44 Matching Annotations
  1. Jun 2022
    1. The major issue with much of the data that can be downloaded from web portals or through APIs is that they come without context or metadata. If you are lucky you might get a paragraph about where the data are from or a data dictionary that describes what each column in a particular spreadsheet means. But more often than not, you get something that looks like figure 6.3.

      I think that the reason behind data's lack of context is the reluctance in making extra column for data's description and the inconsiderate and misleading vision that those in technologies hold when they put forth that data should be clean and concise.

      I encountered the insufficient provision of data multiple times and I found it extremely inconvenient when trying to use downloaded online reports and attached them to my work experiences as a way to illustrate the efficient changes in driving audiences for a social media platform (Facebook). I used to help run an facebook page for a student organization. After being done with the role, I went to the "Insights" section of Facebook, hoping to download the report of increases in Page Likes, Visits, and Interactions during the period that I was an admin of the page. It took me several glitches to download the report (because it was a year-long term). When the pdf file was ready to be viewed, I was surprised, because they did not mention the years I was working, the name of the student organization, and other categorizations that should have been highlighted. Apparently, it's not hard to include the years or even the name because they were included in the filter when I wanted to extract certain part of the report and because it was the source where they took the data from, respectively. This laziness in showing competent data for analysis was desperate, and I had to add extra analysis to it. Even after I finished with the "extra work", I started to question to validity of the report I was downloading. Would it be trustworthy anymore, because without my clarification, no analysis could be made even by a person involved in data science field. Even if they could, it would take them a while to collect other external information before making clear of the data presented to them.

      Understanding and constantly being bothered by this ongoing problem gives me justification to call for a more thorough data translation and presentation process. More questions should be raised and answered regarding what might a user wonder about this dataset when encountering it.

  2. Apr 2022
    1. What other forms of expertise can the company bring in to analyze why sales employees are leaving their jobs?

      The website Forbes offered several pieces of advice for handle the task of rapid employee turnover, and most of them revolve around analyzing the current situation for the true root of the problem. These involved: 1. Offering more ways for current employees to give feedback on what in the company dissatisfies them, either through survey, interview, or ____. And of course, all of this must be free from repercussion. 2. Get feedback from those that have already decided to leave, from forms such as independently held exit-interviews, statistical analysis of what types of people are predominantly leaving the company, and post-employee investigation (that's done within reason)

      https://www.forbes.com/sites/forbescoachescouncil/2019/04/04/have-a-turnover-problem-15-ways-to-find-out-why-employees-are-really-leaving/

    2. Is it possible that zip code distance might be correlated with length of employment but not a causative factor?

      Yes. The original inference she made, that the chief factor originating from the zip-code selection was the commuting distance put those from outside the close proximity white neighborhood at too steep a disadvantage to overcome. However, we should note that being that the people from these rich suburbs often have wealth to their name, a slue of other issues are observable when comparing them with their lower class competitors.

      An example might be the family status of those in these minority rich communities. Lower income neighborhoods often have higher rates of single parents, or parents who can't afford a regular nannie and therefor require tough choices with time. Another might be the fact that their lower income means they might not have a car, or if they do have a car, it is being utilized by their spouse where they can't rely on its availability. Or that due to lack of actual home ownership, drives need to take multiple jobs, or seek income from illegal sources that can cause complications in employment further down the line. Without even needing to request any such info as family status in these resumes, a cacophony of prejudices information can be inferred, just from where they live.

    3. is it even possible for a computer program to discriminate?

      Instance of Google Photos labeling African Americans as Monkeys/Chimpanzees

      https://www.npr.org/sections/alltechconsidered/2016/03/15/470422089/can-computer-programs-be-racist-and-sexist

    4. disparate impact principle of the Civil Rights Act of 1964

      Disparate impact in United States labor law refers to practices in employment, housing, and other areas that adversely affect one group of people of a protected characteristic more than another, even though rules applied by employers or landlords are formally neutral.

      https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Disparate_impact#:~:text=Disparate%20impact%20in%20United%20States,or%20landlords%20are%20formally%20neutral.

    5. disparate impact on minority groups

      Disparate impact in United States labor law refers to practices in employment, housing, and other areas that adversely affect one group of people of a protected characteristic more than another, even though rules applied by employers or landlords are formally neutral.

      https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Disparate_impact#:~:text=Disparate%20impact%20in%20United%20States,or%20landlords%20are%20formally%20neutral.

    6. Sandra notices that 92% of the new sales employees hired have been white

      The 80% test was originally framed by a panel of 32 professionals (called the Technical Advisory Committee on Testing, or TACT) assembled by the State of California Fair Employment Practice Commission (FEPC) in 1971, which published the State of California Guidelines on Employee Selection Procedures in October 1972.

      Originally, the Uniform Guidelines on Employee Selection Procedures provided a simple "80 percent" rule for determining that a company's selection system was having an "adverse impact" on a minority group. The rule was based on the rates at which job applicants were hired. For example, if XYZ Company hired 50 percent of the men applying for work in a predominantly male occupation while hiring only 20 percent of the female applicants, one could look at the ratio of those two hiring rates to judge whether there might be a discrimination problem. The ratio of 20:50 means that the rate of hiring for female applicants is only 40 percent of the rate of hiring for male applicants. That is, 20 divided by 50 equals 0.40, which is equivalent to 40 percent. Clearly, 40 percent is well below the 80 percent that was arbitrarily set as an acceptable difference in hiring rates. Therefore, in this example, XYZ Company could have been called upon to prove that there was a legitimate reason for hiring men at a rate so much higher than the rate of hiring women.

      A 2007 memorandum from the U.S. Equal Employment Opportunities Commission suggests that a more defensible standard would be based on comparing a company's hiring rate of a particular group with the rate that would occur if the company simply selected people at random.[12] In other words, if a company's selection system made it statistically more difficult than pure chance for a member of a certain group, such as women or African-Americans, to get a job, then this could be reasonably viewed as evidence that the selection system was systematically screening out members of that social group.

      https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Disparate_impact#The_80%_rule

  3. Mar 2022
  4. Dec 2021
    1. Because of the Center’s long history, depth of experience across policydomains, and diverse relationships with grassroots partners, this case informsboth theory and practice about the necessary mechanisms for successfulalliances.

      why this particular case contributes to the theory.

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  5. Nov 2021
    1. study social inequality and power.

      Here Murray says the purposed of participant-observation in the study of power inequities.

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    1. it enables researchers to engage with their surround-ings, the community under study, and their own understandingof the way in which the knowledge produced can or will beharnessed by the scholars themselves or policy makers with aninterest in the research and the community.

      Reflexivity.

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    1. addressing therange of claims, demands, and concerns planners

      Fraser's strengths to participatory planning are that it gives planners a way to address citizen concerns. and creates awareness around the challenges of participatory democracy.

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    1. Deepti Gurdasani. (2021, November 1). No- the statement explicitly talks about infection in children being a ‘booster’ to adults i.e. Children infecting adults to protect them against... Infection!🤔 I don’t think there’s any level of cognitive gymnastics that could justify this or make sense of it. [Tweet]. @dgurdasani1. https://twitter.com/dgurdasani1/status/1455106192112500736

  6. Oct 2021
    1. power operates at discursive and structural levels to exclude particular knowledges and experi-ences (Foucault, 1977)

      Relationship of the IBPA to Foucault discursive analysis.

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  7. Sep 2021
    1. The University of Pennsylvania (Penn)

      Why UPenn as the point of examination? Previous research: cass on UPenn's WPI 0 West Philadelphia Initiatives. But NON have looked at the neighborhood impacts Etienne - Among most sign qual research - but narrow subset - not comprehensive - no stats or measures of broader NH Change.

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    1. s. However, in regard to outcomes, I would add two more bench-marks, namely whether (v) the research enables both researchers and respondents to be more fully aware of the issues being investigated; (vi) the poor use the research findings for their own purpose

      Outcomes criteria.

    2. i) they (the poor) define the issues to be researched; (ii) they contribute to deciding how the topic should be researched; (iii) they participate in collecting the research material; (iv) they interpr

      Criteria for judging if research benefits the vulnerable.

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    1. While itis important to recognize the value of respondents’ time andcontributions to our research, inappropriate levels of remunera-tion can be either coercive or extractive (Paradis, 2000).

      Renumeration of interviewees for time can be extractive.

    2. Ethnography as a method2 is suitable for use in doublyengaged social science research because of one important fea-ture: Researchers must embed themselves in the communitiesthey study, and this immersive approach gives scholars a better,clearer, and more in-depth view of the particular policy chal-lenges facing those populations.

      Embedding research - immersive approach - good for descovering policy challenges.

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    1. Re- jecting the notion that such a separation is possible, Smith (1977) argues that the illusion of this separa- tion can be maintained so long as the knower can be posited as an abstract being and the object can be posited as the ‘other’ who cannot reflect back on and affect the knower.

      Researcher as separate from the object of research is illusory. "The researcher is embedded in a definite social relationship in which there is a power differential in favor of the knower who assumes the power to define the process of the research.

    2. The choice of the prob- lem, together with the critiqu
    3. Having accepted the above critique of traditional social science, and recognizing that in all social science, women have been peripheral and their lives misrepresented, it is clear that a radical rebeginning is needed in feminist research.

      social science has excluded women, thus a restart on feminist research is needed. Cites thinkers.

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  8. Jul 2021
  9. Feb 2021
  10. Nov 2020
    1. The overjustification effect has inspired an entire field of study that focuses on students and how to help them reach their full potential. Though experts are divided on whether extrinsic rewards have a beneficial or negative effect on intrinsic motivation, a recent study showed that rewards may actually encourage intrinsic motivation when given early in a task.

      [[question]] What is the [[over-justification effect]]

  11. Oct 2020
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  15. May 2020
  16. Oct 2017
    1. To testify to a history of oppression is necessary, but it is not sufficient unless that history is redirected into intellectual process and universalized to include all sufferers. Yet too often testimony to oppression becomes only a justification for further cruelty and inhumanity,

      Here, Said is telling us that in order for history of oppression to have a purpose, it needs to be used in such a way where all of the voices of all of the oppressed can be heard or else we only hear the voices that justify tyranny. I think this is true and still remains true today, because if we only get that one part of history that has some justification, nothing changes. This is why history repeats itself; we don't look at exactly all of the suffering that happens.

  17. Jul 2017
    1. The justification of inequality

      The act of condition the citizenship to accept and expect stratification based on merit in society, thereby justifying unequal rewards (low pay, no health benefits, no control over shifts, low social status etc.)

  18. Dec 2015
    1. Agreementis the good stuff in science; it’s the high fives.But it is easy to think we’re in agreement, when really we’re not. Modeling ourthoughts on heuristics and pictures may be convenient for quick travel down the road,but we’re liable to miss our turnoff at the first mile. The danger is in mistaking ourconvenient conceptualizations for what’s actually there. It is imperative that we havethe ability at any time to ground out in reality.
  19. Feb 2014
    1. As intellectual property lacks scarcity, and the protection of it fails the Lockean Proviso, there is no natural right to intellectual property. As such, the justification for intellectual property rights arises from the social con tract, and in the case of the United States, the Constitution.

      The justification for intellectual property from the social contract established by the US Constitution; it otherwise has no justification by natural right because it fails the Lockean Proviso.

    2. Fisher points out that the rights - based, non - utilitarian theory is greatly influenced by two concepts: (1) the western ideology of property from Locke (that people are entitled to own the fruits of their labors, and should be rewarded in proportion to their contributions); and (2) the “romantic conception of authorship” of the divinely inspired individual genius or artist (1999, Sect. II. B).

      The first is the soul of the rights-based theory

    3. The critical difference comes out in the details, especially the amount of time rights are protected and the scope of rights allowed
    4. This paper establishes cause to suspect that current intellectual property policy overstep s utilitarian justification, and suggests that a clearer distinction should be drawn between the proper role of U.S. law in intellectual property (that which promotes innovation) and moral questions of creator’s rights.