214 Matching Annotations
  1. Jun 2019
    1. His education therefore had been but indifferently attended to; and p. 22after being taken from a country school, at which he had been boarded, the young gentleman was suffered to be his own master in the subsequent branches of literature, with some assistance from the parson of the parish in languages and philosophy, and from the exciseman in arithmetic and book-keeping.

      seems like this is used to justify why a character is odd

  2. Feb 2019
    1. he mere perusal of the words in his closet,

      This dude read in his closet

    2. it is in the power of man, by his own pains and industry, to forward the perfection of-his nature.

      This flies in the face of Camus: "Man is the only creature who refuses to be what he is."

    3. Nor can any animal utter any sound which we cannot explain, or tell from what emotion, or passion it proceeds. This distinguish­ing faculty was necessary to man as master of the animal race

      Man is the master of the world

      Important to note is that it is man's understanding of languages which other animals make but cannot understand across biological family.

      This would be complicated by the fact that animals are doing all sorts of communication we have no idea about.

    4. only those who are in a state of warfare

      I applaud Sheridan's attempt to enlighten our understanding of language in this way. He paints himself into a corner, but rather than stopping, he just keeps painting.

    5. docs the calf regard the bleating of the shee

      Well Mr. Sheridan, what would you say about a big crazy dogbear thing that screams like a woman?

      Seriously, Annihilation (the movie more than the book, but the book, too) is interested in the blending of species and how the human responds when the nice, neat categories of existence are muddied.

    6. he same in all nations, and consequently can e

      So while words vary widely and have no direct relation to the ideas they represent, tone is universal. Here we have another claim about the human: it is one who uses tone in a certain way.

    7. should say in the same tone of voice

      Yeah someone who was speaking about being irate and used only words, no tone or movement, would seem like a sociopath.

    8. ing from what

      This seems like a break from Locke, and possibly even from Hume.

      A hu(man) has things other than ideas running through its mind.

    9. red so thro' custom. I shall now proceed to shew, that when by custo

      whoa, wait a minute. Is this some sleight of hand, or did I miss something?

      This seems like an amplification of his previous thought, a stronger claim than what has come before. Up to this point, I understood Sheridan as saying "not all language is spoken words." Fair enough, but now his claim that "words are only a part of language because of custom, and language could exist just as well without words at all" is a considerable raising of the stakes.

      Did I miss something?

    10. con.�idering it, a

      So while Sheridan praises Locke for his step in the right direction, he also names him as complicit in the problem because it is tempting to stop with the progress Locke made, rather than carrying out the project to its end.

    11. consists of the signs of internal emotions,

      Sheridan wants to apply Locke's findings on the language of "philosophical discourse" to all language.

    12. lected wisdom of ages

      "how dreadful to have wisdom when it profits not the wise."

    13. this fundamental errour with regard to our general idea of language, in confin• ing it to such narrow bounds, has had a remarkable effect upon our practice; and that some of its noblest uses have been lost lo us, thro' the want of a just notion of its comprehension;

      We can certainly get behind this, right? Language, viewed narrowly, leads to a limited use of language. Viewed broadly, language is opened to new possibilities.

    14. constantly associating the ideas of articulate sounds

      So those who can speak tend to believe that writing is merely a sign for speech, but both speech and writing are signs for thought.

    15. voice and gesture

      Ok, I don't know that Locke would disagree, but Sheridan is specifically including the vocal chords and limbs, that is, the body, in the sphere of the rhetorical.

    16. the British

      You know what, I just realized that I was assuming something that I don't think Sheridan is. In my comment about the populous of Rome being virtuous, I was assuming Sheridan was attempting to educate the populous. I think I'm wrong.

      It seems Sheridan has virtue training in mind for a select few, not all of "the British."

    17. religion, morality, and the line arts and support the British constitution.

      If we know anything about ancient Rome, it's that the populous was religious, moral, lovers of the arts and law. /s

    18. Cure of those El'ils

      A medicinal model of education. "Hi, I'm Thomas Sheridan. All these dumbasses are hopelessly lost because they don't speak correctly. They'll never do anything good, or see what good is, because bad speech runs rampant. The only hope is to heal them by teaching them to speak well. That is, like me."

    1. 1;.,,, tl� IJJ.c,,1

      These illustrations and explanations read a lot like an attempt to explain how to swim to someone on dry land.

    1. it, is much more Divine, lo Save a Soul from Dea1h

      Again the (Platonic) ranking of the spiritual over the physical.

    2. Nor will Knowledge lie dead upon their hands who have no Children to Instruct;

      Ok, she was starting to lose me, but this clause brings me back. She told us above that everyone has their station in life; this is her section on everyone's rhetorical or educational station.

    3. we shall not farther enlargc on it here


    4. Meditation

      So meditation not only brings clarity of thought, but sanctification. I wonder how closely the two are related for Astell?

    5. since the matter is of Infinite Consequence is it equitable to deny 'cm the use of any help?

      Another classic Christian move, making education of not just earthly, but eternal importance.

    6. Yet he can exhaust the most fruitful Subject without making the Reader weary;

    7. Besides, by being True Christians we have Really that Love for others which all who desire 10 persw.tde must pretend to

      What a classic Christian move. "You think what is good? Oh, yeah, yeah, Christianity is like a super saiyan version of that."

    8. duce

      It's really cool to see "reduce" used this way. I've never seen it like this in English, but it makes perfect sense.

      "duce" is from "ducere" which means "to lead." "reduce" is "to lead again."

      Actually, now that I ponder it, I'm having trouble seeing the metaphor we employ when we use it today.

      Edit: Holy smokes ok so the metaphor is "leading back to a more primordial state." Fascinating.

    9. We doubly ohligc our Neighbours when we reduce them into !he Right Way. and keep it from being taken notice or that they were once in the Wrong,

      The Christian duty to love the neighbor

    10. Persuade

      Here it is with a "u."

      I'm beginning to think the contemporary insistence (can I say "fanaticism?") with spelling is just that: contemporary.

      Perhaps another gift from Strunk and White.

    11. Obscurity, one of the greatest faults in Writing, docs commonly proceed from a want of Meditation

      While she may disagree with him in other places, this sounds like a statement where the two are in Lockestep (please forgive me.)

    12. whereby they might en­larg e their prospect, rectify their false Ideas , form in their Minds adequate conceptions of the End and Dignity of their Natures, not only have the Name and common Principles of Religion float­ing in their Heads and sometimes running out at their Mouth�, but understand the design and meaning of it, and have a just apprehension, a lively sentimenL of its Beauties and Excellencies: know wherein the Nature of a true Christian consists;

      This is a very rigid curriculum which tells us much about what Astell believes the human (or perhaps here just the woman, but I think it applies to humanity generally) to be. In particular, the wretchedness of a sinner, left unchecked, will lead to false ideas and bad beliefs and habits. "A true Christian" will need to have falsity and sin constantly called out and checked as she gradually learns to prefer what is really good, true, beautiful, etc.

    13. hey've perhaps almost lost thm,c excellent Capacities which probably were afforded them by nature for the highest things.

      A sort of reverse tabula rasa. While this could be a sort of flourish, I don't read it as one.

      If we take her at her word, Astell is suggesting that those (rational) capacities which are originally inherit to humans, can, through disuse, gradually recede into nothing.

      I have lots of questions about how the hell it got there in the first place and how it goes away etc., but I suspect it has something to do with the imago Dei and the Fall.

    14. cm

      This contraction, which I associate with slang, juxtaposed with such high-brow language is jarring.

    15. amend 'cm

      ok wtf this sentence is massive and contains a really complicated metaphor. This is how she spoke?

      I'm not hating; I'm amazed.

    16. fold our hands with Solomon's Sluggard

      Proverbs 24:33-34 King James Version (KJV) 33 Yet a little sleep, a little slumber, a little folding of the hands to sleep:

      34 So shall thy poverty come as one that travelleth; and thy want as an armed man.

    17. If you approve, Why don't you follow'!

      So I got through the biography and came out thinking Astell was timid, conservative and restrained. These are some pretty accusatory and forthright questions she is asking.

    18. no body endeavouring to put it in Practice

      This seems like a pretty direct appeal to Princess Anne, to whom the book is dedicated and who nearly gave Astell money to start a college.

    19. Essay

      I'm really glad she thought women should write as they spoke, rather than with an inflated style. If this first sentence is plainspeak, I'm not sure I could handle much verbosity.

    20. a woman should write as she speak

      I get what is meant here, but there is at least one way in which it doesn't hold up.

      Astell didn't claim women should speak in public speeches, yet she wrote publicly.

    21. good books

      pray thee, do tell: which books are good?

    22. Astell seems closer to Augustine

      Well, I feel awesome.

    23. proper charitable attitude

      Christianity has rules for rhetoric. Interesting. Augustine would love this, yeah?

    24. exhorted them directly

      How radical was this in Astell's day? In any event, she's said that the pulpit is not the place for a woman, so she uses books to exhort women.

    25. Astcll recommended Rene Descartes

      I mean I guess nobody's perfect

    26. The institution would be governed

      I'm no historian, so help me out here, but this is radical, right? I mean, even the institutions which taught boys had a supervisory hierarchy, right?

    1. to have sprung from some common source,

      I heard once that Noah Webster subscribed to this view of all languages coming from one ancient language, but I can't find any source to corroborate that.

    2. shortness

      "omit needless words!"

      A refrain of Strunk's. This Sprat fellow sounds like he would get along with Strunk and White.

    3. he power of eloquence only in the hands of the wicked

      Weak defense

    1. In my life I have al-'"r"1 ways had the greatest apprehension of being >tp�i-{--alone in wisdom

      "How dreadful to have wisdom when it profits not the wise!" -Tiresias, one of the plays of Sophocles

    2. cultivate a language

      Lots of cultivation going on for Vico. Community cultivates young, community cultivates language, language cultivates community, language cultivates young.

    3. Wise men induce this condition in themselves by an act of volition.

      So Vico's definition and practice of rhetoric allows for one's self to be both the agent and subject of eloquence. Interesting.

    4. manages to follow a roundabout way whenev

      or "has the aim of truth coursing though all his blood vessels," to reintroduce a metaphor Vico used earlier.

    5. prudence, excel--i Jenee is accorded to those who ferret out the WO; greatest possible number of causes

      He is defining prudence by turning scientific inquiry on its head (or just pointing out that prudence is scientific inquiry on its head).

    6. seems

      Look at the seed he is sowing right there.

    7. our scholars arc nol compelled to restrict their competence to the knowledge of one or another author, but can master a multiple, diversified, almost boundless domain of culture.

      As an autodidact, he would know!

    8. hree stages

      These three stages are not the same as the Trivium, but they do seem to pair nicely, particularly if you understand the Trivium in a sort of developmental way as explained by Dorthy Sayers that is all the rage in classical education these days.

    9. Vico recommends balance

      I knew Aristotle was hanging around here somewhere.

      The Golden Mean)

    10. of eloquence

      I'm picking up some serious Strong Defense vibes from this. The study of eloquence builds a community, a world.

      I'm in.

    1. The poet's mo1111111e11t more durable than brass, must fall to the ground like common brick or clay, were men to make no allowance for the continual revolutions of manners and customs,

      So I think he's saying that permanence emerges from an admission that things change. That seems like something we could put to work.

    2. TACITUS at fifty. Vainly would we, in such cases, endeavour to e

      TOM CLANCY at sixty.

    3. aken in the choice of their admired philosopher, they never have been \..• � found Jong to err, in their affection for a favouriteepic or tragic author. But notwithstandi

      Ah, so any group of people that does "long err in their affection for a favorite epic or tragic author" isn't a part of civilization.

      Awesome. /s

    4. ew are qualified to give judgment on any work of ar

      This is still humanism, but perhaps a humbler humanism. Descartes still looms large. The objective capital T truth is still out there somewhere, and we can tell that it is perceived because of the universal rules, but the human is fundamentally not the kind of thing that can perfectly perceive objective reality because the organs of internal sensation don't work well enough, or reliably enough.

    5. dom, or never happens, that a man of sense, who has experience in any art, cannot judge of its beauty;

      Here you are, mholder.

      Write poetry, judge poetry better.

      This is granting, of course, that you are "a man of sense."

    6. By this means, his sentiments are perverted; nor have the same beauties and blemishes the same influence upon him, as if he had imposed a proper violence on his imagination, and had for­gotten himself for a moment. So far his taste evi­dently departs from the true standard; and of con­sequence loses all credit and authority

      This is stuffed to the gills with assumptions. And while there is a good deal of boilerplate Enlightenment business going on, Hume also seems to be planting the seeds later authors will reap.

      Hume is requiring of the listener/taster/receiver, which is not new. "You think rap is good because you don't understand 'art' " is a common refrain. The elites have always used exposure to canonical works and forms as a method of discrediting those outside the circle, and have dismissed emerging works and forms as "lowbrow."

      What strikes me about Hume, and perhaps posthumanism (along with Foucault) would find this noteworthy, is that this "violence on" a person is not done by the community, but by the person themself.

    7. nothing tends further to encrease and improve this talent, than praclice in a particular art,

      And just like that, Barad and Siegert come crashing in. Practices shape the agent, yeah yeah yeah, but as the agent continues to practice, the world is shaped as well.

    8. But it would have been more difficult to have proved the superiority of the fonner, to the conviction of every by-stander.

      Even though there are those in the room who aren't fans of Plato, I'm reminded of his description of the philosopher here, where he likens the philosopher to the only one who understands navigation by the stars on a ship full of people. The other sailors laugh and deride the "stargazer," because he seems foolish to them. But of course, the philosophers are right and the sailors are wrong.

      Granted, this may just be a highly stylized and ancient form of "I'm rubber, you're glue."

    9. a real genius

      this is the sort of reasoning often employed in continuing to teach the Western Canon.

    10. the operation of the whole machine.

      I'm not exactly sure what to do with this yet, but I want to note that here, Hume is comfortable speaking metaphorically of the human as a machine. In the older stuff, agricultural metaphors are preferred.

    11. the proverb
    12. while at bottom they agreed intheir judgment.

      just like Locke's story about liquor, which was the worst liquor story I ever heard.

    13. when critics come to particulars,

      Lad Tobin, in Writing Relationships (it's a composition pedagogy book), talks about how making an increasingly complex rubric of evaluation of a paper leads to increasing scrutiny, but that doesn't produce better writing, just more disagreement between teacher and student.

      That may only be tangentially related, but this essay seems like it might be a fun one to read in light of composition and how we teach it.

    1. 34

      Kinda got real cranky and pedantic at the end. Calm down, Locke.

    2. all such words, however put into discourse, according to the construction of grammatical rules, or the har-mony of well-turned periods, do yet amount to nothing but bare sounds, and nothing else.

      "Though I speak with the tongues of men and of angels, but have not love, I have become sounding brass or a clanging cymbal."

    3. when we use them as signs of real beings, which yet never had any reality or existence.

      Barad immediately comes to mind; I'm thinking of her charge to doubt the Cartesian scheme in order that it does not continue to exist.

    4. thoughts, notions, and ideas

      practices, geography, time period, class etc. etc.

    5. If we consider, in the fallacies men put upon themselves, as well as others, and the mistakes in men's disputes and notions, how great a part is owing to words, and their uncertain or mistaken significations, we shall have reason lo think this no small obstacle in the way to knowledge

      I'm really glad to see Locke say here that people can trick themselves with language. That whole bit at the beginning where one doesn't need "the right" words to communicate to oneself as long as the words are consistent seemed completely untenable to me.

      Language shapes thought, even (especially?) one's own thought. As a member of a society, the language of others places all sorts of limits on our thoughts, and shapes them accordingly.

    6. &

      story time.

      "&" is a contraction of sorts of "et," the Latin word meaning "and." "&" used to be at the end of the alphabet, and was pronounced "and." When people would say the alphabet, they'd say "y, z, and per se 'and'." Over time, "and per se and" was corrupted to "ampersand."

    7. about.

      And then everyone clapped

    8. truly and clearly follow from gold,

      Sweet, Locke.

      Now do "human."

    9. comments beget com• ments

      This is a pretty decent title for a biography of Locke.

    10. no-body having an authority to establish the precise signification of words,

      While Locke seems to favor the capital T Truth, he here says that nobody is the authority on it.

    11. designs ~ot to copy anything really existing, but to denominate and rank things as they come to agree with those archetypes or forms it has made

      This kinda sounds like a posthuman critique of humanism.

    12. s to make the name in common use stand for the same precise idea

      ex. "posthumanism"

    13. heir ideas,

      I'm screaming "Beetle" at the screen at this point.


    14. ince sounds have no natural connection with our ideas,
    15. ecording

      from re- meaning "again" and cor, "heart." The word was originally active ("I call it back to my heart"), but over time took a passive form ("It is recalled back to my heart") in the Latin. Funny that it has retaken an active sense in English.

      But of note for me is the fact that the word, albeit metaphorical, has an origin in the life of the body, not the mind.

    16. a perverse use of those signs which we make use of to convey truth to one another.

      Plato: "You can't give long answers or talk funny. Just give it to me straight, without all the obfuscation."

    17. one task of philosophy is to improve language

      HU clap MA clap NI clap SM clap

      "this shit sucks. There is certainly some ideal way it ought to work, so lets make it better and better because we can and we know how things work and how they ought to and we're smart and in control!!!"

      What's the posthuman approach to language, in short? Maybe we can substitute words to come up with a different way of seeing it, like "one task of rhetoric is to invigorate language."

    18. creating obscurities through disputation,

      lol @ this.

      "creating obscurities through disputation" sounds an awful lot like "broadening the knowledge base of humanity." Arguing toward ever more precise ideas and their articulations is the driving force of the Enlightenment.

  3. Jan 2019
    1. mediating thirdpreceding first and second

      "preceding" is doing a lot of work there. That sounds an awful lot like Barad.

    2. new media

      This is what sparked Lanham's chapter, right? The affirmation of the authority/superiority of the book itself over other media as a means to "preserve culture."

    3. t moves ontology into the domain of ontic oper-ations.

      That's massive.

      The ontological/ontic debate has existed within the ontological. Siegert's theory of cultural techniques moves it into the ontic. Put another way, it resolves the debate by demonstrating the ontic as ontologically prior to ontology.

    4. media

      I suspect many other words could also fit here, such as "technology."

    5. ontic

      I've only ever seen Heidegger use this term, and it meant something like "real-stuff-in-the-world-as-it-is" instead of ontological, which meant "nature-decided-upon-ahead-of-time-because-of-categories-we-made-up."

    1. References

      So I just finished the article then looked at my wall and thought about the relation of me and the wall being prior to either me or the wall and my face melted off.

    2. here is no such exterior observational point.
    3. possibilities for acting

      this is an easy way to grab ahold of what Barad is after in this section. "Agency" isn't something someone has. Agency is action, not attribute.

    4. atter

      Matter doesn't need to be observed. This is how she is avoiding relativism. She's grounding her ontology in the natural world.

    5. Meaning isnot a property of individual words or groups of words but an ongoingperformance of the world in its differential intelligibility.

      Notice the lack of reference to some "scientific observer" outside of the system who could "measure" meaning. She only refers to what is going on in the actual world.

    6. clearly


    7. onstrains and enables

      Is discourse seen as enforcing "hard" or "soft" boundaries? A hard boundary might be something outside of which all sense is lost, like "stars function mustard." A soft boundary might be something forbidden by custom, decorum, etc., like complaining about your spouse to a person who very recently lost their spouse in an accident.

    8. property of individual words

      cf. Wittengstein's "beetle"

    9. summary,

      super helpful summary. Commenting just to tag it.

    10. The notion of agential separability is of fundamentalimportance, for in the absence of a classical ontological condition of ex-teriority between observer and observed it provides the condition for thepossibility of objectivity.

      I believe this is important, but I'm not sure I understand it. While the Cartesian cut happens before the relation, because relata are ontologically prior and independent of relations, the agential cut happens within the relation, distinguishing subject and object locally, but not ontologically.

      Oh ok ok, and because those relata are then separable, exteriority-within-phenomena happens. Essentially, because the relata can be seen as separate objects within the relation, objectivity is still possible; relativism is not a necessary result.

    11. abstract independently existing “object”

      Since forever, apparently, science has relied on Aristotle's "Unmoved Mover," in a sense. Not a god exactly, but some real or imagined unaffected observer whose presence serves as a fixed point from which to accumulate data. Why are we tempted to think this way? Aren't we all moving? What fixed point is there? I'm tempted to go back to the analogy of floating baskets tied together. There is an illusion of being grounded, but we aren't really.

    12. eminist andqueer studies and science studies through one another while simulta-neously proposing a materialist and posthumanist reworking of the notionof performativity

      Diffracting these studies through one another? This seems to be exactly what Braidotti was after in her description of "posthumanities."

    13. learl


    14. What would it mean to even ask such a question

      At least she reminds us that she knows how hard this all is for us mere mortals.

    15. If performativity is linked not only to the formation of the subject butalso to the production of the matter of bodies,

      Dr. Rivers, please freaking help.

      Am I reading Barad right? Is she saying here "If not only the internal workings of the mind of the subject and the subjects actions are shaped by performativity, but also the physical compilation of the universe, then it is all the more important that we understand performativity and how it causes this shaping of the physical world."

    16. evacuate

      from "ex" "vacuare" meaning "to make empty or to empty"

    17. here are representations on the one hand and ontologicallyseparate entities awaiting representation on the other

      Ok, I think this is it. This is her whole thing; her thesis. And it is one hell of a thesis.

    18. healthy skepticismtoward Cartesian doubt

      lol, but for real, what Barad is suggesting really is difficult to do, or at least I'm finding it difficult to do.

      We believe words are more understandable and apprehensible than the physical world. We believe words are more understandable and apprehensible than the physical world. We believe words are more understandable and apprehensible than the physical world. . .

      It seems crazy because our society is so science and tech driven, but she's right. We believe words to be prior (ontologically) to the world around us because they are a part of "us," our own minds.

      Distorting Descartes's famous thought experiment here seems to help me understand this. While I suspect the average person could be pushed into admitting the possibility of an evil demon spinning an elaborate hoax for you, deceiving your physical senses and tricking your brain, I can't imagine finding anyone who would admit the opposite. The opposite would be that the external world exists largely as you perceive it. The demon is not manipulating your experience of the natural world at all. Instead, he is tricking you into believing you exist.

      We're so Cartesian we can't even conceive of it being otherwise. Perhaps Spinoza would help here, as well as other monist ontologies?

      Someone please redeem this annotation I don't even know what is happening anymore.

    19. symmetrical faith in our access to representationsover things

      "Language has been given too much power."

      I'm finding it helpful to repeat that phrase when I don't understand what she means.

    20. “appearance” makes its first appearanc

      "What is" instead of "which one?"

    21. hat which is represented is held to be independent of all practices ofrepresenting

      There is a thing that exists before and apart from all talking/practices/gestures toward/about that thing.

    22. My aim is to contribute to effortsto sharpen the theoretical tool of performativity for science studies andfeminist and queer theory endeavors alike, and to promote their mutualconsideratio

      Summary: Social constructivist theories of knowledge aren't helpful because they get caught up in bouncing ideas around. Performative theories are better and ought to be considered, because they are practice-focused. Barad is offering them for consideration.

    1. posthumanitie

      commenting just to tag this

    2. r. It claims not only one butseveral specialized scholarly journals11and functions like an establishedacademic discipline.

      But this is accelerationsism, right?

    3. Contiguity, however, is not the same as complicity,and qualitative differences can an

      This quote makes me think of a poem by Robinson Jeffers: Shine, Perishing Republic

      While I'm sure Jeffers wasn't after furthering the cause of posthumanism, it seems like an especially interesting piece to give a posthuman reading to.

      Now, someone please do that because I do not understand how the hell to do it.

    4. Zoe-centredegalitarianism is, for me, the core of a posthuman thought that mightinspire, work with or subtend informational and scientific practices andresist the trans-species commodification of life by advanced capitalism

      The preamble was worth the payoff. This is gold; a succinct statement that outlines the ethics implicit in posthumanism which necessarily work against advanced capitalism.

    5. onsiders as capital value theinformational power of living matter itself,

      I'm looking for space to start a agribusiness screed but Braidotti is doing it better than I can. Wow, she is killing it!

    6. We know by now that there is no GreenwichMean Time in knowledge production in the posthuman era.

      To say it another way (although, why do that, when she just knocked it out of the park?) by borrowing an analogy from economics, knowledge production is a series of floating baskets, all fluctuating together. There is no firm base that everything is built on, the structure persists by virtue of its relations of its coherent parts, one to another.

    7. rbanized/

      This is an interesting adjective to include in the list that I don't often see in the usual list. But I'm not well read on the subject either.

      People who know better than I do: Do you often see "urbanized" among the list of attributes of "the majority?"

    8. new subjects of knowledge

      Melvil Dewey: "Guess I'll forget the base 10 number system and switch to hexadecimal."

      For real, she's proposing developing knowledge that is outside of Dewey's ordering system. It's like 150 years old; it's about time!

    9. Appeals to the ‘human’are always discriminatory

      From Dr. Rivers's lecture: "When you start defining what human is, you start excluding people."

    10. inspiration

      Excellent choice of word. "Inspiration" from "in-spirare", meaning "to breathe into."

    11. defy the logic of theexcluded middle

      this is an important point to just slip in like this. The Law of Excluded Middle is one of the three fundamental laws of Aristotelian logic, that is, Western thought.

    12. residual Kantianism

      boo hiss

    13. Footnotes and bibliographiesbeing the expression of democracy in the tex

      Ok if someone would have explained it to me like this in high school I would have had a reason to care about doing them instead of hating them.

    14. what kind of knowing subjects are we in theprocess of becoming and what discourses underscore the process.

      important questions she is trying to answer

    15. materialist approach

      Like Rickert did.

      A Google search yielded this helpful lil summary: materialist approach to rhetoric

    16. omadic

      the posthumanities are nomadic because they don't fit in traditional disciplinary camps, right?

    17. eleuze

      This guy showed up in the Mucklebauer & Hawhee article, too. He's a pretty important philosopher after Foucault, Derrida, et al.


    18. Utrecht University

      So she's not an American and doesn't teach in America. Sweet.

    1. as inexorable components of its workings, mightrespond in ways other than simple rejection or celebration

      Perhaps this is a clue to what I was asking above. While there is a way of reading "leftist" critiques of capital as believing themselves to be "apart from capitalistic structures," even if only in their minds/opinions/etc., posthumanism says "look, we're in it. Rejecting it is senseless. Instead, we ought to ask 'now what?'"

    2. experiment and improvisation might.

      Indeed, it might. Might it not?

      I'm not being coy or trying to build my annotation count, I'm after something in particular here. Here, experiment and improv are suggested because they might lead to progress. My question is: What fencepost does the posthumanist leave unmoved? Is anything sacred? Is anything best left alone, without being subject to "experiment and improvisation?"

    3. nonsignifying symbolic economy that simultaneously turns on andproduces logics of desire

      How does this work in tension with what was said earlier about the simulacra not making the real more malleable? It seems like just the opposite is being argued here; that the simulacrum (capital) is turning its own megaphone louder and louder, "changing" the real by "produc[ing] logics of desire."

    4. Emmanuel Goldstein,

      Anna Moore did it better though.


      l33t hax0r

    5. embodied information,”

      As information has become more ubiquitous and trivial, an important sense of the word has faded. "Information" is something "put in a form" or something "that forms."

      It's fascinating to think about how information forms us, and how outsourcing that also changes us.

      Note also that Brooke calls for "a return." This is a great fact to keep in my back pocket for the common misconception of posthumanism as "after human crazy cyborg thingy." No, Brooke, a posthumanist, says "go back."

    6. refiguring of relations between nature,culture, and subjectivity.

      Will this serve as a suitable definition of "posthumanism," or is it merely what's at stake? This refiguring of relations seems to be what Dr. Rivers is after at times, especially the "move beyond the binary" and "I'm not saying humanism is wrong, I'm just saying we're after something different" talk.

    7. f the trout-farm cum game-pod wor

      the what?

    8. enforce some kind of coherence

      This is where the Enlightenment, which thinks of divisions and categories as things discovered by the rational mind, is in trouble, because those rational minds start turning inward on themselves.

    9. hybrids
    10. disciplinary boundariesbecome sites of connection r

      Like Rickert was talking about, "progress" within one field may ultimately prove not to be best for the field, but be an exaptation which is picked up and put to work somewhere else.

    11. rhetoric becomes an art of connectivit

      So rhetoric functions like the humans in eXistenZ.

      Dude, so meta.

    12. to inve

      "inventing" as "finding," not as "creating"

    13. s usef

      useful? for whom?

      I can remember playing video games as a youngster, when one day my dad asked me how to play a new game I got. In retrospect, he probably would have caught on a lot sooner if I told him about a third of the controls to begin with. Instead, I told him in excruciating detail how each button might be used. He did not do well.

      The triangle may well be tremendously useful to the teacher and student. I think the question I'm after is really an ethical one; something like "How honest ought a teacher be in working with simplistic concepts in any given field?"

    1. attractor

      Can anyone shed light on how this word functions in rhet studies in general, and in this paragraph in particular?

      As it is, I'm reading it as a source or well or magnet that a culture exaptates toward or "adexaptates" to.

    2. Exaptation refers to evolutionary develop-ments beyond those selected for their role by adaptation alone.24It is where a trait emergesfor one function that is coopted afterwards for another.

      The term exaptation is a helpful and essential way of understanding what Rickert is after in this essay. The word comes from evolutionary biology.

      It's easiest for me to understand etymologically. Adaptation shares the -apt root, that is, "being fitting." But whereas Ad-aptation is ad or "toward" being fit or useful, Ex-aptation is ex or "away" or "out of" being fit or useful.

      Notice the huge difference: fit-ness doesn't happen because an organism or, here, a culture, tries to achieve some goal it has already recognized. Rather, the organism (or culture) stumbles toward fit-ness by repurposing [N.B. I need help here. "Recycling?", "Fortuitously finding use?"] traits (practices, rituals, etc.) which were formerly "apt" for something else.

    3. magic,

      Ok, so Peter Kingsley made it into the footnotes. I can sleep at night now knowing that my previous annotations weren't completely bogus.

      I guess I'll add here that Parmenides, according to Kingsley, was also a healer, a role Kingsley has mentioned multiple times.

    4. divine authority so potent in rhetorical discourse

      deus vult!

      The development of "the god card"

    5. ater developments build on this.

      development of rhetoric

    6. the markings a form of“epistemic action,”meaning that they are markings thatenable new ways of thinking or interacting.50There was not a mental imagefirst, ladenwith meaning or aesthetic weight, then the markings as their achievement.

      Writing as invention

    7. magical powers

      Ok I'm gonna double down on Kingsley and his examination of Parmenides and Empedocles. His thesis is that these men are today seen as logicians, but were, in fact, shamans and/or sorcerers.

      I'm not exactly how this fits into Rickert's work or our understanding of rhetoric, but the overlap is too much not to annotate it. Ultimately, I guess, I'm including this because Kingsley may be a source of helping us broaden our understanding of the Greeks' understanding of rhetoric. If Kingsley is right, they weren't nearly as obsessed with logic as we understand them to be.

      Here's Kingsley's website: Kingsley's website

    8. shaman

      Parmenides, a pre-socratic, is traditionally seen as a rational philosopher and a "founder of the West." What we know of him comes from Plato, and from bits of a poem Parmenides wrote, On Nature.

      Where it gets interesting (sort of), is there are some who suggest Parmenides wasn't rational, but mystical. He wrote his poem, it is said, after having a vision in a cave. He was also said to be a shaman. His claims are hotly debated (sometimes even dismissed as ridiculous), but Peter Kingsley wrote on this understanding of the inception of the West (and its relationship to the East) in his book, Reality.

    9. its

      I'm really not trying to be that guy, but is this a typo? I can't make the sentence make sense without substituting "it is."

    10. excavat

      We see what you did there, Rickert.

    11. chievement

      Rhetoric is an achievement, that is, a built or accomplished thing, not an ideal descending from the heavens.

    1. vir bonus dicendi peritus

      "good man, skilled in speaking"

    2. Speculum principis

      "Prince's Mirror." It's basically like a bound finishing school for rulers. Think Emily Post for aristocrats.

    3. balancing books.

      If you are reading this straight through, I recommend going to page 22 of this document. The last two pages are a helpful recasting of the two defenses which can lend context to the rest of the reading.

    4. If we don't reincarnate it

      This dude wrote this in one day

    5. it is coming to resemble more and more, for all its pretensions, not the model of power it pretends to be, but our own version of sugar water with bubbles.

      Yes! This is what I was after in my above reply. The institution has adopted a mindset fit for selling a simple product, a mindset hyperaware of "economic realities" and "efficiencies." It is no wonder the reductionists have stepped in, slashing the production process to the bone. As a result, the product, whatever we say it is, is simplified.

    6. The run-ning debate about decorum as a key term in rhetorical theory

      What is the debate here? Is it that decorum, i.e. formality, is necessary vs. it being a weapon used to exclude those who don't "know the rules?"

    7. confessed that he had no answer.

      I don't know where this is going, but this apparent humility seems to be a much better starting point than Blunt's hubris.

    8. Above all

      Is Steiner saying here that Blunt was enthralled by the tedium of studying fine art, and became a spy so that he could be a hero in his own mind?

    9. The world out there is the formless, boorish impedi-ment

      This matches well with Lanham's previous summary of Bloom's view of the university:

      "a monastery that shuts out a fundamentally corrupt and irredeemable world."

    10. civ-ilization's only chance to get to him

      So civilization is this independent actor, and it can get to a person (or only a man) during the four-year college experience through the Great Books.

      When studying knowledge in my undergrad and trying to define it, it was a common attempt among me and my peers to continually add more and more qualifiers to the definition, in an attempt to ensure no one had knowledge by accident. My professor continually reminded us: "Dogs and children know things. If your definition of knowledge excludes dogs and children from knowing things, that says more about you than it does them."

      What I'm after here, is that Bloom's definition of "civilization" is extremely qualified. It says more about him than it does anyone who doesn't meet his definition.

    11. he categorical imperative

      Boundless gratitude from studying Kant? lol

    12. The same stabilizing conflict-resolution scracegy used within disciplines applies to the larger curriculum that contains them.

      Ok so here he is saying it isn't just when it comes to literacy, but the curriculum as a whole.

    13. division of literary study

      "literary" seems to be the key word here. It meant something quite different to Cicero than it did to, say, Hirsch.

      How far should these divisions be walked back and/or rethought? It's been going on a long time; Plato's Socrates suggested education be divided into two subjects: Music and Gymnasium.

    14. At the heart of the "Q" question stands the need to demon-strate a connection between specific reading and writing practices and the moral life.

      I'm surprised to find this claim here, buried in this paragraph. This is the first time Lanham has gotten explicit about what, exactly, will be required to answer the "Q" question, right?

    15. Ciceronian literacy

      Summary of Hirsch:

      1. The founders of America believed the nation must have robust public discourse.
      2. Cicero was, for them (and should be for us), the model of robust public discourse.
      3. In the Roman republic, discourse was oral.
      4. Now, discourse is primarily written.
      5. Therefore, "literacy" functions for us the way "rhetoric" did for Cicero.
      6. "literacy" is a knowledge of the Canon.
      7. A primary responsibility of American schools is to teach the Canon.
    16. "dramatistic."

      Below is an excerpt from the 5030 only reading which sheds light on "dramatistic" as Burke employs the term.

      "Kenneth Burke follows a similar path in his work. Discourse of all kinds, he says, seeks to motivate people in some way, so we should seek meaning in intentions and effects. Language is a form of human action: It requires an agent with a purpose, a scene of action, a rhetorical strategy, and an actual speech or text. Seeing discourse this way, "dramatistically" as Burke calls it, is to see all language as motivated, hence as rhetorical. Burke also searches discourse for its ideological function of promoting identification with communities and their beliefs. In his analyses, rhetoric merges with political, psychological, sociological. religious, and aesthetic investigations of human behavior. "

    1. so he is prompted by another wise man.”

      Reminds me of the motive mixing Lanham raved about.

    2. a “body”

      This is embodied learning turned up to 11. This reads like a text debating what happens to the elements of the Eucharist. Reading and writing are transmuted into "the very body" of the one who is doing them.

    3. Let us loyally welcome such foods and make them our own, so that something that is one may be formed out of many elements, just as one number is formed of several elements

      Something about eating, digesting, all that food becoming one thing, and number 1. No reference to number 2.

    4. but as a scout


      Don't try to exhaust one area of knowledge with your notebook; that isn't its use. Instead, the value of the notebook lies in your 1) recognition, and 2) internalization of the truth you encounter in your life as you live it. And rather than turning over every stone for some wisdom, go over that which you've already encountered and found worthy of merit. It is good to meditate deeply on few texts.

    5. toward the future, makes it interested in novel ideas

      We may not agree with him, but I'm pretty sure Seneca thought this was horrible. No clue about how Foucault views one who is thinking toward the future.

    6. liable to retain nothing

      I read somewhere once that some guy read War and Peace in one sitting. When someone asked him what it was about, he said "It was about Russia."

    7. a relationship of oneself with oneself

      Kierkegaard argues in The Sickness Unto Death that a human being is a synthesis of opposites; infinite and finite, freedom and necessity, etc. The "self," then, is the relation of these two opposites, and, in addition to that relation relating to each of the opposites, the relation also relates itself to itself.

      I think all I'm really trying to say is that Kierkegaard wrote a ton, and some of it sounds very similar to what is being suggested by Foucault. Also, Kierkegaard may be a great place for us to turn to find help in understanding Foucault.

    8. narrative of oneself

      So, while these texts aren't meant to be merely a recounting of the events of the self, they are meant to be a catalogue of sayings encountered by the self in an effort to reform the self in some way.

      This accords nicely with Paul Ricoeur's and David Carr's thoughts on narrative and the role it plays in shaping the self. Briefly, they assert you are the story you are telling yourself about yourself.

    1. seeks to motivate people in some way

      This is what I was after earlier in the essay when questioning the ancients about what is "persuasive" and what is not.

    2. on probability and be-w\...-\. \l~ l' "'\\ .1 "0~;"~ v,r-lao11\ T°(.A1 \S,tv... \I 4y,.cJ.. ~ ux. v... +tu. ti.,S~l+ c,f 'J2a ""°""S S IMCV(.. .\t,. cf1 Vl:l<. ~-kirx.'.. 1.4 t, • 1 •• lief rather than demonstration of absolute truth.

      shots fired

    3. John Locke

      was short

    4. Some of Bacon's followers attack rhetoric as an un-I ,l ~,h-an t ~ \-" reliable tool for handling knowledge.

      What's the harm in conceding this? Can't we agree here, saying "sure, buddy, rhetoric is an unreliable tool, but what else are you going to handle knowledge with? It very well may be unreliable, but it's the only tool we have."

    5. Christianity cannot afford to eschew a powerful tool for defending and expounding its principles and beliefs.

      There's only so much room in an Intro, but I really wish our editors would have included Augustine's quote from Christian Doctrine:

      "Remember the Egyptians not only offered idols and terrible oppression, which the Israelite people hated and fled, but they owned vessels and ornament of gold and silver, and fine clothing besides, which the Israelites took for themselves in secret as they left Egypt, claiming it all for a better use."(2.40.60)

    6. save the state.

      I can't tell how to read Dr. River's annotation. I don't see any sincerity quotes. . .

    7. style and generative thought

      This, and the bit about metaphor, takes me straight to a speech by Robert Frost. While there is much we could find to disagree with there, check these two quotes out:

      "Education by poetry is education by metaphor."

      "Poetry begins in trivial metaphors, pretty metaphors, "grace" metaphors, and goes on to the profoundest thinking that we have. Poetry provides the one permissible way of saying one thing and meaning another. People say, "Why don’t you say what you mean?" We never do that, do we, being all of us too much poets. We like to talk in parables and in hints and in indirections—whether from diffidence or some other instinct."

      Here's a link to the speech: Told ya

    8. Psychological

      Could we today add in "biology" and/or "chemistry" or even "physics" for psychology?

    9. a fortiori

      "from the stronger"

      Ex. "Well since we all obviously agree on A, by necessity we agree on B, this other lesser claim here."

    10. /11vc111i

      "Invention" has a neat etymology that can be helpful, I think, for understanding what the ancients meant when they talked about it. Invent is just in ("at", "toward," or, here "upon") slapped onto venio ("arrive" or "come").

      What I'm after here is that the word was often used like "so I was walking in the woods the other day, and--can you believe it?--I invented a snake!" Think "discovery" instead of "creation."

    11. pcr-sua!,ivc in intent

      It'd be hard to do now, but I'd like to put pressure on this point with ancient rhetoricians. Where is the line for them between "Ahh, you are trying to persuade me." and "Nah, we're just talking. No persuasion here."

      Plus there's that whole bit about intent of the speaker and whether or not the speaker is aware of their own intentions.

    12. But by and large, rhetoric ha'i not been a lorm of inquiry seeking lo extend its scope by looking into the various uses of discourse that might be considered persuasive. Rather, it has been chielly prescriptive, intended lo leach a practical art and lo provide guidelines for discourse in several well-defined social, political. and artistic arenas.

      By and large, light has not been a particle, but a wave.

    13. It is Jes!> helpful to try to define it once and for all than to look at the many definitions it has accumulated over the years and 10 at-tempt to understand how each arose and how each still inhabits and shapes the field

      This was Muckelbauer's move at the end of his essay.

    14. 1mrt11ritio

      So this word means "the act of giving birth."

    1. We might, in other words, justanswer it - again.

      "Why pick 1 or 2?" he asks. This seems to be at the heart of the reorientation Muckelbauer is suggesting. Rather than selecting a precise answer, pile that precise answer on top of all the others. To put it crudely, we ought to define rhetoric with a shovel rather than a scalpel.

    2. different kind of orientation into the problem of rhetoric/composition.

      I'm surprised by the use of "problem" here. That said, our author's charge to hesitate in an effort to, rather than answer, reorient the debate seems particularly helpful and, well, rhetorical.