65 Matching Annotations
  1. Apr 2019
  2. Feb 2019
  3. Jan 2019
    1. Discourse does not referto linguistic or signifying systems, grammars, speech acts, or conversations.To think of discourse as mere spoken or written words forming descriptivestatements is to enact the mistake of representationalist thinking. Dis-course is not what is said; it is that which constrains and enables whatcan be said.

      Swales' discussion of discourse communities makes this really clear--and is a good pedagogical tool to introduce the concept to undergrads. Here is a link, but the copy is pretty crappy: https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED286184.pdf

    2. onstrains and enables

      Is discourse seen as enforcing "hard" or "soft" boundaries? A hard boundary might be something outside of which all sense is lost, like "stars function mustard." A soft boundary might be something forbidden by custom, decorum, etc., like complaining about your spouse to a person who very recently lost their spouse in an accident.

    1. why so many commentators have thought Cicero's De oratore, which does con-front the issue from time to time, so much more one-sided an argument than it is.

      Aristotle's definition of rhetoric likens the notion of public speaking to persuasion. When addressing an issue of concern, using all available means of persuasion at one's disposal aids in constructing a sound argument.

  4. Dec 2018
    1. 2:16

      Well, here I am on YouTube, watching a Hypothes.is video and commenting using it. I'm annotating YouTube, which is pretty open in terms of what people can say in the comments, and almost universally derided as being where the dregs come to say whatever they want, bringing civil discourse along for the ride.

      I believe in freedom of speech and eliminating censorship, but what is it about this new platform that will prevent the problems of the old? Here we are, at the intersection.

  5. Nov 2018
  6. Oct 2018
    1. One obvious question is what people mean by “political correctness.” In the extended interviews and focus groups, participants made clear that they were concerned about their day-to-day ability to express themselves: They worry that a lack of familiarity with a topic, or an unthinking word choice, could lead to serious social sanctions for them. But since the survey question did not define political correctness for respondents, we cannot be sure what, exactly, the 80 percent of Americans who regard it as a problem have in mind.
  7. Aug 2018
    1. ‘‘The liberation of ourjudgments from subjective private conditions is anecessary condition for weighing our judgments withthe possible judgments of others, by putting ourselvesin the position of everyone else.’’
    2. Contrary to what many have criticised as anexcessively idealistic Kant in the (in)famous exampleof the Categorical Imperative requiring us to tell thetruth even to those obviously bent on harm, Myskjapoints out that in Kant’s later work, a more realisticunderstanding of human nature and thereby, a morenuanced understanding of the role of deceptionemerges. Briefly, deception may take place for lessthan ideal reasons – but as deception allows us tohide our more negative characteristics while none-theless developing more virtuous character, it canhelp us become better persons. This role of deceptionfits wonderfully well with what is otherwise oftenregarded as a highly morally problematic dimensionof online communication – precisely that we can therehide our real selves.
    3. At the same time, however, especially as the Internetincreasingly becomes a primary venue for partici-pating in ‘‘...the political, social and commercialactivities necessary for full participation in a liberaldemocracy,’’ establishing trust in online worldsbecomes a correlatively more pressing matter.
    4. In particular, Myskjapoints out that the largelydisembodiedcharacter ofmost online communication thereby cuts us off fromimportant, perhaps crucial channels of non-verbalcommunication that may be essential to trust-building.
    1. Earlier, I have criticized Facebook for not anticipating the ethical problems with Facebook live and for its general approach of trying things out without much ethical forethought. But wouldn’t a pragmatist argue that because they are charting into new territory, digital innovators are more likely to make ethical mistakes giving the lack of existing normative framework?  This pragmatic defense only has limited power though, as there are general guiding ethical norms and principles in place already.  It is of course true that (some of) these norms might be subject to change in the digital environment and that sometimes our existing frameworks are ill-equipped to deal with new moral dilemmas. However, this does not excuse some of the more egregious ethical lapses we have seen recently, which were violations of well-known and accepted moral guidelines.
    2. This approach, I believe, works well for digital ethics, where we try to articulate rules that govern how we interact with each other through digital technologies. For example, when social media emerged, there was no fixed rule about when it is appropriate to tag someone in a picture and when it isn’t. So we figured out a netiquette and ethical norms as we were going along, based on experience, existing norms, insights from experts etc. There still might be areas of disagreement, but I would argue that overall we have come to an understanding of what is acceptable and what isn’t on this issue, and these norms are passed on to new users of social media.
    3. In daily language, the word pragmatic is often used pejoratively, to describe someone with a lack of principles (or character) who will let the situation, rather than a firm moral compass, guide her actions. But in the philosophical sense, pragmatism refers to an orientation towards ethics that isn’t occupying itself with abstract concepts such as “truth,” “right” and “wrong” or with coming up with all-encompassing ethical theories. Instead it focuses on praxis rather than theory and sees the role of the ethicist more to “de-scribe” norms as they develop than to “pre-scribe” them. 
  8. Jul 2018
    1. But the air! If you stopped to notice, was the air always like this?

      This is one of a handful of examples of "free indirect discourse" or "free indirect style": the impersonal, third-person narrator conveys Laura's thoughts without markers such as "Laura thought" or "Laura said." This narrative mode enables the text to seamlessly move in and out of characters' subjectivities. Would it be possible to write a program to identify instances of free indirect discourse?

  9. Mar 2018
    1. Create an environment where your peers understand they don’t need to give up their entire worldview to consider your viewpoint or agree with you on one point.
  10. Feb 2018
  11. Dec 2017
    1. What I didn’t realize was how bad it would look when seen out of context

      this happened bc of racial discourse

    2. controversy it had caused,

      discourse

    3. One was a deep frustration among black artists that a theme so central to their history should be explored, in a major museum, by a white female artist. The other was that artists, very often, do not consciously choose their subjects

      racial differences... create mixed ideas of what is okay

    4. or a white woman to paint Emmett Till’s mutilated face communicates not only a tone-deafness toward the history of his murder, but an ignorance of the history of white women’s speech in that murder—the way it cancelled out Till’s own expression, with lethal effect

      connection between ETs murder being bc of the actions of a white women- categorize female whites- ppl thing she is at fault

    5. Reactions on Twitter and other social media ranged from fierce approval to incredulous opposition.

      social discourse

  12. Nov 2017
  13. Oct 2017
  14. Sep 2017
    1. free indirect speech translates the internal contradictions of Austen’s characters to her readers.36 Charlotte is granted by Austen that formal device which critics have long agreed mediates the complexity of her characters at other moments—when her motives shift from relieving Elizabeth of Mr. Collins’s irksome companionship to thinking about the benefits of securing him as her own husband, for example—but here, when Charlotte wants to make clear to her friend that she has not chosen an unhappy life, she is articu-lately straightforward. Charlotte’s mode of communication only adds to Elizabeth’s discomfort about her friend’s attitude toward intimacy.

      More mention of narrative and strong example of Austin's FID. Charlotte's language changes when her subject manner changes. Does Austen choose to make Charlotte a complex, or flat character? I find it amazing that Austen's language (which, as a reader, is easy to overlook) provides so much detail and depth to her characters and their situations.

  15. Mar 2017
    1. Discourse, they say, facilitates the exchange of knowledge but does not create it

      Lovely thought in itself. It's seems to be that it is being stated that, a;though discourse can mold an idea and present in a manner that is approachable and interesting, it does not create the idea. The idea is originated in the mind and simply spread through successful discourse.

    2. That is, he treats author, meaning, and knowledge as a function of discourse, not as its source.

      Discourse itself is the rhetor.

  16. Feb 2017
    1. ut Rheloric, being the art of co1111111111icatio11 by language, implies the pres-ence, in fact or in imagination, of at least two persons,-thc speaker or the writer, and the per-son spoken 10 or written to

      Can't help but think of Foucault's journals, especially considering that the intro to Bain and Hill mention a growing interest in private discourse because of higher literacy rates. What is the place of private or personal writing in rhetoric? How is the writer his/her own audience?

    1. Not surprh,ingly, as women's education improved, women increasingly began to speak in public :md to reflect on their rhetorical practices.

      From the intro to Mary Astell's section: "For Astell, women's rhetoric should focus on the art of conversation... This is women's proper rhetorical sphere, different from but in no way inferior to the public sphere in which men use oratory" (845).

      In what ways does this new focus on women's public oratory affect Astell's insistence on private, domestic, and/or conversational discourse as sites of rhetorical power? Especially as we consider this part from Mary Beard's lecture: "In the early fourth century BC Aristophanes devoted a whole comedy to the ‘hilarious’ fantasy that women might take over running the state. Part of the joke was that women couldn’t speak properly in public – or rather, they couldn’t adapt their private speech (which in this case was largely fixated on sex) to the lofty idiom of male politics."

  17. Jan 2017
    1. A person with oppositional conversational style is a person who, in conversation, disagrees with and corrects whatever you say. He or she may do this in a friendly way, or a belligerent way, but this person frames remarks in opposition to whatever you venture.
  18. Dec 2016
  19. Sep 2016
    1. Activities such as time spent on task and discussion board interactions are at the forefront of research.

      Really? These aren’t uncontroversial, to say the least. For instance, discussion board interactions often call for careful, mixed-method work with an eye to preventing instructor effect and confirmation bias. “Time on task” is almost a codeword for distinctions between models of learning. Research in cognitive science gives very nuanced value to “time spent on task” while the Malcolm Gladwells of the world usurp some research results. A major insight behind Competency-Based Education is that it can allow for some variance in terms of “time on task”. So it’s kind of surprising that this summary puts those two things to the fore.

  20. Apr 2016
    1. Jon Udell on productive social discourse.

      changeable minds<br> What’s something you believed deeply, for a long time, and then changed your mind about?

      David Gray's Liminal Thinking points out that we all have beliefs that are built on hidden foundations. We need to carefully examine our own beliefs and their origins. And we need to avoid judgment as we consider the beliefs of others and their origins.

      Wael Ghonim asks us to design social media that encourages civility, thoughtfulness, and open minds rather than self-promotion, click-bait, and echo chambers.

  21. Jan 2016
    1. Alice Maz on communication failures due to different cultures of conversation and values.

      Most people value feelings, shared perspectives, and social status. They see correction as an attempt to knock them down a peg. Nerds value facts, logic, and the sharing of information. A genuine nerd shares information with no intention of knocking anyone down, and prefers being corrected to remaining misinformed.

  22. Oct 2015
    1. my focus in this chapter will be to explore how procedures, computational and otherwise, express arguments and how they shape and constrain writing and political action.

      similiar to Foucault's concept of discourse? That is, what can be expressed?

  23. Nov 2014
    1. When we get to the point where someone sees the mere existence of a political conflict that requires us to criticize allies as a no-win scenario, something has gone very wrong. For the actual work of politics– convincing people to come over to our side in order to make the world a more just and equitable place– those politics have utterly failed. We have been talking about privilege theory for 30 years. We’ve been talking about intersectionality for 25 years. We’ve been getting into cyclical, vicious Twitter frenzies for a half decade. This is not working. And I doubt hardly anyone actually believes that this is working. They’re just having too much fun to stop.

      I've recently decided, for myself, that Twitter is not a viable platform for political discussions. I simply can't do it anymore. I spend more time getting derailed by confusion stemming from trying to be terse when discussing subtleties than I do actually discussing the issues I wanted to discuss.

  24. Dec 2013
    1. Let’s be real: most people use their profiles to talk about themselves, but they also share links there that they think will support or inform community relationships. When they’re right, I think some of the best online discussion of reading material happens in this forum.

      Yes! I totally agree. This is one of the reasons I'm in the annotation game. The best conversations are often with the people you know and trust, but they may not be as attentive to the same sources as you that serendipity finds you discussing in the same comment stream, unless you take it off the publisher page and on to your social network. This dichotomy needs to be collapsed. Bring your network with you.

  25. Oct 2013
    1. Even now most uneducated people think that poetical language makes the finest discourses. That is not true: the language of prose is distinct from that of poetry. This is shown by the state of things to-day, when even the language of tragedy has altered its character.

      Poetry does not equal intelligence. Distinct difference between poetry and prose.

  26. Sep 2013
    1. When I would speak to him in this wise, he would admit that I was right, but he could not change his nature. He was a good man and true, a credit to Athens and to Hellas, but he could not lower himself to the level of people who are intolerant of their natural superiors. So it was that the orators occupied themselves with inventing many false charges against him, and the multitude with drinking them in. I should be glad to refute these slanders, if the occasion permitted me to do so; for I believe that if you could hear me, you would come to loathe the men who have stirred the city to anger against Timotheus and the men who dare to speak evil of him. Now, however, I shall leave this subject and take up again my own defense and the case before us.

      Timotheus worked against Athens hegemony over Hellas because he saw the value in equality. However, his actions went against the will of Athens and he did not create a discourse to defend himself.

    2. there are not many who can discourse upon questions of public welfare in a spirit worthy both of Athens and of Hellas.

      This shows limited communication of the time. However, even though we live in a global community I cannot say that we are able to determine discourse that can apply to the public welfare of differing where hegemony is present.

    3. what discourse could have a nobler or a greater theme than one which summons the Hellenes to make an expedition against the barbarians and counsels them to be of one mind among themselves? Well, then, in the first speech I have discoursed upon these themes, and in those later quoted upon matters which, though less lofty, are by no means less fruitful or less advantageous to our city. And you will appreciate the power of these discourses if you will read them side by side with others written by orators of recognized ability and service to mankind

      Isocrates's belief in discourse as a powerful tool.

    1. But I do not think that you really call arithmetic rhetoric any more than geometry would be so called by you.
    2. Because, Socrates, the knowledge of the other arts has only to do with some sort of external action, as of the hand; but there is no such action of the hand in rhetoric which works and takes effect only through the medium of discourse. And therefore I am justified in saying that rhetoric treats of discourse.