202 Matching Annotations
  1. Jun 2022
  2. heathercoxrichardson.substack.com heathercoxrichardson.substack.com
    1. at the end of the hearing that witnesses said they had been pressured by Trump’s people to remain “loyal” when testifying, and having just tipped their hand about just how much information the committee has, Thompson urged those witnesses to come back and revise their testimony.

      Witness tampering here. Waiting for more to come out of the woodwork.

    2. “You heard it, Pat. He thinks Pence deserves it. He doesn’t think they’re doing anything wrong.”

      This is so sophmoric. It reminds me of the mean kids in high school.

    3. The president is only supposed to go into the House chamber when specifically invited

      British Parliamentary rules prohibit monarch from Parliament without an invitaion. Possibly modeled on this practice. Remember Trump's disinvitation from the House for his last state of the union, which he had to give from the WH.

    4. Hutchinson connected Trump to the insurrection attempt

      To Stone, Flynn and the Oath Keepers, via Meadows.

    5. “There’s a lot going on…things might get real, real bad on January 6.”

      Meadows has to explain what's going on with Rudi. He's the Rudi whisperer.

  3. Feb 2022
    1. co-constructed with students

      This is important since it ensures that students know and understand what the standards mean and how they are measured. It is more about this than it is about negotiation of standards, with students attempting to lower them. This does happen and can be controlled by adopting an underlying archetecture for performance standards, such as SOLO

    2. overcome grade inflation

      A polite way to say bumping up marks without linking them to standards and to students actual performance.

    3. triangulation of evidence


    4. Learning Map and clear Overarching Learning Goals


    5. Overarching Learning Goals that are achievable for your students

      Multiple tiers of interconnected and aligned goals link classroom activity with published standards and curricula.

  4. Jan 2022
    1. standards and formulate relevant assessments as a sort of quality control for instruction

      That is one way to look at it, but it's a teacher centered approach. How do standards help students? If they do not help students, then they are useless and should be abandonned.

    2. working with all of their classmates

      Standard for review

    3. They need to understand space and how to judge where different movements will fit

      Standard for review

    4. have familiarity with the properties of various types of equipment

      Standard for review

    5. how to move safely in dynamic situations

      Standard for review

    6. Awesome Gym Days every student is active, engaged, working on something

      This is why every day should be and "Awesome" one. If Ss are not active, engaged, and working on something they are just passing time.

    7. These used to be part of a reward system

      "Rewards" are extrinsic motivators - like the carrot and the stick. Make every session an Awesome Gym Day and let Ss reward themselves by achieving goals they set for themselves. Give them some autonomy and be patient with those who just want to play. They need time.

    8. fun, fairness, and challenge

      Fun, fairness, and challenge could inform the development of three standards with students that could be used to structure their PE sessions. Ask them how do you measure fun? How do you measure fairness: How do you measrue challenge? If they participate in the development of standards, they will be more interested in using them as a guide to improvement - have more fun, play more fairly, ramp up the challenge.

    9. My students do not arrive in the gym thinking about how their performance will be evaluated.

      If they are focused on improving something - like catching - then they should come with the intention of working on that. PE class is not recess. They should have fun, but if they are not focused on anything other than having fun, then they will not be able to improve in any substantive way and it will be impossible to provide any coaching that might lead to that.

    10. They will demonstrate the art of the catch. Their art of the catch.

      Similar problems in language and writing instruction. Ss want to show off their skills and to experiment and do things their own way. That is fine - accomplished writers do this all the time Shakespeare made up hundreds of words. We are not all Shakespeare though - we can make up words in specific contexts, but in writing instruction, the goal is to master common forms and structures before moving on to display personal creativity, yet, even within common forms, there is room for personal creativity. When assessing in this way, it is important to focus on the standards and what those mean in terms of performance - otherwise, be become bogged down and unable to provide clear, consistent, and actional feedback that can lead to improvement in performance.

    11. there are thousands of pieces that I miss

      All performances are complex, and when coaching, it is impossible to attend to every minute detail. Formative assessment - active coaching - is individualized feedback to improve overall performance. Evaluating that performance, is to focus on the performance as a whole.

    12. “performance'' because I teach physical education

      I think a performance focus in important in a lot of fields because, ultimately, education is about what folks are able to do. Knowledge of things is not useful until it is applied to some problem or task. A performance focus could improve assessment across the board and shift teachers away from merely testing "content".

    13. address both the process of learning as well as the performance or outcome

      Assessment of process is commonly formative; while assessment of performance outcome is often summative, though formative assessments do look at performance outcomes too - from the perspective of informing improvement.

    14. what useful things I could say about assessment that wouldn’t expose me as a fraud

      Imposter syndrom is common as people move into more specialized fields. It's common to hear about it from PhD candidates and from PhDs.

  5. Dec 2021
    1. Once we introduce evaluation into our learning spaces, we change the way we interact with student work.

      Evaluation is not the same as feedback. Evaluation is almost always directed at unsolicited advice. Feedback may praise or criticize, but usually seeks value in something.

    1. The central conservative truth is that culture matters most;

      This summarizes Brooks' argument, but he failed to demonstrate how culture is not important to the left. Politics cannot change culture, but reflects it.

    2. Conservatism is essentially an explanation of how communities produce wisdom and virtue.

      A kind of definition, but... mystic?

    3. about how we build institutions that produce good citizens

      Sounds like social engineering and top down control - what happened to "human nature"?

    4. “I think therefore I am”

      Decartes, not exactly a liberal icon.

    5. believe they have the ability to plan history:

      A shopping basket of disparate things and likening economic policy under Capitalism to autocratic movements. Also ignoring the fact that French and American revolutions spring from the same source.

    6. enable leaders to engineer society from the top down

      Another misrepresentation of liberalism as autocratic.

    7. the planners never really consulted the residents themselves. They disrespected the residents by turning them into unseen, passive spectators of their own lives.

      Yes. This is common, but "liberalism" isn't about imperious exercise of government authority over others. Many liberals would also criticize this type of planning that excludes communities. This criticism is about exclusion, rather the opposite of modern liberalism which tends to promote inclusion.

  6. Sep 2021
    1. Or maybe my participation adds to the experience

      Yes, it does, following constructivist theory learning is a collaborative effort involving both students and instructors, a position first described by Vygotsky. Also consistent with Wenger, Community of Practice model: expertise is learned from expert communities.

  7. Nov 2020
    1. We’re creating laws that stop students from looking for information.

      This, and the use of propriety snooper software like TurnItIn, places commercial interests in a position of authority to actually define what academic integrity is, and to do that narrowly enough, to lock in their customer base and convince educators that they provide an essential service. In the end, they will define cheating so narrowly, and make it so universal, that it becomes impossible to avoid and so convince everyone that cheating is the only way to "learn".

    2. Plus, let’s face it, it’s exhausting. I know faculty that are constantly monitoring for cheating. And they hate it. It’s wasted effort. 

      Teachers should monitor students, but for learning not for cheating. By assuming that students are learning, or trying to learn, they will engage more effectively and they will also know when students aren't really "doing their own work", and know enough about that to move the student to more productive activity. Not only is policing a waste of time, it corrupts the learning process and pits teacher and student against one another.

    3. If you give any question to a student that has a clear, definitive answer, you are tempting them to cheat.

      Closed ended questions are information based, boring, and not challenging to students. They do not lead to any significant learning. Teachers ask them because they are easy to grade, so the question is really, do we organize education around the convenience of teachers or around the benefit to students?

    4. They know that all the answers are already online.

      This depends on the question. It's important that folks know that the answers are NOT online; that what is online is argument and evidence that they need to use to build their own answers.

    5. We can no longer find an answer and be comforted that our search is finished. We are instead confronted with hundreds of answers and need to choose what to do, choose this one or that one or, more likely, pick bits and pieces from them to build our own answer

      This is a good thing. We may no longer need to struggle against misplaced reverence for expertise and argument from authority, but address argument and evidence instead.

  8. Aug 2020
    1. Anger becomes a habit. Divisiveness becomes normal.

      So, does social media have a role in creating or amplifying this, or is it merely uncovering something that is there anyway?

  9. Jun 2020
    1. many Gulf-Arab women feel uncomfortable breaching cultural taboos and showing their faces online.

      Why should anyone be expected to 'breach cultural taboos' in the first place. Surely this is a personal choice. Others should not pressure people to move one way or another.

    1. Each module will include

      Unclear whether a 'module' is a conceptual unit or a template.

    2. Learning Activities

      This maps to TLAs though they seem to be mostly passive activities,

      Course Module Structure document presents Activities as mostly passive activities or materials / content.

      The Module Content Template is a planning table in Word that identifies "Learning Activities" as content: "PowerPoints, videos, articles, lectures" and "Assignments" as stuff students do, including quizzes.

    3. Modules are used to organize course content by weeks, units, or a different organizational structure

      Why is this important?

    1. The lower part of the pyramid focuses

      This and video talks about "levels of learning".

      These materials appear to repeat one another. I suspect they are created by instructional designers who do not necessarily have experience teaching. They are not grounded in research or practice but simply repeat ideas in circulation.

    1. Objectives

      Objective or Outcome? She says these are the same thing. Later she talks about goals that can become objectives.

      Begin with a "stem" (condition), then add "actor" (student), then add "behavior" (verb), then "degree" Resembles Mager's performance based model. Performance, Condition, Criteria. She adds another - 'Actor" but this is superflous.

      Mager's model is built for training type activities and does not work that well in other contexts.

    2. Writing Effective Learning Outcomes

      This video is about course intended learning outcomes. It explains about Blooms but casts them as suitable for lower or upper division courses.

    3. Writing Clear Learning Objectives

      List of Bloom's verbs

    4. Action Verbs for Writing Powerful Outcomes

      Another list of Bloom's verbs

    5. learning

      These are additional materials that need to be downloaded and viewed. They are hacked into the course and do not always match it. Here, Writing Clear Objectives starts people off by asking, "What do you want ss to do"? Then gives a table with six columns for Blooms Verbs - without any explanation of how to use the table.

    6. Identify the noun

      By saying 'identify the noun' we orient course design around content and content delivery rather than around activity that develops skills and knowledge the activity requires. It places activity in the back seat.

    7. learning outcomes for each module

      This begins with MILOs. Where are the course outcomes and how do these MILOs align with them?

    1. Describe and create are two different levels of learning

      This refers to Bloom's taxonomy. When we talk about "levels of learning" we refer to cognitive skills. SOLO posits them as levels of "difficulty" where 'describe' would be uni structural and 'create' relational or extended. 'Create', in fact, is difficult to circumscribe and should probably be recast as something more concrete: plan, design, structure..

    2. goals

      Goals or outcomes? Aims, goals and outcomes are technical terms. Each has a nuanced meaning.

    1. moving it from a “solo sport” of a sage on the stage to a community-based one where teams build and design learning materials and experiences — and continually refine them.

      Collaboration is the key to quality both from the point of view of designing instruction, and from that of learning. Learners support and learn from one another.

    2. “A substantial part of the nation’s resources are being devoted to higher education,” Simon said. “The nation has a right to expect more than talented amateurism.”

      This will offend some, but the truth often hurts.

    3. Teaching at colleges is often done without any formal training. Mimicry of others who are equally untrained, instinct, and what feels right tend to provide the guidance. As a result, teaching is, to use another building metaphor, not up to code.

      A PhD is a research, not a teaching qualification. In the UK, there is a teaching qualification for HE. I do not know of anything similar in the US.


    1. The New York Times on Twitter, when they have a headline like “Trump Says Testing No Longer a Problem, Governor Disagrees.” Grant writes, “Well, next they’re going to be ‘Trump Says Earth Flat, Scientists Disagree.’”

      And then Cotton's OP ED 6/3 calling for military intervention in George Floyd demonstrations. Part of a pattern for NYT.

    2. appeals to the imaginary past

      Also Salafism.

    1. So the retort to that critique has been “intersectionality.” Yes, there’s a black perspective, but what you do is fragment it, so there are multiple black perspectives, because each potential—or each sacralized—social position becomes discrete. That's what gives you intersectionality.

      An attempt to prove that CRT is not reductionist.

    2. But the Times’ 1619 Project reflects the agenda of the Democratic Party today. They’re trying to cobble together an electoral coalition based on identities.

      The Black vote, the Latinx vote, the women's vote, the Muslim vote, the Evangelicals... Asians, immigrants, LBGTQ, and on and on. The GOP has old white folks, rust belt, farmers... So, where is democracy?

    3. how can you imagine putting together a political alliance that would be broad enough so that you win on this issue?

      Excluding folks from your 'party' does not build support. So, what is the intended outcome of this? It can re-enforce racial identities and sharpen distinctions, build barriers, etc. all of which work to support neo-liberal agendas.

    4. The idea, and I think the 1619 Project very much promotes this, that slavery was created as a form of racial oppression, rather than a form of labor exploitation that ultimately became rationalized ideologically by racism.

      If this is the case, then what was the need to import people?

    5. applying to PhD programs saying that they wanted to get a credential to help them become public intellectuals.

      According to Kendi's website, he studied journalism and worked in sports reporting, then switched to African American studies in grad school, MA and PhD, then began teaching African American History.

    6. launched into a Twitter tirade against them, dismissing them as “white historians.”

      This is a disturbing aspect of identity politics: that one qualified to speak because of membership in some category, and then only those in that category have a right to speak. It assumes that one's presumed 'identity' determines everything else about them right down to beliefs and attitudes. It seems primed to provoke a backlash from whomever it excludes, perpetuating divisions and obstructing progress.

    7. an industrial reserve army who will work for little enough to make that culture of upscale consumption profitable

      This is how you compete with China and other developing economies, by driving wages down. You need an equalization of the bottom 90%. It this "globalization"?

    8. And the common knowledge, so to speak, is that this is a racial problem. The reality is that the largest number of those killed are white, but blacks are disproportionately killed.

      Disparatism would say that justice requires the reduction of the number of blacks killed to be on parity with population distribution. This is absurd. Ultimately, reducing everything to race risks alienating whites from the discourse, denying their right to speak and identifying them as oppressors or beneficiaries of systemic racism. Ultimately, this is a neoliberal position. We will mitigate oppression to a tolerable while not implicating capitalism.

    1. He said on a recent podcast that he's been to jail "eight or nine" times

      49 subscribers - probably mostly friends. 109 views, 1 like and no comments after five weeks up.

    2. they don't actually share a common goal once power is achieved

      So, not a cohesive group or movement. Just a loosely defined category, like 'hippies'

    3. smaller groups of criminal opportunists seeking to profit by stealing merchandise

      That too, but it usually comes with the territory.

    4. identifies as an anarchist

      As do right wing libertarians, from time to time.

    5. the movement started in obscure online platforms

      Which ones? Dark web?

    6. Boogaloo members appear to hold conflicting ideological views with some identifying as anarchists and others rejecting formal titles.

      Right Libertarian?

    1. The chair said he wasn't sure whether that was an acceptable grading policy, so he would have to check with the dean.

      This is so funny! Chair went full admin. Like the robot in Lost in Space.

    2. That climate of fear benefits no one

      The main risk is that a student will complain about their mark. They are more likely to complain if they feel they are victims of some injustice. Beyond this, teachers should be able to explain the basis of a mark - even a meaningless one. Oddly, the meaningfulness of marks is not generally a consideration, so wrong answers to random, silly, and irrelevant questions on MCQ tests can easily justify a low mark!

      That's how the banking system works.

    3. I would ask that in the meantime we stop averaging those meaningless letter grades into the even more meaningless GPA

      The GPA is institutionalized in countries that take a banking view of education. I went to university in the UK (1980s) - there were no grades or GPAs, nothing but a final exam at the end of the year. We worked all year, got feedback on our work, then prepared for finals in May. We were told pass or not pass for each. The pass mark was 40 but we were not told marks either. Final degrees are ranked in four categories: First, Upper Second, Lower Second; Third. Graduate work usually requires an Upper Second. Other than that, rankings are irrelevant.

    4. When you eliminate grading, that gives you a chance to consider the real purpose of the assignment, and you might find that you are able to create more meaningful assignments as a result.

      Very important point here. If you are not grading, then this dross that exists only to spin a mark out of nothing will not appear in your course. This alone would be an improvement.

    5. it's simply what you do so you can improve and learn more.

      Or, maybe it's just an acknowledgement that nothing is ever really finished - everything is just "good enough" for whatever purpose one has in mind. In this case, display or 'throw away' assignments have very low value, while an assignment that has some other purpose "In the world" may have a high enough value to continue to develop: a blog post, for instance, or a poster, photograph, piece of art etc.

    6. At best, students see revision as a way to raise their grade.

      And at this point many take a pragmatic decision to raise their grade or not to bother. Again, grading is distinct from learning - nothing at all to do with it, in fact.

    7. grades punish students for any mistake they make, large or small.

      This means, of course, that formative work should not be graded since the premise is that students must practice to improve - we assume "room for improvement" otherwise, the requirement to "practice" is ludicrous. So, why grade this type of work at all?

    8. We may have good intentions with our students' best interests at heart, but that does not change the fact that we are using grades as a form of control.

      Such good intentions are themselves a violation of personal integrity. Teachers are forever deciding what 'students need' - often times without any clear evidence. I once asked a math teacher why students needed to know quadratic equations and all reasoning was circular. Asked what he used this for, he could not think of any time in his life when he actually needed this.

    9. I can give each student the freedom to choose their own learning goals, and it then becomes my job to help them get there.

      The terms 'goals,' 'outcomes,' and 'objectives,' are loosely defined in Education literature, so the meaning of this is not very clear to me. We assume that a course has some purpose, or 'value added.' In transformative education, this is seen as some change in the person who experiences the course. When we say, "choose your own goals" aren't we really asking students why they are taking a course in the first place?

  10. May 2020
    1. The disdain for proprietary software on the part of free software advocates

      This sounds oddly polemic for an academic paper. I wonder what Critical Discourse Analysis could tell us about this text?

    1. Reuse, Remix, Revise, Redistribute: remixing and revising may be most common in order to adapt materials to a local use rather than to reiterate for redistribution with specific value added. Need to check source on this (Wiley, Bliss, McEwen, 2014) - oops - paywall.

    2. This sounds oddly polemic for an academic paper. I wonder what Critical Discourse Analysis could tell us about this text?

    3. Joseph, K., Guy, J., & McNally, M. B. (2020). Toward a Critical Approach for OER: A Case Study in Removing the ‘Big Five’from OER Creation. Open Praxis, 11

      Reuse, Remix, Revise, Redistribute: remixing and revising may be most common in order to adapt materials to a local use rather than to reiterate for redistribution with specific value added. Need to check source on this (Wiley, Bliss, McEwen, 2014) - oops - paywall.

    1. resists static definitional claims

      Open Pedagogy can't be defined? This sound more like a cluster of ideas that people explain in many different ways.

    1. The inclusion of requirements and restrictions in open licenses make open content and OER less open than they would be without these requirements and restrictions.

      Degrees of openness. Is it really 'open' with strings attached?

    2. download and keep your own copy

      I'm wondering why there is this insistence on digital formats. Public domain materials could be reproduced by any means and redistributed.

      Before printing technology, distribution required a copy, written by hand, in manuscript form. With additions in margins, and additions to the additions, and commentary in concentric waves emanating from the center. This was how knowledge spread and grew. And without it, human progress would have been impossible. There was no copyright.

    3. (1) in the public domain or (2) licensed in a manner that provides everyone with free and perpetual permission to engage in the 5R activities:

      Of course,this means that the vast majority of resources are open and that this is, in fact, the default category for everything save what is explicitly excluded from it. Oddly, however, exclusion appears to be automatic - for a period of years - so exclusion from the exclusion requires explicit declaration via CC or some other mechanism.

      No surprises, this convoluted system is designed to protect the "proprietary" rights of distributors. Viz: George Michael vs Sony

    1. But if access, use, modification and sharing are impaired, by whatever mechanism, then conversion has taken place, and the resource is no longer open.

      Conversion happens with some distributions of Linux, which are not free. This does not mean that the Linux OS is no longer open, just that this or that distribution - which is Linux plus whatever added value has been built into it - is not open. The alternative to it is any free distribution.

    2. the purpose of a functional definition - one based on the ability of a person to access, use, modify and share the resource - is that it enables a simple empirical test. Instead of metaphysical discussions about the nature of an object

      This is unique to Downe's definition. The openness of the object is not a function of the object itself, but of what one can DO with it: "Can I access it? Can I use it?" etc.

    1. seeks any profits made off of the Moulton study guides

      Karma. In the mean time, what about all of those students who were told they would learn something valuable and all they learned was how to repeat canned answers on an exam?

    2. notes can be re-sold to other students in advance of exams

      This is only possible if it brings benefit to students, and the learning environment in which this is profitable is so impoverished that students should actually be suing the university for dereliction of duty, incompetence, and deliberate misrepresentation.

      Worrying about whether this violates someone's property rights is hardly worth the effort.

    3. What if a student took notes, but didn't copy anything verbatim from a professor's lecture, and then decided to publish the notes online or sell them?

      That would be research. God forbid that students should do research!

      What if someone read the Torah and didn't quote it verbatim but explained it in their own words.That would be exegesis and expansion on meaning, extending and applying this. Talmud.

    4. protected infringement

      "Protected infringement" - such a beautiful concept. You have to love law. It is as counter intuitive as quantum physics.

    5. Cliffs Notes, which summarize copyrighted novels

      Cliff Notes - a god send to generations of students who can't be bothered with reading or thinking. This works only in broadcast pedagogy, where there is a "correct answer" to every question and that answer is in the PowerPoint presentation "that I gave you" or in Cliff Notes, if I was smart enough not to do a PPT.

    6. students who don't always want to go to the classes they are paying for

      Red flag. The writer's animosity toward students is thinly veiled. This is a general manifestation of American anti-intellectualism.

    7. Moulton and his e-textbook publisher are suing Thomas Bean, who runs a company that repackages and sells student notes, arguing that the business is illegal since notes taken during college lectures violate the professor's copyright.

      This is actually common practice in Saudi Arabia though it is often the professors who collate the notes and sell them via "student services" bureaux located near university campuses. These services also package and sell exams, which are typically reused year in and year out. This provides professors with an extra revenue flow upon which many depend.

  11. www.hewlett.org www.hewlett.org
    1. What are the reasons for this rising cost?

      According to a study by U Michigan Library, 1) short revision cycles - often unnecessary and only intended to force new purchases and prevent students from selling their old books back; 2) bundling of new materials - software, workbooks etc. 3) market features: those who chose to buy (faculty) are not those who buy (students) - chooser does not bear the cost - as in prescription medicine selected by a doctor - separation of choice from payment influences cost dramatically.

      That is to say: exploitative market practices cheat students and drive them significantly further into debt.

  12. Mar 2020
  13. academiapedagogilor.ro academiapedagogilor.ro
    1. a pedagogy which engages and challenges students and provides them with learning experiences relevant to the 21st Century (collaboration, problem solving, critical thinking and technology integration)

      Direct alignment with KFSC curriculum.

    1. Good online teaching requires intentional design and intentional practices that share some things with face-to-face teaching, but which also require significant mental and procedural shifts on the parts of both instructors and students.

      Does this require detailed planning before the first day of class?

    1. Did learners achieve the intended knowledge, skills, and/or attitudes that were the focus of the instructional experience?

      What to evaluate?

    2. In reality, it is a way of thinking about delivery modes, methods, and media, specifically as they map to rapidly changing needs and limitations in resources, such as faculty support and training

      What is ERT?

  14. Feb 2020
    1. predictive data analytics that employ the LMS as a surveillance tool

      Prediction and surveillance are two distinct functions. Predictive analytics may be useful to students in some ways.

    2. I see the LMS merely as an online service to students

      That is one of its functions, but there are others. All LMS are not the same.

    3. data in an LMS should be limited to the courses in which students are enrolled, and any use of data beyond that purpose should be protected by a data privacy policy, requiring permission for reuse beyond that original purpose

      Institutional policy could declare this to be so, but the institution may not be able to enforce this policy on the LMS vendor without legislation. Business does the right thing for business - almost always.

    4. it's better to acknowledge the tension rather than to pretend that it does not exist

      The tension between business and public interest in education policy and practice has been around for a long time. The standardized testing industry has had significant influence on public education for a long time, they even have a term for it - "washback". The educational publishing industry is another example, with large states like Texas and California virtually dictating content and curricula for smaller states that publishers don't see any material advantage in catering for.

    1. providing an environment of active learning for the students in large classes

      Lays out reasons for using method: compels students to pay attention, be responsible, prepare for class, think critically.

      Explanation reflects lecturer's view of students as subjects to be acted on. It is patronizing and degrading. The lecturer's monopolization of authority to speak undermines her stated goals in using the method. The actual goal appears to be to maintain authority through a type of call and response activity.

    2. developing the ability to present ideas forcefully and effectively in such contexts is integral to becoming a lawyer.

      This is not the same as speaking in a group. People speak when they feel safe - if they do not feel safe, they may not speak. Extroverts speak when they have noting to say / introverts hesitate even when they have something important to say. This outcome: present ideas effectively - is not directly associated with speaking in groups.

    3. understanding

      Why use Socratic method and how does it differ from lecturing?

    4. Lawyers are, first and foremost, problem solvers, and the primary task of law school is to equip our students with the tools they need to solve problems. The law will change over the course of our lifetimes, and the problems we confront will vary tremendously. Law professors cannot provide students with certain answers, but we can help develop reasoning skills that lawyers can apply, regardless of the legal question.

      I think this applies to most fields today.

    5. the possibility of activities that will be as delightful as they are useful

      This core pedagogical principle, that people need to feel safe to learn, and pleasure is a key element in learning. The writer immediately abandons both principles in her discussion of her 'Socratic Method' of lecturing.

  15. May 2019
    1. Six key themes emerged from the data: benefits of an ePortfolio at the curriculum level, ePortfolios as an enabling technology, the value of reflection, the role of user support, the speed and quality of feedback, and mitigating distance and isolation.

      The role of reflection is important when considering education as a transformational experience. This could be a key distinguishing feature between training and education.

  16. Feb 2017
    1. President Abdel Fattah El-Sisi on Saturday ordered the government to take all necessary measures to help resettle Christians who have fled Egypt’s Northern Sinai after Daesh killed several members of the community.

      No source for this information is given though the phrase "take all necessary measures" suggests an official communique.

  17. Dec 2016
    1. Sometimes I think of it in terms of a figure. You try to stretch people's minds and their understanding, but if you move too fast then you break the connection.

      Keeping your purpose in mind. There is no point in leaving students behind, though many do this, some unwittingly and some deliberately. If the purpose is to stretch minds, then you need to be mindful not to break the connection.

    2. The acceptance of doing something different has to do with the understanding of a former experience in which there were subjects that were discussed.

      Very important construct in change - central to Cultural Historical Activity Theory - Engstrom.

  18. Nov 2016
  19. Sep 2016
    1. studies indicate that a text needs to be about 98% comprehensible in order for it to help the reader acquire new vocabulary

      Source: Hu and Nation - seems to contradict "context clue" argument for uncovering new vocab. This may work if 98% is already there. May still be dark for jargon and technical terms.

  20. May 2016
    1. What is clear is that the LMS has been highly successful in enabling the administration of learning but less so in enabling learning itself.

      LMS are most often institutionally mandated and maintained so it is not surprising that institutional interests would predominate.

    1. affords a broad coverage

      Oops! What is to be "covered" exactly?

    2. planned focus-on-form of the kind illustrated inDoughty and Varela’s study is time consuming. Whole lessons (even series of les-sons) need to be devoted to a single form. In this respect, it is like focus-on-forms.

      This is less interesting. It is just another type of explicit grammar instruction.

    3. s‘thefactorthatdistinguishes focus on form from other pedagogical approaches is the require-ment that focus on form involves learners’ briefly and perhaps simultaneouslyattending to form, meaning and use during one cognitive event’

      This appears to be based on some type of "brain science".

    4. This has led some researchers (e.g. Long, 1991; Doughty, 2001) to suggest that anapproach based on focus-on-form would work better.

      They suppose it might work. Is there evidence that it does work?

    5. Whilethere is substantial evidence that focus-on-forms instruction results in learning asmeasured by discrete-point language tests (e.g. the grammar test in the TOEFL),there is much less evidence to show that it leads to the kind of learning that enableslearners to perform the targeted form in free oral production (e.g. in a communicativetask).

      Students can answer correctly on grammar tests but they cannot use the same forms correctly when speaking or writing.

  21. Apr 2016
    1. useless to think that technology is somehow going to wake us from our thousand-year stupor and reinvent education.


      How radio will transform education circa 1935.

    2. I am not in the world simply to adapt to it, but rather transform it

      Assuming everyone seeks transformative change. This proposition is naturally egotistical. How is enforced change better than enforced stasis? I read about Sumaria. This society existed in a changeless state for thousands of years. What a world that must have been. How secure people must have felt. Who knows? The point is that change is possible, if you want it. Autonomy and agency mean we are able to choose, not that we must choose this or that.

    3. digital culture hangs its hat on the ideal of openness and access

      This is a very important point. The thing that brought me to ed tech was the ability these tools gave me to redefine my role in the classroom - and this redefinition is essential if students are to attain any freedom, independence, and autonomy. Tech is a tool that can lead to a transformation. The LMS is an attempt to build a wall around this openness - plagiarism obsession is another. Just using tech, thought, does not bring openness. Tech can be used to build a prison just as effectively as bricks and mortar.

    4. posting to Tumblr or Pinterest isn’t or can’t be educational

      It's very common for people to wonder how doing anything outside the canon can be "educational". Today at school, my son filled a balloon with sand. He showed this to me with wonder. A balloon you can squish and it changes its shape. Oh! Balloons can't be educational. I forgot!

    5. I never lied about dinosaurs. There was no need. They were wondrous enough already.

      Here, monsters are vindicated, almost universally. There remains the small problem of dino denial, apparently rife among the Tea Party faithful in the GOP.

    1. She suggests that show trials and forced confessions in these states were used by those who held power not simply to dispose of defeated rivals, but because such unmasking was required and so legitimised by the laws of history.

      Perhaps the McCarthy era persecutions of American leftists also figure into this phenomenon of "unmasking" enemies within.

    2. The hypocrite (munafiq) was of course an important figure in the Quran, serving as the name for those who only pretended to follow Muhammad. But even there – to say nothing about later Muslim texts and societies – he by no means represented Islam’s greatest enemy.

      This is true. See Nabia Abbot's interesting account of 'Uyainah, who renounced Islam after the death of the prophet and took up arms against the Caliph, Abu Bakr. When accused of apostasy he was brought before Abu Bakr. 'Uyainah claimed that he had never been a Muslim in the first place but that he was only pretending, and so he was pardoned. Abbot cites Al-Tabari, Baladhuri, and Yaqut.

      See Abbot, N. (1941). Women and the State on the Eve of Islam, The American Journal of Semitic Languages and Literatures, Vol. 58, No. 3, p 280.

    3. Instead the law must be applied and obeyed just because it exists, and not by any process of rationalisation.

      This seems to be a simplification. Shariah, with respect to ritual, is followed in this way, but other aspects are subject to change and revision using tools such as ijtihad and qiyas - granted, these are directed at uncovering the "truth" of the law, assumed to be pre-existing. Still, this analysis does not seem to account for Usul al-Fiqh as the primary activity of legal scholars.

    4. By reserving it for God, fundamentalists of the Sunni persuasion refused to recognise sovereignty either of the popular kind, one that could found or change the law, or as that manifested in the power of kings and dictators. Its engagement with politics thus tended to be contradictory and opportunistic, because while inevitably engaged with sovereign power, fundamentalism was unable to institutionalise it.

      Very interesting point, but it does not explain historical precedent in the exercise of sovereign power by Muslim rulers for over a thousand years, ruling under various interpretations of Shariah law.

    1. Working with the not-yetness of education means engaging with complexity, uncertainty and risk, not as factors to be minimised or resolved, but as necessary dimensions of technologies and practices which are unknown and in flux.

      This is very important to our ability to respond to the interests that students express, and the directions they begin to take as they become more confident in the social environment of the classroom. Rigid planning and and plotting to "keep with the program" sacrifices students' interests to the perceived interests of instructors and institution.

    1. Learning Environment Architects

      What is this? Is it an architect who designs "learning spaces" (ie. classrooms / schools) or is it a buzzword for some kind of Instructional Designer?

      Here's someone talking about "Architectural Design that transforms learning" - an architect.


    2. managed by an institution and informed by different instructors or facilitators,

      This would probably undermine student agency in this process. It seems focused on institutional and instructor interests to document and validate assessment. This is a valid concern and students to to institutions for this reason, at least in part. I am wondering how assessment can be made more of a shared responsibility.

    3. the visual transcript can become a gateway for showing the real capabilities of a learner, as reflected through formal and informal evidence

      This looks like a form of portfolio. The difference could be that while the student portfolio is under the control of the student to assemble and, perhaps, explain, the transcript is an institutionally generated document so rather more like a formal assessment but one which draws on complex evidence. The big question I have is Who should interpret the transcript and how?

    4. related to capability mastery

      This is good if students have a role in evaluation of their progress. Could they build, modify, or hone rubrics or other holistic tools as part of the initial design process. See Dave Cormier's negotiated syllabus...


    5. wide range of evidence

      Evidence is for the benefit of whom? Learners need to know that they are making some progress toward their goals, but who is best to mediate this knowledge? If it is totally dependent on instructor evaluation, then learners do not learn to accurately self-evaluate. Knowing where you are at any given point is an essential "21st" century learning skill.

    6. How can we provide a strong sense of agency for both learners and instructors in the transcript process?

      Why does he say "sense of agency" rather than "extend agency" - a sense of something is not the same as having it.

    7. How can we extend the role of the instructor so that activity and evidence related to learner performance becomes an active and dynamic process?

      The role of the instructor is to ensure that learner performance is active and dynamic. Is this a type of facilitation?

  22. Mar 2016
    1. But a growing number of U.S. colleges and universities have stopped requiring the tests, and some educators question their usefulness in predicting a student’s success in college.

      Many two-year colleges do not use the SAT since they accept all comers. Instead they give placement tests, such as accuplacer, which qualify students to take for-credit courses or remedial courses.

    2. One former client, now a student at the University of California, Los Angeles, told Reuters a Sanli booklet helped him score a perfect 800 on the critical reading section of the SAT.

      I wonder how well this skill in taking SAT reading comp tests has helped this student at UCLA?

    3. “What they should do, step one, is consider ending the practice of reusing test content,” said Joy St. John, dean of admission at Wellesley College in Massachusetts. If applicants have seen exam material before taking the test, St. John said, “our ability to select students who are the best fits for Wellesley is really compromised.”

      End users are university admissions officers, who need to decide whether this or any other test suits their needs. So long as they are aware that test content is reused overseas, they should be able to establish their admissions policies reliably and fairly. They do not need to accept the SAT, however, if they don't, students with SAT scores may not apply to their institution.

    4. The recycling of exam items has enabled test-prep operators to provide international students an advance look at reading passages, grammar problems and other material that may be on future tests.

      This is probably an old practice. It provided extra revenue for the College Board by reselling tests that could no longer be used in the US. If they stop doing this, they would probably need to raise the price of tests abroad.

    5. has taken other measures in recent years to thwart the Asian prep industry

      This article seems to target the "Asian prep industry" specifically.

    6. Both documents contained entire sections from exams given on March 5.

      But, this exam would not be used again. It may be re-sold as a practice exam but not used in actual testing. So long as it was not available before March 5, the test is still "secure".

    7. portions of the reading section

      Knowing the subjects of the reading section in advance is unlikely to impact scores. Questions about reading do not usually quiz content.

    8. Within hours, American test-takers headed online to discuss the new SAT in detail.

      Anyone who's ever been to a "mass exam" could predict this would happen with "connected students". If the College Board did not anticipate this, then they are not living in the same century as the rest of us.

    9. the College Board routinely has reused SAT tests overseas after first administering them in America.

      Still the case with TOEFL

    10. leaked online

      "leaked" is an interesting choice of words. Exam questions are normally "leaked" because someone wants to disrupt a test (political), or because money has changed hands for information (corruption).

    1. I stick up for people when they're right.

      This may be Trump's main point. He is sticking up for Lewandowski because 'he's right'. A show of loyalty despite the cost - "It would be easier to fire him than sit talking to you about this all night long". The show is political, and appeals to his base.

    1. the less “fun” they have

      Isn't this the Jane Fonda doctrine?

    2. I am speaking, of course, of grade inflation.

      The language of commodity again.


      "The fact that people were offering the same complaints more than a century ago puts the latest bout of harrumphing in perspective, not unlike those quotations about the disgraceful values of the younger generation that turn out to be hundreds of years old. The long history of indignation also pretty well derails any attempts to place the blame for higher grades on a residue of bleeding-heart liberal professors hired in the ’60s. (Unless, of course, there was a similar countercultural phenomenon in the 1860s.)"

    3. Papers I would have failed ten years ago on the grounds that they were unintelligible and failed to meet the standard of university-level work, I now routinely assign grades of C or higher.

    4. then what is the value of what you know?

      Rather, what is the value of what you do? Knowledge not acted upon is like the good intention paving the way to hell.

    5. replaced by one of the hundreds just like her

      Or replaced by one of the "hundreds of unemployed PhDs looking for work". These are adjuncts haunting the academic equivalent of the "Mexican resort". The PhD does not protect them while tenured faculty circle the wagons.

    6. terminal master’s degrees


    7. countless unemployed PhDs looking for work

      So, how is that investment working out for les PhD-doués?

    8. only in exceptional circumstances is the “success” of a classroom positively correlated with the academic excellence of its instructor

      Academic excellence as measured by citation counts in high impact journals. No wonder there is rarely any correlation.

    9. Students today read very little.

      True. And least of all, they read textbooks. They're too busy writing, on Twitter, FB, Instagram... They write reams that vanish into the aether.

    10. “Hey, you, pay attention! This is important.”

    11. The credentialing game can be played for only so long before the market gets wise and values begin to decline.

      If education is a commodity then its value should be quantifiable. Otherwise, it is without value. This idea has subverted liberal education for 50 years at least. Eventually it will undermine liberal society, and democratic governance that depends on it.

    12. a credential crucial for economic success

      Here is the problem. If everyone is successful, what does success mean? Universities are not about inclusion, they are about exclusion. If you include everyone, then there is no distinction.

      Art. 1er. Les hommes naissent et demeurent libres et égaux en droits. Les distinctions sociales ne peuvent être fondées que sur l'utilité commune.

    1. Hence, there is no clear pedagogical value to learning outcomes. If there is no pedagogical value how are we to understand the current fad?

      Indeed. There is no pedagogical value. In fact, there may be pedagogical harm. But then, much of what happens in the classroom also has no pedagogical value: sit up straight, don't talk, be on time, don't hand in your work late, don't copy, don't split infinitives.

      We need to have an intelligent response to this within institutions. We need to be aware of the use and the misuse of objectives. Even without "measurable objectives" we still need to be able to explain what we are doing, why we are doing it, how we are doing it and why it has value to participants and to society.

    2. In their belief that only that which measurable is real, defenders of learning outcomes show themselves to be another example of a society-wide cognitive derangement that confuses the value of practices and relationships and activities with their measurable aspects

      Possible strawman here. Defenders of learning outcomes normally labor under a requirement to be "transparent" in decision making and to render assessment "defensible" from an institutional perspective. In medieval Muslim scholarship the only degree was the "ijaaza". This was conferred by one teacher on one student, who had often studied for years. The "ijaaza" rested on the reputation of the teacher - there was no institution. This meant that the student must master the work in every possible way. Modern accountability relies on "best practice" and legislation as firewalls to protect the incompetent and unscrupulous.

    3. Ironically, the passive, consumeristic attitude that learning outcomes encourage in students works against students becoming motivated to learn even the skills and the information that the learning outcomes prioritize.

      Indeed. The outcome, being measurable, establishes conditions under which something will happen: Less than three misplaced commas will be "excellent". This encourages a sense of entitlement and undermines the role of the teacher as mentor and guide. The teacher's role is merely to verify that a condition has been met.

    4. The critically minded person is not an undisciplined skeptic, but one who can detect contradictions between principle and practice, and between principles and the values to which they purportedly lead as means.

      Criticality is value laden. Unlike pure receptive and registered knowledge learners, the critical learner must take a position vis-a-vis what is learned, what is known. Instructionism submerges values and makes believe that these do not exist. Beneath this facade, instructionism presents its peculiar worldview as the only one possible. Challenging this is to "invite chaos and destruction". Instructionism is built on a tyranny of thought that must drift into irrelevance, eventually leaving everyone stranded and lost. Criticality remains grounded - aware of contradictions and tensions and able to plot a way forward.

    5. Teaching does not instruct or transmit information, it embodies and exemplifies the commitment to thinking.

      Yes. Thinking defies measurability. How do you quantify a commitment to thinking? Can you stuff this into a rubric? I suspect that the obsession with measurement is linked to demands for "accountability". This is an expression of power over the learner. The accountable teacher is in the same position of subjugation - normally to an institution. This follows an accountancy model where everything is reduced to monetary value and entered into a balance sheet. What is the value of a human being?

    1. Outside of the field of special education goals and objectives are often synonymous, resulting in confusion among parents during the IEP construction process. Even within the field of special education the goal/objective debate obfuscates the obvious: to ensure educational opportunities for students with disabilities. Some special education practitioner’s would like the measurability requirement of IDEA to fall within the goals while others the converse. The authors’ position is that “[w]hile the issue is at best open to interpretation, and at worst, confusing, we believe, that the stringent measurability requirements are best left to the short-term objectives.”

      This is a very clear explanation of the difference between a "goal" and an "objective". Even within education, people are confused about this. This confusion is probably due to overlapping semantic fields.

    1. When implemented in consultation with faculty and other stakeholders, outcomes should increase transparency and accountability for both students and instructors, as both now know what is being expected and how performance is being evaluated.

      Excellent point. Faculty and other stakeholders - including students - should be included in this process. Clearly stated objectives are only restrictive when they are imposed. As with everything else in instruction, objectives should be routinely challenged and those that are not defensible should be replaced or eliminated.

    2. Because course outcomes are broad and can be deconstructed into a nearly infinite number of possible objectives, the choice of which objectives to use is crucial. They are selected based on their criticality to mastering the course outcome and the degree to which they accurately reflect real-world situations in which students would employ those skills.

      Indeed. It should be possible to get a good idea of the scope and depth of a course by reading the objectives.

    3. Because of the emphasis on measurability, learning objectives should be uni-dimensional. That is, they should specify one and only one behavior or action.

      Great rationale for using only one main verb - focusing on only one performance.

    4. (a) prescribe only one construct or behavior, and (b) are not dependent on and do reference to other learning objectives.

      This gives interesting criteria for module level objectives: specify only one behavior (use one main verb); do not reference other objectives - I'm not sure but what this second criterion means.

    5. learning objectives within courses are prescriptive, one-dimensional and discrete.

      This is the third level: 1) Program level; 2) Course level; 3) Unit or Module Level.

    6. Course outcomes, like outcomes in general, should include the action to be performed, the criterion for success and any essential context or parameters.

      This depends on the type of course and its overall intent. These type of objectives can be restrictive or overstated in some contexts. Most instructors do not follow this format when writing objectives, mentioning only performance and sometimes context but omitting criterion / measurement.

    7. As a rule, a course outcome should always be written to encompass higher-order learning, rather than a simple inventory of concepts that students should “know.”

      This refers to Blooms style taxonomies and makes sense and is a "good general rule" since lower level performance tends to be pretty straightforward - identify, select, describe... while higher-level performance is often more broadly stated.

    8. Course outcomes include the action to be performed, the criterion for success, and any essential context or parameters for the students’ demonstration of mastery.

      This is Menger's formula for outcomes: performance, standard, and condition. Menger's outcomes are particularly suitable for training-oriented instruction.

    9. Course outcomes in a program are defined as specific, industry-relevant performances that are mapped back to the program outcomes.

      This alignment with program level outcomes is important. Industry relevant performance is also important but course outcomes should not be limited to this alone. By imposing these limitations, we commit HE to job training. This attitude reflects SNHU's corporate identity and should not be generalized to institutions that continue to maintain a commitment to American values embodied in traditional Liberal Arts education.

    10. Program outcomes focus specifically on the knowledge, skills and dispositions that a first-day-on-the-job practitioner should possess in order to succeed in his or her chosen profession.

      Employability is an important institutional value. This is one reason why people attend HE institutions, but not the only reason. There are other values that also need to be accounted for. Work is important, but so is quality of life.

    11. students focus not on who the easiest instructor is but rather on which instructor will be most effective in helping them to meet the course and program outcomes

      The objective is to manipulate students to certain types of performance, to prevent them from "gaming the system". Only institutions are permitted to game the system. This is a power relationship that insists on institutional dominance "for students' own good". It is paternalistic and offensive.

    12. well-defined student learning outcomes combined with valid assessments enable an institution to ensure that regardless of who is teaching the course, all students who succeed have demonstrated the stated performances.

      Standardization is important to SNUH because of its "business model" of education as a commodity. This renders a strong institutional focus on "quality" as something we most commonly see in the fruit and vegetable section of the local supermarket: same shape, size, color - free of blemishes and distinguishing marks.

    13. Program outcomes specify the enduring knowledge, skills and dispositions that graduates will have demonstrated upon completion.

      Program outcomes are linked to the mission of the university.

    1. This is important. All abstractions can be grounded in some concrete event or situation. However, the practice of starting with theory often ignores this and students struggle to grasp abstractions that are suspended in space. Given that all abstractions have origins, it should be easy to situate instruction in something concrete.

    2. This example gives a good idea of what LaTour means by "composition".

  23. Feb 2016
    1. Research means starting with a topic or problem about which one does not know everything and pursuing an original course of research to find out more information about the topic, to synthesize that from information gleaned from many sources, and to draw one's own conclusions based on that synthesis of research.

      Research as inquiry and synthesis... this may not lead to totally new knowledge, but it fits well into the more common model of research as a means of exploring a topic and making personal decisions about it.

    1. If students are being holistically prepared through an effectively flipped model for situations in which natural and meaningful communication is to take place, the need for translation tools is lessened. Students instead spend more time describing their vocabulary questions in the target language, and can then be taught to see Google Translate as a bonus in those moments when they want to say or write something in their essays that is specific and significant and perhaps outside the purview of their current ability.

      This is very Dogme-like. Natural and meaningful communication is only possible if students direct, in some way, what is said in conversation. If conversation interests them, then they will uncover vocab that interest them also, rather than just trying to collect words that might appear on a test.

    1. The balance of learning is determined by the ratio of two kinds of knowledge in a society. The first is a result of the creative action of people on their environment, and the second represents the result of man's "trivialization" by his manufactured milieu. Their first kind of knowledge is derived from the primary involvement of people with each other and from their use of convivial tools; the second accrues to them as a result of purposeful and programmed training to which they are subjected.

      Purposeful and programmed learning leads to trivialization of humanity in a manufactured environment. Illich suggests a natural tension between creative action in the world and the institutionalization of creative force through formal education.

  24. www2.wou.edu www2.wou.edu
    1. The project of education has been misdirected. Educators and students alike have found themselves more and more flummoxed by a system that values assessment over engagement, learning management over discovery, content over community, outcomes over epiphanies. Education has misrepresented itself as objective, quantifiable, apolitical. - Jesse Strommel, Hybrid Pedagogy. Talk at Western Oregon University 4/29/15

    1. owever, a small fraction of students report that they prefer online courses because they find the classroom environment distracting.

      This is the only time Pullen suggests that online delivery might actually bring something new to student experience, and this is only applicable to "a small fraction of students".

    1. lleged techn o - educational innovation is generally little more than a manifestation of the divergent interests of the stakeholders involved, with any convergence rarely linked to teaching or learning

      convergent interests of stakeholders does not amount to innovation teaching and learning

    2. of participation (Akrich, Callon & Latour, 1988) and participative space (Akrich, Callon & Latour, 1991).

      What is this theory of participation? Check out Latour and friends.

    3. why, despite all the material and human resources invested by major academic institutions, do these widespread IT systems do not bring generally speaking any great educational value, and fall even shorter from bringing the much expected innovation to learning?

      Is all ict investment directed at producing innovation in learning? What kinds of innovation are expected?

    4. “ Whatever happened to Instructional Technology? ”. With this publication , he highlighted a nd attempted to explain the persistent failure of ICT to penetrate the world of higher education, despite several decades of effort and massive inve stment (Geoghegan, 1994)

      This may situate the problem quite deeply in the history of educational ict and support claims relating to the persistence of this problem in the face of numerous interventions.

  25. Jan 2016
    1. he most important goal is accessibility for the student. Id

      Reiterates purpose of online education here. Does not see any other advantage.

    2. The author's experience in several courses has been that many students fail to reach timely completion when they do not have the motivation provided by regular course meetings. Regular synchronous meetings, whether online or in a classroom, result in fewer delayed student completions and dropouts.

      This makes sense but the author's evidence here is anecdotal.

    3. This makes sense, but the evidence provided here is anecdotal.

    4. NEW system as described above is simply a virtual extension to that sort of classroom.

      Author suggests that online tools simply "extend" traditional teaching but do not add to it in any way.