143 Matching Annotations
  1. Last 7 days
    1. Figure 1. Autocratic leadership transitions, 1946 to 2014.

      peaceful vs. unpeaceful power transitions:

      From 1946 to 2014, only 44 percent of autocratic leadership transitions were peaceful and resulted in the continuation of the regime after the departure of the incumbent.



  2. Sep 2021
  3. Jul 2021
  4. Jun 2021
    1. Angelo: No, it's actually the very first time that I've been able to tell this without actually crying or anything like that because I don't want to embarrass myself or anything. Yes, it's very literally very hard. Mother’s Day, Father’s Day, right now my kids are in birthday season—my kids literally have birthdays back to back. So I mean, it's literally hard. My first Christmas here, I had no idea it was already Christmas until I saw lights. So, I literally just stood in front of them where I was staying—I was staying with my uncles—and I just stared at the lights and just broke down. And there's many times where that happens to me. There's a car that I used to have, or let's say McDonald's or any little thing, a pretty park—I walk by a pretty park—and I just picture my kids. So, it's very difficult mainly because of my kids. That's all I wanted to be, a father. I want to say that I gave them everything. And it's just very hard not being able to, for all that work to just be taken away just like that.Isabel: Yeah. I mean especially when you're saying like being a father, being a good father and talking about not being able to forgive your own father for the way that he treated your mother, being able to rise from that, to be the man that you want to be. Not having that figure as a father, like knowing you don't want to replicate that.Angelo: Exactly.Isabel: And the cruel irony of then still be pictured as that person that you never wanted to be.Angelo: Exactly. And that was my main goal, just like you said it, that was the perfect words. I wanted to be someone that my father was never to me and to my family. So, I said “I'm going to be the best father,” and I want to say that I was, but it just got taken away. It's very hard because my kids right now, they stay with their grandparents—they don't have a father. I think to myself on Father's Day at school, what are they making? Who are they giving the projects to? My oldest son, he remembers me.Isabel: You mentioned that your return to Mexico was very difficult, you had a lot of struggles, like all the alcoholism, also finding a job, socially. Do you mind just going into some of the obstacles you ran into on your return?Angelo: On my return to Mexico, my very first day here in Mexico, I spent the night in on the border, in Tamaulipas, Mexico. And literally I didn't want to do anything else. The very first thing I did was go to a store, and I bought a beer and I asked the lady at the store, "Will I get in trouble if I walk around the streets with the beer?" And she said, "You'll be fine. You have two or 300 pesos, right?" I said, "Yeah I just came back from the United States, I have money." “You'll be fine, if somebody pulls you over, just give them that and you'll be completely fine. “So that was the very first thing I did getting here to Mexico. There's so much alcoholism in my family that when I got here in Mexico, I said, "Okay, well it's in my blood. Let's go for it." And literally there will be times where I would just go out and buy a vodka bottle and go to my room, buy some orange juice and just literally drink until I passed out. And that went on for about half a year until one day, I guess I got really sick. I had the hiccups a lot that three or four in the morning, I was making too much noise.Angelo: I literally do not remember this, but there were people banging on my door trying to get in. Nobody was able to get in, they had to break the door down. And from what they told me, I was just in a corner and just literally choking on myself, with so much hiccups that, and I was just [inaudible]. The next morning and everybody sat down with me, and they literally—Isabel: Who’s everybody?Angelo: My uncles. I was staying at my uncle's house, so my uncle's family sat down with me, my cousins, and they had to pull me straight. They literally said, “You're not right.” They didn't talk to me too much because just them saying “You're not all right,” it clicked into my head that it was a very, very, very first time that I blacked out drinking, the very, very first time. So I told myself, "How do you not remember this happening? How do you not remember any of this? Or why are they telling you this? What did you do?" And I just saw my father all over again, and that was it, that's when I stopped drinking on the daily.Angelo: Yes. Because depression is a big part of my life. In the United States, I got diagnosed with bipolar depression, so there's just times where one time I could be happy, and then I think of something and literally my world ends. So getting here to Mexico, that was my escape, that was my answer, that was my... I can't say it wasn't the answer because for me my goal was to destroy myself, my goal was to get mugged in the middle of the street. There would be times where I literally walked around the state of Mexico three, four in the morning, just in the middle of the street, just looking for trouble. I wanted somebody to find me, I wanted somebody to…you know, all these dangerous streets that people were telling me, I wanted that, I don't know, I wanted to just destroy myself.Angelo: I wanted to get beaten down, I wanted for something bad to happen, and it was very hard. So whenever they had to break down the door, it was a big eye opener because they had to call my mom, and my mom did not know any of this. And my mom's a very big important part of my life, even over there she would always help me with stuff. She would always run around with me, she would always go shopping with me if I needed anything for my kids, she was always right there, if I needed babysitter, she was always right there. So whenever they had to call my mom, and they told her, "You know what, your son is doing this" [Emotional]. That brought so much shame to me, and that's when I said, I told my mom, "I'm sorry, I'm not going to do what my father did, so I'm done." And that was it. That's when I said, "I'm not going to do this again to my mom."

      Return to Mexico, Challenges, family separation, mental health, Family relationships, feelings, sadness, disappointment, frustration, despair

  5. May 2021
  6. Apr 2021
    1. Ultimately, Shelter Generations relies on your capacity to dig into its subtleties. On that overt level it's an obtuse and obviously indie game, and it's really quite demanding of the player; it asks them to figure their own way through the game, and it asks them to really commit to an emotional connection to these hopeless little cubs.
  7. Mar 2021
    1. I'm kinda stuck at the moment, going around in circles. Everything is really heavily coupled. I would like to get to the point where no load is called from within processors, but i'm not sure if that's possible. Currently the API and the caching strategies are fighting me at every step of the way. I have a branch where i'm hacking through some refactoring, no light at the end of the tunnel yet though :(
    1. it's super hard to test master because i have no idea which gems need to be updated. is there a guide on how to take a rails 4.2 project to master sprockets without everything mysteriously exploding? ill try to make a repro case but its hard to tell where to even start
    1. (A) Optical image of the undeformed device (left) and the FEA model for simulation (right). Optical images and max principal strain contours of the multifunctional wearable electronics being uniaxially stretched by 60% along vertical direction (B), along horizontal direction (C), and being biaxially stretched by 30% (D). (E) ECG data of the same device under different deformation modes. Photo credit: Chuanqian Shi, University of Colorado, Boulder.

      (A) Model of the device without any stress/strain (left) and Finite element analysis model of the wearable device, not deformed (right). The model to the right exhibits the components inside the device. (B-C) The model shown being stretched 60%, vertically and horizontally respectively, show the maximum strain of the chip being 0.01%. This is much less than the normal failure strain for silicon (1%). (D) This figure shows the FMEA model being stretched 30% vertically and horizontally. The maximum strain in the chip components is below 0.004%. (E) Figure shows sensing performance of device when being stretched using an ECG. No significant effects from the mechanical stretching where evident in the results.

  8. Feb 2021
    1. (A) Schematic illustration of the fabrication processes of the multifunctional wearable electronics. (B) Motion tracking performance with the multifunctional device worn on the wrist. (C) Indoor and outdoor body temperatures acquired using the wearable electronics mounted on the forehead (top) and comparison of measured indoor body temperatures when the wearable electronics is mounted at different locations (bottom). (D) Acoustic data acquired using the wearable electronics mounted on the neck. (E) ECG data acquired using the wearable electronics when the participant is at rest (top), and after exercising for 13 s (middle) and 34 s (bottom). Photo credit: Chuanqian Shi, University of Colorado, Boulder.

      (A) Step-by-step process of each layer of the device to allow multiple functionalities and wearability. (B) Amplitude vs. Time graph of sensor worn on the wrist to measure motion when walking, running, jumping. (C) Thermal sensor can read forehead, abdomen, and hand temperature on skin when indoor and outdoor over time. (D) The acoustic sensor is placed on the neck to measure the amplitude (vibration) characteristics of the vocal chords to serve as a human-machine interface. (E) The electrocardiogram sensor measures heart activity while resting, after exercising for 13 seconds and then after 34 seconds. The heart rate resulted in 72, 96, and 114 per minute, respectively.

    2. (A) Schematic illustration of a multifunctional wearable electronic system mounted on the hand, which integrates ECG, acoustic, motion, and temperature sensing capabilities. (B) Exploded view of the multifunctional wearable electronics. (C) Optical images of the multifunctional device being crumpled on the skin, bended, twisted, and stretched. (D) Schematic illustration of the dynamic covalent thermoset polyimine: polymerization and depolymerization and bond exchange reaction induced bond breaking and reforming. (E) Schematic illustration of self-healing and recycling of the multifunctional wearable electronics.

      The sensing components of the device being worn on the hand are ECG, acoustic, motion, and temperature sensors. It incorporates an electrocardiogram to measure heart activity using amplifiers and resistors to calculate the voltage versus time using electrodes placed on the skin. Assembling the sensors with EGaIn alloy to connect the sensor electronics and polyimine films allows the device to possess its’ flexibility and stretchability. Using polyimine allows for the breaking and reforming of bonds to allow self-healing, and polymerization and depolymerization to recycle the product.

  9. Oct 2020
    1. Red and black lines represent results for the modeled andmeasured daily-scale values, respectively, while blue and green represent results for the modeledand measured instantaneous-scale values, respectively.

      In both figure S1 and S2 there are no red or blue lines. adding these colors as written in the text would let the plots more readable

    1. values of the radiation stress gradients (f)

      plot f) of the radiation stress gradients is missing

    2. Density (a), salinity (b) and temperature (c) distributions along the bay transect

      It is straightforward from figures title but the a, b and c references of the figures are missing. As in line 206 the C of Celsius degree is missing in the temperature plot.

    3. Wave (d) and wind (e) roses at thestudy site

      What is the reference period of wave and wind data shown here? Is it the same period of the model simulations? Is the percentage shown representing the percentage of time in which those conditions are present considering the entire observation time? I suggest to add these information in the text.

    4. Location of study site, dashed blue line corresponds to the contour of the meshof the Cadiz Bay

      I can't see the dashed blue line in figure 1a

    5. Panel d) shows thenon-dimensional humidity (blue), solar radiation (red), rainfall (yellow) and evaporation (purple)

      This is the same caption of figure 3. It must be changed with wave height and Direction.

    6. Density (a), salinity (b) and temperature (c) variations along the bay transectwhen waves are considere

      Same issue of figure 3. the letter references in the plot are missing

    1. Relative contributions from winds and thermal forcing

      I find this section very convincing!

      One additional suggestion, still. What do the sea ice area export curves look like in the FESOM simulations? I am assuming that if you were to look at area export (function of ice drift and ice concentration), you would get a similar picture to Fig. 3c - i.e.: slightly positive trends, with the variability almost entirely explained by winds. Is it possible to show that (additional panel in Fig. 3)? I believe it would bring yet an another argument supporting that the long term trend in volume export has to be thickness driven.

    2. nnual mean sea level pressure

      Why not calculate correlations with SLP over land? There might be some interesting connections when thinking about high pressure systems above Greenland?

    3. Annual mean sea ice volume export

      This is the annual mean anomaly with respect to the 1992-2014 mean, is that correct? Maybe precise this in the legend.

    4. Results

      Please precise the definition of the Fram Strait used for producing the results. Is it a line of constant latitude (82°N)? Or a straight line between Greenland and Svalbard?

      The Fram Strait gate could also be illustrated on the map of averaged thickness and sea ice drift I suggested above.

    5. FESOM has a decent performance in simulating Arctic sea ice extent and133thickness in comparison with other state-of-the-art global ocean models

      More precision on how FESOM simulates sea ice should be included. Are there any know biases?

      Also, I think a useful additional figure would be a map of averaged thickness and sea ice drift over the 2001-2019 period for the control run (a figure similar to Fig. 1a in Min et al. (2019)).

    6. sea ice can be reasonably simulated compared to observations

      My comment above applies here - a map of averaged ice thickness and sea ice drift over the 2001-2019 period would be very useful in supporting this point.

  10. Sep 2020
  11. Aug 2020
  12. Jul 2020
  13. May 2020
  14. Apr 2020
  15. Mar 2020
  16. Oct 2019
    1. Father Divine

      African American Spiritual leader, founded the international peace mission movement.

    2. Cummings

      E.E. Cummings (1894-1962) was a great American writer. He was one of the most innovative poets of his time.

      A typical Cummings poem is spare and precise, employing a few key words eccentrically placed on the page.

      He wrote modern poems that exclude punctuation and syntax for a dynamic use of language, He also experimented with poems as visual objects with specific shapes such as hearts and swans.

      Source from https://www.poetryfoundation.org/poets/e-e-cummings.

    3. Gluyas Williams

      Gluyas Williams (1888-1982) was a great American cartoonist in 20th century. He make great contributions to The New Yorker.

      Daily Strip Illustration For more interest in his cartoons, please explore the website http://www.gluyaswilliams.com/index.htm.

    4. Howard Lindsay

      Howard Lindsay (1889-1968) was an American theatrical producer and actor. He played the role of "Father" in Life with Father.

      Source from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Howard_Lindsay.

    5. Conrad Aiken

      Conrad Potter Aiken (August 5, 1889 – August 17, 1973) was a Pulitzer Prize-winning American poet, born in Savannah, Georgia, whose work includes poetry, short stories and novels. He was deeply influenced by Symbolism, especially in his earlier works. He is the father of English writer Joan Aiken. Source from http://famouspoetsandpoems.com/poets/conrad_aiken/biography.

  17. Sep 2019
    1. Figures 9 and 10

      Figure 9 and 10 at 579 for reference since discussing below mention.

    2. Figure 8

      Figure 8 above at 550 for reference and consistency.

    3. Figure 7

      Figure 7 above for reference.

    4. Figure 5

      Figure 5 above for reference.

    5. Figure 3

      Figure 3 goes above for reference.

    6. Figure 2

      Figure 2 goes above for reference.

    7. Figure 1

      Figure 1 goes above for reference.

    8. Figure 6

      Actually suppose to be at 409, insert Figure 6 where start to discuss Figure 6.

  18. Apr 2019
    1. A pertinent video which could be annotated in multiple ways by addressing the agency of accessories as a form of empowerment for drag people in a new subjectivity.

      Some guiding questions raised by your topic and your in-class presentation:

      1. How will you convey defamiliarization by using the psychoanalytic of Freud through the point of view of the objects?

      2. Do you think about incorporating comparative analysis of drag's objects used in performances?

      3. In your scholarly sources, will you allude to how posthuman drags can reassert their role in society in an "embodied" way?

      As you mentioned in your presentation, I would say that the idea that accessories can become a state of becoming into a cyborg figure (machine aesthetic) could be explored in relation to a vitalist materialist approach to a certain extent.

  19. Dec 2018
    1. CFUN: Combining Faster R-CNN and U-net Network for Efficient Whole Heart Segmentation


    2. Deep Paper Gestalt


      • “bad paper 都写不满8页”;

      • “paper 头2页里没有插图的话会让读者摸不到头绪”;

      • “good paper 首页都有图说明 main ideas,有各种图表等会均衡分布 paper 中来展示验证性实验,重要数学公式,以及有彩图列表来量化数据集的基准”

      • “作者还自嘲了本 paper 97%概率被拒稿[doge]”;

    1. Schematic diagrams exemplifying multiples hypothetical outcomes of human-induced shifts in plant phenology with implications for conservation. Human induced changes on abiotic and biotic factors affect the timing of plant and animal reproductive cycles and mutualistic interactions (A), ultimately with consequences for the conservation of biological diversity

      Fig. 2. (A)

      The abiotic and biotic effects of human activities on plant life cycles. Abiotic influences as a result of human activities include climate change, modifications of geochemical cycles, and frequency of fires. Biotic influences as a result of human activities include habitat loss and fragmentation, hunting, and species invasion. These factors collectively influence plant phenology, including leafing, flowering and fruiting, and seed germination and establishment.

  20. Nov 2018
    1. Improving Generalization for Abstract Reasoning Tasks Using Disentangled Feature Representations

      非常不错的 CNN 的网络结构图:


  21. Oct 2018
    1. Table 1

      summary of psychological study findings (frontal lobe function in aggressive and antisocial subjects)

    2. Table 2

      summary of neuroimaging studies in violent and aggressive subjects

  22. Aug 2018
    1. Personal and organizational histories occupy prominent figure positions in the figure-ground dichotomy, and that such histories are used to cope with the future is indicated by several pieces of evidence.

      Does this help to explain the need for SBTF volunteers to situate themselves in time -- as a way to construct a history in Weick's "figure-ground construction" method of sensemaking for themselves and to that convey sense to others?

    2. And if Weick has drawn the correct conclusion about how the past is used to enact the present, being able to note the differences may be even more im­portant than being able to see the similarities. This is especially so in equivocal enactments, which Weick (1979, p. 201) described as involving a figure-ground construction, one in which the ground consists of the strange and unfamiliar

      Weick describes the need to discern differences over similarities to effectively use past-present metaphors as a sense-making device.

  23. Apr 2018
    1. Melchor

      n. Saint Melchior, or Melichior, was purportedly one of the Biblical Magi along with Caspar and Balthazar who visited the infant Jesus after he was born. Melchior was often referred to as the oldest member of the Magi. He was traditionally called the King of Persia and brought the gift of gold to Jesus.

    2. San Dionisio

      n. Denis of Paris;Saint Denis was a legendary 3rd-century Christian martyr and saint. According to his hagiographies, he was bishop of Paris in the third century and, together with his companions Rusticus and Eleutherius, was martyred for his faith by decapitation.

    3. Descartes

      n. a French philosopher, mathematician, and scientist. Dubbed the father of modern western philosophy, much of subsequent Western philosophy. In his natural philosophy, he differed from the schools on two major points: first, he rejected the splitting of corporeal substance into matter and form; second, he rejected any appeal to final ends, divine or natural, in explaining natural phenomena. In his theology, he insists on the absolute freedom of God's act of creation.

    4. Bacon

      n. an English philosopher, statesman, scientist, jurist, orator, and author. Bacon has been called the father of empiricism. His works argued for the possibility of scientific knowledge based only upon inductive reasoning and careful observation of events in nature. Most importantly, he argued this could be achieved by use of a sceptical and methodical approach whereby scientists aim to avoid misleading themselves.

    5. Santo Tomás

      n. an Italian Dominican friar, Catholic priest, and Doctor of the Church. He was an immensely influential philosopher, theologian, and jurist in the tradition of scholasticism, within which he is also known as the Doctor Angelicus and the Doctor Communis.

    6. Aristóteles

      n. an ancient Greek philosopher and scientist born in the city of Stagira, Chalkidiki, in the north of Classical Greece. Along with Plato, Aristotle is considered the "Father of Western Philosophy"

    7. Padre Anastasio

      n. served as Pope from 27 November 399 to his death in 401.

  24. Dec 2017
    1. Flowering delays may result in a reduced overlap between plant flowering and pollinator activity (C). This plant–pollinator mismatch affects plant reproductive success (Hoye et al., 2013; Kudo and Ida, 2013; Memmott et al., 2007; Petanidou et al., 2014), and fruit production, with consequences on resource availability for frugivores, which may result in famine or death (Wright et al., 1999). Low fruit set affects the rates of seed dispersal and plant recruitment, which also occurs later in the wet season (C)

      Fig. 1. (C)

      Climate change has created longer, more intense dry seasons; which ultimately contributes to later plant reproduction, lower fruit yield, and lower germination rates. Delays in flowering might limit the the amount of time pollinators have to disperse pollen, which will reduce plants' abilities to produce viable offspring.

      BD, HW

    2. In this context, species producing leaves immediately after the first rains would delay leafing activity, thus overlapping with peak insect abundance (B) and, therefore, increasing herbivory damage, potentially affecting plant fitness (Aide, 1988, 1993)

      Fig. 1. (B)

      The effects of climate change on leaf production and insect activity. Climate change has resulted in later leaf production, which creates an increased overlap between leafing and insect activity. This increases the likelihood of herbivory damage to plants and ultimately decreases plans' abilities to survive and reproduce viable offspring.

      BD, HW

  25. Nov 2017
    1. Fig. 1 Terrestrial C residence time was approximately halved with experimental nutrient enrichment.

      Photo of the landscape prior to experiment.

    2. Fig. 2 Terrestrial C loss rates from stream reaches increased with N and P concentrations.

      Graph illustrating the loss of terrestrial carbon.

    3. Fig. 1 Terrestrial C residence time was approximately halved with experimental nutrient enrichment. Increased nutrient inputs (+) reduced terrestrial particulate C residence time (–) and increased export of fine detrital particles (+) and respiration rates [which increased on C substrates (11) but decreased at reach scales; +/−]. Inset graph: Reach-scale leaf litter loss rates were faster in enriched (dashed lines) than in reference (solid lines) streams; the inverse of these rates is residence time. Colors correspond to the same years in (A) (reference versus enriched streams; N+P experiment; n = 12 annual rates) and to the same streams in (B) (pretreatment versus enriched years; N×P experiment; n = 15 annual rates). Data shown for litter loss are untransformed but were natural log–transformed for analyses and the calculation of loss rates (k, per day). The larger image depicts terrestrial organic C inputs, which enter as leaf litter, wood, and dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and outputs as hydrologic export (fine and coarse particles, DOC) and respired CO2 in deciduous forest streams, using an image of one of the N×P experimental stream sites.

      Image illustrating the various sources of carbon observed in the experiment.

  26. Oct 2017
  27. Sep 2017
    1. Fig. 1 The lapping process. (A to F) Snapshots showing the movement of the tongue of F. catus and the dynamics of the liquid column during a lapping cycle. Lapping occurs by fluid adhesion to the dorsal part of the tongue's tip and by lifting a liquid column through the tongue's upward motion, before jaw closure. Time elapsed from the first frame is given in the top left corner of each frame. (G) Photograph of the dorsal side of the tongue of F. catus, acquired under anesthesia (16). Only the smooth tip is used in lapping.

      Figure 1 Tabs

      Major Question: Though we can picture a cat or dog lapping water, how can the use of high speed imaging show how cats are really getting water into their mouth?

      High-speed Photography: The use of high speed photography allowed the researchers take a very quick process and see it stationary, step-by-step.

      Results: Photograph A: the tongue is leaving the mouth to approach the liquid. Photograph B: the back of the tip of the tongue hit the top of the liquid, but do not penetrate the surface. Photograph C: as the cat's tongue is pulled back into it's mouth, the water below it is pulled up also forming a thin column which the cat will later trap into it's mouth. Photographs D-E: the column of water being held up by the water attaching to the tongue and it's shape is even maintained after the tongue retreats back into the mouth. Photograph F: the column of liquid falling back down into the water after a portion is taken up by the cat's mouth. Photograph G: the smooth area of the tongue is the only portion used in lapping. The roughness of the rest of the tongue would not allow it to use this technique to drink.

      Next question: Though these images give us a mechanical understanding of the process of a cat's water intake, how can we quantify these results?

  28. Feb 2017
    1. FIGURE 1.

      Title: Number of papers read by undergraduates and Masters Students

      Specific Question: How many scientific papers have students carefully analyzed?


      2/3 students have carefully read fewer than 20 papers.

      Prediction: Most undergraduates read about 1 primary literature article each semester. This is probably not enough to learn how to read the primary literature.

  29. Nov 2016
    1. the material and the formal

      Artistic practice here looks like something that differentiates itself from a "given" cognitive state of affairs. I'm curious about the importance of such framework...

      So, apparently 'form' needs 'background.' But, can we have a 'figure-figure' relationship?

    1. Figure 1

      Figure 1:

      Tab 1 : Axis : The bottom axis is the peer review percentile score that defines how much the committee liked the application (the lower the percentile, the better).

      In the first plot, the y axis is the number of citations an author got after receiving a grant.

      In the second plot, the y axis is the number of publications an author produced after receiving a grant.

      Tab 2 : Description In the first plot, we can see that there are more points in the top left corner than the bottom right corner. This indicates that applications that received better ratings also received more citations.

      In the second plot, we see the same trend as in the first. This indicates that applications that received better ratings produced more publications.

  30. Oct 2016
    1. falling faintly through the universe and faintly falling

      Chiasmus, cf. Portrait bird girl, "soft and slight, slight and soft."

  31. Sep 2016
    1. Fig. 4

      Objective: To analyse the mutations of NHE9 gene in patients with comorbid autism and epilepsy.

      Methods: Sequencing of all exons and exons-intron boundaries in NHE9 gene

      Results. It was found out that there is a heterozygous CGA to TGA transition in exon 1. This leads to transformation of arginine 423 to a stop codon and this change is quite similar to the one nonsense mutation in the Nhe1 gene.

      Conclusion: both in NHE9 and Nhe1 genes nonsense mutations are observed in the last extracellular loop of NHE protein; NHE9 in the case of comorbid autism & epilepsy and Nhe1 in the case of slow-wave epilepsy.

    2. Fig. 3.

      Objective: To study the regulation of some autism-associated genes by neuronal activity.

      Methods: They used genetic screens looking for genes regulated by neuronal activity or for targets of transcription factors induced by activity. Cultured rat hippocampal neutrons and complementary DNA (cDNAs) of tested genes were used in this method, as wells a parallel neuronal membrane depolarisation by elevated KCL. After gene expression was studied and compared during a period of 6 hours.

      Results: c3orf58 gene expression was increased within 6 hours, as seen in Panel A, while by sequencing it found out to contain several evolutionarily conserved binding sites for MEF2, CREB and SRF (Panel B), things that implies that c3orf58 is a direct or indirect target of MEF2. PCDH10 gene showed more than doubled expression within 6 hours (Panel C). RNAi knock-down of NPAS4 was used; rat hippocampal cultures were transducer with either control virus (blue) or NPAS4 RNAi (red) and as seen in Panel D NHE9 expression was slightly altered.

      Conclusion: Activity-regulated genes are related to homozygous deletions in autism patients, since either their coding sequence is mutated, as happens in case of c3orf58 gene or their conserved DNA sequences are affected, as happens in case of NHE9 and PCDH10.

    3. pedigree AU-3100 reveals an

      Figure 1 - Tab 1 : 'overview' The authors compared the genetic makeup of four members of a consanguineous simplex family. The analyses focuses here on a region on chromosome 3 presenting identity by descent (IBD), which means that two or more individuals inherited that region from a common ancestor without recombination. In this case, the IBD is only present in the affected individual. In this region, a 886kb deletion was identified and will be studied more closely.

    4. Homozygous deletion in AU-5101 removes 5′ region of RNF8and 3′ noncoding region of TBC1D228

      A new deletion was identified in patient AU-5101 removes the 5'region of the genes RNF8, which was present in patient AU-3101. This protein is a transcriptional activator. The deletion also encompasses the 3' region of another gene, and could have an impact on its expression.

    5. Homozygous deletions within regions of IBD that segregate with disease

      Figure 2 Tab 1 : Overview The four figures show homozygous deletions identified using the SNP array. The upper part of each panel shows how many copies of each SNP the individual possesses, either none (deletion), one or two. The lower part of each panel shows the genes close to the deletions as well as the alignment between individuals.

    6. y number data using the 500K SNP microarray and dCHIP (45) hidden Markov model inferred methodology aligned with the genotyping SNPs from (A)

      Figure 1 - Tab 3 : 'Localisation of the deletion' Panel C zooms on the region of panel B that shows a copy number score of zero, which means that there is a homozygous deletion. The deletion is showed to be of 886kb in panel C. Both parents and the unaffected sibling have this deletion but on only one chromosome; this is shown by the copy number score of 1. On the contrary, the affected individual has a homologous deletion which is shown by the copy number score of 0.

      The deletion affects the entire gene c3orf58, which codes for a protein present in the Golgi apparatus as well as the regulatory region of NHE9, which codes for an ion exchanger. This deletion can possibly affect the expression level of this protein.

    7. SNP genotypes for each subje

      Figure 1 Tab 2 : 'Identifying homozygous regions' In panel A, the authors present the genotyping data of each individual to study wether each SNP is homozygous or heterozygous. You can see that the affected individual presents a large region of homozygous SNPs which is also the 74cM IBD.

    8. Homozygous deletion in AU-7001 within a protocadherin cluster proximal to PCDH10

      Figure 2 Tab 2 : 'panel A' the Authors found a large deletion of 321kb in a cluster of genes coding for protocadherin proteins. These proteins are involved in cell adhesion. It is also worth noting that this deletion is close to PCDH10, where a deletion was identified in AU-3101.

    9. Homozygous deletion in AU-5801 encompasses 5′ noncoding region of CNTN3

      Figure 2 Tab 3 : 'Panel B and C' In two different individuals, deletions in the 5' noncoding region of genes were identified.A small deletion of 150kb was found in patient AU-5801 which deletes the upstream noncoding region of a gene coding for Contactin-3. This protein mediates cell surface interactions during the development of the nervous system.

      A 47kb deletion was identified in patient AU-8101 in the 5' noncoding regions of SCN7A, which codes for a sodium channel protein.

      Deletions in the 5' noncoding regions could impact the expression levels of these proteins.

    1. Fig. 3

      Figure 3 :

      Tab 1 : Panes : Each of these plots are made with a different set of data. In the first of the plots is made with the data concerning only the applications that published the most (i.e. the 0,1% best). The two last plots are also made only with the applications that published the least (i.e. 50 and 20% worse).

      Tab 2 : Axis : The bottom axis of these plots is the percentile score of each application, that defines how the committee like the application (the lower the better). The y axis of these plots represents the relative percentile of citations that an application get per percentile score compared to publications near the 10% best. This means that the higher on the y axis it is, the more (or less) cited it has been compared to the number of citations that the publications around the 10% best got.

      Tab 3 : Description : We can see in the 4 first plots that concern the applications that published the most that the more the application got a good rate from the committee, the more likely it will be cited. Although, this phenomenon is more obvious in the top 5 and 10%. In the two last plots, the curve is likely a straight horizontal line. It is especially obvious in the last plot. This means that the least an application publishes after a grant, the less it will be cited regardless of the rate of the committee.

    2. Fig. 2

      Figure 2 :

      Tab 1 : Axis : The bottom axis is for both the plots the percentile score, that defines how the committee like the application (the lower the percentile, the better). For the first plot, the y axis is the residual number of citation an application gets after getting a grant. The residual number of citations is a statistical output that allows to generalise the number of citations by percentile score. For the second plot, the y axis is the residual number of publications a n application gets after getting a grant. The residual number of publications is a statistical output that allows to generalise the number of publications by percentile score.

      Tab 2 : Description : On the first plot, we can see that the slope on the left is really steep. That shows that the committees can tell really effectively if an application has some potential. We can also see that the slope is changing around 60% of the percentile score. The authors tell that this is probably due to the ability