100 Matching Annotations
  1. Last 7 days
    1. "I made a great study of theology at one time," said Mr Brooke, as if to explain the insight just manifested. "I know something of all schools. I knewWilberforce in his best days.6Do you know Wilberforce?"Mr Casaubon said, "No.""Well, Wilberforce was perhaps not enough of a thinker; but if I went intoParliament, as I have been asked to do, I should sit on the independent bench,as Wilberforce did, and work at philanthropy."Mr Casaubon bowed, and observed that it was a wide field."Yes," said Mr Brooke, with an easy smile, "but I have documents. I began along while ago to collect documents. They want arranging, but when a question has struck me, I have written to somebody and got an answer. I have documents at my back. But now, how do you arrange your documents?""In pigeon-holes partly," said Mr Casaubon, with rather a startled air of effort."Ah, pigeon-holes will not do. I have tried pigeon-holes, but everything getsmixed in pigeon-holes: I never know whether a paper is in A or Z.""I wish you would let me sort your papers for you, uncle," said Dorothea. "Iwould letter them all, and then make a list of subjects under each letter."Mr Casaubon gravely smiled approval, and said to Mr Brooke, "You have anexcellent secretary at hand, you perceive.""No, no," said Mr Brooke, shaking his head; "I cannot let young ladies meddle with my documents. Young ladies are too flighty."Dorothea felt hurt. Mr Casaubon would think that her uncle had some special reason for delivering this opinion, whereas the remark lay in his mind aslightly as the broken wing of an insect among all the other fragments there, anda chance current had sent it alighting on her.When the two girls were in the drawing-room alone, Celia said —"How very ugly Mr Casaubon is!""Celia! He is one of the most distinguished-looking men I ever saw. He is remarkably like the portrait of Locke. He has the same deep eye-sockets."

      Fascinating that within a section or prose about indexing within MiddleMarch (set in 1829 to 1832 and published in 1871-1872), George Eliot compares a character's distinguished appearance to that of John Locke!

      Mr. Brooke asks for advice about arranging notes as he has tried pigeon holes but has the common issue of multiple storage and can't remember under which letter he's filed his particular note. Mr. Casaubon indicates that he uses pigeon-holes.

      Dorothea Brooke mentions that she knows how to properly index papers so that they might be searched for and found later. She is likely aware of John Locke's indexing method from 1685 (or in English in 1706) and in the same scene compares Mr. Casaubon's appearance to Locke.

  2. Mar 2024
    1. In an unexpected development, the proprietor Lord Shaftesbury came toCulpeper’s defense. He delivered an eloquent oration before the Court ofKing’s Bench, arguing that a stable government had never legally existed inNorth Carolina. Anticipating Locke’s Two Treatises of Government,Shaftesbury concluded that the colony remained effectively in a state ofnature. Without a genuine government, there could be no rebellion.Commentary like this merely underscored northern Carolina’s outlierstatus.26

      Did some of Locke's Two Treatises of Government stem from influence of Lord Shaftesbury's argument in favor of Thomas Culpeper?

      Cross reference Dawn of Everything and "state of nature" / primitive man.

    2. The Fundamental Constitutions did more than endorse slavery. It was amanifesto promoting a semifeudalistic and wholly aristocratic society.

      freedom?? really?

    3. he authoredthe Fundamental Constitutions of Carolina (1669), which granted that“every Freeman in Carolina shall have ABSOLUTE POWER ANDAUTHORITY over his Negro Slaves.”

      we often conveniently ignore Locke on slavery...

  3. Nov 2023
    1. The law of nature allows us to regulate our own action, but also allows each to regulate others: if some people violate this natural law, each and every one of us can put ourselves in the position of a judge and punish the offender

      laws to control the state of nature

    2. critics argue that human beings act based on their passions and desires rather than reason.

      such as Hobbes

    3. individuals own themselves and their bodies, which gives them freedom.

      right to your own body only, not others

    4. the laws of nature, which forbid us from harming others or their property, provide a form of order in the state of nature.

      property is accepted into normal life, compared to life

    5. humans are essentially rational beings and can live in peace with each other without a strong government.

      more optimistic view of human nature, but still focused on rationality and reason (enlightenment values).

    6. Locke believed that humans could live peacefully with each other and regulate themselves according to natural laws, even without a governing power

      state of nature isn't necessarily needing to be solved by bringing in a common power

  4. Oct 2023
    1. on the traditional empiricist account we do not have direct access to the facts of the external world 00:11:03 that is we do not experience externality directly but only immediately not immediately but immediately because between us and the external world are those what do you call them oh yes 00:11:18 sense organs and so the question is how faithfully they report what is going on out there well to raise the question how faithful is the sensory report 00:11:30 of the external world is to assume that you have some reliable non-sensory way of answering that question that's the box you can't get out of and so there is always this gap 00:11:42 between reality as it might possibly be known by some non-human creature and reality as empirically sampled by the senses whose limitations and distortions are very well 00:11:56 known but not perfectly classified or categorized or or measured
      • for: good explanation: empiricism, empiricism - knowledge gap, quote, quote - Dan Robinson, quote - philosophy, quote - empiricism - knowledge gap, Critique of Pure Reason - goal 1 - address empiricism and knowledge gap

      • good explanation : empiricism - knowledge gap

      • quote

        • on the traditional empiricist account
          • we do not have direct access to the facts of the external world
          • that is we do not experience externality directly but only MEDIATELY, not immediately but MEDIATELY
            • because between us and the external world are those what do you call them oh yes, sense organs
          • and so the question is how faithfully they report what is going on out there
          • To raise the question how faithful is the sensory report of the external world
            • is to assume that you have some reliable non-sensory way of answering that question
          • That's the box you can't get out of and so there is always this gap between
            • reality as it might possibly be known by some non-human creature and
            • reality as empirically sampled by the senses
              • whose limitations and distortions are very well known
                • but not perfectly classified or categorized or or measured
      • Comment

        • Robinson contextualizes the empiricist project and gap thereof, as one of the 4 goals of Kant's Critique of Pure Reason.
        • Robinson informally calls this the "Locke" problem, after one of the founders of the Empiricist school, John Locke.
        • Robinson also alludes to a Thomas Reed approach to realism that contends that we don't experience reality MEDIATELY, but IMMEDIATELY, thereby eliminating the gap problem altogether.
        • It's interesting to see how modern biology views the empericist's knowledge gap, especially form the perspective of the Umwelt and Sensory Ecology
    2. what is there now locke surely one of the fathers of modern modern day british empiricism 00:15:12 was it pains to argue that the endless metaphysical disputes about the real essence of things were idle to begin with because we lack the capacity to know the real essence of 00:15:26 anything all we have is what lock referred to as the nominal essence of things it's the way we in virtue of the way we perceive and and and cogitate 00:15:40 it's the way we come to label things people and carpets and light bulbs and computers we give things names based on general characteristics and it's 00:15:52 largely the the shared experiences of a community that settles on the meaning of a term as for the real essence of things that's beyond the reach beyond beyond the reach of our our very 00:16:05 senses now how does lock come to a conclusion like that well he is an older friend of that very clever young fellow ah 00:16:16 isaac what's his name and according to newton
      • for: adjacency, adjacency - John Locke - Isaac Newton

      • adjacency

        • between
          • John Locke
          • Isaac Newton
      • adjacency statement
        • Locke was the elder, Newton was the younger
        • When Robinson describes Locke as conceptualizing an "ultimate reality", he means that Locke was thinking of Newton's corpuscular (atomic) theory
  5. Sep 2023
    1. Merchants and traders have a waste book (Sudelbuch, Klitterbuch in GermanI believe) in which they enter daily everything they purchase and sell,messily, without order. From this, it is transferred to their journal, whereeverything appears more systematic, and finally to a ledger, in double entryafter the Italian manner of bookkeeping, where one settles accounts witheach man, once as debtor and then as creditor. This deserves to be imitatedby scholars. First it should be entered in a book in which I record everythingas I see it or as it is given to me in my thoughts; then it may be enteredin another book in which the material is more separated and ordered, andthe ledger might then contain, in an ordered expression, the connectionsand explanations of the material that flow from it. [46]

      —Georg Christoph Lichtenberg, Notebook E, #46, 1775–1776

      In this single paragraph quote Lichtenberg, using the model of Italian bookkeepers of the 18th century, broadly outlines almost all of the note taking technique suggested by Sönke Ahrens in How to Take Smart Notes. He's got writing down and keeping fleeting notes as well as literature notes. (Keeping academic references would have been commonplace by this time.) He follows up with rewriting and expanding on the original note to create additional "explanations" and even "connections" (links) to create what Ahrens describes as permanent notes or which some would call evergreen notes.

      Lichtenberg's version calls for the permanent notes to be "separated and ordered" and while he may have kept them in book format himself, it's easy to see from Konrad Gessner's suggestion at the use of slips centuries before, that one could easily put their permanent notes on index cards ("separated") and then number and index or categorize them ("ordered"). The only serious missing piece of Luhmann's version of a zettelkasten then are the ideas of placing related ideas nearby each other, though the idea of creating connections between notes is immediately adjacent to this, and his numbering system, which was broadly based on the popularity of Melvil Dewey's decimal system.

      It may bear noticing that John Locke's indexing system for commonplace books was suggested, originally in French in 1685, and later in English in 1706. Given it's popularity, it's not unlikely that Lichtenberg would have been aware of it.

      Given Lichtenberg's very popular waste books were known to have influenced Leo Tolstoy, Albert Einstein, Andre Breton, Friedrich Nietzsche, and Ludwig Wittgenstein. (Reference: Lichtenberg, Georg Christoph (2000). The Waste Books. New York: New York Review Books Classics. ISBN 978-0940322509.) It would not be hard to imagine that Niklas Luhmann would have also been aware of them.

      Open questions: <br /> - did Lichtenberg number the entries in his own waste books? This would be early evidence toward the practice of numbering notes for future reference. Based on this text, it's obvious that the editor numbered the translated notes for this edition, were they Lichtenberg's numbering? - Is there evidence that Lichtenberg knew of Locke's indexing system? Did his waste books have an index?

  6. Aug 2023
    1. The educa-tional ideas of John Locke, for example, which were directedto the preparation of the pupil to fit conveniently into the so-cial and economic environment in which he found himself,made no impression on Locke's contemporaries.

      "The educational ideas of John Locke" -- but where they actually his ideas though?

      See: Graeber & Wengrow: The Dawn of Everything.



  7. Apr 2023
    1. How Gertrude Teaches herChildren

      Swiss educator Johann Pestalozzi (1746-1827) developed a holistic teaching philosophy in How Gertrude Teaches Her Children based on John Locke's ideas and used it to open his own schools.

      See copies at https://archive.org/details/texts?query=How+Gertrude+Teaches+Her+


    2. In his essay Of the Conduct of the Understanding, Locke frowned upon those

      ‘who seldom reason at all, but do and think according to the example of others, whether parents, neighbours, ministers...for the saving of themselves the pains and trouble of thinking and examining for themselves’ (p. 169).

    3. A political system, he said, needs people who are fair,open-minded, and think for themselves; it doesn’t want people who aresubservient to authority.

      Is there a better direct quote from Locke for this indirect one?

      Oddly, large portions of the religious right and Republican right are highly subservient to authority while simultaneously espousing the idea of "freedom".

      Apparently the base definition of "freedom" on the right has shifted in large portions of American culture.

    4. We could saythat he was the first progressive educator not simply because he encouraged hiscontemporaries and successors to think about the child as a special kind oflearner, but also because of his views on education’s role in helping to developan open, liberal polity. A political system, he said, needs people who are fair,open-minded, and think for themselves; it doesn’t want people who aresubservient to authority.

      We could say first, though I highly suspect that his ideas came from somewhere else...

    5. He even offeredgrim warnings about children’s bowel movements, stressing the absolute needfor regularity. Regularity should not be achieved, however, at the expense ofdensity or compactness in the, ahem, product, for ‘People that are very loosehave seldom strong thoughts or strong bodies’ (p. 22, original emphasis).

      Locke stressed the need for regular bowel movements in children in his book Some Thoughts Concerning Education and presupposed a link between the looseness of one's stool and the weakness of their bodies. This seemed to be a moralism rather than a question of general health and eating habits which continued into even my own childhood.

    6. Not only does Locke providean intellectual foundation for Rousseau’s view of the child as an experimenter,we can also see the seeds of Rousseau’s notions of the plasticity of the child’smind

      John Locke provides some intellectual foundation in his Some Thoughts Concerning Education (1693) for Rousseau's Émile (1762) progressive and empiricist perspectives of teaching and learning.

  8. Sep 2022
    1. Krótka historia nie tylko samej metody commonplace-book, co także informacje na temat książki Johna Locka (zob. Locke et al. 1706; Locke 1812) oraz dodatkowe informacje, zaczerpnięte z Roberta Darntona (Darnton 2000; zob. też: Darnton 2009). Na końcu są też informacje na temat porównania tej metody i prowadzenia notatek oraz strony przez samego autora, czyli Jeremy'ego Normana.

  9. Aug 2022
    1. scientists as well asstudents of science carefully put the diverse results of their reading and thinking process intoone or a few note books that are separated by topic.

      A specific reference to the commonplace book tradition and in particular the practice of segmenting note books into pre-defined segments with particular topic headings. This practice described here also ignores the practice of keeping an index (either in a separate notebook or in the front/back of the notebook as was more common after John Locke's treatise)

  10. Jul 2022
    1. An Index is something you must physically create asyou add cards in a physical note system.

      Watch closely to see how Allosso's description of an index comes to the advice of John Locke versus the practice of Niklas Luhmann.

      Alternately, is it closer to a commonplace indexing system or a shallowly linked, but still complex zettelkasten indexing system?

      In shared digital systems, I still suspect that densely indexed notes will have more communal value.

      Link to: - https://hypothes.is/a/nrk0vgoCEe2y3CedssHnVA

  11. Jun 2022
    1. You can download this chapter at Buildingasecondbrain.com/bonuschapter.

      Come be a part of my sales funnel!!!

      ugh... This should generally be sacrilege, but it's even worse when having a solid index (which is roughly the purpose that tags support) is an important part of any commonplace book, especially since John Locke, which a resource Forte has cited elsewhere in his book.

    2. How to Resurface and Reuse Your Past Work

      Coming back to the beginning of this section. He talks about tags, solely after-the-fact instead of when taking notes on the fly. While it might seem that he would have been using tags as subject headings in a traditional commonplace book, he really isn't. This is a significant departure from the historical method!! It's also ill advised not to be either tagging/categorizing as one goes along to make searching and linking things together dramatically easier.

      How has he missed the power of this from the start?! This is really a massive flaw in his method from my perspective, particularly as he quotes John Locke's work on the topic.

      Did I maybe miss some of this in earlier sections when he quoted John Locke? Double check, just in case, but this is certainly the section of the book to discuss using these ideas!

    3. In his book A New Method of Making Common-Place-Books, John Lockesimilarly advised

      Why footnote this instead of giving it a nod and an actual reference as sententiae?

    1. https://www.revolutionaryplayers.org.uk/the-scope-and-nature-of-darwins-commonplace-book/

      Erasmus Darwin's commonplace book

      It is one of the version(s?) published by John Bell based on John Locke's method and is a quarto volume bound in vellum with about 300 sheets of fine paper.

      Blank pages 1 to 160 were numbered and filled by Darwin in his own hand with 136 entries. The book was started in 1776 and continued until 1787. Presumably Darwin had a previous commonplace book, but it has not been found and this version doesn't have any experiments prior to 1776, though there are indications that some material has been transferred from another source.

      The book contains material on medical records, scientific matters, mechanical and industrial improvements, and inventions.

      The provenance of Erasmus Darwin's seems to have it pass through is widow Elizabeth who added some family history to it. It passed through to her son and other descendants who added entries primarily of family related topics. Leonard Darwin (1850-1943), the last surviving son of Charles Darwin gave it to Down House, Kent from whence it was loaned to Erasmus Darwin House in 1999.

    1. The addressing system that many digital note taking systems offer is reminiscent of Luhmann's paper system where it served a particular use. Many might ask themselves if they really need this functionality in digital contexts where text search and other affordances can be more directly useful.

      Frequently missed by many, perhaps because they're befuddled by the complex branching numbering system which gets more publicity, Luhmann's paper-based system had a highly useful and simple subject heading index (see: https://niklas-luhmann-archiv.de/bestand/zettelkasten/zettel/ZK_2_SW1_001_V, for example) which can be replicated using either #tags or [[wikilinks]] within tools like Obsidian. Of course having an index doesn't preclude the incredible usefulness of directly linking one idea to potentially multiple others in some branching tree-like or network structure.

      Note that one highly valuable feature of Luhmann's paper version was that the totality of cards were linked to a minimum of at least one other card by the default that they were placed into the file itself. Those putting notes into Obsidian often place them into their system as singlet, un-linked notes as a default, and this can lead to problems down the road. However this can be mitigated by utilizing topical or subject headings on individual cards which allows for searching on a heading and then cross-linking individual ideas as appropriate.

      As an example, because two cards may be tagged with "archaeology" doesn't necessarily mean they're closely related as ideas. This tends to decrease in likelihood if one is an archaeologist and a large proportion of cards might contain that tag, but will simultaneously create more value over time as generic tags increase in number but the specific ideas cross link in small numbers. Similarly as one delves more deeply into archaeology, one will also come up with more granular and useful sub-tags (like Zooarcheology, Paleobotany, Archeopedology, Forensic Archeology, Archeoastronomy, Geoarcheology, etc.) as their knowledge in sub areas increases.

      Concretely, one might expect that the subject heading "sociology" would be nearly useless to Luhmann as that was the overarching topic of both of his zettelkästen (I & II), whereas "Autonomie" was much more specific and useful for cross linking a smaller handful of potentially related ideas in the future.

      Looking beyond Luhmann can be highly helpful in designing and using one's own system. I'd recommend taking a look at John Locke's work on indexing (1685) (https://publicdomainreview.org/collection/john-lockes-method-for-common-place-books-1685 is an interesting source, though you're obviously applying it to (digital) cards and not a notebook) or Ross Ashby's hybrid notebook/index card system which is also available online (http://www.rossashby.info/journal/index.html) as an example.

      Another helpful tip some are sure to appreciate in systems that have an auto-complete function is simply starting to write a wikilink with various related subject heading words that may appear within your system. You'll then be presented with potential options of things to link to serendipitously that you may not have otherwise considered. Within a digital zettelkasten, the popularly used DYAC (Damn You Auto Complete) may turn into Bless You Auto Complete.

  12. May 2022
    1. As Richard Yeo has noted, Locke’s ‘New Method’ was recommended in Ephraim Chambers’s Cyclopaedia (1728), but it’s still interesting to see that it was well-known enough that a Scottish student should be using it half a century after it Locke’s death. In fact, the next thing Boswell does in his new book is to copy out the exact passage from Locke about how to draw it up.

      James Boswell had a commonplace book in which he created index pages not only similar to John Locke's method, but he actually copied out a passage from Locke about how to draw it up. Beyond this there were only a few pages of the volume that were actively used.

      Reference: Folger M.a.6

    1. Toward the end of the 18th century English publisher John Bell published notebooks entitled Bell’s Common-Place Book, Formed generally upon the Principles Recommended and Practised by Mr Locke.” These included eight pages of instructions on Locke’s indexing method, a system which not only made it easier to find passages, but also served the higher purpose of “facilitat[ing] reflexive thought.”

      At the end of the 18th century, John Bell (1745–1831), an English publisher published notebooks with the title Bell’s Common-Place Book, Formed generally upon the Principles Recommended and Practised by Mr Locke. The notebooks commonly included 550 pages, of which eight pages included instructions on John Locke's indexing method.

      Link to: - Didn't Erasmus Darwin use one of these?!

    1. The last element in his file system was an index, from which hewould refer to one or two notes that would serve as a kind of entrypoint into a line of thought or topic.

      Indices are certainly an old construct. One of the oldest structured examples in the note taking space is that of John Locke who detailed it in Méthode nouvelle de dresser des recueils (1685), later translated into English as A New Method of Organizing Common Place Books (1706).

      Previously commonplace books had been structured with headwords done alphabetically. This meant starting with a preconceived structure and leaving blank or empty space ahead of time without prior knowledge of what would fill it or how long that might take. By turning that system on its head, one could fill a notebook from front to back with a specific index of the headwords at the end. Then one didn't need to do the same amount of pre-planning or gymnastics over time with respect to where to put their notes.

      This idea combined with that of Konrad Gessner's design for being able to re-arrange slips of paper (which later became index cards based on an idea by Carl Linnaeus), gives us an awful lot of freedom and flexibility in almost any note taking system.

      Building blocks of the note taking system

      • atomic ideas
      • written on (re-arrangeable) slips, cards, or hypertext spaces
      • cross linked with each other
      • cross linked with an index
      • cross linked with references

      are there others? should they be broken up differently?

      Godfathers of Notetaking

      • Aristotle, Cicero (commonplaces)
      • Seneca the Younger (collecting and reusing)
      • Raymond Llull (combinatorial rearrangements)
      • Konrad Gessner (storage for re-arrangeable slips)
      • John Locke (indices)
      • Carl Linnaeus (index cards)
  13. Feb 2022
    1. https://collect.readwriterespond.com/monks-a-polymath-and-an-invention-made-by-two-people-at-the-same-time-its-all-in-the-history-of-the-index/

      Great find Aaron. Thanks for the ping.

      I've gone back further than this for the commonplace and the florilegium which helped to influence their creation, though I've not delved into the specific invention or general use of indices in the space heavily. I suspected that they grew out of the tradition of using headwords, though I'm not sure that indices became more popular until the paper by John Locke in 1689 (in French) or 1706 (in English).

      I'll put Dr. Duncan's book into the hopper and see what he's got to say on the topic.

  14. Jan 2022
    1. Reflecting upon Robert Darnton's comment, perhaps my personal reading and writing style is more representative of the seventeenth century than the twentieth or twenty-first.  Throughout my career in the antiquarian book trade, which began in the 1960s, I found myself moving between subjects in the course of a day as I catalogued various books in stock, read about other books for sale, or discussed the different interests of clients.  With access to the Internet in the 1990s it was, of course, possible to follow-up more efficiently on diverse topics with Internet searches and hyperlinks.  The way that HistoryofInformation.com is written, as a series of reading and research notes connected by links and indexed in a database, may be viewed to a certain extent as analogous to the method of maintaining and indexing commonplace books described by Locke.

      Jeremy Norman, an antiquarian bookseller, indicates that his website is written in much the same manner as John Locke's commonplace book.

  15. Oct 2021
    1. Of course someone has published a zettelkasten notebook for taking notes to be moved into one's zettelkasten at a later date.

      It includes space for notes as well as meta data box which includes labels and spaces for the following:

      • UID
      • Parent UID
      • Zettel
      • tags
      • refs

      It's also got (at least one) page for an index in the end titled "tag list" with a two column ruling

      This follows the general pattern of pre-printed commonplace books which was common with at least John Locke's index pre-printed.

      Other examples include published bullet journals with custom formatting.

  16. Sep 2021
    1. ☞An index(the final pages of the Commonplace Book) of at least 20 words. The index will be listed alphabetically (or thematically, then alphabetically) by your commonplace book headings with page numbers. You may decide to also add cross-references to authors, other frequently appearing terms that were not heading chapters, etc. (Figure 9)

      One might also suggest the use of John Locke's method here: See: https://publicdomainreview.org/collection/john-lockes-method-for-common-place-books-1685

  17. Aug 2021
    1. Yeo, “Notebooks as Memory Aids” (II, G), locates Locke’s views at a crucialjuncture in the status of memory, when commonplace books were seen assites for ordering information and not as prompts for recalling it.

      Interesting datum along the timeline of commonplacebooks and memory. Worth logging and following.

      Note the difference in the ideas of ordering information versus being able to recall it. How does this step in the evolution figure for the concept of the zettelkasten?



  18. Apr 2021
    1. An old bachelor is generally very precise and exact in his habits. He has no one but himself to look after, nothing to distract his attention from his own affairs; and Mr. Dodgson was the most precise and exact of old bachelors. He made a précis of every letter he wrote or received from the 1st of January, 1861, to the 8th of the same month, 1898. These précis were all numbered and entered in reference-books, and by an ingenious system of cross-numbering he was able to trace a whole correspondence, which might extend through several volumes. The last number entered in his book is 98,721.

      I'm curious what this system was? Was it influenced by systems of John Locke's commonplace book? It could also have been the sort of system which may have inspired Niklas Luhmann.

      Whatever it was, it must have been massive and somewhat well thought through if it reached such a tremendous size.

  19. Feb 2021
    1. When I meet with any thing, that I think fit to put into my common-place-book, I first find a proper head. Suppose for example that the head be EPISTOLA, I look unto the index for the first letter and the following vowel which in this instance are E. i. if in the space marked E. i. there is any number that directs me to the page designed for words that begin with an E and whose first vowel after the initial letter is I, I must then write under the word Epistola in that page what I have to remark.

      I must do some research into Niklas Luhmann to see if he was aware of Locke's work or the broader idea of commonplace books in general as it seems pretty obvious that his refinesments on their systems brought him to his conceptualization of the zettelkasten.

    1. Locke’s humble two page method, in this sense, prefigures libraries filled with volumes of encyclopedias, from Carl Linnaeus’s Systema Naturae (1735) to Luke Howard's classification of clouds.
    2. According to the historian Robert Darnton, this led to a very particular structuring of knowledge: commonplace users "broke texts into fragments and assembled them into new patterns by transcribing them in different sections of their notebook." It was a mixture of fragmented order and disorder that anticipated a particular form of scientific investigation and organisation of information.

      Might be an interesting source to read.

      Also feels in form a bit like the combinatorial method of Raymond Llull, but without as much mixing.

    3. The English physician and philosopher John Locke (1632-1704) was all too aware of the grip of amnesia and the shortness of memory. In his seminal Essay Concerning Human Understanding (1689) he wrote of his rival Blaise Pascal, who he named as the “prodigy of parts”, who “forgot nothing of what he had done, read, or thought.” Locke, in reaction, attempted to simulate Pascal’s "hyperthymesia", not in the mind, but upon the page: through the construction of a system of "commonplacing", as a form of what Swift called “supplemental memory”.

      Interesting use of hyperthymesia here. Also Swift using the concept of "supplemental memory" giving at least a historical mile marker of the state of mnemotechy which may have been known at the time.

    1. Short overview of John Locke's commonplace book method. Nothing I haven't seen before sadly.

      And probably not a method I would personally use unless I was thinking about paper solutions.

  20. Oct 2020
    1. While calling memory “the store-house of our ideas,” John Locke recognized its limitations. On the one hand, it was an incredible source of knowledge. On the other hand, it was weak and fragile. He knew that over time, memory faded and became harder to retrieve, which made it less valuable.

      As most humanists of the time may have had incredibly well-trained memories (particularly in comparison with the general loss of the art now), this is particularly interesting to me. Having had a great memory, the real value of these writings and materials is to help their memories dramatically outlive their own lifetimes. This is particularly useful as their systems of passing down ideas via memory was dramatically different than those of indigenous peoples who had a much more institutionalized version of memory methods and passing along their knowledge.

  21. Feb 2020
    1. This excited a Curiosity in her

      When our unnamed protagonist is describing the situation that is occurring in the pit of the theater, we see her noticeable interest of the situation in the pit. She states in the novel that, “This excited a Curiosity in her". Since she had been living a pretty stable and secure life up to this point, I believe that one of the things that excited a curiosity in her was the thrill of the unknown. She was previously unfamiliar with the situation and wanted to "know in what Manner these Creatures were address'd". Until this point, our protagonist didn't seem to have any desires to pursue such an act. It was only when she physically witnessed the event at the theater that made her come up with the idea of disguising herself in the first place. After witnessing the woman in the pit, our protagonist decided that she wanted to experience something new and see a different view of that new experience from the inside.

      Enlightenmens Source: Quote from "An Essay Concerning Human Understanding"

      One passage from Locke's An Essay Concerning Human Understand comes to mind when thinking of this particular passage. Locke talking about the mind describes it, "to be, as we say, white paper, void of all characters, without any ideas". In this passage, our protagonist in Fantomina displays this kind of white paper mind philosophy. Before witnessing the event for herself, our protagonist was unfamiliar with the concept. Locke continues to explain the way that we come up with knowledge as, "Whence has it all the materials of reason and knowledge? To this I answer, in one word, from Experience". Locke's philosophy also explains why the protagonist in Fantomina had the desire to experience this new situation that she was introduced to. In the pursuit of knowledge, the protagonist wanted to learn more from experience, just as Locke describes.

    1. my Mind


      • That item is simply a portrait of John Locke. The relation is that the word "mind" is very relevant to all the work accomplished by Locke, as he spent most of his life as a renowned philosopher.

      Mowat, Diane, and Daniel Defoe. Robinson Crusoe. Oxford University Press Canada, 2008.

    2. came now fresh into my Mind, and my Conscience,

      The words conscience and mind bring about ideas that can be noted in John Locke’s text: *An essay concerning Human Understanding.* In book two, Locke explains how thoughts come to be. He believes that “All ideas come from sensation or reflections”. In this specific case, the ideas being expressed in this excerpt are rooted in reflection, as Crusoe is thinking on how and why he dared to actually leave his parents the way that he did. Much of this is seen throughout the whole narrative as it is written in the view of Crusoe. Nonetheless, it demonstrates how this story is evolving from simple story telling in the perspective of an outsider to the actual recount of the person living it in their own words.

      John Locke, The Works of John Locke in Nine Volumes, (London: Rivington, 1824 12th ed.). Vol. 1. 2/12/2020. https://oll.libertyfund.org/titles/761 Mowat, Diane, and Daniel Defoe. Robinson Crusoe. Oxford University Press Canada, 2008.

  22. Dec 2019
    1. a long time before I learned to distinguish between the operations of my various senses

      The Creature's awakening to consciousness follows John Locke's account of how the mind slowly learns to distjnguish the various senses before it can apprehend the world. CITE LOCKE SOURCE

    2. it was, indeed, a long time before I learned to distinguish between the operations of my various senses

      The Creature's awakening to consciousness alludes to accounts of consciousness and maturation by John Locke and Jean-Jacques Rousseau. Locke gives an account of how the mind of a child slowly learns to distinguish the various senses before it can apprehend the world in totu, in Ch. 7 of his An Essay Concerning Human Understanding. Rousseau's Emile, which Mary recorded having read in 1815, also offers an account contrasting the senses of an adult to the senses of a child.

    3. It was with these feelings that I began the creation of a human being

      "Creation" points toward popular literary themes, and to the Bible. It also calls into question property rights. John Locke (1632-1704) argued in Two Treatises of Government that applying one's labor to nature made that creation one's property. Shelley seems to call into question the relation of scientific research to the idea of ownership.

  23. Aug 2019
    1. if the argument goes to infinity then the log also goes to infinity in the limit.

      doing this section of the practice problems proved to be a fun challenge.

    1. We won’t need these facts much over the next couple of sections but they will be required on occasion

      Nonetheless, they should be thought as an important method of mathematics.

    1. Last, we were after something that was happening at x=1x=1x = 1 and we couldn’t actually plug x=1x=1x = 1 into our formula for the slope. Despite this limitation we were able to determine some information about what was happening at x=1x=1x = 1 simply by looking at what was happening around x=1x=1x = 1. This is more important than you might at first realize and we will be discussing this point in detail in later sections.

      This reminds me of the exercise we had this morning in class.

    2. Likewise, at the second point shown, the line does just touch the graph at that point, but it is not “parallel” to the graph at that point and so it’s not a tangent line to the graph at that point.

      A visual representation of a Tangent Line is very useful, I honestly wasn’t visualizing what a Tangent Line was, in my head.

    1. We will be seeing limits in a variety of places once we move out of this chapter.

      Will the L’Hospital method be explained in this chapter?

  24. Feb 2019
    1. great man

      lol. This guy really loves locke.

    2. And as this is '� �Lw,..., _chiefly done by an agreement in the use of certain � qN-'­signs, it is no mailer what those signs are; there -�� being little or no naturnl connection, beLween any ' _ v verbal signs and our ideas, which is sufficiently \� evinced, by the variety of languages that are spo• ken, in the different countries of the world.

      Locke would agree, yeah?

    3. con.�idering it, a

      So while Sheridan praises Locke for his step in the right direction, he also names him as complicit in the problem because it is tempting to stop with the progress Locke made, rather than carrying out the project to its end.

    4. consists of the signs of internal emotions,

      Sheridan wants to apply Locke's findings on the language of "philosophical discourse" to all language.

    5. fix, the precise meaning

      In the style of Locke and Plato's Socrates, let us start....with definition!

    1. naturally attracted them to these qualities when they were en­countered in the world. Additionally. innate human reason

      Would the belief in innate, natural qualities be contrary to John Locke's idea of the tabula rasa? I don't know enough of Locke to know whether innate qualities would be part of what's swept off the slate.

    1. 34

      Kinda got real cranky and pedantic at the end. Calm down, Locke.

    2. a perverse use of those signs which we make use of to convey truth to one another.

      Plato: "You can't give long answers or talk funny. Just give it to me straight, without all the obfuscation."

    3. Vico, Sheridan, and Campbell, as well as a number of philosophers, pursued Locke's suggestive but incomplete account of the relation-ship of language and knowledge, though never far enough to link rhetoric explicitly with the process of creating "true" knowledge. T

      We stand on the shoulders of academics who have come before us. Although Locke's work may have been "incomplete" or a starting point, his work initiated this pursuit and paved the way for future scholars.

    4. hough not a rhetorical 1hcoris1, John Locke powerfully aflccted the direction of rhetoric, and every other intellectual endeavor a~ well. in the eighteenth century.

      Seems as though the author is justifying Locke's influence and place within rhetoric.

    5. and the pre!.umption lhal direcl knowledge is available through revelation or perception.

      Because it states knowledge is available through perception, do we all having differing knowledge because individuals have their own perceptions? It seems as though individuals can not have a sense of shared knowledge unless we all have the same perceptions.

    6. who had noth-ing in his study but the bare titles of books, with-out possessing the contents of them

      ouch -- I've been Locke-slammed

    7. seven

    8. no one has authority to determine the signification of the word gold

      I'm struck through here (and the liquor example) how prescient Locke's inquiries are for our own investigations into rhetoric and the question of "what is human?" It feels like he's anticipating Barad's argument that each definition of gold -- its color, its weight, its malleableness, etc. -- creates a cut, a boundary around what gold means for each person that cares to define it. Barad sees these "local determinations" not as final but as fluid, even while being exclusionary (821). Locke is keying in on these exclusionary definitions and the problems they might pose to an empirical approach.

    9. for then he cannot fail of having his meaning understood, wherein consists the right use and perfection of language.

      I like Locke's notion that "the right use and perfection of language" is to have "meaning understood" (817). This still seems to be a notion we hold onto (CLARITY -- it's certainly one I strive for anyway), though we'd probably differ on his assertion that our words are just transcriptive/descriptive tools. See Barad's critique of representationalism.

    1. they must acknowledge a true and decisive standard to exist somewhere, to wit, real existence and mat� ter of fact

      Hume and Locke seem to agree here -- they both feel that there exists some kind of external, fixed reality (observed in nature), and if we all just practiced enough we could see it

  25. Apr 2018
    1. Whatsoever then he removes out of the state that nature hath provided, and left it in, he hath mixed his labour with, and joined to it something that is his own, and thereby makes it his property. It being by him removed from the common state nature hath placed it in, it hath by this labour something annexed to it, that excludes the common right of other men: for this labour being the unquestionable property of the labourer, no man but he can have a right to what that is once joined to, at least where there is enough, and as good, left in common for others.

      Useful passage to point out the tension between "Civic virtue and the responsibility to the greater good (see end of passage) vs. individual property rights. Useful to frame discussions re: natural parks, utilitarian vs. preservationist perspectives on environmental policies, taxation policies & burdens, entitlements etc etc.

    1. Lastly, Those are not at all to be tolerated who deny the Being of a God. Promises, Covenants, and Oaths, which are the Bonds of Humane [53] Society, can have no hold upon an Atheist.138 The taking away of God, though but even in thought, dissolves all. Besides also, those that by their Atheism undermine and destroy all Religion, can have no pretence of Religion whereupon to challenge the Privilege of a Toleration. As for other Practical Opinions, though not absolutely free from all Error, yet if they do not tend to establish Domination over others, or Civil Impunity to the Church in which they are taught, there can be no Reason why they should not be tolerated.
  26. Mar 2017
    1. It was Aristotle who said that there can be no natural connection between the sound of any language and the things signi-fied, and, if we set the problem right side up and remember the other words before examining it, we shall have to agree with him.
    2. Between the symbol and the referent there is no relevant relation other than the indirect one, which com,ists in it~ being used by someone to ~land for a referent.
    3. Words, as every one now knows, "mean" nothing by them-selves, although the belief that they did, as we shall see in the next chapter, was once equally universal.
    4. Meaning does not reside in the words or signs themselves; to believe that it does is to fall victim to the "proper meaning su-perstition," the belief that words have inherent meaning.
  27. Feb 2017
    1. Truth must be seen similarly us a convention of dis~ course, for there is no way to convert things directly into language.
    2. One can imagine a man who is totally deaf and has never had a sensation of sound: and music.

      Locke identifies a similar problem in his own writing, but unlike Nietzsche, refuses to address it further: "Words having naturally no signification, the idea which each stands for must be learned and retained, by those who would exchange thoughts, and hold intelligible discourse with others...Those [words] which are not intelligible at all, such as names standing for any simple ideas which another has not organs of faculties to attain; as the names of colours to a blind man, or sounds to a deaf man need not here be mentioned...for if we examine them, we shall find that the names of mixed modes are most liable to doubtfulness and imperfection."

      Although Locke doesn't delve much deeper into this, I do like how he notes that some words are used to describe "mixed modes" like music and color. Nietzsche addresses this concept below, saying that although a man might be deaf, he can still "feel" music (via vibrations) and therefore might understand sound in a way that is divergent from the conventional manner. I'm also reminded of Rickert's piece, in which he noted that Homer could never identify the color "blue" as we understand it today, instead calling the color of the sea "purple" or "wine red."

    1. that, there-fore, a writer who increases this power by stimulat-ing mental action arrives, by a different road, at the same destination which is reached by another writer who by a wise economy prevents unnecessary waste.

      It is useless to assume anything about an audience's mental processes, mostly because you're going to say what you want to say anyway and you're still not going to ensure an audience's understanding.

      I think Locke would wholeheartedly agree with this.

    1. Of Rhetoric various definitions have been given by different writers;

      For since sounds are voluntary and indifferent signs of any ideas, a man may use what words he pleases to signify his own ideas to himself: and there will be no im-perfection in them, if he constantly use the same sign for the same idea: for then he cannot fail of having his meaning understood, wherein consists the right use and perfection of language (Locke, 817).

      Makes me think back to the subjectivity of what rhetoric and language can be; as long as one person believes it to be true, then it must be true

    1. The propositions, "Twelve arc a dozen," "twenty are a score," unless considered as explications of the words dozen and score, arc equally insignificant with the former. But when the thing, though in effect coinciding, is consid-ered under a different aspect; when what is single in the subject is divided in the predicate, and con-versely; or when what is a whole in the one is re-garded as a part of something else in the other; such propositions lead to the discovery of innu-merable and apparently remote relations. One added to four may be accounted no other than a definition of the word Jive, as was remarked above. But when I say, "Two added to three arc equal lo five," I advance a truth, which, though equally clear, is quite distinct from the preceding.

      A bit of a mix between Locke's simple knowledge and the idea that "sounds have no natural connection with our ideas." (817 near the bottom right)

      EDIT: cue Locke's Three Minute Philosophy

    2. To prevent mistakes, it will not be beside my purpose further lo remark, that several of the cerms above explained arc sometimes used by rhetoricians and critics in a much larger and more vague signification, than has been given them here.

      Would this paragraph be enough clarification for Locke?

    3. In propriety there cannot be such a thing as an universal grammar, unless there were such a thing as an universal language.

      Even if there was a universal language, would it avoid the problem of humans applying disparaging meanings to words, as suggested by Locke? Locke suggests that even those who speak the same tongue do not fully comprehend one another because individuals apply different meanings to the same word based on feelings, background, culture, etc.

    1. this is { ~~­chiefly done by an agreement in the use of certain ~ signs, it is no matter what those signs are; there -~~ being little or no naturnl connection, between any ' , V verbal signs and our ideas,
    2. But as there are other things which pass in the mind of man, beside ideas; as he is not wholly made up of intellect, but on the contr.iry, the pas-sions, and the fancy, compose great part of his complicated frame; as the operations of tl,tese are attended with an infinite variety of emotions in the mind, both in kind and degree; it is clear, that unless there be some means found, of manifest-ing those emotions, all that passes in the mind of one man can not be communicated to another. Now, as in order to know what another knows, and in the same manner that he knows it, an exact transcript of the ideas which pass in the mind of one man, must be made by sensible marks, in the mind of another; so in order to feel what another feels, the emotions which are in the mind of one man, must also be communicated to that of an-other, by sensible marks.

      This is reminiscent of Locke's thoughts on simple and complex ideas: the only way language truly work is if both parties have the same understanding of the words being used. Sheridan seems to take it a bit further, though, possibly drawing upon Hume's decanting of subjectivity.

  28. Jan 2017
    1. To seek the real beauty, or real defor-mity, is as fruitless an enquiry, as to pretend to ascertain the real sweet or real bitte

      Locke pg. 823: "White and sweet . . . carry a very obvious meaning with them, which every one precisely comprehends." So for Locke, the word sweetness is not a mixed mode, but a word likely understood by the listener/reader. But Hume is talking about sweetness as a subjective sense perception, not a simple idea, and perhaps this suggests that the word sweetness, and other so-called simple ideas, is not necessarily obvious? But I am curious when Locke discusses simple modes and simple ideas if he would still agree that something like sweetness is understood clearly in civil usage, but perhaps not in philosophical usage? In that case, the word sweetness would not be used as a term to express an "undoubted truth" and perhaps that makes it a little bit closer to what Hume is saying here.

    2. An explanation of the tenns commonly ends the controversy; and , the disputants are surprized to find, that they had been quarrelling, while at bottom they agreed in their judgment.

      "...upon ex-amination found that the signification of that word was not so settled or certain as they had all imagined; but that each of them made it a sign of a different complex idea. This made them per-ceive that the main of their dispute was about the signification of that term; and that they differed very little in their opinions concerning some fluid and subtle matter, passing through the conduits of the nerves; though it was not so easy to agree whether it was to be called liquor or no, a thing, which, when considered, they thought it not worth the contending about." -Locke pg. 822

  29. Sep 2015
    1. Nuestro objeto no es conocer todas las cosas, sino aquellas que convienen a nuestra conducta. Si podemos encontrar las medidas por las que una criatura racional, colocada en la situación en que está el hombre en este mundo, puede y debe gobernar sus acciones y opiniones, no tenemos que preocup3.111os porque otras cosas esca­pen a nuestro conocimiento.

      El tema y propósito de este ensayo es encontrar los temas que son aptos para nuestro conducta (vida práctica y social), e identificar los que no lo son y dejar en paz de preocuparnos por ellos.

    2. Ensayo sobre el entendimiento humano

      Locke, John (1690) Ensayo sobre el entendimiento humano

  30. Aug 2015
  31. classicliberal.tripod.com classicliberal.tripod.com
    1. Chapter 9

      This is a difficult reading. Try your best.

      Study Questions:

      According to Locke, why is “man” willing to give up the natural condition of freedom?

      Why does “man” enter into a condition of society and law?

  32. Feb 2014
    1. these traditional property rights, as suggested by Locke, depend on the scarcity of that property (1995, n. pag.). I f ‘Joe’ owns property and ‘Sue’ acquires it, then Joe no longer has it, and Sue has harmed Joe (by stealing). Joe’s property is scarce.