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  1. Nov 2020
    1. Examples of external extrinsic rewards include:competing in sports for trophiescompleting work for moneycustomer loyalty discountsbuy one, get one free salesfrequent flyer rewardsExamples of psychological extrinsic rewards include: helping people for praise from friends or family doing work for attention, either positive or negative doing tasks for public acclaim or fame doing tasks to avoid judgment completing coursework for grades Is it effective?Extrinsic motivation may be more effective for some people than it is for others. Certain situations may also be better suited for this form of motivation. For some people, the benefits of external rewards are enough to motivate high-quality continuous work. For others, value-based benefits are more motivating. Extrinsic motivation is best used in circumstances when the reward is used sparingly enough so it doesn’t lose its impact. The value of the reward can decrease if the reward is given too much. This is sometimes referred to as the overjustification effect.The overjustification effect happens when an activity you already enjoy is rewarded so often that you lose interest. In one study, researchers looked at the way 20-month-olds responded to material rewards compared to their response to social praise or no reward. Researchers found that the group that received material rewards was less likely to engage in the same helpful behaviors in the future. This suggests that the overjustification effect can start at an early age. There’s some evidence that an excessive amount of extrinsic rewards can lead to a decrease in intrinsic motivation. Not all researchers agree, however. The idea was first explored in a study published in 1973. During the study, some children were rewarded for playing with felt-tip pens. This was an activity they already enjoyed. Other children weren’t rewarded for this activity. After continued reward, the reward group no longer wanted to play with the pens. The study participants who weren’t rewarded continued to enjoy playing with the pens.A meta-analysis from 1994 found little evidence to support the conclusions from the 1973 study. Instead, they determined that extrinsic motivation didn’t affect long-term enjoyment of activities. However, a follow-up meta-analysis published in 2001 found evidence to support the original theory from 1973. Finally, a more recent meta-analysis from 2014 determined that extrinsic motivation only has negative outcomes in very specific situations. But for the most part, it can be an effective form of motivation. Depending on how it’s used, it’s possible that extrinsic motivation could have negative long-term effects. It’s likely an effective method when used in addition to other forms of motivation. ADVERTISEMENTTry a top-rated app for meditation and sleepExperience 100+ guided meditations with Calm’s award-winning meditation app. Designed for all experience levels, and available when you need it most in your day. Start your free trial today.START FREE TRIAL What are some of the cons to using extrinsic motivation?A major drawback to using extrinsic motivation is knowing what to do when the reward is gone or its value is exhausted. There’s also the possibility of dependency on the reward. The usefulness of extrinsic motivators should be evaluated on a case-by-case and person-by-person basis. Extrinsic motivation and parentingVery few studies have explored the long-term effects of continuous extrinsic motivation use with children. Extrinsic motivation can be a useful tool for parents to teach children tasks and responsibilities. Certain extrinsic motivators, like support and encouragement, may be healthy additions to parenting practices. Some rewards are often discouraged because it may lead to unhealthy associations with the rewards later in life. For example, using food as a reward may lead to unhealthy eating habits. For small developmental tasks, extrinsic motivators like praise can be very helpful. For instance, using praise can help with toilet training. If you use external rewards, try phasing them out over time so that your child doesn’t become dependent on the reward. TakeawayExtrinsic motivation can be useful for persuading someone to complete a task. Before assigning a reward-based task, it’s important to know if the person doing the task is motivated by the reward being offered. Extrinsic motivators may be a useful tool to help children learn new skills when used in moderation. For some people, psychological extrinsic motivators are more appealing. For others, external rewards are more attractive. It’s important to remember, however, that extrinsic motivation isn’t always effective.ADVERTISEMENTTalking will helpLife can be more manageable. Use Babylon by TELUS Health to see a mental health counsellor on your phone. A receipt will be provided for claim reimbursement, if applicable.GET THE APP Last medically reviewed on September 25, 2017 7 sourcescollapsedHealthline has strict sourcing guidelines and relies on peer-reviewed studies, academic research institutions, and medical associations. We avoid using tertiary references. You can learn more about how we ensure our content is accurate and current by reading our editorial policy.Cameron J, et al. (1994). Reinforcement, reward, and intrinsic motivation: A meta-analysis. DOI:10.3102/00346543064003363Jovanovic D, et al. (2014). Relationship between rewards and intrinsic motivation for learning – researches review. DOI:10.1016/j.sbspro.2014.08.287Lepper MR, et al. (1973). Undermining children’s intrinsic interest with extrinsic reward: A test of the “overjustification” hypothesis. DOI:10.1037/h0035519Sheppard DP, et al. (2015). The role of extrinsic rewards and cue-intention association in prospective memory in young children.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0140987Theodotou E. (2014). Early year education: Are young students intrinsically or extrinsically motivated towards school activities? A discussion about the effects of rewards on young children learning.roar.uel.ac.uk/3632/Warneken F, et al. (2008). Extrinsic rewards undermine altruistic tendencies in 20-month-olds. DOI:10.1037/a0013860Why parents shouldn’t use food as reward or punishment. (n.d.)urmc.rochester.edu/encyclopedia/content.aspx?ContentTypeID=160&ContentID=32FEEDBACK:Medically reviewed by Timothy J. Legg, Ph.D., CRNP — Written by A. Rochaun Meadows-Fernandez — Updated on September 18, 2018related storiesUnderstanding Negative ReinforcementAuthoritarian Parenting: The Right Way To Raise My Kids?Should You Practice Permissive Parenting?Is Twirling Your Hair as a Habit a Symptom of an Underlying Condition?9 Deceptively Simple Things I Can’t Do Because Anxiety

      [[Examples of [[extrinsic motivation]]]]

    2. Examples of extrinsic motivation

      [[Examples of [[extrinsic motivation]]]]

    3. DefinitionExtrinsic motivation is reward-driven behavior. It’s a type of operant conditioning. Operant conditioning is a form of behavior modification that uses rewards or punishments to increase or decrease the likelihood that specific behaviors will recur. In extrinsic motivation, rewards or other incentives — like praise, fame, or money — are used as motivation for specific activities. Unlike intrinsic motivation, external factors drive this form of motivation.

      [[extrinsic motivation]] is [[reward-driven behaviour]].

      expandOn [[operant conditioning]] - unlike [[intrinsic motivation]] - external factors drive [[extrinsic motivation]]

    4. What Is Extrinsic Motivation and Is It Effective?
    1. Both can be effective, but research suggests that extrinsic rewards should be used sparingly because of the overjustification effect. Extrinsic rewards can undermine intrinsic motivation when used in certain situations or used too often

      while both [[intrinsic motivation]] and [[extrinsic motivation]] ca be useful, [[extrinsic motivation]] tends to rely on [[extrinsic rewards]]

      [[extrinsic rewards]] should be used sparingly - they can undermine the effectiveness off [[intrinsic motivation]], they can also lose value over time if used too often - and at times, relying too heavily on [[extrinsic rewards]] can be seen as coercion or bribery

    2. ExtrinsicYou do the activity in order to get an external reward in return.Goals are focused on an outcome and don’t satisfy your basic psychological needs. Goals involve external gains, such as money, fame, power, or avoiding consequences

      [[extrinsic motivation]]

    3. Intrinsic motivation vs. extrinsic motivation

      [[[[Intrinsic motivation]] vs. [[extrinsic motivation]]]]

  2. Jun 2016
    1. ntrinsic and Extrinsic Motivations: Classic Definitions andNew Directions

      Ryan, R M, and E L Deci. 2000. “Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivations: Classic Definitions and New Directions.” Contemp. Educ. Psychol. 25 (1): 54–67.

    1. ngiblerewards significantly undermined intrinsic motivation, particularly for interestingtasks (–0.68) compared with uninteresting tasks (0.18). I

      Tangible rewards lower motivation