132 Matching Annotations
  1. Last 7 days
  2. Oct 2020
    1. One of the significant differences between the two is that a call to a partially applied function returns the result right away, not another function down the currying chain; this distinction can be illustrated clearly for functions whose arity is greater than two.
    2. As such, curry is more suitably defined as an operation which, in many theoretical cases, is often applied recursively, but which is theoretically indistinguishable (when considered as an operation) from a partial application.
    1. Not all application state belongs inside your application's component hierarchy. Sometimes, you'll have values that need to be accessed by multiple unrelated components, or by a regular JavaScript module.
    2. A store is simply an object with a subscribe method that allows interested parties to be notified whenever the store value changes. In App.svelte, count is a store, and we're setting count_value in the count.subscribe callback.
    1. Just like elements can have children... <div> <p>I'm a child of the div</p> </div>...so can components. Before a component can accept children, though, it needs to know where to put them. We do this with the <slot> element.
    1. virtual-dom is a collection of modules designed to provide a declarative way of representing the DOM for your app. So instead of updating the DOM when your application state changes, you simply create a virtual tree or VTree, which looks like the DOM state that you want. virtual-dom will then figure out how to make the DOM look like this efficiently without recreating all of the DOM nodes.
    1. Escaping is a subset of encoding: You only encode certain characters by prefixing a special character instead of transferring (typically all or many) characters to another representation.
    1. To practice alternative media as critical media allows to question rulingideas and to contribute to the realization of suppressed societal alternatives. Such alternatives are based on the vision of atruly democratic society without oppression, in which grassroots participation is not restricted to interaction, but shapes allrealms of society.

      Why is this critique important. Positions itself into an ideology of radical humanism.

    2. The minimum requirement for speaking of an alternative medium is critical content and/orcomplex form.

      SETS A NEW CRITERIA FOR DEFINING ALTERNATIVE MEDIUM -

      IT'S TIED TO CONTENT THAT CRITICIZE SOCIETAL CONSTRUCTS AND IS MORE EXTENSIVE IN ITS FORMAT THAN THE MAINSTREAM.

    3. Critical media are negative in so far as they relate phenomena to societal problems, to what societyhas failed to become and to tendencies that question and contradict the dominant and dominative mode of societal opera-tion and have the potential to become positive forces of change towards a better society. Critical media in one or the otherrespect take the standpoint of oppressed groups or exploited classes and make the judgement that structures of oppressionand exploitation benefit certain classes at the expense of others and hence should be radically transformed by social strug-gles. They aim at advancing social struggles that transform society towards the realization of co-operative and participatorypotentials.

      Explains why it's important to produce media that is critical of societal problems and the effects of being critical. .

    4. alternative media at some levels can also employ capitalist tech-niques of media production in order to advance their political aims.

      Alt media bust break from the ideal-type to use "capitalist structures" to its benefit.

    5. Realizing an ideal model of alternative media presupposes different societal conditions. This means that itrequires that people have enough time and skills for not only consuming, but also producing media content and that thenecessary technologies for media production are freely available.

      Authors discuss the societal, economic constraints around an ideal model of alternative media.

      They cannot reach a broad audience So they cannot effect much transformation politically

    6. ‘Alternative med-ia” should be discussed in relation to the role they play in capitalism and therefore in the context of capitalism.

      Supports the author's thesis.

    7. Giving ordinary peoplea voice by opening up access to media production is not enough for a truly democratic media system to emerge. Participationremains very limited if people can only talk but are not heard. Thus, the discussion on emancipatory media potentials alsohas to consider structural inequalities as a central feature of capitalism.

      The authors summarize the idea that access to production isn't enough to democratize the media. (again, this appears to be just wrong based on today's evidence)

    8. Public visibility is still stratified through powerrelations.

      False, doesn't include observations about influencers and their role in increasing visibility of alternative points of view.

    9. alternative media are not located outside the capitalist system and therefore are dependent on financial resources for theproduction and distribution of their products, which can hardly be obtained without making use of commercial mechanismsof financing.

      To be alternative doesn't signify separateness.

    10. reporting about topics, which capitalist mass media tend to neglect and by criticizing structures ofdomination and oppression. Such alternative media need to gain public attentio

      The author advocates for a media the covers alternative topics and that evaluates existing societal constructs and presents different points of view than what's in the mainstream.

    11. lack of re-sources

      Can't compete financially

    12. remain margina

      Here the authors begin to support the criticism that alternative media is niche and won't have much effect on broader society.

    Tags

    Annotators

    1. Any variable referenced on the lines marked with $: is marked as a dependency of the derived variable.
    2. It's possible to run a function whenever some reactive state changes using the useEffect hook. In the example we log the length of the todoList whenever it changes. The first argument to useEffect is the function we want to run, and the second is a list of reactive values to track - whenever one of these values changes the effect will run again.
  3. Sep 2020
    1. using modulesOnly behaves exactly as expected when it warns you that the listed npm libraries do not use the ES6 format and are in fact ignored. This option is meant as a way to determine if you still have commonjs libraries in your dependencies that require special treatment via rollup-plugin-commonjs. Your code will probably not work since the listed dependencies will be missing. You should remove modulesOnly and instead add rollup-plugin-commonjs.
    1. The difference between default and named affects how other people can consume your bundle. If you use default, a CommonJS user could do this, for example:

      include the following content

    2. In other words for those tools, you cannot create a package interface where const lib = require("your-lib") yields the same as import lib from "your-lib". With named export mode however, const {lib} = require("your-lib") will be equivalent to import {lib} from "your-lib".
    1. globals are assumed to have their field value on the window object and can be referenced inside the bundle by their field name globals: { name: 'Value', }, assumes that some other script tag or whatever establishes window.Value and the emitted umd bundle for example, calls the factory like factory(global.Value). So globals is just stuff to bring into the factory on the globals object. It doesn't even make it "global" inside the bundle. Basically, the resolver does not check the globals object during the loading process. The resolver needs to be told how to link these globals and that's what the external option is for. external: ['name'], Then you can reference it like import myName from 'name'; myName();
    2. we've learned why you might want to use external but not globals: libraries. We've started to factor some of our client-side JS as libraries to share between projects. These libraries import $ from 'jquery'. However they don't want to presume how that import might be "fulfilled". In most projects it's fulfilled from a global i.e. a script loaded from a CDN. However in one project it's fulfilled from a local copy of jQuery for reasons I won't get into. So when these libraries bundle themselves for distribution, as ES6 modules, they mark 'jquery' as an external and not as a global. This leaves the import statements in the bundle. (Warning: Don't bundle as an IIFE or UMD, or Rollup will guess at fulfilling the import from a global, as @Rich-Harris mentions above.)
  4. Aug 2020
  5. Jul 2020
  6. Jun 2020
  7. May 2020
    1. In depth
    2. The Analytics JavaScript Tag When a JavaScript-enabled web browser loads a page with the Analytics tag (ga.js or analytics.js), it does two things asynchronously: load and process the Analytics function queue and request the Analytics JavaScript. The function queue is a JavaScript array where the different Analytics configuration and collection functions are pushed. These functions, which are set by the site owner when implementing Analytics can include functions like specifying the Analytics account number and actually sending page view data to the Analytics Collection Network for processing. When the Analytics JavaScript runs a function from the function queue that triggers data to be sent to the Analytics Collection Network (this function is typically ga('send', 'pageview') in the analytics.js JavaScript library and _trackPageview in the ga.js library), it sends the data as URL parameters attached to an HTTP request for http://www.google-analytics.com/_utm.gif (for ga.js) and http://www.google-analytics.com/collect (for analytics.js). If the anonymization function has been called prior to the page tracking function, an additional parameter is added to the pixel request. The IP anonymization parameter looks like this: &aip=1 The Analytics Collection Network The Analytics Collection Network is the set of servers that provide two main services: the serving of ga.js and analytics.js (the Analytics JavaScript) and the collection of data sent via requests for _utm.gif and /collect. When a request for ga.js, analytics.js, _utm.gif, or /collect arrives, it includes additional information in the HTTP request header (i.e. the type of browser being used) and the TCP/IP header (i.e. the IP address of the requester). As soon as a request for _utm.gif arrives, it is held in memory for anonymization. If the &aip=1 parameter is found in the request URL (as it would have been placed by the Analytics JavaScript after processing the anonymization function in ga.js or analytics.js ), then the last octet of the user IP address is set to zero while still in memory. For example, an IP address of 12.214.31.144 would be changed to 12.214.31.0. (If the IP address is an IPv6 address, the last 80 of the 128 bits are set to zero.) Only after this anonymization process is the request written to disk for processing. If the IP anonymization method is used, then at no time is the full IP address written to disk as all anonymization happens in memory nearly instantaneously after the request has been received.
  8. developer.chrome.com developer.chrome.com
    1. If a user clicks on that button, the onclick script will not execute. This is because the script did not immediately execute and code not interpreted until the click event occurs is not considered part of the content script, so the CSP of the page (not of the extension) restricts its behavior. And since that CSP does not specify unsafe-inline, the inline event handler is blocked.
    1. This topic is not a support question

      This is hard to answer because I don't know what they classify as a "support question". For example, are bugs classified as a support question? So if it's a bug, should I check this or no?

      What is the purpose of this checkbox? If you could describe that, it would make it much easier to answer the question.

    1. whose personal data you collect and process as “controller” (that is the word that GDPR uses for whoever determines the purposes and means of the processing of personal data).
    2. If you’re selling products and keep record of users’ choices for marketing purposes, dividing them into meaningful categories, such as by age, gender, geographical origin etc., you’re profiling them.
  9. Apr 2020
    1. English tends to build new compound nouns by simply writing them as separate words with a blank. Once the compound is established (and the original parts somewhat "forgotten"), it's often written as one word or hyphenated. (Examples: shoelaces, aircraft...)
    1. A website (also written as web site) is a collection of web pages and related content that is identified by a common domain name and published on at least one web server
    1. In math, idempotence describes only unary functions that you can call on their own output. Math-idempotence is, “If you take the absolute value of a number, and then you take the absolute value of that, the result doesn’t change on the second (or subsequent) operations.” Math.abs is math-idempotent. Math-idempotence only applies to functions of one parameter where the parameter type and return type are the same. Not so useful in programming.
    1. Since the authenticity token is stored in the session, the client cannot know its value. This prevents people from submitting forms to a Rails app without viewing the form within that app itself. Imagine that you are using service A, you logged into the service and everything is ok. Now imagine that you went to use service B, and you saw a picture you like, and pressed on the picture to view a larger size of it. Now, if some evil code was there at service B, it might send a request to service A (which you are logged into), and ask to delete your account, by sending a request to http://serviceA.com/close_account. This is what is known as CSRF (Cross Site Request Forgery). If service A is using authenticity tokens, this attack vector is no longer applicable, since the request from service B would not contain the correct authenticity token, and will not be allowed to continue.
    1. Watts, D. J., Beck, E. D., Bienenstock, E. J., Bowers, J., Frank, A., Grubesic, A., Hofman, J., Rohrer, J. M., & Salganik, M. (2018). Explanation, prediction, and causality: Three sides of the same coin? [Preprint]. Open Science Framework. https://doi.org/10.31219/osf.io/u6vz5

  10. Mar 2020
    1. The process of collecting and storing user consent from a technical perspective
    2. First-party cookies are the lifeblood of every website, enabling businesses to remember key pieces of information about users and to collect analytics data. Third-party cookies are the bread and butter of AdTech, allowing publishers to monetize their websites, and brands to run advertising and marketing campaigns.
    1. They are in place to prevent brute forcing a password. If you had to complete these every time you login, a person has to be there to answer it. This makes it so you can’t leave a guessing software to break your password. So, in short, it's for your account’s safety.
    1. The visitors of that blog post will get third-party non-essential cookies unless they previously set their browser to block cookies.
    1. the feature was dropped to “lack of use.”

      I don't find the reason "lack of use" sufficient in its own right. (I personally didn't use this feature.) People might not use it because they don't know about. And those that do use may find it extremely useful; it's not their fault if others don't know about it or use. It seems to discriminate a bit against the minority who may use a useful feature. They would rather be in the majority, safe from having one of their favorite features removed.

      But I do understand and appreciate the good explanation given below.

  11. Feb 2020
  12. Jan 2020
    1. Europium is used in the printing of euro banknotes. It glows red under UV light, and forgeries can be detected by the lack of this red glow.

      When they scan a bill they are looking for the europium flash.

    2. Low-energy light bulbs contain a little europium to give a more natural light, by balancing the blue (cold) light with a little red (warm) light.
  13. Dec 2019
    1. So if you create one backup per night, for example with a cronjob, then this retention policy gives you 512 days of retention. This is useful but this can require to much disk space, that is why we have included a non-linear distribution policy. In short, we keep only the oldest backup in the range 257-512, and also in the range 129-256, and so on. This exponential distribution in time of the backups retains more backups in the short term and less in the long term; it keeps only 10 or 11 backups but spans a retention of 257-512 days.
    1. Neutrino only babel-compiles first party source (the JSX -> JS transformation is handled by a babel plugin). It does this because even when using the module entry in package.json, it's expected that the provided file (and it's imports) still be JS and not in some other format - ie: the only difference from the content in main should be that it can use modules syntax (that is import and export rather than require etc).

      module version compared to main version:

      only difference from the content in main should be that it can use modules syntax (that is import and export rather than require etc).

      You can see the difference in this example: https://unpkg.com/browse/reactstrap@8.0.1/es/Alert.js ("module": "es/index.js": import) vs. https://unpkg.com/browse/reactstrap@8.0.1/lib/Alert.js ("main": "lib/index.js": require)

    1. A UMD build will let people use your module via a global variable by dropping it into a <script> tag - this makes it easier to try without any build tooling in an HTML file, and in tools like JS Bin and CodePen.
  14. Nov 2019
    1. They called it a deep dive here:

      Originally published in the react-playbook.

    2. Oh, is it like Object.assign() then? Almost like Object.assign({}, divElement, {newProp: 'newProp'})?

      React.cloneElement(divElement, {newProp: 'newProp'})

      is a lot like

      Object.assign({}, divElement, {newProp: 'newProp'})?

    3. React.cloneElement() allows us to clone a runtime element (not the class), and apply an enhancement to it.
    1. The terms “controlled” and “uncontrolled” usually refer to form inputs, but they can also describe where any component’s data lives. Data passed in as props can be thought of as controlled (because the parent component controls that data). Data that exists only in internal state can be thought of as uncontrolled (because the parent can’t directly change it).
  15. Oct 2019
    1. well explained article
    2. Rack middleware is more than "a way to filter a request and response" - it's an implementation of the pipeline design pattern for web servers using Rack. It very cleanly separates out the different stages of processing a request - separation of concerns being a key goal of all well designed software products.
    1. It would be safer to just register the JS entrypoints and automatically add CSS packs if there are any required by that JS. Webpacker does this already. Check your webpacker.yml and ensure that extract_css is false. This will prevent webpacker from separating the 2 files.
    1. You probably have extract_css: true in your webpacker.yml. This removes import '../scss/index'; and generates the equivalent style sheet. You do need to add stylesheet_pack_tag yourself.
    2. When you do import '../src/application.css', you're telling webpack include application.css in the build. This does not mean it's going to be compiled into your javascript, only that webpack now knows that you want to compile this file. How that file compilation is handled is depending on how your loaders (css-loader, sass-loader, file-loader, etc.. ) are configured.
    1. React is hanging on to a reference to previous functions because memoization typically means that we keep copies of old values to return in the event we get the same dependencies as given previously
  16. Sep 2019
  17. May 2019
    1. business incubator

      A company that helps new and startup companies to develop by providing services such as management training or office space.

    2. Reagan years

      A past American politician

    1. Lithium-ion batteries are key components for most consumer electronics, from cellphones and laptops to electric cars.

      the ions in the lithium is the competent that is found in phones.

    1. Cobalt's primary ores are cobaltite (CoAsS) and erythrite (Co3(AsO4)2). Cobalt is usually recovered as a byproduct of mining and refining nickel, silver, lead, copper and iron.

      this is where cobalt comes from

  18. Mar 2019
    1. When we burn these fossil fuels, the carbon combines with oxygen to make carbon dioxide. This extra carbon dioxide (and other GHGs like methane) traps more and more heat in our atmosphere.

      How we end up making carbon dioxide

    1. Theorem 4.3.

      Generalized law of large numbers extended to a case where the i.i.d. r.v.s have a distribution that changes as we increase the number of samples (although the way it changes is constrained).

      EDIT: see comment

      The reason this is nontrivial is that the \(\phi(g_i^{\frak{c}t})\) have a distribution that changes with \(t\), although it approaches a limit. So it is different from the standard law of large numbers.

      In words, here we are saying that the empirical averages as we increase \(t\) approach (almost surely) the expected value of \(Z\) distributed according to the limit distribution of \(\phi(g_i^{\frak{c}t})\)

    2. zN(c;Kc)

      \(\mu^\frak{c}\) is the vector of means of the tuple of \(i\)th components of the vectors in the argument of either \(\mathtt{f}^a\) or \(\mathtt{f}^b\), and \(K^\frac{c}\) is the covariance matrix of this tuple/vector.

      Note (also useful for the above definition) that we are defining means and covariances for any individual component of the vectors \(\mathtt{g}\). That is, we are describing the distribution of \(\mathtt{g}^{\frak{c}}_i=(\mathtt{g}^l_i)_{g^l\in\frak{c}}\) for any \(i\). Different tuples of components are independently distributed, as explained in a comment in the beggining of the Setup section above

    3. gcinti N(cint;Kcint)for eachi;j

      Note the subscript \(i\), so this is the distribution for the tuple of the \(i\)th components of all the Invecs in \(\frac{c}\).

      We therefore allow the \(i\)th component of two different Invecs to be correlated (useful to model the distribution of the first hidden layer, as per the usual NNGP analysis). But we don't allow different components of Invecs, \(g_i^{lt}\) and \(g_j^{mt}\) for \(i\neq j\), to be correlated.

      Thre is a typo, it should say for each \(i\).

  19. Nov 2018
    1. Explaining Deep Learning Models - A Bayesian Non-parametric Approach

      无疑,讨论模型可解释性的 paper 总是让人充满好奇的。 文中说前人据网络的 output 形成了两种解释思路:whitebox/blackbox explanation。此文提出了新black-box方法(general sensitivity level of a target model to specific input dimensions) 通过建立 DMM-MEN。

    2. Local Explanation Methods for Deep Neural Networks Lack Sensitivity to Parameter Values

      This paper shows that local explanations for DNNs with random-initialized weights are qualitatively and quantitatively similar to explanations produced by DNNs with learned weights.

      • Pros:

      The paper is clear, the problem is well stated and the method is sound.

      • Cons:

      The impact of the findings in this paper is unclear. Perhaps the most important point made in the paper is the importance of the architecture over fine-tuning of the weights for explanation tasks (and more in general).

      其实 goodfellow 这文章篇幅很短,可视化图像的效果是很棒的!

    1. One instructor's use of Slack, comparing and contrasting other LMS (but he used Canvas); good basic breakdown of the conversational tools and samples of how hey can be used; This is a great primer of Slack's use in the classroom (5/5)

  20. Aug 2018
    1. Please don't post in the "Public" group- join the HST271 group on hypothes.is and you will see a drop-down menu appear which offers the option to "Post to HST271"

  21. May 2018
    1. Maximum number of hours of work is fixed  Extra payment over and above the fixed wage for Overtime.  One day off for every seven days of work

      Main clauses of the act - specifics of what the act entails

  22. Mar 2018
  23. www.indiacode.nic.in www.indiacode.nic.in
    1. vending zone” means an area or a place or a location designated as such bythe local authority, on the recommendations of the Town Vending Committee, for thespecific use by street vendors for street vending and includes footpath, side walk,pavement, embankment, portions of a street, waiting area for public or any such placeconsidered suitable for vending activities and providing services to the general public.

      Used in the booklet on Pg 19 as: " The BBMP too cannot evict street vendors. The law is clear that BBMP has to first conduct a survey of all street vendors, and then issue ID Cards. Till then, no one can be evicted ir relocated. The BBMP has also issued a note about this. While clearing footpaths, the BBMP cannot violate the Street Vendors Act. Any move to evict is thus against the law!"

    2. No street vendor shall be evicted or, as the case may be, relocated till the surveyspecified under sub-section (1) has been completed and the certificate of vending is issuedto all street vendors.

      Used in the graphic booklet on Pg 7 as "The police department has issued a circular - no street vendor can be evicted or relocated until the BBMP conducts a survey of all the street vendors and issues ID cards. Any move to evict is against the new law"

      Also as

      Used in the booklet on Pg 19 as: " The BBMP too cannot evict street vendors. The law is clear that BBMP has to first conduct a survey of all street vendors, and then issue ID Cards. Till then, no one can be evicted ir relocated. The BBMP has also issued a note about this. While clearing footpaths, the BBMP cannot violate the Street Vendors Act. Any move to evict is thus against the law!"

    3. No street vendor shall be relocated or evicted by the local authority from the placespecified in the certificate of vending unless he has been given thirty days’ notice for thesame in such manner as may be specified in the scheme.

      Used in the booklet on Pg 17 as: "What if shopkeepers or residents threaten to move us out of the footpath?"

      Also as

      Used in the booklet on Pg 17 as: "Shops and houses have the right to ensure that access to their house or gate is not blocked" said Neela. If we don't block that, we are not doing any wrong. Discuss problems amicable. If they insist you vacate for no reason, tell them that only BBMP can regulate vending and talk to the union. Sometimes the police files a petty case against vendors - under Section 92 (G) of Karnataka Police Act or Section 283 of IPC. If this happens, just don't pay the fine - if you pay it is as though you are guilty. Street Vending is not a crime - it is pakka legal. Tell the police that you would like to challenge the case in court and talk to the union. In fact, the office of the police commissioner has issued a circular ordering its officers to learn about the act."

    4. The appropriate Government may constitute one or more committees consistingof a Chairperson who has been a civil judge or a judicial magistrate and two other professionalshaving such experience as may be prescribed for the purpose of deciding the applicationsreceived under sub-section (2)

      Used in the booklet on Pg 17 as: "Shops and houses have the right to ensure that access to their house or gate is not blocked" said Neela. If we don't block that, we are not doing any wrong. Discuss problems amicable. If they insist you vacate for no reason, tell them that only BBMP can regulate vending and talk to the union. Sometimes the police files a petty case against vendors - under Section 92 (G) of Karnataka Police Act or Section 283 of IPC. If this happens, just don't pay the fine - if you pay it is as though you are guilty. Street Vending is not a crime - it is pakka legal. Tell the police that you would like to challenge the case in court and talk to the union. In fact, the office of the police commissioner has issued a circular ordering its officers to learn about the act."

    5. Notwithstanding anything contained in any other law for the time being in force,no street vendor who carries on the street vending activities in accordance with the termsand conditions of his certificate of vending shall be prevented from exercising such rights byany person or police or any other authority exercising powers under any other law for thetime being in force

      Used in the booklet on Pg 17 as: "Asking for hafta is illegal. Even the Supreme Court lamented this injustice. This is what the court said: 'Street Vendors are harassed a lot and are constantly victimized by the officials of local authorities, the police etc. who regularly target them for extra income and treat them with extreme contempt. Perhaps these minions in the administration have not understood the meaning of the term 'dignity' enshrined in the preamble of the constitution."

    6. Each Town Vending Committee shall consist of

      Used in the booklet on Pg15 as: "To conduct the survey, BBMP will create a town vending committee, with at least 40% members as street vendors, and rest from the Municipality, police, NGOs, RWAS wtc. Therefore according to the law atleast 40% members should be street vendors"

    7. The Town Vending Committee shall, within such period and in such manner asmay be specified in the scheme, conduct a survey of all existing street vendors, within thearea under its jursidiction, and subsequent survey shall be carried out at least once in everyfive years.

      Used in the booklet on Pg15 as: "The BBMP has to first conduct a survey of all the street vendors in the city."

    8. t extends to the whole of India except the State of Jammu and Kashmir.

      Used in the booklet on Pg 14 as: "The new law says you have a right to vend anywhere in the country"

    9. It shall come into force on such date as the Central Government may, by notificationin the Official Gazette, appoint; and different dates may be appointed for different States andany reference in any provision to the commencement of this Act shall be construed inrelation to any State as a reference to the coming into force of that provision in that State.

      Used in the booklet on Pg 13 along with some background into how the act came about as: "There was no law specifically for street vendors," said Neela. "Several unions protested for a long time. First, a national level policy was launched in 2009. The in 2013, an important case was fought in the supreme court by Maharashtra Ekta Hawkers Union. It was a union of people like you and me. And in the 2014, the Street Vendors Act of 2014 became a new law. The law says street vending is your right."

    10. This Act may be called the Street Vendors (Protection of Livelihood and Regulationof Street Vending) Act, 2014.

      Used in the graphic booklet on Pg 7, Pg 10, Pg 12 as " In 2014, the government of India passed a law saying street vending is a lawful activity. No one can stop you from vending" -- This is the main point reiterated through out the booklet in different ways

  24. Dec 2017
    1. Nearly everyone would agree that deceiving research participants and then subjecting them to physical harm would not be justified by filling a small gap in the research literature.

      Sentence addresses complicated issue. Phrasing "small gap in literature" sounds subjective. Would be helpful to expand this idea.

  25. Oct 2017
    1. Every so often we find ourselves talking about what we want for their future and what they might want for themselves, asking ourselves, in so many words: how badly do we want them to go to Harvard? I don’t know if either of my children will have the inclination or the résumé to do so; my position, as a parent, is that Harvard would be lucky to have them

      This part shows her own first thoughts about what she wants for her children in life and how they could lead a successful one.

  26. Mar 2017
    1. There are a number of possible explanations for this unanticipated result. First, union members may have a higher level of dissatisfaction with the organisation and management processes (Freeman and Medoff, 1984: 21; Bryson et al., 2004), including communications and participative arrangements, and therefore perceive less favourably their degree of influence within the organisation (Kleinman, 2000: 403–404) or the degree of managerial responsiveness (Bryson et al., 2006). Bryson (2004) found that union members had a higher level of job dissatisfaction than non-union workers but that after an extensive array of control variables were included, no significant negative relationship was found. This finding, they suggested, may well be due to a selection bias on the part of employees. Employees who had higher aspirations for their working life may be more likely to join a union. This proposition resonates well in the case of PSR, where some 63.8 per cent of unionised employees indicated that a major reason for joining the union was because they wanted to have a say in matters affecting their working life. Unions themselves may also contribute to this dissatisfaction by raising employee expectations that they are unable to meet (see also discussion on ‘consciousness raising’ in Guest and Conway, 2004: 115–116) and by providing their members with considerable information about problems within the organisation and the problems they are encountering with management. This is likely to be part of the explanation for the findings of this research as at the time of the survey, PSR management were keen to introduce a performance-related pay scheme which had led to an active campaign of opposition by the union.A second explanation is that union members may have higher expectations of voice. Employees join unions for a variety of reasons (Peetz, 1998), but overall, they expect unions to make a difference to their working lives. As Bryson and Freeman (2007: 84) found, ‘unionised workers reported more problems with management’ than non-union workers. In the case of PSR, the major reasons for employees joining the union were a belief in unions, wanting to have a say in things that affect their working life and a belief that unions generate better wages and conditions. Clearly, these union members had high expectations concerning voice. Yet, it was also the case that these expectations were not being met. Improved wages and working conditions were becoming harder to achieve as the enterprise bargaining system, with its emphasis on productivity improvements, had led to trade-offs involving redundancies, a decline in wage relativities with the private sector, and the possibility of a new performance-based pay scheme being introduced.A third explanation is that the overall focus within PSR at the time of the research had shifted from curiosity-led to commercially-driven research with an emphasis on productivity and efficiency. For employees of PSR, most of who were accustomed to the more protected working environment of the public sector, this meant that external factors were now driving research, and the scientific arguments used in the past for justifying research projects were becoming less important. In this environment, the value of union membership was becoming more marginal as union members had less protection than that of the past in the case of redundancies and adverse performance appraisals. In addition, other benefits of union membership such as access to grievance procedures were available to all employees regardless of their union status. It may also have been the case that management's approach to reform, for example the introduction of a performance-based pay scheme that ran counter to the wishes of union members and past practices, may have led many unionists to believe they were being targeted. In this context, the tense state of the relationship between management and the union may have created a negative perception of collective union voice (Freeman and Medoff, 1984).
  27. Jan 2017
    1. The key is know that the curse exists.  To be able to recognize the challenge before you.

      As a Software Engineer, I can only say: Been there, done that!

      Indeed, knowing about it helps a lot! Awareness is the key.

  28. Jun 2016
    1. directions with largest variances in ourmeasurement space contain the dynamics of interes

      We seek new features (new directions) which best contain the information (variance) of interest.

      Amount of variance -> amount of information.

    2. rotation and a stretch
    3. how do we get from this data

      How to reduce the 6D data set to a 1D data set? How to discover the regularities in the data set and achieve dimensionality reduction?

    4. our measurements might not even be 90o

      The features are not orthogonal. Information brought by distinct measurements is overlapping.

    5. non-parametric method

      It does not make any assumptions about the distribution of the data.

      r-tutor, Non-parametric methods

      PSU, Non-parametric methods

    6. ball’s position in a three-dimensional space

      ball's position = a data sample

      three-dimensional space = the feature space, with 3 x 2 features (because each camera records in 2D). Time dimension not recorded since it is, actually, the index of a data sample.

      Some of these features (dimensions) are not necessary (they are redundant).

  29. Jan 2014
    1. H o w t o R e a d O p i n i o n s

      This section on how to read judicial opinions helpfully describes the components of what an opinion contains and some discussion of the challenges in identifying those components within the structure of the opinion.

      The components identified here are:

      • caption/name of parties
      • name of the court
      • date of the opinion
      • date of oral arguments in appellate cases
      • citation information
      • name of judge(s) who wrote the opinion
      • case history
      • procedural posture (stage at which opinion was issued)
      • information about facts of the case (especially for trial court opinions)
      • statement of legal issues involved
      • the holding (decision about the issues)
      • the judge's reasoning