42 Matching Annotations
  1. Sep 2021
    1. present skirmish is rooted in American history,

      It's really sad how the continuation of discrimination of African Americans is so rooted in the history of America and how it still persists today and it really just takes different forms, such as police brutality, language discrimination, etc

    2. It reveals the private identity

      Again, the idea that language is part of your identity and how important it is is always interesting to me

    3. ol their circumstances, or in order not to be submer, ed b reality that they cannot arti

      I really liked this quote and it made me think back to the last text that discussed how the creators of AAVE used it in order to communicate with others in a new land



    1. n White English, this might be labeled the “double subject.” Rather than being a duplicate subject as such, the repe- tition of the subject in some other form is used in Black English for emphasis.

      This is another example of how people often misjudge AAVE as unintelligent, when it does have many set grammatical rules that justify it

    2. ow here’s a tricky one for you. This Black English use of done makes possible a tense that has pretty much gone out of white mainstream usage

      Reading about different tenses reminds me of learning Spanish, which further goes to show how AAVE should be respected as its own language

    3. In similar fashion, been patterns with other verb forms to suggest emphatic assertion. He BEEN gon

      This grammatical rule is very interesting how been is used in AAVE, especially with the different ways to stress is to create different meanings and uses

    4. Black Idiom speakers throughout the United States have cer- tain grammatical structures in common — despite the region of the country, and in some instances despite the social class level. Middle-class blacks from Detroit, for example, were found to de- lete -ed in verbs more frequently than middle-class whites from Detroit

      It's interesting how there is also differences in AAVE depending on where you are, I never really thought about that before.

    5. All languages change over time;

      I'm also learning about the instability of language in one of my other classes.



    1. hus, if in English an - is used to indicate the plural, then logically you should put an -s on all words in the plura

      Similar to my last annotation, the more I learn about the grammar in AAVE the more I am impressed by the original people who started speaking it

    2. For example, West African languages allow for the construction of-sentences without a form of the verb to be.

      It's sad to see people discriminate against AAVE and arguing that their lack of "proper" grammar is a sign of lesser intelligence when there are actual rules and reasonings behind the grammar.

    3. pidgin

      I remember learning about pidgin in a class last semester. Prior to this I always thought that pidgin referred to one language itself and I didn't realize there were different types.

    4. 1619 when a Dutch vessel landed in Jamestown with a cargo of twenty Africans.

      It's also interesting to read about the history and the original reasonings behind AAVE

    5. language and style.

      I thought that this idea was interesting, along with the rest of the paragraph that discussed how when analyzing Black Language, more than just the grammar that is used should be taken into account



    1. problem with this approach, as applied in most classrooms, is that it encourages students to code-switch without any regard to their racial rea-

      Exactly like what I was thinking in one of my earlier annotations. It's very unfair that many people are all but forced to do this.

    2. lack students [are] taught to hate Black speech, [it] indirectly [teaches] them to hate themselves

      This also makes me think about the idea of code switching and how people that speak AAVE must switch their language simply to be able to make it in some professional areas.

    3. ndeed, there are no explicit laws in the U.S. that make it illegal

      This again leads me to think about the court case regarding the usage of AAVE and I believe that there should be laws enacted to further protect African American children in schools, as well as to mark it more clear that it is its own language.

    4. Linguistic hegemony and the standard language ideology are useful frameworks

      Another interesting topic that the author brought up is that the idea of "standard" english is truly a good model and framework for the other languages that exist in the country.

    5. Black culture that white America loves to hate, yet loves to take

      I thought this was a very powerful line and it also reminded me of the discussion that took place during the last class regarding internet slang that was taken from AAVE.

    6. very naturally used language, [Black Language] is systematic with regular rules at the lexical, phonological, and grammatical level”

      I recall being very surprised about this when I first began learning about AAVE. It's very interesting and impressive how a unique language has been created through the African American culture. It also makes it worse when people discriminate against and refuse to accept AAVE as its own legitimate language.

    7. he policing of Black Language and literacies in schools is not separate from the ways in which Black bodies have historically been policed and surveilled in U.S. society, and the ubiquitous assault and murder of Black-bodies is not independent of the symbolic linguistic violence and spirit-murder that Black students experience daily in classrooms

      Again, it is very upsetting to see how racism is a part of almost every faculty of life for people of color.



    1. White Mainstream English in place of standard English

      This helps me out because I'm aware that there is no true standard english but I wasn't sure what to refer to it as. Although I believe that there are multiple names for it, similar to AAVE

    2. Ann Arbor Black English case took place in Ann Arbor, Michigan

      This is the case that I have referenced in a few other annotations

    3. I use Black Language intentionally in my scholarship to acknowledge Africologists’ theories that maintain that Black speech is the continuation of African in an American context.

      I thought that the idea that AAVE is a continuation of African dialect in America was a really interesting idea. I wonder if there are any grammatical rules that exist in both AAVE and other African languages.

    4. hey were sick and tired of the relentless shaming of Black people—the way we talk, the way we walk, the way we dress, the way we eat, and the way we live. I was perso

      Whenever I usually think of the broad discrimination that African Americans face, I often don't even think about all the different ways that they are. It really goes to show how deeply rooted racism is in America to discriminate someone based off of their speech which is a result of their culture.

    5. From signifying to habitual be to call and response,

      I recall learning about these phrases and what they mean in a class that I took last semester



    1. It is enforced in subtle and not so subtle ways by the judicial speech, but wstem.

      This makes me think of the Rachel Jeantel court issues where she was subjected to a large amount of discrimination due to her language and how she spoke.

    2. egative social evaluation of the accent in question, and a s=Section of the communicative burden.

      This phrase makes me think of how a lot of the time southern people are regarded as less intelligent due to their accents and thats often how they are portrayed in movies and T.V shows.

    3. ll the evidence indicates that there is still blatant discrimination in employment, >firms. ®eesing, education, the media, the courts and in everyday interaction. Despite the passing ae = Gvil Rights legislation, despi

      I also brought this up in last weeks annotation, but this reminds me of the lawsuit that was brought up at a nearby school due to students being discriminated against due to their usage of AAVE.

    4. We use variation in language to construct ourselves as social beings, to signal who we are, and who we are not and do not want to be.

      I've always found the idea of ones language to be an extension of their personality to be a very interesting idea. For instance, my dads whole family has a completely different way of speaking than I have ever heard other people speak. I'm always able to tell if my dad is talking to one of his family on the phone cause his changes as well if he's speaking to one of them.



    1. Thus a child’s language may be a disadvantage in his educa- tional progress: not because his language is itself “deficient,” but because it is different.

      I thought this was a very sad statement that can often be applied to many other areas of life. I was also thinking that I am very privileged and lucky to not be looked down upon due to any of my traits or characteristics that I have developed due to my culture.

    2. he concept that different language varieties are suited to different situations can be summed up in the distinction which is often drawn between correctness and appropriateness of language.

      This also reminds me of the idea of code switching, which was heavily discussed in one of my classes last year

    3. is accepted by linguists that no language or dialect is inher- ently superior or inferior to any other,

      I was also discussing a similar idea to this in another class. We were looking at an anthropologists ideas regarding Native Americans and their languages and culture

    4. he point is that British people are very sensitive to the social implications of dialect and accent, and the characteristic speech of our large cities, especially Birmingham, East London, Liverpool, Newcastle and Glasgow, is often regarded as “slovenly” and “ugly.”

      I thought it was somewhat interesting to read about other forms of discrimination based on linguistics, as the only one I have put research into is it based off of AAVE

    5. Teacher: You can see on the bottom of your sheet, ‘We ain’t got no money.’ That is typically a London accent—the ten- dency to drop the aitch off the front of words, d’you see? It’s a lazy way-of speaking

      I read about an old case that went on by a high school near my old town where teachers were deeming students as special needs due to their way of speaking. Luckily, there was a law suit filed in order to correct this



    1. English

      I disagree with this statement for multiple reasons, however, even from a scientific standpoint this is faulty. The rating was very poorly done as the sample that they polled was not up to good standards

    2. he same is true for what has been called, to this point, Standard American English. A comparison of published definitions for this term reveals some common themes. From Pocket Fowler’s Modern English Usage:

      I thought that it was interesting to see how there are still multiple definitions of "standard english", although still are both somewhat faulty

    3. 56 THE STANDARD LANGUAGE MYTH Figure 4.1. Bad grammar destroys nations | "The idea of a standard language is constructed and re-con: by those who have a vested in ) consider in some detail exactly to be. what this mythical beast call terest in the concept. At this juncture, it ed U.S. Engl structed on an on-going basis is necessary to Jish is supposed THE STANDARD LANGUAGE MYTH 57 Standard (American) English Non-linguists! are quite comfortable with the idea of a standard language, so much so that the average person is very willing to describe and define it,

      When reading this, I feel a little bit of guilty. This is due to not recognizing this until a class last year and also having the same attitude that the "non linguists" were referenced to have

    4. Itshould be clear by now why linguists consider the idea ofa spoken standardized language to be a hypothetical construct.

      This was a idea highlighted a large portion of the idea that I studied last year in one of my course, regarding AAVE and its legitimacy as a language



    1. at it is. Children from non-mainstream homes often do not get the oppor- tunities to acquire dominant secondary discourses - including those con- nected with the school - in their homes, due to their parents' lack of access to th

      This reminds me of the time where I had to help tutor a young Spanish kid in English during high school and he really struggled with different "common" ideas of mannerisms in English

    2. s "secondary institution

      I always understood how there was different types of discourse and language that was dependent on your setting, but it was interesting to read further into the topic

    3. Much of what we come by in life, after our initial enculturation, involves a mixture

      I feel like this is one of the reasons why people language can be so different, due to the vastly different experiences everyone faces that then form the different traits that make us who we are

    4. a socially accepted association among ways of using language, of thinking, and of acting that can be used to identify oneself as a member of a socially meaning- ful group or "social netw

      Definition-important definition from the article