102 Matching Annotations
  1. Last 7 days
    1. Good online teaching requires intentional design and intentional practices that share some things with face-to-face teaching, but which also require significant mental and procedural shifts on the parts of both instructors and students.

      Does this require detailed planning before the first day of class?

    1. Did learners achieve the intended knowledge, skills, and/or attitudes that were the focus of the instructional experience?

      What to evaluate?

    2. In reality, it is a way of thinking about delivery modes, methods, and media, specifically as they map to rapidly changing needs and limitations in resources, such as faculty support and training

      What is ERT?

  2. Feb 2020
    1. predictive data analytics that employ the LMS as a surveillance tool

      Prediction and surveillance are two distinct functions. Predictive analytics may be useful to students in some ways.

    2. I see the LMS merely as an online service to students

      That is one of its functions, but there are others. All LMS are not the same.

    3. data in an LMS should be limited to the courses in which students are enrolled, and any use of data beyond that purpose should be protected by a data privacy policy, requiring permission for reuse beyond that original purpose

      Institutional policy could declare this to be so, but the institution may not be able to enforce this policy on the LMS vendor without legislation. Business does the right thing for business - almost always.

    4. it's better to acknowledge the tension rather than to pretend that it does not exist

      The tension between business and public interest in education policy and practice has been around for a long time. The standardized testing industry has had significant influence on public education for a long time, they even have a term for it - "washback". The educational publishing industry is another example, with large states like Texas and California virtually dictating content and curricula for smaller states that publishers don't see any material advantage in catering for.

    1. providing an environment of active learning for the students in large classes

      Lays out reasons for using method: compels students to pay attention, be responsible, prepare for class, think critically.

      Explanation reflects lecturer's view of students as subjects to be acted on. It is patronizing and degrading. The lecturer's monopolization of authority to speak undermines her stated goals in using the method. The actual goal appears to be to maintain authority through a type of call and response activity.

    2. developing the ability to present ideas forcefully and effectively in such contexts is integral to becoming a lawyer.

      This is not the same as speaking in a group. People speak when they feel safe - if they do not feel safe, they may not speak. Extroverts speak when they have noting to say / introverts hesitate even when they have something important to say. This outcome: present ideas effectively - is not directly associated with speaking in groups.

    3. understanding

      Why use Socratic method and how does it differ from lecturing?

    4. Lawyers are, first and foremost, problem solvers, and the primary task of law school is to equip our students with the tools they need to solve problems. The law will change over the course of our lifetimes, and the problems we confront will vary tremendously. Law professors cannot provide students with certain answers, but we can help develop reasoning skills that lawyers can apply, regardless of the legal question.

      I think this applies to most fields today.

    5. the possibility of activities that will be as delightful as they are useful

      This core pedagogical principle, that people need to feel safe to learn, and pleasure is a key element in learning. The writer immediately abandons both principles in her discussion of her 'Socratic Method' of lecturing.

  3. May 2019
    1. Six key themes emerged from the data: benefits of an ePortfolio at the curriculum level, ePortfolios as an enabling technology, the value of reflection, the role of user support, the speed and quality of feedback, and mitigating distance and isolation.

      The role of reflection is important when considering education as a transformational experience. This could be a key distinguishing feature between training and education.

  4. Feb 2017
    1. President Abdel Fattah El-Sisi on Saturday ordered the government to take all necessary measures to help resettle Christians who have fled Egypt’s Northern Sinai after Daesh killed several members of the community.

      No source for this information is given though the phrase "take all necessary measures" suggests an official communique.

  5. Dec 2016
    1. Sometimes I think of it in terms of a figure. You try to stretch people's minds and their understanding, but if you move too fast then you break the connection.

      Keeping your purpose in mind. There is no point in leaving students behind, though many do this, some unwittingly and some deliberately. If the purpose is to stretch minds, then you need to be mindful not to break the connection.

    2. The acceptance of doing something different has to do with the understanding of a former experience in which there were subjects that were discussed.

      Very important construct in change - central to Cultural Historical Activity Theory - Engstrom.

  6. Nov 2016
  7. Sep 2016
    1. studies indicate that a text needs to be about 98% comprehensible in order for it to help the reader acquire new vocabulary

      Source: Hu and Nation - seems to contradict "context clue" argument for uncovering new vocab. This may work if 98% is already there. May still be dark for jargon and technical terms.

  8. May 2016
    1. What is clear is that the LMS has been highly successful in enabling the administration of learning but less so in enabling learning itself.

      LMS are most often institutionally mandated and maintained so it is not surprising that institutional interests would predominate.

    1. affords a broad coverage

      Oops! What is to be "covered" exactly?

    2. planned focus-on-form of the kind illustrated inDoughty and Varela’s study is time consuming. Whole lessons (even series of les-sons) need to be devoted to a single form. In this respect, it is like focus-on-forms.

      This is less interesting. It is just another type of explicit grammar instruction.

    3. s‘thefactorthatdistinguishes focus on form from other pedagogical approaches is the require-ment that focus on form involves learners’ briefly and perhaps simultaneouslyattending to form, meaning and use during one cognitive event’

      This appears to be based on some type of "brain science".

    4. This has led some researchers (e.g. Long, 1991; Doughty, 2001) to suggest that anapproach based on focus-on-form would work better.

      They suppose it might work. Is there evidence that it does work?

    5. Whilethere is substantial evidence that focus-on-forms instruction results in learning asmeasured by discrete-point language tests (e.g. the grammar test in the TOEFL),there is much less evidence to show that it leads to the kind of learning that enableslearners to perform the targeted form in free oral production (e.g. in a communicativetask).

      Students can answer correctly on grammar tests but they cannot use the same forms correctly when speaking or writing.

  9. Apr 2016
    1. useless to think that technology is somehow going to wake us from our thousand-year stupor and reinvent education.


      How radio will transform education circa 1935.

    2. I am not in the world simply to adapt to it, but rather transform it

      Assuming everyone seeks transformative change. This proposition is naturally egotistical. How is enforced change better than enforced stasis? I read about Sumaria. This society existed in a changeless state for thousands of years. What a world that must have been. How secure people must have felt. Who knows? The point is that change is possible, if you want it. Autonomy and agency mean we are able to choose, not that we must choose this or that.

    3. digital culture hangs its hat on the ideal of openness and access

      This is a very important point. The thing that brought me to ed tech was the ability these tools gave me to redefine my role in the classroom - and this redefinition is essential if students are to attain any freedom, independence, and autonomy. Tech is a tool that can lead to a transformation. The LMS is an attempt to build a wall around this openness - plagiarism obsession is another. Just using tech, thought, does not bring openness. Tech can be used to build a prison just as effectively as bricks and mortar.

    4. posting to Tumblr or Pinterest isn’t or can’t be educational

      It's very common for people to wonder how doing anything outside the canon can be "educational". Today at school, my son filled a balloon with sand. He showed this to me with wonder. A balloon you can squish and it changes its shape. Oh! Balloons can't be educational. I forgot!

    5. I never lied about dinosaurs. There was no need. They were wondrous enough already.

      Here, monsters are vindicated, almost universally. There remains the small problem of dino denial, apparently rife among the Tea Party faithful in the GOP.

    1. She suggests that show trials and forced confessions in these states were used by those who held power not simply to dispose of defeated rivals, but because such unmasking was required and so legitimised by the laws of history.

      Perhaps the McCarthy era persecutions of American leftists also figure into this phenomenon of "unmasking" enemies within.

    2. The hypocrite (munafiq) was of course an important figure in the Quran, serving as the name for those who only pretended to follow Muhammad. But even there – to say nothing about later Muslim texts and societies – he by no means represented Islam’s greatest enemy.

      This is true. See Nabia Abbot's interesting account of 'Uyainah, who renounced Islam after the death of the prophet and took up arms against the Caliph, Abu Bakr. When accused of apostasy he was brought before Abu Bakr. 'Uyainah claimed that he had never been a Muslim in the first place but that he was only pretending, and so he was pardoned. Abbot cites Al-Tabari, Baladhuri, and Yaqut.

      See Abbot, N. (1941). Women and the State on the Eve of Islam, The American Journal of Semitic Languages and Literatures, Vol. 58, No. 3, p 280.

    3. Instead the law must be applied and obeyed just because it exists, and not by any process of rationalisation.

      This seems to be a simplification. Shariah, with respect to ritual, is followed in this way, but other aspects are subject to change and revision using tools such as ijtihad and qiyas - granted, these are directed at uncovering the "truth" of the law, assumed to be pre-existing. Still, this analysis does not seem to account for Usul al-Fiqh as the primary activity of legal scholars.

    4. By reserving it for God, fundamentalists of the Sunni persuasion refused to recognise sovereignty either of the popular kind, one that could found or change the law, or as that manifested in the power of kings and dictators. Its engagement with politics thus tended to be contradictory and opportunistic, because while inevitably engaged with sovereign power, fundamentalism was unable to institutionalise it.

      Very interesting point, but it does not explain historical precedent in the exercise of sovereign power by Muslim rulers for over a thousand years, ruling under various interpretations of Shariah law.

    1. Working with the not-yetness of education means engaging with complexity, uncertainty and risk, not as factors to be minimised or resolved, but as necessary dimensions of technologies and practices which are unknown and in flux.

      This is very important to our ability to respond to the interests that students express, and the directions they begin to take as they become more confident in the social environment of the classroom. Rigid planning and and plotting to "keep with the program" sacrifices students' interests to the perceived interests of instructors and institution.

    1. Learning Environment Architects

      What is this? Is it an architect who designs "learning spaces" (ie. classrooms / schools) or is it a buzzword for some kind of Instructional Designer?

      Here's someone talking about "Architectural Design that transforms learning" - an architect.


    2. managed by an institution and informed by different instructors or facilitators,

      This would probably undermine student agency in this process. It seems focused on institutional and instructor interests to document and validate assessment. This is a valid concern and students to to institutions for this reason, at least in part. I am wondering how assessment can be made more of a shared responsibility.

    3. the visual transcript can become a gateway for showing the real capabilities of a learner, as reflected through formal and informal evidence

      This looks like a form of portfolio. The difference could be that while the student portfolio is under the control of the student to assemble and, perhaps, explain, the transcript is an institutionally generated document so rather more like a formal assessment but one which draws on complex evidence. The big question I have is Who should interpret the transcript and how?

    4. related to capability mastery

      This is good if students have a role in evaluation of their progress. Could they build, modify, or hone rubrics or other holistic tools as part of the initial design process. See Dave Cormier's negotiated syllabus...


    5. wide range of evidence

      Evidence is for the benefit of whom? Learners need to know that they are making some progress toward their goals, but who is best to mediate this knowledge? If it is totally dependent on instructor evaluation, then learners do not learn to accurately self-evaluate. Knowing where you are at any given point is an essential "21st" century learning skill.

    6. How can we provide a strong sense of agency for both learners and instructors in the transcript process?

      Why does he say "sense of agency" rather than "extend agency" - a sense of something is not the same as having it.

    7. How can we extend the role of the instructor so that activity and evidence related to learner performance becomes an active and dynamic process?

      The role of the instructor is to ensure that learner performance is active and dynamic. Is this a type of facilitation?

  10. Mar 2016
    1. But a growing number of U.S. colleges and universities have stopped requiring the tests, and some educators question their usefulness in predicting a student’s success in college.

      Many two-year colleges do not use the SAT since they accept all comers. Instead they give placement tests, such as accuplacer, which qualify students to take for-credit courses or remedial courses.

    2. One former client, now a student at the University of California, Los Angeles, told Reuters a Sanli booklet helped him score a perfect 800 on the critical reading section of the SAT.

      I wonder how well this skill in taking SAT reading comp tests has helped this student at UCLA?

    3. “What they should do, step one, is consider ending the practice of reusing test content,” said Joy St. John, dean of admission at Wellesley College in Massachusetts. If applicants have seen exam material before taking the test, St. John said, “our ability to select students who are the best fits for Wellesley is really compromised.”

      End users are university admissions officers, who need to decide whether this or any other test suits their needs. So long as they are aware that test content is reused overseas, they should be able to establish their admissions policies reliably and fairly. They do not need to accept the SAT, however, if they don't, students with SAT scores may not apply to their institution.

    4. The recycling of exam items has enabled test-prep operators to provide international students an advance look at reading passages, grammar problems and other material that may be on future tests.

      This is probably an old practice. It provided extra revenue for the College Board by reselling tests that could no longer be used in the US. If they stop doing this, they would probably need to raise the price of tests abroad.

    5. has taken other measures in recent years to thwart the Asian prep industry

      This article seems to target the "Asian prep industry" specifically.

    6. Both documents contained entire sections from exams given on March 5.

      But, this exam would not be used again. It may be re-sold as a practice exam but not used in actual testing. So long as it was not available before March 5, the test is still "secure".

    7. portions of the reading section

      Knowing the subjects of the reading section in advance is unlikely to impact scores. Questions about reading do not usually quiz content.

    8. Within hours, American test-takers headed online to discuss the new SAT in detail.

      Anyone who's ever been to a "mass exam" could predict this would happen with "connected students". If the College Board did not anticipate this, then they are not living in the same century as the rest of us.

    9. the College Board routinely has reused SAT tests overseas after first administering them in America.

      Still the case with TOEFL

    10. leaked online

      "leaked" is an interesting choice of words. Exam questions are normally "leaked" because someone wants to disrupt a test (political), or because money has changed hands for information (corruption).

    1. I stick up for people when they're right.

      This may be Trump's main point. He is sticking up for Lewandowski because 'he's right'. A show of loyalty despite the cost - "It would be easier to fire him than sit talking to you about this all night long". The show is political, and appeals to his base.

    1. the less “fun” they have

      Isn't this the Jane Fonda doctrine?

    2. I am speaking, of course, of grade inflation.

      The language of commodity again.


      "The fact that people were offering the same complaints more than a century ago puts the latest bout of harrumphing in perspective, not unlike those quotations about the disgraceful values of the younger generation that turn out to be hundreds of years old. The long history of indignation also pretty well derails any attempts to place the blame for higher grades on a residue of bleeding-heart liberal professors hired in the ’60s. (Unless, of course, there was a similar countercultural phenomenon in the 1860s.)"

    3. Papers I would have failed ten years ago on the grounds that they were unintelligible and failed to meet the standard of university-level work, I now routinely assign grades of C or higher.

    4. then what is the value of what you know?

      Rather, what is the value of what you do? Knowledge not acted upon is like the good intention paving the way to hell.

    5. replaced by one of the hundreds just like her

      Or replaced by one of the "hundreds of unemployed PhDs looking for work". These are adjuncts haunting the academic equivalent of the "Mexican resort". The PhD does not protect them while tenured faculty circle the wagons.

    6. terminal master’s degrees


    7. countless unemployed PhDs looking for work

      So, how is that investment working out for les PhD-doués?

    8. only in exceptional circumstances is the “success” of a classroom positively correlated with the academic excellence of its instructor

      Academic excellence as measured by citation counts in high impact journals. No wonder there is rarely any correlation.

    9. Students today read very little.

      True. And least of all, they read textbooks. They're too busy writing, on Twitter, FB, Instagram... They write reams that vanish into the aether.

    10. “Hey, you, pay attention! This is important.”

    11. The credentialing game can be played for only so long before the market gets wise and values begin to decline.

      If education is a commodity then its value should be quantifiable. Otherwise, it is without value. This idea has subverted liberal education for 50 years at least. Eventually it will undermine liberal society, and democratic governance that depends on it.

    12. a credential crucial for economic success

      Here is the problem. If everyone is successful, what does success mean? Universities are not about inclusion, they are about exclusion. If you include everyone, then there is no distinction.

      Art. 1er. Les hommes naissent et demeurent libres et égaux en droits. Les distinctions sociales ne peuvent être fondées que sur l'utilité commune.

    1. Hence, there is no clear pedagogical value to learning outcomes. If there is no pedagogical value how are we to understand the current fad?

      Indeed. There is no pedagogical value. In fact, there may be pedagogical harm. But then, much of what happens in the classroom also has no pedagogical value: sit up straight, don't talk, be on time, don't hand in your work late, don't copy, don't split infinitives.

      We need to have an intelligent response to this within institutions. We need to be aware of the use and the misuse of objectives. Even without "measurable objectives" we still need to be able to explain what we are doing, why we are doing it, how we are doing it and why it has value to participants and to society.

    2. In their belief that only that which measurable is real, defenders of learning outcomes show themselves to be another example of a society-wide cognitive derangement that confuses the value of practices and relationships and activities with their measurable aspects

      Possible strawman here. Defenders of learning outcomes normally labor under a requirement to be "transparent" in decision making and to render assessment "defensible" from an institutional perspective. In medieval Muslim scholarship the only degree was the "ijaaza". This was conferred by one teacher on one student, who had often studied for years. The "ijaaza" rested on the reputation of the teacher - there was no institution. This meant that the student must master the work in every possible way. Modern accountability relies on "best practice" and legislation as firewalls to protect the incompetent and unscrupulous.

    3. Ironically, the passive, consumeristic attitude that learning outcomes encourage in students works against students becoming motivated to learn even the skills and the information that the learning outcomes prioritize.

      Indeed. The outcome, being measurable, establishes conditions under which something will happen: Less than three misplaced commas will be "excellent". This encourages a sense of entitlement and undermines the role of the teacher as mentor and guide. The teacher's role is merely to verify that a condition has been met.

    4. The critically minded person is not an undisciplined skeptic, but one who can detect contradictions between principle and practice, and between principles and the values to which they purportedly lead as means.

      Criticality is value laden. Unlike pure receptive and registered knowledge learners, the critical learner must take a position vis-a-vis what is learned, what is known. Instructionism submerges values and makes believe that these do not exist. Beneath this facade, instructionism presents its peculiar worldview as the only one possible. Challenging this is to "invite chaos and destruction". Instructionism is built on a tyranny of thought that must drift into irrelevance, eventually leaving everyone stranded and lost. Criticality remains grounded - aware of contradictions and tensions and able to plot a way forward.

    5. Teaching does not instruct or transmit information, it embodies and exemplifies the commitment to thinking.

      Yes. Thinking defies measurability. How do you quantify a commitment to thinking? Can you stuff this into a rubric? I suspect that the obsession with measurement is linked to demands for "accountability". This is an expression of power over the learner. The accountable teacher is in the same position of subjugation - normally to an institution. This follows an accountancy model where everything is reduced to monetary value and entered into a balance sheet. What is the value of a human being?

    1. Outside of the field of special education goals and objectives are often synonymous, resulting in confusion among parents during the IEP construction process. Even within the field of special education the goal/objective debate obfuscates the obvious: to ensure educational opportunities for students with disabilities. Some special education practitioner’s would like the measurability requirement of IDEA to fall within the goals while others the converse. The authors’ position is that “[w]hile the issue is at best open to interpretation, and at worst, confusing, we believe, that the stringent measurability requirements are best left to the short-term objectives.”

      This is a very clear explanation of the difference between a "goal" and an "objective". Even within education, people are confused about this. This confusion is probably due to overlapping semantic fields.

    1. When implemented in consultation with faculty and other stakeholders, outcomes should increase transparency and accountability for both students and instructors, as both now know what is being expected and how performance is being evaluated.

      Excellent point. Faculty and other stakeholders - including students - should be included in this process. Clearly stated objectives are only restrictive when they are imposed. As with everything else in instruction, objectives should be routinely challenged and those that are not defensible should be replaced or eliminated.

    2. Because course outcomes are broad and can be deconstructed into a nearly infinite number of possible objectives, the choice of which objectives to use is crucial. They are selected based on their criticality to mastering the course outcome and the degree to which they accurately reflect real-world situations in which students would employ those skills.

      Indeed. It should be possible to get a good idea of the scope and depth of a course by reading the objectives.

    3. Because of the emphasis on measurability, learning objectives should be uni-dimensional. That is, they should specify one and only one behavior or action.

      Great rationale for using only one main verb - focusing on only one performance.

    4. (a) prescribe only one construct or behavior, and (b) are not dependent on and do reference to other learning objectives.

      This gives interesting criteria for module level objectives: specify only one behavior (use one main verb); do not reference other objectives - I'm not sure but what this second criterion means.

    5. learning objectives within courses are prescriptive, one-dimensional and discrete.

      This is the third level: 1) Program level; 2) Course level; 3) Unit or Module Level.

    6. Course outcomes, like outcomes in general, should include the action to be performed, the criterion for success and any essential context or parameters.

      This depends on the type of course and its overall intent. These type of objectives can be restrictive or overstated in some contexts. Most instructors do not follow this format when writing objectives, mentioning only performance and sometimes context but omitting criterion / measurement.

    7. As a rule, a course outcome should always be written to encompass higher-order learning, rather than a simple inventory of concepts that students should “know.”

      This refers to Blooms style taxonomies and makes sense and is a "good general rule" since lower level performance tends to be pretty straightforward - identify, select, describe... while higher-level performance is often more broadly stated.

    8. Course outcomes include the action to be performed, the criterion for success, and any essential context or parameters for the students’ demonstration of mastery.

      This is Menger's formula for outcomes: performance, standard, and condition. Menger's outcomes are particularly suitable for training-oriented instruction.

    9. Course outcomes in a program are defined as specific, industry-relevant performances that are mapped back to the program outcomes.

      This alignment with program level outcomes is important. Industry relevant performance is also important but course outcomes should not be limited to this alone. By imposing these limitations, we commit HE to job training. This attitude reflects SNHU's corporate identity and should not be generalized to institutions that continue to maintain a commitment to American values embodied in traditional Liberal Arts education.

    10. Program outcomes focus specifically on the knowledge, skills and dispositions that a first-day-on-the-job practitioner should possess in order to succeed in his or her chosen profession.

      Employability is an important institutional value. This is one reason why people attend HE institutions, but not the only reason. There are other values that also need to be accounted for. Work is important, but so is quality of life.

    11. students focus not on who the easiest instructor is but rather on which instructor will be most effective in helping them to meet the course and program outcomes

      The objective is to manipulate students to certain types of performance, to prevent them from "gaming the system". Only institutions are permitted to game the system. This is a power relationship that insists on institutional dominance "for students' own good". It is paternalistic and offensive.

    12. well-defined student learning outcomes combined with valid assessments enable an institution to ensure that regardless of who is teaching the course, all students who succeed have demonstrated the stated performances.

      Standardization is important to SNUH because of its "business model" of education as a commodity. This renders a strong institutional focus on "quality" as something we most commonly see in the fruit and vegetable section of the local supermarket: same shape, size, color - free of blemishes and distinguishing marks.

    13. Program outcomes specify the enduring knowledge, skills and dispositions that graduates will have demonstrated upon completion.

      Program outcomes are linked to the mission of the university.

    1. This is important. All abstractions can be grounded in some concrete event or situation. However, the practice of starting with theory often ignores this and students struggle to grasp abstractions that are suspended in space. Given that all abstractions have origins, it should be easy to situate instruction in something concrete.

    2. This example gives a good idea of what LaTour means by "composition".

  11. Feb 2016
    1. Research means starting with a topic or problem about which one does not know everything and pursuing an original course of research to find out more information about the topic, to synthesize that from information gleaned from many sources, and to draw one's own conclusions based on that synthesis of research.

      Research as inquiry and synthesis... this may not lead to totally new knowledge, but it fits well into the more common model of research as a means of exploring a topic and making personal decisions about it.

    1. If students are being holistically prepared through an effectively flipped model for situations in which natural and meaningful communication is to take place, the need for translation tools is lessened. Students instead spend more time describing their vocabulary questions in the target language, and can then be taught to see Google Translate as a bonus in those moments when they want to say or write something in their essays that is specific and significant and perhaps outside the purview of their current ability.

      This is very Dogme-like. Natural and meaningful communication is only possible if students direct, in some way, what is said in conversation. If conversation interests them, then they will uncover vocab that interest them also, rather than just trying to collect words that might appear on a test.

    1. The balance of learning is determined by the ratio of two kinds of knowledge in a society. The first is a result of the creative action of people on their environment, and the second represents the result of man's "trivialization" by his manufactured milieu. Their first kind of knowledge is derived from the primary involvement of people with each other and from their use of convivial tools; the second accrues to them as a result of purposeful and programmed training to which they are subjected.

      Purposeful and programmed learning leads to trivialization of humanity in a manufactured environment. Illich suggests a natural tension between creative action in the world and the institutionalization of creative force through formal education.

  12. www2.wou.edu www2.wou.edu
    1. The project of education has been misdirected. Educators and students alike have found themselves more and more flummoxed by a system that values assessment over engagement, learning management over discovery, content over community, outcomes over epiphanies. Education has misrepresented itself as objective, quantifiable, apolitical. - Jesse Strommel, Hybrid Pedagogy. Talk at Western Oregon University 4/29/15

    1. owever, a small fraction of students report that they prefer online courses because they find the classroom environment distracting.

      This is the only time Pullen suggests that online delivery might actually bring something new to student experience, and this is only applicable to "a small fraction of students".

    1. lleged techn o - educational innovation is generally little more than a manifestation of the divergent interests of the stakeholders involved, with any convergence rarely linked to teaching or learning

      convergent interests of stakeholders does not amount to innovation teaching and learning

    2. of participation (Akrich, Callon & Latour, 1988) and participative space (Akrich, Callon & Latour, 1991).

      What is this theory of participation? Check out Latour and friends.

    3. why, despite all the material and human resources invested by major academic institutions, do these widespread IT systems do not bring generally speaking any great educational value, and fall even shorter from bringing the much expected innovation to learning?

      Is all ict investment directed at producing innovation in learning? What kinds of innovation are expected?

    4. “ Whatever happened to Instructional Technology? ”. With this publication , he highlighted a nd attempted to explain the persistent failure of ICT to penetrate the world of higher education, despite several decades of effort and massive inve stment (Geoghegan, 1994)

      This may situate the problem quite deeply in the history of educational ict and support claims relating to the persistence of this problem in the face of numerous interventions.

  13. Jan 2016
    1. he most important goal is accessibility for the student. Id

      Reiterates purpose of online education here. Does not see any other advantage.

    2. The author's experience in several courses has been that many students fail to reach timely completion when they do not have the motivation provided by regular course meetings. Regular synchronous meetings, whether online or in a classroom, result in fewer delayed student completions and dropouts.

      This makes sense but the author's evidence here is anecdotal.

    3. This makes sense, but the evidence provided here is anecdotal.

    4. NEW system as described above is simply a virtual extension to that sort of classroom.

      Author suggests that online tools simply "extend" traditional teaching but do not add to it in any way.

    5. y experiments led to a conviction that nearly all the benefits of any social learning environment, from that of one-on-one-tutoring to that of large lecture halls, can be provided to remote participants using modem networking technology. As the

      Authors appear to seek to duplicate f2f environment online. This ignores additional benefits of online modality that may not extend to f2f students.

    6. y experiments led to a conviction that nearly all the benefits of any social learning environment, from that of one-on-one-tutoring to that of large lecture halls, can be provided to remote participants using modem networking technology. As the

      Authors appear to seek to duplicate f2f environment online. This ignores additional benefits of online modality that may not extend to f2f students.