.indiacode.nic.in www.indiacode.nic.in
    1. vending zone” means an area or a place or a location designated as such bythe local authority, on the recommendations of the Town Vending Committee, for thespecific use by street vendors for street vending and includes footpath, side walk,pavement, embankment, portions of a street, waiting area for public or any such placeconsidered suitable for vending activities and providing services to the general public.

      Used in the booklet on Pg 19 as: " The BBMP too cannot evict street vendors. The law is clear that BBMP has to first conduct a survey of all street vendors, and then issue ID Cards. Till then, no one can be evicted ir relocated. The BBMP has also issued a note about this. While clearing footpaths, the BBMP cannot violate the Street Vendors Act. Any move to evict is thus against the law!"

    2. No street vendor shall be evicted or, as the case may be, relocated till the surveyspecified under sub-section (1) has been completed and the certificate of vending is issuedto all street vendors.

      Used in the graphic booklet on Pg 7 as "The police department has issued a circular - no street vendor can be evicted or relocated until the BBMP conducts a survey of all the street vendors and issues ID cards. Any move to evict is against the new law"

      Also as

      Used in the booklet on Pg 19 as: " The BBMP too cannot evict street vendors. The law is clear that BBMP has to first conduct a survey of all street vendors, and then issue ID Cards. Till then, no one can be evicted ir relocated. The BBMP has also issued a note about this. While clearing footpaths, the BBMP cannot violate the Street Vendors Act. Any move to evict is thus against the law!"

    3. No street vendor shall be relocated or evicted by the local authority from the placespecified in the certificate of vending unless he has been given thirty days’ notice for thesame in such manner as may be specified in the scheme.

      Used in the booklet on Pg 17 as: "What if shopkeepers or residents threaten to move us out of the footpath?"

      Also as

      Used in the booklet on Pg 17 as: "Shops and houses have the right to ensure that access to their house or gate is not blocked" said Neela. If we don't block that, we are not doing any wrong. Discuss problems amicable. If they insist you vacate for no reason, tell them that only BBMP can regulate vending and talk to the union. Sometimes the police files a petty case against vendors - under Section 92 (G) of Karnataka Police Act or Section 283 of IPC. If this happens, just don't pay the fine - if you pay it is as though you are guilty. Street Vending is not a crime - it is pakka legal. Tell the police that you would like to challenge the case in court and talk to the union. In fact, the office of the police commissioner has issued a circular ordering its officers to learn about the act."

    4. The appropriate Government may constitute one or more committees consistingof a Chairperson who has been a civil judge or a judicial magistrate and two other professionalshaving such experience as may be prescribed for the purpose of deciding the applicationsreceived under sub-section (2)

      Used in the booklet on Pg 17 as: "Shops and houses have the right to ensure that access to their house or gate is not blocked" said Neela. If we don't block that, we are not doing any wrong. Discuss problems amicable. If they insist you vacate for no reason, tell them that only BBMP can regulate vending and talk to the union. Sometimes the police files a petty case against vendors - under Section 92 (G) of Karnataka Police Act or Section 283 of IPC. If this happens, just don't pay the fine - if you pay it is as though you are guilty. Street Vending is not a crime - it is pakka legal. Tell the police that you would like to challenge the case in court and talk to the union. In fact, the office of the police commissioner has issued a circular ordering its officers to learn about the act."

    5. Notwithstanding anything contained in any other law for the time being in force,no street vendor who carries on the street vending activities in accordance with the termsand conditions of his certificate of vending shall be prevented from exercising such rights byany person or police or any other authority exercising powers under any other law for thetime being in force

      Used in the booklet on Pg 17 as: "Asking for hafta is illegal. Even the Supreme Court lamented this injustice. This is what the court said: 'Street Vendors are harassed a lot and are constantly victimized by the officials of local authorities, the police etc. who regularly target them for extra income and treat them with extreme contempt. Perhaps these minions in the administration have not understood the meaning of the term 'dignity' enshrined in the preamble of the constitution."

    6. Each Town Vending Committee shall consist of

      Used in the booklet on Pg15 as: "To conduct the survey, BBMP will create a town vending committee, with at least 40% members as street vendors, and rest from the Municipality, police, NGOs, RWAS wtc. Therefore according to the law atleast 40% members should be street vendors"

    7. The Town Vending Committee shall, within such period and in such manner asmay be specified in the scheme, conduct a survey of all existing street vendors, within thearea under its jursidiction, and subsequent survey shall be carried out at least once in everyfive years.

      Used in the booklet on Pg15 as: "The BBMP has to first conduct a survey of all the street vendors in the city."

    8. t extends to the whole of India except the State of Jammu and Kashmir.

      Used in the booklet on Pg 14 as: "The new law says you have a right to vend anywhere in the country"

    9. It shall come into force on such date as the Central Government may, by notificationin the Official Gazette, appoint; and different dates may be appointed for different States andany reference in any provision to the commencement of this Act shall be construed inrelation to any State as a reference to the coming into force of that provision in that State.

      Used in the booklet on Pg 13 along with some background into how the act came about as: "There was no law specifically for street vendors," said Neela. "Several unions protested for a long time. First, a national level policy was launched in 2009. The in 2013, an important case was fought in the supreme court by Maharashtra Ekta Hawkers Union. It was a union of people like you and me. And in the 2014, the Street Vendors Act of 2014 became a new law. The law says street vending is your right."

    10. This Act may be called the Street Vendors (Protection of Livelihood and Regulationof Street Vending) Act, 2014.

      Used in the graphic booklet on Pg 7, Pg 10, Pg 12 as " In 2014, the government of India passed a law saying street vending is a lawful activity. No one can stop you from vending" -- This is the main point reiterated through out the booklet in different ways

  8. Dec 2017
    1. Nearly everyone would agree that deceiving research participants and then subjecting them to physical harm would not be justified by filling a small gap in the research literature.

      Sentence addresses complicated issue. Phrasing "small gap in literature" sounds subjective. Would be helpful to expand this idea.

  9. Oct 2017
    1. Every so often we find ourselves talking about what we want for their future and what they might want for themselves, asking ourselves, in so many words: how badly do we want them to go to Harvard? I don’t know if either of my children will have the inclination or the résumé to do so; my position, as a parent, is that Harvard would be lucky to have them

      This part shows her own first thoughts about what she wants for her children in life and how they could lead a successful one.

  10. Mar 2017
    1. There are a number of possible explanations for this unanticipated result. First, union members may have a higher level of dissatisfaction with the organisation and management processes (Freeman and Medoff, 1984: 21; Bryson et al., 2004), including communications and participative arrangements, and therefore perceive less favourably their degree of influence within the organisation (Kleinman, 2000: 403–404) or the degree of managerial responsiveness (Bryson et al., 2006). Bryson (2004) found that union members had a higher level of job dissatisfaction than non-union workers but that after an extensive array of control variables were included, no significant negative relationship was found. This finding, they suggested, may well be due to a selection bias on the part of employees. Employees who had higher aspirations for their working life may be more likely to join a union. This proposition resonates well in the case of PSR, where some 63.8 per cent of unionised employees indicated that a major reason for joining the union was because they wanted to have a say in matters affecting their working life. Unions themselves may also contribute to this dissatisfaction by raising employee expectations that they are unable to meet (see also discussion on ‘consciousness raising’ in Guest and Conway, 2004: 115–116) and by providing their members with considerable information about problems within the organisation and the problems they are encountering with management. This is likely to be part of the explanation for the findings of this research as at the time of the survey, PSR management were keen to introduce a performance-related pay scheme which had led to an active campaign of opposition by the union.A second explanation is that union members may have higher expectations of voice. Employees join unions for a variety of reasons (Peetz, 1998), but overall, they expect unions to make a difference to their working lives. As Bryson and Freeman (2007: 84) found, ‘unionised workers reported more problems with management’ than non-union workers. In the case of PSR, the major reasons for employees joining the union were a belief in unions, wanting to have a say in things that affect their working life and a belief that unions generate better wages and conditions. Clearly, these union members had high expectations concerning voice. Yet, it was also the case that these expectations were not being met. Improved wages and working conditions were becoming harder to achieve as the enterprise bargaining system, with its emphasis on productivity improvements, had led to trade-offs involving redundancies, a decline in wage relativities with the private sector, and the possibility of a new performance-based pay scheme being introduced.A third explanation is that the overall focus within PSR at the time of the research had shifted from curiosity-led to commercially-driven research with an emphasis on productivity and efficiency. For employees of PSR, most of who were accustomed to the more protected working environment of the public sector, this meant that external factors were now driving research, and the scientific arguments used in the past for justifying research projects were becoming less important. In this environment, the value of union membership was becoming more marginal as union members had less protection than that of the past in the case of redundancies and adverse performance appraisals. In addition, other benefits of union membership such as access to grievance procedures were available to all employees regardless of their union status. It may also have been the case that management's approach to reform, for example the introduction of a performance-based pay scheme that ran counter to the wishes of union members and past practices, may have led many unionists to believe they were being targeted. In this context, the tense state of the relationship between management and the union may have created a negative perception of collective union voice (Freeman and Medoff, 1984).
  11. Jan 2017
    1. The key is know that the curse exists.  To be able to recognize the challenge before you.

      As a Software Engineer, I can only say: Been there, done that!

      Indeed, knowing about it helps a lot! Awareness is the key.

  12. Jun 2016
    1. directions with largest variances in ourmeasurement space contain the dynamics of interes

      We seek new features (new directions) which best contain the information (variance) of interest.

      Amount of variance -> amount of information.

    2. rotation and a stretch
    3. how do we get from this data

      How to reduce the 6D data set to a 1D data set? How to discover the regularities in the data set and achieve dimensionality reduction?

    4. our measurements might not even be 90o

      The features are not orthogonal. Information brought by distinct measurements is overlapping.

    5. non-parametric method

      It does not make any assumptions about the distribution of the data.

      r-tutor, Non-parametric methods

      PSU, Non-parametric methods

    6. ball’s position in a three-dimensional space

      ball's position = a data sample

      three-dimensional space = the feature space, with 3 x 2 features (because each camera records in 2D). Time dimension not recorded since it is, actually, the index of a data sample.

      Some of these features (dimensions) are not necessary (they are redundant).

  13. Jan 2014
    1. H o w t o R e a d O p i n i o n s

      This section on how to read judicial opinions helpfully describes the components of what an opinion contains and some discussion of the challenges in identifying those components within the structure of the opinion.

      The components identified here are:

      • caption/name of parties
      • name of the court
      • date of the opinion
      • date of oral arguments in appellate cases
      • citation information
      • name of judge(s) who wrote the opinion
      • case history
      • procedural posture (stage at which opinion was issued)
      • information about facts of the case (especially for trial court opinions)
      • statement of legal issues involved
      • the holding (decision about the issues)
      • the judge's reasoning