19 Matching Annotations
  1. May 2017
    1. This will require anunderstanding of the nature of the relationship between discursive prac-tices and material phenomena, an accounting of “nonhuman” as well as“human” forms of agency, and an understanding of the precise causalnature of productive practices that takes account of the fullness of matter’simplication in its ongoing historicity

      We need to understand the influence of language and matter together in order to more properly understand the world around us as well as fully understand the history of matter's influence on the development of culture and society.

    2. In this article, I offer an elaboration of performativity—amaterialist, naturalist, and posthumanist elaboration—that allows matter itsdue as an active participant in the world’s becoming, in its ongoing “intra-activity.”4It is vitally important that we understand how matter matters.

      Barad aims to argue why and how "matter matters" in the world and why language has been given too much power in the development of society at the expense of matter.

  2. Apr 2017
    1. Although thc standard models of rhetorical situation can tell us much about the elements that are involved in a particular situation, these same models can also mask the fluidity of rhetoric.

      It seems like Edbauer is attempting to reverse what Quintillian did many years ago by compartmentalizing rhetoric, which in his mind would be a better way to understand it and practice it. However, rhetoricians have since argued that this has been problematic to the field, with which I think Edbauer would agree. In order to display a truer form of rhetoric, Edbauer wants to create a model that will showcase all of its aspects.

    1. natureofthosecontextsinwhichspeakersorwriterscreaterhetoricaldiscourse:

      We have discussed "context" itself in depth in this class, but I like thinking about the "nature" of context itself. Bitzer argues that a rhetorical situation is the nature of the context in which rhetorical discourse is created, and indicates that he will explore more deeply what exactly a rhetorical situation is.

    2. rhetoricaladdressgivesexistencetothesituation;onthecon-trary,itisthesituationwhichcallsthediscourseintoexistence.

      A situation determines the necessity of discourse; discourse does not give existence to a situation. In other words, proper rhetoric comes about as a result of a situation and is required to address certain problems, questions, etc. You don't speak just to speak, in order to engage rhetoric appropriately there must be a prior reason to do so.

    1. Parallel universes then, is an inappropriate metaphor; perpendicu~ far universes is perhaps a more accurate visual description.

      Suggests again that black and white rhetorics are not completely separate, but instead intersect and therefore influence one another.

    2. Black rhetoric is not utterly divorced from white rhetoric.

      This is an important point to remember—just as context and culture influence rhetoric, so too do diverging rhetorics influence one another and incorporate aspects generally considered a part of a particular rhetorical tradition.

  3. Mar 2017
    1. I 1say that I know Jane Austen's intentions with the sentence, at least in its main lines. But can I really call what I know in this sense knowledge? It is clearly subjective, it cannot be proved by any deductive chain of reasoning or by any ordinary laboratory experiment, and it is obviously doubtable both in the sense that many readers will not see it and can doubt it honestly and in the sense that anyone who is determined to doubt what cannot be demonstrated can say he doubts it.

      This sums up the beauty of literature--the different interpretations that each reader can glean from what the author writes. Booth argues that this is not knowledge, because it is subjective to each individual who reads and interprets the material; knowledge, Booth says, should be more widely accepted and generally uncontested.

    2. t the goal of all thought and argument is to emulate the purity and objec-tivity and rigor of science, in order to protect oneself from the errors that passion and desire

      Booth disagrees with the Enlightenment ideas of rhetoric, reflected by rhetoricians such as Astell and Hume, that the goal of rhetoric is to be as logical and rational as possible and disregard the importance of emotion, which he defines here as scientism.

    1. hreshold of the existence of signs. Yet even here, things are not so simple, and the meaning of a term like "the existence of signs" requires elu-cidation. What does one mean when one say!, that there are signs, and that it is enough for there to be signs for there to be a statement? What spe-cial status should be given to that verb to be?

      The existence of the statement proves that signs exist. However, they are not one in the same: first, one must determine what he or she means by "signs;" then, he or she must determine exactly the connotation of "to be" for something "to be a statement" or "to be a sign," because this distinction can change the meaning one assigns to what a statement or a sign is.

    2. conditions necessary for the appear-ance of an object of discourse, the historical con-ditions required if one is to "say anything" about it, and if several people are to say different things about it, the conditions necessary if it is to exist in relation to other objects, if it is to establish with them relations of resemblance,

      Foucault argues that rhetorical objects are contingent upon many conditions in order to enter the historical discussion. He also mentions that the time in history that a rhetorical object is being discussed influences what is said about it, because the cultural practices vary throughout time and influence those living in that time period and the way they think.

    1. The completeness of any reference varies; it is more or less close and clear, it "grasps" its object in greater or Jes~ degree.

      There is ambiguity within meaning in terms of the accuracy of certain symbols; e.g. some symbols are more accurate than others, but that is not necessarily clear at first glance. It must be studied and researched in order to determine what definition is the most accurate.

    1. So that A may become non-A. But not merely by a leap from one state to the other. Rather, we must take A back into the ground of its existence, the logical substance that is its causal ancestor, and on to a point where it is con-substantial with non-A; then we may return, this time emerging with non-A instead.

      The idea that in order to reinvent something, you must take it back to its basic form. Once it is in its basic form, you can better understand it; once you have an understanding of it, only then can you transform it into something else.

  4. Feb 2017
    1. and if we consider that the same process must have gone on with the words of our mother tongue from childhood upwards, we shall clearly see that the earliest learnt and of-tenest used words, will, other things equal, call up images with less loss of time and energy than their later learnt synonyms.

      Spencer states that the simple words we first learn as children are more efficient than the synonyms we learn later in life. There are less connections to be made with the original word that we use, and therefore using original language is more economic.

    1. I rejoice, because I am persuaded that the rights of woman, like the rights of slaves, need only be examined to he un-derstood and asserted, even hy some of those, who arc now endeavoring lo smother the irre-pressible desire for mental and spiritual freedom which glows in the breast of many, who hardly dare to speak their sentiments.

      She's ecstatic that women, like the slaves, will be able to fight for more rights and free themselves from oppression, even if that end result is still far down the road. At least people are starting to "wake up" to how subservient and lower class women are seen as in this time, even those most adamant on keeping those customs.

    2. Until our inlercourse is purified by the \ \ forgelfulness of sex,-until we rise above the present low and sordid views which entwine themselves around our social and domestic inter-change of senliment and feelings, we never can derive lhat benefit from each other's society which it is the design of our Creacor that we should.

      Grimke is saying that we will not live to our full potential, what God has destined for us, if we continue to live our lives in extreme separation between the sexes. Interesting point to suggest that society was living against what God manifested for humanity.

    1. Wherefore, my respected friends, let us no longer talk of prejudice, till prejudice becomes extinct at home. Let us no longer talk of opposition, till we cease to oppose our own. For while these evils exist. to talk is like giving breath to the air, and labor to the wind.

      Discussing prejudice ironically keeps it alive; it is only through action and relationships that prejudice can be phased out.

      This sentiment is slightly concerning, though. If one never discusses how they may be prejudiced against, will they ever be able to recognize it and act appropriately? Can prejudice by solved through action and character alone?

    2. f such women as are here described have t-.... once existed, be no longer astonished then, my s brethren and friends, that God at this eventful pe-5~ riod should raise up your own females to strive, ~' by their example both in public and private, to · assist those who arc endeavoring stop the strong current of prejudice that flows so profusely against us at present. No longer ridicule their ef-forts, it will be counted for sin. For God makes use of feeble means sometimes, to bring about his most exalted purposes.

      Here, Stewart is arguing that in many past respected societies (Greek, Roman, Jewish), women were well-respected in a religious sense. As a reference to her earlier claim, that she was visited by the Holy Spirit and therefore had the temerity and the right to speak publicly on religious grounds. I do find it interesting that she said: "For God makes use of feeble means sometimes, to bring about his most exalted purposes." Her use of the word "feeble" is interesting, because it seems like she is ascribing to the expected gender roles/personalities, in that women are the "softer sex," and not perceived as strong or powerful.

    3. Take us generally as a people, we arc neither lazy nor idle; and considering how Huie we have to excite or stimulate us, I am almost astonished that there arc so many industrious and ambitious ones to be found; although I acknowledge, with extreme sorrow, that there arc some who never were and never will be serviceable lo society. And have you not a similar class among your· selves'!

      This is a nice summary of one of Stewart's main points: African Americans, of any sex, are just as capable, just as intelligent, and just as American as whites are. She concedes that there are some who are "idle," but counters that this does not just apply to African Americans, but also to whites (and by extension, all races). I wonder if this helped the reception of her speech: acknowledging shortcomings, but pointing out that these shortcomings apply to others as well, suggesting that all people are equal.