53 Matching Annotations
  1. Last 7 days
    1. I lost two cities, lovely ones. And, vaster, some realms I owned, two rivers, a continent.

      Ideas are getting more and more abstract. These mentions of place are perhaps symbolic of the memories she had of them, or of the relationships she once had there.

      She misses them but it she is still okay and everything is fine.

      Elizabeth BishopOne Art by Elizabeth Bishop

      Elizabeth Bishop’s One Art is a poem whose apparent detached simplicity is undermined by its rigid villanelle structure and mounting emotional tension. Perhaps her most well-known poem, it centres around the theme of loss and the way in which the speaker – and, by extension, the reader – deals with it. Here, Bishop converts losing into an art form and explores how, by potentially mastering this skill, we may distance ourselves from the pain of loss. At eight months old, Elizabeth Bishop lost her father, her mother then succumbed to mental illness and she later lost her lover to suicide. Therefore, we may see this poem as in part autobiographical. In it, the poet presents a list of things we may lose in life, increasing in importance, until the final culmination in the loss of a loved one.

      One Art Analysis

      The title should not be overlooked. With these two small words, Elizabeth Bishop encompasses the poem’s entire purpose: to remove the pain of loss by first levelling out everything that we lose; from door keys to houses to people (One), and second by mastering the fact of losing through practise (Art).

      The art of losing isn’t hard to master; so many things seem filled with the intent to be lost that their loss is no disaster. In the first stanza, Bishop sets out her intentions. She seems to affirm that loss is part of the human condition: we lose both significant and insignificant things constantly and should thus accept this as a natural part of life, and even master this practice so as to remove any sensation of disaster we may take from it. These two points will be repeated throughout the poem so as to emphasise them.

      Lose something every day.

      In the second stanza, she invites the reader in by naming two extremely common things to lose: keys and time. The enjambment between the first and second lines causes us to pause and contemplate how ridiculous is this ‘fluster’ that occurs when we lose our keys. She eases us slowly into her idea: the universality of these two occurrences allows us to relate and thus agree that indeed, this is not too hard to master and is certainly not a disaster.

      Then practice losing farther, losing faster: places, and names, and where it was you meant to travel. The emotional tension begins to subtly build in the third stanza as Bishop incites us to further our practise, broadening the scope of our loss. Here, the things we lose are more related to thought and memory: people, places and plans that, with time, naturally escape our head and no longer form part of our lives. This is harder for the reader to accept and the familiar affirmation that this will not bring disaster becomes less comforting. House keys and an hour here and there seem commonplace and natural and to consciously lose these things to aid our mastering of losing does not seem too difficult. Places, names and plans require a larger effort and a degree of emotional distancing that the second stanza did not call for.

      There is a subtle change from the third to the fourth stanza, a perfect split in keeping with the poem’s rigid structure. Almost imperceptibly, the speaker switches from addressing the reader to drawing on her own experience. It is here that Bishop begins to undermine her meticulous structural details and carefully impassive tone. “I lost my mother’s watch”, she states, an admission that seems to come from nowhere. However, the casual tone is disappearing; the inexplicable mention of this personal aspect of the speaker’s life has upped the emotional stakes. As the stanza continues, it becomes clear that this is a further attempt to demonstrate the universality of loss. The picture becomes bigger and the distance larger. The exclamation: “And look!” betrays yet more emotion, despite it’s apparent offhand tone. Now Bishop tells us to look at our losses on a bigger scale: the houses we lived in – not so disastrous except for the use of the word “loved” here. Indeed, these were just places we lived in, but we nonetheless also loved in them.

      The first person speaker continues in the fifth stanza as the poet attempts to further distance herself from loss. She is stepping further and further back and the picture she is painting reaches a higher geographical level: to cities and continents. Nevertheless, this is undermined by a wistful tone: the cities she lost were “lovely ones” and, although she maintains that their loss was not a disaster, she does admit that she misses them. Faced with this unusual outlook, the reader is forced to ask at this point: if the loss of a continent is no disaster, what would thus constitute one?

      Bishop is also a traveller and called a lot of places home

    2. so many things seem filled with the intent to be lost that their loss is no disaster.

      Some things in the world are meant to be lost, were created for that purpose, or they just innately want to be lost. So when you lose something, it's really not that big of a deal and you shouldn't cry over it because the thing was going to get lost in the first place.

      She seems to affirm that loss is part of the human condition: we lose both significant and insignificant things constantly and should thus accept this as a natural part of life, and even master this practice so as to remove any sensation of disaster we may take from it. These two points will be repeated throughout the poem so as to emphasise them.

    3. —Even losing you (the joking voice, a gesture I love) I shan't have lied. It's evident the art of losing's not too hard to master though it may look like (Write it!) like disaster.

      he fifth stanza leads us to a brief look at the structure of the poem. The villanelle allows for a break in its pattern of tercets and tight rhyme, giving away to one quatrain with a repeated rhyme. Just as the structure cracks, as does the poetic voice. The final stanza opens with a dash, which could perhaps be seen as an attempt at a casual tone but in fact serves to slow the poem down here, allowing for yet more emotion to permeate the final words. The reader is forced to consider this “you”, and we see how the poem has taken a journey: starting with the little objects, going through thought and memory, to houses, places and continents forming one huge picture until at the end, zooming in on and pinpointing this “you”. A “you” with, as we infer from the parentheses, a personality, a memorable tone of voice and gestures. A person lost; an irreplaceable entity, in fact.

    4. Lose something every day. Accept the fluster of lost door keys, the hour badly spent.

      This stanza is somewhat urging you to just lose things on a daily basis, because why not? Just accept that emotion, how flustered you get from first realizing that you lost something and then that unsettling feeling of not finding it yet, whether it be keys or time you decided to use unwisely.

    5. Then practice losing farther, losing faster: places, and names, and where it was you meant to travel. None of these will bring disaster.

      In this stanza, the poet is almost treating losing something as a sort of skill or talent. Lose more of the association and background of that thing, and do it in a short amount of time.She's saying do it deliberately now, this time with things which aren't concrete, which is easier to lose farther and faster. We have moved on to the next level, losing something from the mind. It's an art that you've got to hone it until you are essentially you become someone with Alzheimer's. But do not worry (none of these will bring disaster) we can manage the loss just fine, no problemo.

  2. Jan 2019
    1. Cartographies also fulfil a methodological function by providingdiscursive objects of exchange for a dialogical, but also potentiallyantagonistic exchange

      So, the mapping of knowledge in which she engages helps serve the purpose of identifying topics to study and discuss.

      keepitsimplestupid

  3. Nov 2018
    1. Meanwhile, environmentalists of the professional class will continue growing fruitless tomato plants in yogurt containers (they call it “permaculture”) while weed workers actually succeed at growing shit in locally appropriate ways every day, and can build and rewire structures in twenty-four hours. Clearly, any effective social movement would find one pot grower more useful than all “anarchoprimitivists” combined.

      The author basically says the weed workers are more useful than some of today's workers. The way they think and act are smarter than others

    2. The fact is that people grow, traffic, and sell pot outside of the economic mainstream for a reason—the pot sector actually grants living wages whereas legal employment options do not. Everyone who currently makes a living off pot will still be poor and needing to make a living tomorrow when Monsanto buys the DNA sequence for Skunk. For this reason, there will continue to be an underground pot trade, and there is every reason to think that pre-existing pot workers will be persecuted even more heavily than before.

      The author speaks about how people sell weed illegally for a reason. If weed became legal, they still wouldn't be able to sell it or they would have to sell it for a low price.

    3. Consider further the plight of our typical legal-pot patient, Mary Jane. One reason she originally wanted her marijuana prescription was to avoid buying the typical purchase of a “quarter” (seven grams) from delivery, so she doesn’t smoke more than she needs. But the Licensed Producer was worse: she was told she had to buy her entire thirty-day prescription in one massive load, because the website commands that the next order be thirty days after the last purchase (rather than within a given thirty-day time period). Such a system serves no practical purpose except to mobilize patients’ anxiety disorders—which they are supposedly trying to heal—so that they buy more overpriced product than necessary at any given time.

      the author speaks about how the system works doesn't actually help people at all, just makes things worse.

    4. Throughout the underground pot trade “producers” and “consumers” still often look each other in the face, and know each other as people, wherein one’s relevant “credit” relates to one’s true character and reputation.

      The author is speaking about how somebody's credit or record doesn't actually define who they truly are. The author says how the buyers actually get to know the seller and the type of person they really are.

    5. It is also pot workers, not the State, who consistently provide interest-free loans (the “fronting” of an ounce, say) to those with no credit at banks, whose only other recourse is the treachery of payday lenders. It is the pot-peddlers, not the State, who provide daily home-check-ups for unemployed youths suffering mental health challenges, and who run errands for seniors when the streets get icy. (Not all pot delivery guys pick up prescriptions for their elderly clients, but most will at least pass by the corner store as they make their rounds.)

      The author talks about how pot workers benefit us and how they help other people.

    6. It is the State that requires, say, a dyslexic laid-off worker to fill out a seventeen-page webform in her second language to receive access to food. It is the State that asks the poor to continually re-live, narrate, and fetishize in proper form the traumatic violence they have experienced in order to convince food-bearing-authorities that their lives might actually have value. It is certainly not underground pot workers who demand such dehumanizing performances of the “deserving poor” in order to acquire a job or a loan. It is the State that offers a cruel minimum wage, demands student interns work for free, and offers welfare checks so small they should come in an envelope saying “Please die as soon as possible.”

      The author explains how it is the government who makes us go through these tough situations, just to obtain food, or a job. to get money, work experience, and other things we need to live in the country.

    7. The Mexican “drug cartels” we always hear about do profit nicely from moving weed around. But they are making the vast majority of their money from smuggling migrants over the border, selling women and children into sex slavery, moving cocaine from Colombia that used to arrive by air, cooking meth, and “taxing” Canadian and American mining companies.

      The author explains that the cartels doesn't just make by weed, they make money by doing all these other illegal things.

    8. It should be no surprise, for example, to hear that the Central Intelligence Agency would have cocaine flown into into the United States while supposedly fighting the “War on Drugs” in Colombia.

      The author is trying to say that we shouldn't be surprised by some of the government actions because they are hypocrites.

    9. If a corporation happens to rename a Pink Kush strain “Tranquillamen,” this does not make it that company’s invention.

      The author talks about taking credit for things. Some people take other people's ideas or work, give it another name and call it their own but that's not how it works.

  4. Oct 2018
    1.    No tear-floods, nor sigh-tempests move;

      At this point in the poem, More has begun to cry. John Donne is trying to comfort More by telling her not to cry or sigh because it would "cause" floods and storms that would only make his journey more difficult. This is showing the idea of a Petrarchan woman. A Petrarchan women is a lady who is able to control the power of her lover through her emotions. He is saying that More's love for him is so powerful that it can actually cause physical disasters , so if she begins to grieve his death it will actually cause his death. This is also an example of a hyperbole.

    2. If they be two, they are two so    As stiff twin compasses are two; Thy soul, the fixed foot, makes no show    To move, but doth, if the other do. And though it in the center sit,    Yet when the other far doth roam, It leans and hearkens after it,    And grows erect, as that comes home. Such wilt thou be to me, who must,    Like th' other foot, obliquely run; Thy firmness makes my circle just,    And makes me end where I begun.

      One of John Donne conventions is using conceits, or extended metaphors in his writing. In this case he is comparing his and More's for love for each other to a compass. This is a very unique conceit and is very well known due to its uniqueness. Donne claims that Anne More is the foot on the compass that remains still and unchanging and he is the foot that moves (his travelling). He then goes on to say that while he moves away from More, as the feet on the compass do, he will always find his way back to her.

  5. Jun 2017
    1. When reading on screen, they thought they absorbed information readily, but tests showed otherwise.

      Student: "I can't focus with a text book, it is easier if I read it on my phone, or computer" Me: "You will get distracted if you read it on your phone or computer" Student: " you just dont understand, that is how we learn" Me: "ok, go ahead, but your being quized over this" student: (trys reading on phone or computer, doesnt focus, plays games, texts) student: "I got a 40 on the quiz?? Thats not fair, you cant quiz us on just the reading, I don't understand it" me: (facepalm)

  6. May 2017
    1. This will require anunderstanding of the nature of the relationship between discursive prac-tices and material phenomena, an accounting of “nonhuman” as well as“human” forms of agency, and an understanding of the precise causalnature of productive practices that takes account of the fullness of matter’simplication in its ongoing historicity

      We need to understand the influence of language and matter together in order to more properly understand the world around us as well as fully understand the history of matter's influence on the development of culture and society.

  7. Apr 2017
    1. technological thinking diminishes our attunement to the fourfold, and in so doing,

      Technology threatens our ability to see the bigger picture (in Heidegger's view).

    1. Put this in the crown of your hats, gentlemen! A fool of either sex is the hardest animal to drive that ever required a bit. Better one who jumps a fence now and then, than your sulky, stupid donkey, whose rhinoceros back feels neither pat or goad.

      Rough paraphrase: “Get this through your heads! An idiot, male or female, is the hardest thing to convince to change their mind. It is better to have someone that completely surprises you now and again with his or her ideas, instead of someone who remains so stubbornly close-minded they cannot feel good or bad about it.”

      This is the closing “emotional punch” required to grab a reader, perhaps even agitate them. as long as it draws attention, it can be an effective tactic to illustrate the point the author wishes to make. With an approach that is both emotional and even mildly condescending, this is the form of editorial form Fern is talking about women needing to apply themselves to throughout the body of her own editorial.

  8. Mar 2017
    1. t the goal of all thought and argument is to emulate the purity and objec-tivity and rigor of science, in order to protect oneself from the errors that passion and desire

      Booth disagrees with the Enlightenment ideas of rhetoric, reflected by rhetoricians such as Astell and Hume, that the goal of rhetoric is to be as logical and rational as possible and disregard the importance of emotion, which he defines here as scientism.

    1. Discourse, they say, facilitates the exchange of knowledge but does not create it

      Lovely thought in itself. It's seems to be that it is being stated that, a;though discourse can mold an idea and present in a manner that is approachable and interesting, it does not create the idea. The idea is originated in the mind and simply spread through successful discourse.

    1. So that A may become non-A. But not merely by a leap from one state to the other. Rather, we must take A back into the ground of its existence, the logical substance that is its causal ancestor, and on to a point where it is con-substantial with non-A; then we may return, this time emerging with non-A instead.

      The idea that in order to reinvent something, you must take it back to its basic form. Once it is in its basic form, you can better understand it; once you have an understanding of it, only then can you transform it into something else.

    1. Words, whenever they cannot directly ally themselves with and support themselves upon gestures, are at present a very imperfect means of communication.

      Gestures (which is another form of symbolism) give weight to words that may otherwise go unnoticed in a purely written sense. Words, by themselves, carry significantly less rhetorical weight.

    1. Strange spaces of silence seem to separate

      Nice alliteration. On another note, she's making reference to how female writing seems to only prop up every few centuries. There were various reasons for this, but oppression and silence of opinion were major components. But a renaissance of female fiction helped kick this trend into the dust.

    2. for it is a very strange thing that people will give you a motor car if you will tell them a story.

      People spend their money on frivolous things, such as stories, yet she's also the one who just bought a Persian cat. Humans will tend to financially support the superficial, but these things can also have unseen deeper meanings, such as the companionship a cat provides or the rhetorical experience a novel brings.

  9. Feb 2017
    1. for bona fide communications,

      It feels like this is a distinction between Nietzsche's social lies and anti-social lies. If I'm glossing this correctly, bona fide communications are those social lies which we have all agreed upon to enable communication. "Misdirection" is the anti-social lie for the purpose of trickery.

    1. We need women commentators lo bring out the women's side of the book; we need the stereoscopic view of truth in general, which can only be had when woman's eye and man's together shall discern the perspec-tive of the Bible's full-orbed revelation.

      Willard is saying that women are necessary to discover truth, and that a reason that truth has not been realized so far is because women have been excluded from interpreting the bible in their own way and instead are told what is said in the bible by men. Reflects her earlier statement, which states that men generally interpret the bible in their self-interest and to ensure they maintain power and minimize competition (1124).

    1. Each paragraph has a plan dictated by the nature of the composition. According to such plan, ey,:ry P~!1it1el},t statement has a suitable place; in that place, it contributes to the general cff ect; and, out of that place, it makes confusion.

      Paragraphs need to create a plan and stick to it! No ramblin' men!

    2. As regards increasing the pupils' fund of ex-pression, the English teacher can do compara-tively little. The reason is obvious. The command or language is a grand total, resulting from the practice of a life; a small fraction of that total is all that can grow up within the limits of a Course of English Composition

      To paraphrase what is being said here. He believes that mastering the English major is something that must be done through a lifetime of usage, not something that can be crammed into a composition class.

    1. and if we consider that the same process must have gone on with the words of our mother tongue from childhood upwards, we shall clearly see that the earliest learnt and of-tenest used words, will, other things equal, call up images with less loss of time and energy than their later learnt synonyms.

      Spencer states that the simple words we first learn as children are more efficient than the synonyms we learn later in life. There are less connections to be made with the original word that we use, and therefore using original language is more economic.

    2. In this, as in other cases, conviction will be greatly strengthened when we understand the why.

      The "why," or the analysis, is important to emphasize because you will be more likely to persuade your audience. Is he saying that analysis is essential to successful rhetoric? As my AP English teacher always said, "Your analysis is where your paper "lives."

    3. Hence, the more time and attention it takes to receive and understand each sentence, the less time and attention can be given to the. contained idea; and the Jess vividly will that idea be conceived

      The longer it takes for the reader to decipher the sentence, the more time is taken away from the reader receiving the authors message.

    4. brevity is the soul of wit.

      This phrase is really quite interesting as it means that a zinger or witty statement is only witty if it is presented in a succinct manner.

    1. I rejoice, because I am persuaded that the rights of woman, like the rights of slaves, need only be examined to he un-derstood and asserted, even hy some of those, who arc now endeavoring lo smother the irre-pressible desire for mental and spiritual freedom which glows in the breast of many, who hardly dare to speak their sentiments.

      She's ecstatic that women, like the slaves, will be able to fight for more rights and free themselves from oppression, even if that end result is still far down the road. At least people are starting to "wake up" to how subservient and lower class women are seen as in this time, even those most adamant on keeping those customs.

    2. Until our inlercourse is purified by the \ \ forgelfulness of sex,-until we rise above the present low and sordid views which entwine themselves around our social and domestic inter-change of senliment and feelings, we never can derive lhat benefit from each other's society which it is the design of our Creacor that we should.

      Grimke is saying that we will not live to our full potential, what God has destined for us, if we continue to live our lives in extreme separation between the sexes. Interesting point to suggest that society was living against what God manifested for humanity.

    3. In thal book I find nothing like the soflness of woman, nor the sternness of man: both arc equally commanded to bring forth the fruits of lhe Spirit, love, meekness, gentle-ness, &c.

      Grimke is (finally) moving away from the idea that women are "soft;" she states that men and women are equal in the eyes of the Lord in spreading His Word, thereby suggesting that women had the right to speak publicly on religious grounds.

    4. No one can desire more earnestly than I do, that woman may move exactly in the sphere which her Creator Imo; a'isigncd her: and I hclicvc her having been displaced from that sphere has intro· duccd confusion into the world.

      I believe this to be a key phrase in the writing as she is pointing out the demeaning role that man has placed women as opposed to the dignity filled role that God meant for her.

    1. Wherefore, my respected friends, let us no longer talk of prejudice, till prejudice becomes extinct at home. Let us no longer talk of opposition, till we cease to oppose our own. For while these evils exist. to talk is like giving breath to the air, and labor to the wind.

      Discussing prejudice ironically keeps it alive; it is only through action and relationships that prejudice can be phased out.

      This sentiment is slightly concerning, though. If one never discusses how they may be prejudiced against, will they ever be able to recognize it and act appropriately? Can prejudice by solved through action and character alone?

    1. Composition, however, of the Argumentative II )\)fe kind, may be considered (as has been above stated) as coming under the province of Rhetoric. And this view of the subject is the less open to objection, inasmuch as it is not likely to lead to discussions that can be deemed superfluous, even by those who may chuse to consider Rhetoric in the most restricted sense, as relating only to "Per-suasive Speaking"; since it is evident that Arg11• me/II must be, in most cases at least, the basis of Persuasion.

      It can generally be agreed that the composition of an argument also befalls under the general umbrella of rhetoric.

    1. When an alleged fact is debunked, the conspiracy meme often just replaces it with another fact. One of the producers of Loose Change, Korey Rowe, stated, “We don't ever come out and say that everything we say is 100 percent [correct]. We know there are errors in the documentary, and we've actually left them in there so that people [will] discredit us and do the research for themselves” (Slensky 2006).

      "Campbell makes a similar point about the dangers of paraphrase: Since we must be in doubt about the precise meaning of the original, any paraphrase must be consid· ered an interpretation."

  10. Oct 2016
    1. This paper explores how Pixar films (Wall-E and the Toy Story trilogy [1995, 1999, 2010]) expand the limitations that have traditionally bound “family enter-tainment” under the G-rating by em-ploying a postmodern adaptation of the “principle of deniability,” a producer-designed multivalence that flourished in Hollywood from 1930–1968 under the Production Code (Vasey 104–13).
    2. This spec-tatorial distance, “making strange,” as Brecht would have it, allows the paren-tal viewer to process these narratives as an “other,” “unintended” audience and thus relieves them of the burden of full-frontal spectatorship (Brecht 93).
    3. Giving the audience a taste of the film’s “navigable space,” this shot evinces the phenomenological power of the digital to depict scale of a breathtaking breadth (Manovich 248; Whissel, 91).8
  11. Sep 2016
    1. However, it is not clear whether the development of steps within the major periods occurs in an invariant sequence in all cul-tures. Even if some or all of the sequences identified by Piaget prove to be universal, we would still expect some variation in the rate of progress through the cognitive stages. This variation can arise from differences in physical maturation, physical experience, or social experience.

      These stages are not truly universal and vary according to many factors. (Are they still useful to educators/psychologists if not universal? If so, in what ways?)

  12. Jan 2016
    1. It's unrealistic for individuals that posses money to be placed in the same category or respected in the same fashion as individuals that do not posses money.

    2. It is impossible that the man with capital and the man without capital should be equal. To affirm that they are equal would be to say that a man who has no tool can get as much food out of the ground as the man who has a spade or a plough; or that the man who has no weapon can defend himself as well against hostile beasts or hostile men as the man who has a weapon. If that were so, none of us would work any more.

      The sentence highlights the social inconsistency within the age of the second industrial revolution. At this time, social inequality was due to political corruption and how wealth was distributed. Thus, the man with capital had more power and wealth than the man who does not have capital. Also, what I found distinct about this quote is that Sumner contrasted it with the idea of the first paragraph, in which he stated and acknowledges that equality was possible if everyone could "share" the wealth and power, then inequality would be solved. However, by stating the quote (highlighted), there would be no work and that it was necessary to have men with capital because they are the propellers of success in society.

    1. the evils arising from the unjust and unequal distribution of wealth, which are becoming more and more apparent as modern civilization goes on, are not incidents of progress, but tendencies which must bring progress to a halt

      Paraphrase: There is no coincidence that inequality is occurring in the world due to certain evils that are becoming more apparent as time passes and will lead to the end of progress.

      Context: People are beginning to recognize and voice their opinions about social inequality during this time period, such as unequal distribution of wealth. When before only a few people spoke out about this injustice. The inequality that is occurring is not an accident that occurs as time moves forward, but is the direct result of the corrupt mindset of some individuals. This mindset will cause civilization to stop progressing.

      Example: For example, some people still have the mindset that only prestigious citizens (meaning political figures or people whose family has had a legacy of being wealthy or well known) should be wealthy. This mindset hinders a community because everyone does not have equal access to resources and this inequality is the very thing that leads to poverty and an accumulation of poverty does not equal progress.

  13. Nov 2015
    1. multi-sited ethnography

      Following people and things (objects, cultural assumptions, etc) across different contexts to see "what takes hold"

  14. Oct 2015
    1. Trains were platforms for other concepts as well, in science and in other domains.

      Islands of expertise can be used as tools of analogy to learn and discuss other things/knowledge/topics outside of its sphere. Interesting

    1. A learning ecology describes a system ofpeople, practices, technologies, and values in a local environment, and individu-als typically participate in multiple such ecologies across time. The frameworkhighlights how people actively create learning opportunities for themselves asthey strive to pursue their evolving interests (in this case, in technological mat-ters), in the process crossing boundaries of several settings (e.g., school, home,and after-school programs). As we will see, tracking how individual hobbyists’practices change over time is one of the methodological/analytical strategiesto inferring the immutable/persistent aspects of people’s short- and long-termpractice, which therefore are central to both a structural and process account ofengaged participation

      A long highlight, but I think important to framing how the author pulls out "resources" and frames the analysis to come. What seems to be the most important part of the concept of a "learning ecology" is that it is distributed over time as well as people, places and things. The aspect of time again brings me back to my earlier annotation about the dynamic aspect of participation and (as the author argues at the end of this quote) central to engaged participation.

    2. Learning, therefore, is seen in the different rolesthat a newcomer progressively takes on, in the process becoming accountable tomore central aspects of the practice.

      Learning not as a set of objects ("knowledge") to be had but as a process or development and action of and by the learner towards a particular practice.