347 Matching Annotations
  1. Dec 2018
    1. Do not forget that automation will generalize and make employment less necessary. Look at the self-checkouts in supermarkets, automated tolls, but also the software robots that do housekeeping at Wikipedia. I argue that this is a good thing. On one condition: that it enhances the ability of people to develop their social skills, their knowledge, their work in the strict sense of the term, rather than solely their job.
  2. Jul 2018
    1. We’ve made an annual thing out of doing it every year over the Super Bowl. We have an event called Break the Super Bowl, where kids are looking at Super Bowl ads and then remixing them. Then we throw them back up online, if they’re fair use, in real time. We get a bunch of kids together for the Super Bowl and it looks like a regular Super party. We’ve got pizza, and Doritos, and wings, and soda, and all the junk food. But then they’re all working in teams on laptops, and they’re remixing the actual ads from the Super Bowl that go up that night. We have the game playing on a larger screen so that it has a fun party atmosphere, but they’re actually doing something.

      This feels like a great example for anecdote / color / something creative in the final report.

      A "Hive highlight reel" of activities / lesson plans / creative jams. "20 things to do w. your kid on a rainy day." etc.

  3. Jun 2018
    1. I’m not looking for just a “hipster-web”, but a new and demonstrably better web.
  4. Feb 2018
    1. This allows at least 500components per linear inch or a quarter million per squareinch.

      This is about 388 transistors per mm2. Intel now gets 100,000,000

    2. 65 000

      FYI. AMD 32 core now EPYC has about 19 billion transistors

    1. Two problems now arise.

      These problems are largely one consequence of limited computational power

  5. Jan 2018
    1. The self-described “creature of the suburbs” helped remake this city, in some ways, for his own maximum personal comfort.
    2. trust-us self-assurance in their own technocratic moral sense
    3. main thing Doctoroff admits the administration didn’t quite get right was figuring out how to keep New York from becoming too expensive for many of the people who already lived in it.
    4. Doctoroff has little use for “nostalgia,” practically an epithet in the book,
    5. Success is when “more customers want to come and stay. And the ultimate measure is population growth.”
    6. “You have to treat citizens and businesses like customers,”
  6. Dec 2017
  7. Oct 2017
    1. Commons-based peer-production relations regularly exhibit three structuralattributes.
  8. Sep 2017
    1. Yet when you “criticize in private” for behavior that occurred in a team meeting or affects the team, you undermine team members’ accountability to each other. You send the message that team members are accountable only to you, not to the team. You also send the entire team the message that they don’t need to hold each other accountable — you’ll do it for them. In short, you shift accountability from the team to you.
  9. Apr 2017
    1. Readers need to be trained to understand that, when it comes to bureaucratic sources, ugliness in prose is usually not entirely aesthetic, but usually is covering up something far more egregious than style.
    2. While the bureaucratic voice works to present governments and corporations as placid, apologetic, and unmovable, it also works to make their victims as active and vital as possible.
    3. But the figures responsible for establishing procedure are nowhere to be found. Whenever possible, bureaucratic style will shift responsibility to immutable rules and directives that appear spontaneously from the ether.
    4. Who told them? The sentence does not make this clear, even though it is this unnamed actor, presumably a supervisor, who set this entire chain of events in motion. Deliberately pushed back as far off the stage as possible, there is no one here to responsibly hold accountable for subsequent events.
    5. as users become more creative in crafting language to reflect new kinds of expression, bureaucrats get more creative in using that expression to hide the levers of power
    1. Is "neutral point of view" an adequate criterion when stories from different perspectives are to be told? Is "citation needed" when it is oral history or folklore? Shall artifacts abandoned on the scenes of natural disasters or human conflicts be photoed and put into the Wikimedia Commons? How do we attribute these artifacts?
  10. Mar 2017
    1. Recommendations and best practices for future consultations
    2. Outcomes

      Similarly, what outcomes can reasonably be expected with a scaled up version of a consultation using pol.is?

    3. These activities were conducted in two main phases: an idea generation phase and a consultation on the draft Plan
    4. Engaging Canadians and the world: Canadians have the information they need to meaningfully interact with and participate in their democracy. They have the opportunity to make their voices heard on government policy and programs from the start. Canada demonstrates leadership by championing open government principles and initiatives around the world.
    1. “There’s a habit of mind that the masters have,” Gottman explained in an interview, “which is this: they are scanning social environment for things they can appreciate and say thank you for. They are building this culture of respect and appreciation very purposefully. Disasters are scanning the social environment for partners’ mistakes.”
  11. Feb 2017
    1. maximise the quality of interaction and contributions, based on the task at hand and the target participant group
    2. grow the skills of the team
    3. ongoing development of the digital tools
    4. create and manage projects
    5. financial and human resources
    6. without the requisite support, there is the risk of failing to deliver on promises and ambitions, as a result alienating citizens who have contributed
    7. higher investment in mass communications and PR may also be required
    8. work closely with civil society groups to help reach audiences not accustomed to using the internet
    9. local or experiential knowledge
    10. specific knowledge, expertise or information
  12. Jan 2017
    1. Es ist also kein Wunder, dass sich Menschen ihre Arbeit als Identitätsbezug erwählen. Denn für andere Tätigkeiten haben sie keine Zeit mehr. Eignet sich der Beruf jedoch nicht als identitätsstiftend, sind Frustration und Unzufriedenheit häufig eine Folge.
  13. Mar 2016
    1. We are called Matrix because we provide a structure in which all communication can be matrixed together.
  14. Oct 2015
    1. a parameter
    2. the ioctl number
    3. the file descriptor of the appropriate device file
    4. The ioctl function is called with three parameters
    5. Every device can have its own ioctl commands, which can be read ioctl's (to send information from a process to the kernel), write ioctl's (to return information to a process), [1] both or neither
    6. The answer in Unix is to use a special function called ioctl
    1. To create a new char device named `coffee' with major/minor number 12 and 2, simply do mknod /dev/coffee c 12 2
    2. When the system was installed, all of those device files were created by the mknod command.
    3. character devices are allowed to use as many or as few bytes as they like
    4. block devices can only accept input and return output in blocks
    5. This is important in the case of storage devices, where it's faster to read or write sectors which are close to each other,
    6. block devices have a buffer
    7. Devices are divided into two types: character devices and block devices
    8. hey have unique minor numbers because the driver sees them as being different pieces of hardware.
    9. The minor number is used by the driver to distinguish between the various hardware it controls.
    10. The major number tells you which driver is used to access the hardware. Each driver is assigned a unique major number; all device files with the same major number are controlled by the same driver. All the above major numbers are 3, because they're all controlled by the same driver.
    11. The first number is called the device's major number. The second number is the minor number.
    12. 3, 1
    13. each piece of hardware is represented by a file located in /dev
    14. One class of module is the device driver, which provides functionality for hardware like a TV card or a serial port
    15. There are things called microkernels which have modules which get their own codespace.
    16. the above discussion is true for any operating system which uses a monolithic kernel
    17. it shares the kernel's codespace rather than having its own
    18. Since a module is code which can be dynamically inserted and removed in the kernel
    1. your init and cleanup functions must be defined before calling the macros,
    2. you can rename the init and cleanup functions of your modules; they no longer have to be called init_module() and cleanup_module() respectively. This is done with the module_init() and module_exit() macros
    1. When the novelty wears off, remove your module from the kernel by using rmmod hello-1
    2. simple Makefile
    3. insert your freshly-compiled module it into the kernel with insmod ./hello-1.ko
    4. they contain an additional .modinfo section that where additional information about the module is kept
    5. kernel modules now have a .ko extension
    6. there is a new way of doing
    7. redundant settings accumulated in sublevel Makefiles
    8. kbuild
  15. Jul 2015
    1. If they want JavaScript, then it is an Ajax request and we render the JavaScript template associated with this action.
    2. “if the client wants HTML in response to this action, just respond as we would have before, but if the client wants XML, return them the list of people in XML format.” (Rails determines the desired response format from the HTTP Accept header submitted by the client.)
    1. You then have a corresponding app/views/users/create.js.erb
    2. format.js
    3. Notice the format.js in the respond_to block; that allows the controller to respond to your Ajax request.
    4. Because the form's remote option is set to true, the request will be posted to the UsersController as an Ajax request, looking for JavaScript.
    5. Ajax isn't just client-side, you also need to do some work on the server side to support it. Often, people like their Ajax requests to return JSON rather than HTML.
    6. We call this 'unobtrusive' JavaScript because we're no longer mixing our JavaScript into our HTML. We've properly separated our concerns, making future change easy
    1. would provide the @buyer object to the partial, available under the local variable account and is equivalent to:
    2. :object option can be used to pass an object to the partial.
    3. This would first render “advertiser/_account.html.erb” with @buyer passed in as the local variable account,
    4. <%= render partial: "account", locals: { account: @buyer } %>
    5. If you're not going to be using any of the options like collections or layouts, you can also use the short-hand defaults of render to render partials. Examples:
    6. There's also a convenience method for rendering sub templates within the current controller that depends on a single object (we call this kind of sub templates for partials). It relies on the fact that partials should follow the naming convention of being prefixed with an underscore
    1. However, Rails has a 'seeds' feature that should be used for seeding a database with initial data. It's a really simple feature: just fill up db/seeds.rb with some Ruby code, and run rake db:seed:
    2. The Active Record way claims that intelligence belongs in your models, not in the database.
    3. If you are using features like this, then you should set the schema format to :sql.
    4. There is however a trade-off: db/schema.rb cannot express database specific items such as triggers, or stored procedures. While in a migration you can execute custom SQL statements, the schema dumper cannot reconstitute those statements from the database
    5. Because this is database-independent, it could be loaded into any database that Active Record supports
    6. :ruby
    7. :sql or :ruby.
    8. There are two ways to dump the schema.
    9. the information is nicely summed up in the schema file.
    10. Schema files are also useful if you want a quick look at what attributes an Active Record object has.
    11. Migrations, mighty as they may be, are not the authoritative source for your database schema. That role falls to either db/schema.rb or an SQL file which Active Record generates by examining the database. They are not designed to be edited, they just represent the current state of the database.
    12. Instead, you should write a new migration that performs the changes you require
    13. In general, editing existing migrations is not a good idea.
    14. Occasionally you will make a mistake when writing a migration. If you have already run the migration then you cannot just edit the migration and run the migration again: Rails thinks it has already run the migration and so will do nothing when you run rake db:migrate. You must rollback the migration (for example with rake db:rollback), edit your migration and then run rake db:migrate to run the corrected version.
    15. rake db:drop
    16. db:reset task will drop the database and set it up again
    17. create the database, load the schema and initialize it with the seed data.
    18. rake db:setup
    19. If you specify a target version, Active Record will run the required migrations (change, up, down) until it has reached the specified version
    20. runs the change or up method for all the migrations that have not yet been run
    21. rake db:migrate.
    22. You can also use the old style of migration using up and down methods
    23. The revert method also accepts a block of instructions to reverse. This could be useful to revert selected parts of previous migrations.
    24. If your migration is irreversible, you should raise ActiveRecord::IrreversibleMigration from your down method
    25. reverse order
    26. drop_table :distributors
    27. create_table :distributors
    28. the database schema should be unchanged if you do an up followed by a down
    29. revert the transformations done by the up method.
    30. down
    31. describe the transformation you'd like to make to your schema
    32. up
    33. If the previous example migration is reverted, the down block will be run after the home_page_url column is removed and right before the table distributors is dropped.
    34. Sometimes your migration will do something which is just plain irreversible; for example, it might destroy some data. In such cases, you can raise ActiveRecord::IrreversibleMigration in your down block.
    35. If you're going to need to use any other methods, you should use reversible or write the up and down methods instead of using the change method.
    36. he change method supports only these migration definitions
    37. If the helpers provided by Active Record aren't enough you can use the execute method to execute arbitrary SQL
    38. Active Record only supports single column foreign keys. execute and structure.sql are required to use composite foreign keys.
    39. Unlike change_column (and change_column_default), change_column_null is reversible.
    40. change_column_default
    41. change_column_null
    42. change_column
    43. add_column
    44. remove_column
    45. A close cousin of create_table is change_table, used for changing existing tables. It is used in a similar fashion to create_table but the object yielded to the block knows more tricks.
    46. which are not created by default)
    47. which creates a categories_products table with two columns called category_id and product_id.
    48. If you need to pass database specific options you can place an SQL fragment in the :options option
    49. By default, create_table will create a primary key called id. You can change the name of the primary key with the :primary_key option
    50. The create_table method is one of the most fundamental, but most of the time, will be generated for you from using a model or scaffold generator
    51. The model and scaffold generators will create migrations appropriate for adding a new model.
    52. There is also a generator which will produce join tables if JoinTable is part of the name:
    53. the generator accepts column type as references(also available as belongs_to)
    54. If the migration name is of the form "CreateXXX" and is followed by a list of column names and types then a migration creating the table XXX with the columns listed will be generated
    55. part_number:string
    56. If you'd like to add an index on the new column
    57. If the migration name is of the form "AddXXXToYYY" or "RemoveXXXFromYYY" and is followed by a list of column names and types then a migration containing the appropriate add_column and remove_column statements will be created.
    58. The name of the migration class (CamelCased version) should match the latter part of the file name.
    59. Rails uses this timestamp to determine which migration should be run and in what order, so if you're copying a migration from another application or generate a file yourself, be aware of its position in the order.
    60. Alternatively, you can use up and down instead of change:
    61. If you wish for a migration to do something that Active Record doesn't know how to reverse, you can use reversible:
    62. migrations are wrapped in a transaction
    63. If the database does not support this then when a migration fails the parts of it that succeeded will not be rolled back. You will have to rollback the changes that were made by hand.
    64. The timestamps macro adds two columns, created_at and updated_at.
    65. A primary key column called id will also be added implicitly,
    66. each migration modifies it to add or remove tables, columns, or entries.
    67. migration as being a new 'version' of the database
    68. Migrations are a convenient way to alter your database schema over time in a consistent and easy way
    1. Rails keeps track of which files have been committed to the database and provides rollback features. To actually create the table, you'd run rake db:migrate and to roll it back, rake db:rollback.
    2. migrations
    3. Rails provides a domain-specific language for managing a database schema
    4. This enables you to add behavior to your models by transparently executing code when those events occur, like when you create a new record, update it, destroy it and so on.
    5. they raise the exception ActiveRecord::RecordInvalid if validation fails
    6. save! and update!
    7. return false when validation fails and they didn't actually perform any operation on the database
    8. save and update take it into account when running
    9. Active Record allows you to validate the state of a model before it gets written into the database.
    10. destroyed
    11. retrieved
    12. update_all
    13. you'd like to update several records in bulk
    14. A shorthand for this
    15. .update
    16. saved
    17. modified
    18. .where(name: 'David', occupation: 'Code Artist')
    19. .find_by(name: 'David')
    20. .first
    21. .all
    22. create and new will yield the new object to that block for initialization:
    23. block
    24. user.save will commit the record to the database
    25. create and save a new record into the database
    26. create
    27. instantiated without being saved
    28. new
    29. Active Record objects can be created from a hash, a block or have their attributes manually set after creation
    30. ActiveRecord::Base.table_name= method
    31. It's also possible to override the column that should be used as the table's primary key using the ActiveRecord::Base.primary_key= method:
    32. If you do so, you will have to define manually the class name that is hosting the fixtures (my_products.yml) using the set_fixture_class method in your test definition
    33. What if you need to follow a different naming convention or need to use your Rails application with a legacy database?
    34. This will create a Product model, mapped to a products table at the database
    35. While these column names are optional, they are in fact reserved by Active Record. Steer clear of reserved keywords unless you want the extra functionality.
    36. created_at - Automatically gets set to the current date and time when the record is first created. updated_at - Automatically gets set to the current date and time whenever the record is updated. lock_version - Adds optimistic locking to a model. type - Specifies that the model uses Single Table Inheritance. (association_name)_type - Stores the type for polymorphic associations. (table_name)_count - Used to cache the number of belonging objects on associations. For example, a comments_count column in a Articles class that has many instances of Comment will cache the number of existent comments for each article.
    37. Foreign keys - These fields should be named following the pattern singularized_table_name_id (e.g., item_id, order_id). These are the fields that Active Record will look for when you create associations between your models. Primary keys - By default, Active Record will use an integer column named id as the table's primary key. When using Active Record Migrations to create your tables, this column will be automatically created.