130 Matching Annotations
  1. May 2017
    1. repertoire

      mid 19th century: from French répertoire, from late Latin repertorium

    2. therhetormustfindstrategiesforshapingtheindeterminacies

      When prompted with the indeterminable, a (good) rhetor reframes the discussion to something more concrete.

      Perhaps something like a "fence" between friends, or "unlocking" one's potential?

    3. IshowthatVatzcorrectlytreatstherhetorascreative,butthathefailstoaccountfortherealconstraintsontherhetor'sactivity

      Rhetors are creative, but are limited by sme constraints, which Vatz neglects to discuss in much detail.

    1. Without writing, the literate mind would not and could not think as it does,

      And why literate are usually much more advanced and longer-lasting than purely oral cultures/

  2. Apr 2017
    1. discursive

      Def. adjective

      1. digressing from subject to subject.
      2. relating to discourse or modes of discourse.
    2. post-representationalist

      TIL this a thing.

      I'm now tempted to start a new movement called post-postism (or maybe afterism), which would be a satirical take on what seems to be a lack of originality all across modern academia (why is everything "post"? Can't we be a little more original?)

    3. Donna Haraway

      Feminist writer known for her "Cyborg Manifesto".

      Also, she had a cameo appearance in Episode 2 of the anime "Ghost in the Shell" (which is appropriate given her academic background), albeit a somewhat satirical one poking fun at her haughtiness.

    1. we have likelybeen posthuman all along

      Society itself is post-human, but computers and mechanical technologies just make it increasingly apparent. I would make a similar argument for our understanding of postmodernism as well.

    2. , capital offers a model of persuasion as movement orforce that troubles the Aristotelian model that emphasizes human reaso

      Money has been (and will always be) the greatest unspoken persuader, so it is better to find new and interesting uses for it than to be completely resentful of it.

    3. hacking humanism and offering tools for reprogrammingrhetoric.

      This sounds like the most post-humanist rhetoric I've ever heard.

    4. a human body is alreadyhighly distributed (biologically, ecologically, and socially).

      Living in society disrupts the more natural state of us. Like canaries in coal mines, caught someplace where we really shouldn't be.

    5. We begin with eXistenZ because it is a rather explicit attempt toengage a series of problems we would like to address through the figureof the “posthuman.” The most obvious concern of the film is theconvergence of virtuality/actuality and human/machine, the effects ofwhich are to produce an entirely different manner of existence—hence,the film’s title.

      It took me longer than I like to admit to realize that this was not Hypothesis Is's highlighter.

    1. naive

      Mid 17th century: from French naïve, feminine of naïf, from Latin nativus ‘native, natural.’

    2. the farmhouse is placed on a mountain slope by meadows and a spring (earth), designed with snow and storms in mind (sky), and furnished with an alter (the gods) and room for childbed and coffin (mortals).

      A thing is not just the "thing" that it was made to be, but is instead a cumulation of many other "things". Such as how we, human beings, are made of billions of little living things, which they themselves are made up of even smaller things. It's things all they way down.

      In my own apartment, I have many things from all around the world. A TV made in Japan. A seashell from the Atlantic. A vinyl record that I bought in New Orleans. My St. Louisian dwelling is more than just a thing to live in. No, it is much, much more than that.

    3. technological thinking diminishes our attunement to the fourfold, and in so doing,

      Technology threatens our ability to see the bigger picture (in Heidegger's view).

    4. A Greek temple is not just a human-built structure serving wreligious function; a bridge is not just a construct for spanning rivers and chasms.

      The "things" in our lives have more than one use, even if they were originally only designed for just one anyway. In the bridge example, not only is it a practical means of crossing rivers and ravines, but it also seeps into our modern day vocabulary as a symbol of compromise (building a "bridge" between people).

    5. a place one makes a home, even if one is never entirely at home

      Home is where the heart is?

    6. ontological

      Def. adj. 1) relating to the branch of metaphysics dealing with the nature of being.

      2) showing the relations between the concepts and categories in a subject area or domain.

    7. The computer is an interesting object because of the debates it spurs about what literacy is, what policies education should implement regarding computers, and how initiatives can foster genuine and equal access to computers.

      What do we imply when we assert that one is "computer literate"? How is this different from traditional literacy?

    1. Borderlands

      Not really related but...

    2. Ethnic identity is twin skin to linguistic identity

      One could see this with how she writes in this very text. Alternating between English and Spanish phrases and sentences, mixing and matching the words a la Spanglish - her twin identity emerges within in the very text.

    3. a country where students in high schools and colleges are encouraged to take French classes because French is considered more "cul-tured."

      What? Spanish is easily the biggest secondary language taught in the US nowadays. Was it really that looked-down upon back then?

    4. terremotes

      etymology: borrowed from Latin terraemotus (earthquake)

      In this scenario, meaning "rocks/earth".

    5. Chicano

      Ah, now I know where the "Chicano" part of "Chicano Batman" comes from (They are


    6. Wild tongues can't be tamed, they can only be cut out.

      “When you tear out a man's tongue, you are not proving him a liar, you're only telling the world that you fear what he might say.”

      George R. R. Martin (through Tyrion Lannister)

    1. milieu

      noun. a person's social environment.

    2. trope

      If you ever want to waste hours of your life learning about tropes in popular culture, feel free to visit this website

    3. the sermon's purpose is both to exhort and to create solidar-ity, and participation is a sign that its purposes are being achieved.

      I find it interesting how, in the black congregation, the sermon serves as building up the communal aspect of the church, while in more white congregations the sermon is reserved for the priest and the priest alone. I wonder how this impacts the rhetorical traditions of each?

    4. interlocutors

      noun. formal. pl people who take part in a dialogue or conversation.

  3. Mar 2017
    1. axiology

      nonun - 1) the study of the nature of value and valuation, and of the kinds of things that are valuable.

      2) a particular theory of axiology. "all consequentialists start with an axiology which tells us what things are valuable or fitting to desire"

    1. mechanism of deceit,

      That's an awesome phrase.

      Of course, it's also a song from this metal album!

    2. Words, whenever they cannot directly ally themselves with and support themselves upon gestures, are at present a very imperfect means of communication.

      Gestures (which is another form of symbolism) give weight to words that may otherwise go unnoticed in a purely written sense. Words, by themselves, carry significantly less rhetorical weight.

    3. It singles out for special inquiry the ways in which symbols help us and hinder us in reflecting on things.

      Symbols can both help us elaborate on topics, but they also hold us back from intrinsically understanding them.

    1. The beloved is thus emas-culated in understanding in order that the lover may have his way. Or as Socrates expresses it, the selfish lover contrives things so that the beloved will be "most agreeable to him and most harmful to himself."

      Rhetoricians neuter the traditional aspects of masculine and feminine language as a means to accomplish their end goals... or am I reading this wrong?

    2. The implicit rendering is usually through some kind of figuration because it is the nature of this meaning to be ineffable in any other way.

      Reminds me of Burke and his elaborations on the role figurative language plays in rhetoric - and how that impacts such ratios as act-scene, agent-scene, agency-purpose, etc.

    3. They are, in summation, that man is not nor ever can be nor ever should be a de-personalized thinking machine.

      There is more to humanity than being "moist robots", as modern day rhetorical critic and philosopher (and cartoonist) Scott Adams might purport.

      To Weaver, all humans have, in the least, a "soul", it is important that that soul is recognized and catered to.

    4. Speaking most generally, arguments from authority are ethically good when they are deferential toward real hierarchy.

      Something tells me that Weaver would love Trump and his populist rhetoric, if for this reason alone.

      Also, is he advocating for the weak or strong defense here? I would assume the weak, but I could see a case be made for him pushing the Strong.

    5. Definition is an attempt to capture essence.

      I've never thought of it quite like that, but that's exactly what it is.

      Reminds me of how Nathaniel explained to us how at first dictionaries were just lists of words, but evolved to become the mighty canons of language that they are today. Nowadays, they contain the bulk of rhetorical essence that our modern tradition utilizes.

    6. T. H. Huxley

      1800's biologist, supporter of Darwin and avid fighter of extremist Christian interpretation. Weaver uses him as an example of how scientific rhetoric utilized logic and reason to dominate debate, especially with the religiously inclined as their opposition.

      Also, was it a requirement for writers of the 1800's and early 1900's to have bad ass hairstyles? I mean, my God. Mustaches, beards and sideburns everywhere.

    1. One of the most common fallacies in the at-tempt to determine the intrinsic is the equating of the intrinsic with the unique.

      Not everything intrinsic is unique - hell, it's probably quite the opposite. Commonality is more likely than the wholly separate.

    2. hortatory

      adjective. Tending or aiming to exhort.

      the central bank relied on hortatory messages and voluntary compliance

    3. Engels

      Engels was a German philosopher, and one of the two folks who founded Marxism and wrote The Communist Manifesto... with that other guy, what was his name again?

      Interesting how Burke weaves him in to his work and uses him as a portrait of expressing a secular (albeit impressively negative) account of history.

    4. casuistries

      noun, plural casuistries. 1. specious, deceptive, or oversubtle reasoning, especially in questions of morality; fallacious or dishonest application of general principles; sophistry.

      2. the application of general ethical principles to particular cases of conscience or conduct.

    1. Suppose, for instance, that men were only represented in literature as the lovers of women, and were never the friends of men, soldiers, thinkers, dreamers; how few parts in the plays of Shakespeare could be allotted to them; how literature would suffer!

      Ugh. Good point.

    2. unperturbed

      early 15c., from un- (1) "not" + past participle of perturb (v.)


      late 14c., from Old French perturber "disturb, confuse" (14c.) and directly from Latin perturbare "to confuse, disorder, disturb," especially of states of the mind, from per "through" (see per) + turbare "disturb, confuse," from turba "turmoil, crowd" (see turbid). Related: Perturbed; perturbing.

    3. Strange spaces of silence seem to separate

      Nice alliteration. On another note, she's making reference to how female writing seems to only prop up every few centuries. There were various reasons for this, but oppression and silence of opinion were major components. But a renaissance of female fiction helped kick this trend into the dust.

    4. You are earning your five hundred pounds a year. But this freedom is only a beginning; the room is your own, but it is still bare. It has to be furnished; it has to be decorated; it has to be shared. How are you going to furnish it, how are you going to dec-orate it? With whom are you going to share it, and upon what terms? These, I think are ques-tions of the utmost importance and interest.

      Writing can provide a living, but maybe not quite the most luxurious one.

    5. for it is a very strange thing that people will give you a motor car if you will tell them a story.

      People spend their money on frivolous things, such as stories, yet she's also the one who just bought a Persian cat. Humans will tend to financially support the superficial, but these things can also have unseen deeper meanings, such as the companionship a cat provides or the rhetorical experience a novel brings.

    6. died hard

    7. wild

      As to be expected by someone with the last name of "Woolf".

      I'll see myself out now.

  4. Feb 2017
    1. in which both clergy and people must unite to attest the fit-ness and acceptability of every candidate.

      She's advocating for meritocracy?

      If so, I'm all on-board!

    2. A stream cannot rise higher than its source, and it is rank disloyalty to the race when any man asserts that the possession of unusual reasoning powers is a misfortune to a woman.

      Women having greater intellectual prowess shouldn't be seen as a curse by men, but as a blessing.

    3. that two-thirds of the teach-ers in these schools are women; that nearly three-fourths of our church members are women; that through the modern Sunday-school women have already become the theological teachers of the future church; and that, per mntra, out of about sixty thousand persons in our penitentiaries fifty-five thousand are men; that whiskey, beer, and tobacco to the amount of fifteen millions of dol-lars worth per year arc consumed almost wholly by men;

      Women are much more saintly and spirited than a vast majority of men, so why can't they be the clerics?

      Reminds me a lot of Stewart's argument for greater female participation in the Church, despite St. Paul's often-referenced passage. I do think it's funny just how much power this one passage has, and how it is so often either challenged or cited by Christian feminists or Christian traditionalists, respectively.

      On a side note, I also find it a source of pride that it was through Christian theoretical rhetoric that women began the push for greater equality and independence.

    4. exegete

      A person skilled in exegesis


      Critical explanation or analysis, especially of a text.

    5. also a devout Methodist, sold his assets in Churchville

      Quite ironic, if I have to say.

    1. But a limit is put to the advantageous use of the Metaphor, by the condition that it must be sufficiently simple to be understood from a hint.

      Metaphors must be simple... so what then would Spencer think of Nietzsche's argument that it's just metaphors all the way down?

    2. If "a horse black" be the arrangement, immediately on the utterance of the word "horse," there arises, or tends lo arise, in the mind, a picture answering to that word; and as there has been nothing to indicate what kind of horse, any image of a horse suggests itself. Very likely, however, the image will be that of a brown horse, brown horses being the most famil-iar.

      Again, here is Spencer with the idea of humans maintaining an economic mind. Brown horses are typically most common, so that is what our brain defaults to until more information is added.

      Couldn't this also be a good case for why adjectives should come before nouns?

    3. So that to make our generalization quite correct we must say, that while in certain sen-tences expressing strong feeling. the word which more especially implies that feeling may often with advantage be a many-syllabled or Latin one; in the immense majority of cases, each word serving but as a step to the idea embodied by the whole sentence, should, if possible, be a one-syl-labled or Saxon one

      Smaller words better capture our direct thoughts, at least in Spencer's eyes. I wonder then, does he also find humans less advanced than we would like to consider, or even more so, since our language is so on-point?

    4. Tristram Shandy

      Tristram Shandy is the titular character of a novel written by Irish author Lawrence Sterne, a humorous and satirical novel that somewhat takes the piss to those who prided themselves on extreme eloquence (Tristram's birth, usually the first passage of a biography, isn't described to chapter 3).

      Interesting how, even a century ago, fictional characters made for eye-catching introductions.

    5. taste

      Quick, someone get out the Hume!

    1. dissimulation,

      Def. noun. Concealment of one's thoughts, feelings, or character; pretense.

    2. anthropomorphisms:

      Def. noun, pl. The attribution of human traits, emotions, and intentions to non-human entities and is considered to be an innate tendency of human psychology

    3. Chladni's

      Nietzsche uses Chladni's sound plates to demonstrate the arbitrary nature of what humans understand sound (and thus language) to be.

      It's just metaphors used to make us feel more in control of a chaotic world.

    4. he feels the nying center of the universe within himself.

      To the gnat, the universe is all about him. We'd like to think they same about us, although we tend to consider ourselves far more superior and meaningful than a "lowly" gnat.

    5. gnat

      Old English gnæt "gnat, midge, small flying insect," earlier gneat, from Proto-Germanic *gnattaz (source also of Low German gnatte, German Gnitze); perhaps literally "biting insect" and related to gnaw.

      The gnatte is a litil fflye, and hatte culex he soukeþ blood and haþ in his mouþ a pipe, as hit were a pricke. And is a-countid a-mong volatiles and greueþ slepinge men wiþ noyse & wiþ bytinge and wakeþ hem of here reste. [John of Trevisa, translation of Bartholomew de Glanville's "De proprietatibus rerum," 1398]

      Gnat-catcher, insectivorous bird of the U.S. woodlands, is from 1823.

    6. hitherto

      From Middle English hiderto, corresponding to hither +‎ to.


      Old English hider, from Proto-Germanic hideran (source also of Old Norse heðra "here," Gothic hidre "hither"), from Germanic demonstrative base hi- (compare he, here). Spelling change from -d- to -th- is the same evolution seen in father, etc. Relation to here is the same as that of thither to there.

    7. human need to be in control of the 'YPrld

      Humans desire to feel the need to create the illusion of order in what is actually a chaotic world..

    1. The superiority of the metaphorto the simile, and of a suggestive to an "exhaustive" style, lies, as ha,; been shown, in each case-partly, at least-in the stimulating power of the fonner; and the same may be said of the superiority of"words that bum" over those of the cold understanding, and of an or-derly over a loose arrangement.

      Looks like Nietzsche isn't the only one who loves the potential that metaphor provides.

      Although Nietzsche's argumentation is quite emotionally cold, so I wonder if Hill would find him using simile more appropriate. Or does Nietzsche's burning zingers and exhaustive outlook give him a better case?

    2. Each paragraph has a plan dictated by the nature of the composition. According to such plan, ey,:ry P~!1it1el},t statement has a suitable place; in that place, it contributes to the general cff ect; and, out of that place, it makes confusion.

      Paragraphs need to create a plan and stick to it! No ramblin' men!

    3. escriptivists,

      Descriptivists describe, systematically recording and analyzing the endlessly changing ways people speak and write. Descriptive advice is, as Jesse Sheidlower put it, almost an oxymoron.

    1. ambitious fire

      Motif of fire...

    2. After these convictions, in imagination I found myself sitting at the feet of Jesus, clothed in my right mind. For I had been like a ship tossed to and fro, in a storm at sea. Then was I glad when I realized the dangers l had escaped; and then I consecrated by soul and body, and all the powers of my mind to his service, and from that time henceforth; yea, even for evermore, amen.

      It's interesting how both Astell and Stewart, two of the oldest female rhetoricians we have studied, were very overt in their expressions of Christian spirituality, something that their male counterparts were less keen to do in comparison.

      I wonder if this may have had something to do with their (relative) success as rhetoricians? Being female, especially one of color, is challenging enough, but bringing Christianity into it may have granted them an avenue to be discussed hundreds of years after their words first graced paper...

    3. Wherefore, my respected friends, let us no longer talk of prejudice, till prejudice becomes extinct at home. Let us no longer talk of opposition, till we cease to oppose our own. For while these evils exist. to talk is like giving breath to the air, and labor to the wind.

      Discussing prejudice ironically keeps it alive; it is only through action and relationships that prejudice can be phased out.

      This sentiment is slightly concerning, though. If one never discusses how they may be prejudiced against, will they ever be able to recognize it and act appropriately? Can prejudice by solved through action and character alone?

    4. What arc their prospects'! They can be nothing but the humblest laborers, on account of their dark complexions; hence many of them lose their ambition, ;ind become worthlcss.

      Interesting how this correlates to her call for free American persons of color to be more ambitious and hardworking a few pages ago. To decrease prejudice, she seems to be saying that the marginalized community must meet it head-on. While she does at least partially blame prejudice for giving birth to the loss of ambition in the black community, she is still advocating for them to rise to the challenge so that their descendants' lives will be much easier.

    1. The New England Anti-Slavery So-ciety

      I also want to point out that the Mr. William Garrison is the very same who was such a great influence in Stewart's life.

    2. Thus, after a long, tedious effort for years, I finally suc-ceeded in learning how to write

      It was a long and spirited effort that began in his youth with Mrs Auld, but his patience and determination powered through. He was really exceptional in many ways, but without the proper guidance and aid he may never had the historical impact he ended up having.

      Proves that great rhetoricians need great resources to get them started!

    3. As l writhed under it, I would al times feel that learning to read had been a curse rather than a blt!s~ing

      Ignorance may be bliss...

      But intelligence can change society.

    4. unlawful

      When one breaks legality by educating a child, one must know that society needs to be reforged. I wonder how much this singular incident inspired Douglas to become the historic individual he eventually became.

    5. He condemned Lincoln's suggestions that free and freed African Americans return to Africa and urged Lincoln to issue an emancipation proclamation, which he finally did early in 1863

      An example of how great rhetoric can shift human history. It's crazy to consider what the U. S. could've looked like had there been a mass exodus of African-American people as Lincoln originally advocated for...

    1. she

      The Church is feminine, so why can't her hierarchy be?

    2. It may be conceived by some that the dcvoced Christian female, who is willing thus to be led by the Spirit into paths of usefulness, may Jose, in some degree, lhose lovely and becoming lraits of character, which we admire in the female sex.

      Some might argue that a woman loses her character the more she follows the Holy Spirit, yet Palmer insists that nothing could be further form the truth. Religion, she argues, actually strengthens a lady's resolve.

    3. Her Most Gracious Majesty Queen Vic-toria, the reigning sovereign of the most mighty, intelligent people of this or any other age

      I would personally wager that she was one of the greatest female rulers of all time (maybe only ousted by Russia's Catherine the Great), and monitored an extraordinary era of Britain's history that many, even today, reminisce and romanticize over.

      If you're going to chose any one woman to demonstrate how good of leaders they can be, you're not going to get much better than the Britain's beloved matriarch. So good example, Palmer.

      It does beg the question, though: Is she really such a good example if Palmer is advocating for greater female involvement in the church? Are an imperiastic queen and a hypothetical female priestess inherently compatible?

    1. And if Christian ministers arc, as I apprehend, successors of the prophets. and not of the priests, then of course, women arc now called to that of-fice as well as men, because God has no where withdrawn from them the privilege of doing what is the great business of preachers,

      I think this is the crux to her whole argument throughout all of these letters - she is making appeals to Christian men to reconsider their views on women through using the Bible 's teachings against them. I find that to be excellent rhetoric, because it starts with pacing with the opposition's views ("I'm a Christian, just like you!") and then subverting traditional dispositions ("As a good Christian, I wonder how men and women can be equal in God's eyes when this part of the bible disputes that claim?", etc.).

    2. I rejoice, because I am persuaded that the rights of woman, like the rights of slaves, need only be examined to he un-derstood and asserted, even hy some of those, who arc now endeavoring lo smother the irre-pressible desire for mental and spiritual freedom which glows in the breast of many, who hardly dare to speak their sentiments.

      She's ecstatic that women, like the slaves, will be able to fight for more rights and free themselves from oppression, even if that end result is still far down the road. At least people are starting to "wake up" to how subservient and lower class women are seen as in this time, even those most adamant on keeping those customs.

    3. Charleston, South Carolina.

      A hauntingly beautiful city, if I may add.

    1. magnanimity

      n. Def. the fact or condition of being magnanimous; generosity

      Magnanimous - adj. very generous or forgiving, especially toward a rival or someone less powerful than oneself.

    2. "prima facie"

      adj.& adv.

      Def. Based on the first impression; accepted as correct until proved otherwise.

    3. It evidently means only that the "burden of proof" lies with the accusers;-that he is not to be called on to prove his innocence, or to be dealt with as a criminal till he has done so; but that they arc to bring their charges against him, which if he can repel, he stands acquiltt!d.

      I quite like this. A man is not "innocent or guilty" during his trial, but is instead just an observer to his accusers and the evidence that is put against him. We shouldn't determine one's innocence or guilt by their argument or appearance alone, but instead look at the total case and find the more logically supported argument. We should use similar presumption in rhetoric, and challenge those presumptions only when our Burden of Proof is too big to ignore.

      It's basically a call to support the more sound arguments.

    4. Composition, however, of the Argumentative II )\)fe kind, may be considered (as has been above stated) as coming under the province of Rhetoric. And this view of the subject is the less open to objection, inasmuch as it is not likely to lead to discussions that can be deemed superfluous, even by those who may chuse to consider Rhetoric in the most restricted sense, as relating only to "Per-suasive Speaking"; since it is evident that Arg11• me/II must be, in most cases at least, the basis of Persuasion.

      It can generally be agreed that the composition of an argument also befalls under the general umbrella of rhetoric.

    5. a.scertai1111

      early 15c., "to inform, to give assurance," from Anglo-French acerteiner, Old French acertener "to assure, certify" (13c.), from a "to" (see ad-) + certain "sure, assured" (see certain). Modern meaning of "find out for sure by experiment or investigation" is first attested 1794. Related: Ascertained; ascertaining.

    6. etymology

      late Middle English: from Old French ethimologie, via Latin from Greek etumologia, from etumologos ‘student of etymology,’ from etumon, neuter singular of etumos ‘true.’

    1. Conspiracy theorists typically overlook lapses in logic and evidence by their supporters, but they are quick to pounce on any flaw on the part of their opponents.

      "When objects of any kind are first presented to the eye of imagination, the sentiment, which attends them, is obscure and confused; and the mind is, in a great measure, in-capable of pronouncing concerning their merits or defects. " - Hume

    2. Conspiracy theorists have argued that the AIDS virus was deliberately created as part of a plot to kill black or gay people

      "Those who found morality on sentiment, more than on reason, are inclined to comprehend ethics under the former observation, and to maintain, that, in all questions, which regard conduct and manners, the difference among men is really greater than at first sight it appears." - Hume

    3. The conspiracy meme flourishes best in politics, religion, and journalism, where practitioners can succeed by attracting followers from the general public.

      "The imagination is addressed by exhibiting to it a lively and beautiful representation of a suitable object." - Campbell

    4. Conspiracy Meme

      Jet fuel can't melt steel beams...

    5. The first step in testing claims of conspiracy is to establish precisely what is being claimed

      "Accordingly, in all tongues, perhaps without exception, the ordinary terms, which are considered as literally expressive of the latter [material subjects], are also used promiscuously to denote the former [spiritual subjects]." - Campbell

    1. The history of rhetoric (two lectures)

      Hey that sounds familiar...

    2. True rhetoric and sound logic arc very nearly al-lied.

      Rhetoric and logic are linked, or, in other words, words and thoughts are linked.

    1. Spirit, which here comprises only the Supreme Being and the human soul, is surely as much included under the notion of natural object as body is, and is know-able to the philosopher purely in the same way, by observation and experience.

      The soul is as much part of nature as the body is, and thus needs to be included taxonomically.

      It is what differentiates humans from all other living things, and how God "made us in His image". A soul creating souls. This is also why humans are the only known thing to routinely be persuaded by moral reasoning.

    2. It is then only that the orator can be said to fight with weapons which are at once sharp, mas-sive, and refulgent, which, like heaven's artillery, dazzle while they strike, which overpower the sight and the heart at the same instant.

      So weak orators who fuse the lofty with the vehement become much stronger…

      (Although, probably not much of a cheap trick).

    3. The orator requires also beauty and strength.

      To Campbell, every rhetor needs to strive to be like JOHN CENA… well, figuratively speaking.

    4. vel,emen

      It's a good word.

    5. In other words, he pro-poses either to dispel ignorance or to vanquish error

      A speaker's goal is to eliminate idiocy or carelessness, and how he goals about solving either one determines how he dispels the lies. Ignorant people need to be shown observable and repeatable evidence, careless people need their conviction to the lie to be broken. To Campbell, knowing the difference is crucial to the power of one's rhetoric.

    6. Truth itself is elusive

      As it has always been and always will be.

    7. Convincing arguments arc based upon reasoning

      Mmm. Perhaps this is true in a perfect world in which humans were more inclined to be totally logical and rational. Although his idea of a "moral" reasoning is interesting, as it seems to play into the mode of human emotion, specifically empathy, or the fact that some would rather stand up for the hypothetical individual even if that may compromise humanity's "greater good".

      Is Campbell's "moral reasoning" just another way of saying pathos?

    1. Austin dis-trusted the natural, conversational approach to public speaking

      There is more to rhetoric than just eloquence (but that can certainly help).

    2. i"\ o~..l."'1 ~.Cf'\lc:,.e( ol11~&.1.U1~~J \ '-'-'\-~~ Q ~4....,t. ~e:cr.·u.s.

      In it's own way, the body also engages in rhetoric. I find it interesting that Austin tried to document it in such a visual manner, although the execution was... meh.

    3. /U

      When you forget to annotate your readings

    1. or you know very well that true Joy is a sedate and solid thing, a tranquility of mind, not a boisterous and empty flash:

      That's pretty beautifully worded. A good life philosophy for anyone, I'd wager. True joy isn't found in the parties or the get-togethers, but in the little things, such as reading, walking and thinking.

    2. But let me intrcat them lo con-sider that there's no Ignorance so shameful, no Folly so absurd m, that which refuses Instruction, be il upon what account il may.

      There's no excuse for willful stupidity.

    3. Arc you afraid of being out of the ordinary way and therefore admir'd and gaz'd at?

      Dare to be different.

    4. h were more lo her satisfaction to find her Project condemn'd as foolish and impertinent, than to find it receiv'd with some Approbation,

      It is better for a woman to receive scrutiny and criticism prompting publication denial, as opposed to being somewhat praised but still denied a chance at publication.

      Basically merit vs. sexism, and Astell argues that merit is far superior. I don't think very many would dispute that.

    1. It is essential to the ROMAN catholic religion to inspire a violent hatred of every other worship, and to represent all pagans, mahometans, and heretics

      Now that's just rude.

    2. Where he lies under the influence of prejudice,

      Prejudice clouds fair judgement. Interesting, coming from Hume.

    3. One of them tastes it; considers it; and after mature reflection pronounces the wine to be good, were it not for a small taste of leather, which he perceived in it. The other, after using the same precautions, gives also his verdict in favour of the wine; but with the reserve of a taste of iron, which he could easily distinguish. You cannot imagine how much they were both ridiculed for their judgment. But who laughed in the end? On emptying the hogshead, there was found at the bottom, an old key with a leathern thong tied to it.

      They were both subjectively in the right, but the objective truth was something unexpected. Is that a fair assessment of this anecdote?

    4. The great variety of Taste, as well as of opin-ion, which prevails in the world, is too obvious not to have fallen under every one's observation.

      Especially not his...

    1. ~;S(l. \ 17-11\li ~ ~t)I.Wah~t ~o...,pl.


    2. though in the substance of gold one satisfies himself

      Sorry I couldn't resist.

    3. to show what attention, study, sagacity, and reasoning are required to find out the true meaning of ancient authors.

      Joe Schmo will probably not be able to understand the nuance and context of ancient authors due to their obscurity. Only seasoned academics deep in the subject will be able to establish that.

    4. In all these cases we shall find an imperfection in words;

      Words are inherently inferior to the larger ideas they represent?

  5. Jan 2017
    1. After all, the first articulation of the word "rhetoric" was coupled with the implication that even its most faithful practitioners in ancient Greece couldn't sufficiently articulate exactly what rhetoric was.

      Where's the fun in rhetoric if seemingly all people have a concrete definition of it? To my knowledge, rhetoric is one of the very exclusive words that means different things to different people. Unfortunately, in my experience, it seems that very few seem to care about it at all.

    1. Locke argues that all ideas arc mental combinations of sense perceptions and that words , refer not directly to things hut to mental phenomena, the ideas we retain and build from sense impressions.

      Since Locke proposes that our ideas are just the end result of all our senses coming together and words our attempt at conveying this, I wonder then how he would view those with handicaps. How would Locke find somebody who was deaf, blind or mute? Are their thoughts, ideas and words on par with one who has all five of the classic senses? Or is their capacity for knowledge in a unfortunately permanent state of disrepair?

      Although I now also wonder, who would win in a rhetorical duel: a blind orator or a deaf one?

    2. Pulpit oratory was a frequent target of complaint<; about ,tylistic excess.

      Pulpit and homily-related rhetoric is always an interesting area of study, as it is usually so different when compared to other rhetorical traditions. I find it interesting how it was oft made a target of for being overly ornate. It also seems that Archbishop François's wishes have come true in the modern Americana, as today most modern Christian sermons start off with silly and relateable jokes, utilize natural and emotional stories throughout and display a deep, deep understanding of the texts being read and how they apply to daily life. Whether this is actually more effective rhetoric than the ornate style remains to be seen, but few can deny the shift. Why do you all think this occurred? What influence did Vatican II have on it? I'd say probably quite a bit.

    3. who claimed that rheloric obscured the truth by encouraging the U!.c of ornamenlcd rather than plain, direct language.

      Funny how, at least in this election season, it was the candidate who used more plain, direct language who ending up winning the presidency, while his more ornate opponents bit the dust.

    1. Verbal"rhetoricisthecosmetic

      And yet, there it is once again!

    2. derivativeandcosmetic

      There it is again...

    3. Muchaswewanttoevadeit,however,the"Q"questioniscomingafterusthesedays.Itpressesonusintheuniversity,fortheuniversityislikethelawcourts:itcannotdodgethe"Q"question.Itmustdesignacurriculum.Anditis,moreandmoreinsistently,beingaskedtodesignonethatsituatesandjustifiesthehumanities.

      That is too say, are the good orators that frequently shuffle through universities necessarily good people? Is a radical professor of history a good person? Is a flamboyant provocateur an otherwise nice individual? A revolutionary protester a decent man at heart?

      I also find it interesting how Lanham brings it back to this very course. How do we, as a class, tackle the "Q" question through our very (unique) curriculum?